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Abstract and Figures

The internet offers a rich atmosphere for prospective travelers to gain familiarity, harvest and retrieve travel related information and resources. An increasing number of tourism and hospitality firms have turned their attention to new business opportunities on the Web. Travel 2.0 has emerged as a new tool for competitive advantage. This study draws on social cognitive theory and IS success model to diagnose the impact of websites design quality on booking/reservation intentions from a travelers perspective.This research model was tested with 700 valid data collected from travelers using Travel 2.0 websites through online survey using SPSS v18 for the analysis. The results of the data analysis provided support for the hypothesized relationships of e-service and system quality with booking/reservation/purchase behavioral intention implying that E-travel sites quality are essential success factor for tourism enterprises. However, information quality of an e-travel sites is negatively related to booking/reservation intention. Cross-sectional design and self-report measures are the shortcomings of the study. Little research has been done on the relation between websites design (e-service, information, and system) quality and booking/reservation intention. This paper presents new insights into how these variables may influence potential tourist.
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The Impact of Travel 2.0
on Travelers Booking and
Reservation Behaviors
Alev Elci1
A. Mohammed Abubakar1
Mustafa Ilkan2
Eluwole Kayode Kolawole2
Temitope Taiwo Lasisi2
The Internet offers a rich atmosphere for prospective travelers to gain familiarity, and harvest and
retrieve travel-related information and resources. An increasing number of tourism and hospitality
firms have turned their attention to new business opportunities on the Web. Travel 2.0 has emerged as
a new tool for competitive advantage. This study draws on social cognitive theory and the DeLone and
McLean Information Systems (D&M IS) success model to diagnose the impact of websites design quality
on booking/reservation intentions from a travelers’ perspective. This research model was tested with
700 valid data collected from travelers using Travel 2.0 websites through online survey using SPSS v18
for the analysis. The results of the data analysis provided support for the hypothesized relationships
of e-service and system quality with booking/reservation/purchase behavioral intention implying that
an e-travel site’s quality is an essential success factor for tourism enterprises. However, information
quality of an e-travel site is negatively related to booking/reservation intention. Cross-sectional design
and self-report measures are the shortcomings of the study. Little research has been done on the
relation between websites design (e-service, information, and system) quality, and booking/reservation
intention. This article presents new insights into how these variables may influence potential tourist.
Travel 2.0, Turkey, reservation, booking, purchase intention
Business Perspectives
and Research
5(2) 1–13
© 2017 K.J. Somaiya Institute of
Management Studies and Research
SAGE Publications
DOI: 10.1177/2278533717692909
Corresponding author:
Mohammed Abubakar, Department of Management Information System, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey 68100.
1 Department of Management Information System, Aksaray University, Turkey.
2 Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta North Cyprus via Mersin, Turkey.
2 Business Perspectives and Research 5(2)
Mankind has traveled over borders for various reasons ranging from education, medical purposes, and
for leisure and recreation. There is an increase in the number of visitors worldwide as a result of
changes in mankind’s economic and socio-political status as well as social activities. All of the afore-
mentioned factors can be noted in a certain aspect of our lives, namely, urbanization, increase in income,
demographic change, change in consumption behavior, and improved labor rights. According to
Merinero-Rodríguez and Pulido-Fernández (2016), travel or tourism is a relational phenomenon, in
other words, a social phenomenon; this is primarily due to its relationship and interaction with various
social elements.
The basal component of tourism/travel that makes it a distinct sector is its intangible nature, that is,
tourism/travel represents service products, unlike physical goods. The intangibility of tourism/travel prod-
ucts makes it hard for consumers to access the service quality before consumption, as such risk and uncer-
tainty tend to be high (Abubakar, 2016). To overcome this uncertainty, potential visitors often search for
information (Casaló et al., 2015). Werthner and Klein (1999) argued that tourism is an information-intense
industry because potential tourists are constantly in search of information.
Drawing on the aforementioned theoretical and empirical arguments, it would not be wrong to say
that full functional websites are essential for all tourism/travel enterprises due to modern traveler’s infor-
mation demands prior to the purchase of tourism-related products and services via the Internet
(Marcussen, 2009). Intuitively speaking, consumers who shop online require a functional website with
good performance and easy navigation with detailed instructions. Perhaps, there is no doubt that travel-
ers who intend to travel expect the content of a website to be properly designed, attractive in terms of
information provision, and should be user-friendly (Vander-Heijden, 2003).
Subsequently, Lu (2004) emphasized that potential travelers require web pages to provide user-
friendly, timely, and reliable product and service information. In a nutshell, there is an expectation both
from tourists and tourism firms. Thus, in order to enhance online travel planning experience, tour plan-
ners need to develop operational and conceptual websites that will address voyagers’ information
demands, meet their expectations, and attract them (Park & Gretzel, 2007). A notable way to ensure
information quality, e-service quality, and service quality of a travel website is to have a well-designed
travel website as argued by Law and Bai (2008); that travel website quality enhances user’s
Buhalis and Law (2008) stated that hypermedia and the Internet have become the indispensable chan-
nel for individuals seeking to use travel information, thus posing a question regarding how this informa-
tion may affect global tourist reservation, booking, and purchase behaviors. The article is looking into
the possible impact of information quality, e-service quality, and system quality on a potential traveler’s
intention to book or purchase a tourism product or service. The article contributes to our understanding
of these factors as a sustainable strategy that tourism enterprises can utilize to boost their market share.
Literature Review and Hypothesis Development
The travel industry in Turkey has contributed significantly to the social and cultural course. Within the
last decades, Turkey has experienced huge foreign and local investment in travel and tourism infrastruc-
ture. TURSAB (2014) reports showed that Turkish travel industry will continue to experience growth
higher than the European counterparts. The development in Turkish travel industry is also related to
other natural and geographical nature of the country. Turkey lies between the two continents of Asia and
Elci et al. 3
Europe from the East and West, respectively—the Black Sea in the northern part of the country and the
Mediterranean Sea located in the south as well as numerous mountains and rivers.
Turkey has various climate conditions—from the temperate rainy climate in the north to heavy snow-
fall in central and eastern Anatolia to Mediterranean climate in the south—magnificent landscapes, and
diverse flora/fauna; the flora varies from lush forests, steps to typical Aegean and Mediterranean vegeta-
tion. Perhaps, Turkey is a botanical paradise. Porter (2001) stated that technological advances and travel
industry have been going parallel for years, during the 1980s; information and communication technolo-
gies (ICTs) have been changing travel globally.
High quality, useful, and reliable information, as well as functionality, are the basal stimulants encour-
aging people to visit websites (Cai, Card, & Cole, 2004; Ho & Lee, 2007; Park, Gretzel, & Sirakaya-
Turk, 2007). Functional and fashionable web pages help in conveying effective marketing and
promotional messages; they also expatiate on and enhance the perceived quality of products and
services, which in turn builds a brand image for an enterprise (Perdue, 2002). Firms conveying false
information on their sites can endanger their business reputation with accrued devastating consequences
on their products and services. Kasavana, Knuston, and Polonowski (1997) noted that the Internet is
changing the way in which the travel industry plans, controls, operates, and integrates the majority of its
business activities, ranging from branding, marketing, and promotional activities. As a result, more than
two-thirds of travel companies see their websites as a significant competitive weapon within their
industry. Moreover, about 60 percent describe the Internet as playing a major role in acquiring new cus-
tomers (Mullen, 2000).
Travel 2.0 consists of latest innovative technologies like blogs, web forums, podcasting and online
videos (vlogs), customer ratings, and evaluation systems (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). Specifically, manag-
ers and academicians consider forums and blogs as the most prominent themes within travel industry
(Pudliner, 2007). Xiang and Gretzel (2010) noted that online travel domain may consist of informational
elements associated with travel and tourism products and services. Furthermore, Tussyadiah and
Fesenmaier (2009) demonstrated that social media contents in multimedia sharing sites such as Flickr
and Facebook have the ability to transform travel experience.
Travel 2.0 websites are distinct in their design such that they are structured to incorporate interactivity
between service providers (e.g., hoteliers) and potential customers. This feature of Travel 2.0 websites
implies that users can access travel information from varying perspectives of actual customers and can
then make travel decisions more readily. Most popular of such websites is TripAdvisor with over
5,000,000 attractions, destination, and hotel reviews written by travelers who had experienced the
services. The efforts to provide informative and functional web pages led to changes in the behaviors and
consumption of travelers, as well as power shift in the marketplace (Abubakar, 2012).
Information provided on the Internet is mostly free, accessible anywhere, anytime, and diffuses faster.
Travelers are taking over the control of how the actual production and dissemination of travel-related
information takes place on the Internet. This is because everyone has the ability to publish information
online. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes brought by modern technology and its sub-
sequent impact on tourists. Having a complete understanding provides a critical stepping-stone for the
creation of effective promotional programs and efficient management of information systems (IS)
(Xiang, Wober, & Fesenmaier, 2008) for decision makers.
The Internet atmosphere can provide vital information needed by potential tourists whose desires
include browsing the web for the sake of familiarity or to find and use information related to their inter-
ests. The advantages of online tourism information search include the relatively low cost, customized
information, ease of product comparison, interactivity, virtual community formation, and 24-hour acces-
sibility (Wang, Head, & Arthur, 2002).
4 Business Perspectives and Research 5(2)
Social cognitive theory explains consumer behavior vividly; the theory assumes that consumers’
actions in particular environments rely on personal cognition (Hsu et al., 2007), and personal cognition
relies on expectation or self-efficacy. Hypermedia is designed to support and promote individualism,
self-directed connectivity, and individual empowerment (Qu & Lee, 2011). Arsal, Backman, and Baldwin
(2008) revealed that potential tourists often seek information from hypermedia to assist their travel-
related decisions considering various offers and to shape their conception and image concerning a
Scholars (e.g., Ayeh, Au, & Law, 2013; Xiang & Gretzel, 2010; Ye et al., 2011) have argued that
consumer testimonies are not only useful in travel planning and information search but also provides
certain beneficial implications for travel businesses, for example, online reservations, bookings for
hotels, and tickets purchase. Breitenbach and Van Doren (1998) stated that an e-travel site must provide
satisfactory online experience, a reason to visit, and a reason to return.
Another factor that may affect reservation intention is site quality, for example, ease of navigation,
download speed, visual attractiveness, and subpages accessibility (Breitenbach & Van Doren, 1998).
Furthermore, Cai et al. (2004) pointed out that information content is one of the key factors attracting
visitors to an e-travel site. Without doubt, scholars and practitioners have turned their attention toward
reengineering and design of websites to facilitate marketing which in turn facilitates performance and
efficiency, and subsequent success of the tourism enterprises. A good travel website design will strengthen
customer’s trust (Lowry et al., 2008), and the presence of trust leads to purchase and sales as well as
revisit intentions. In line with the extra 3P’s that is “Physical appearance” - such as ambience, facility
design, mobile support, signage, displays and others. Next, “process” - refers to the methods in a travel
site employ to provide relevant and supportive services to their customer in order to give them more
satisfaction for their patronage. Finally, “people” - which subsumes the behavior and attitudes of employ-
ees and customers of the sites.
Lots of Internet-based business communication and transaction studies have utilized DeLone and
McLean (D&M) IS success model to measure the success of online systems (Bernroider, 2008; DeLone
& McLean, 2002; Dwivedi, Wade, & Schneberger, 2012; Fang, Chiu, & Wang, 2011; Lin, 2007; Petter
& McLean, 2009; Wang & Liao, 2008). Since Travel 2.0 presents a new business opportunity to travel
and tourism industry via the Internet, this study, therefore, aligned with other scholars and adopted the
D&M IS success model to evaluate the impact of system quality, e-service quality, and information
quality on traveler’s booking/reservation/purchase intention (Delone & Mclean, 2004; Lin, 2007; Wang
& Liao, 2008). Based on D&M IS success model, six dimensions are used to measure the success of IS
(DeLone & McLean, 2002). System quality, information quality, and service quality are three out of the
six dimensions adopted for the purpose of this study.
Adaptability, usability, reliability, availability, and response time are few examples of the qualities a
website must possess for them to be perceived as valuable by the users (Wang & Liao, 2008). This, however,
represents the system quality dimension of D&M IS success model. Furthermore, the relevance,
scope, personalization, completeness, and ease of understanding of the content of a travel website are
perceived as information quality of the website, which is also another dimension of D&M IS success
model. As the model goes through validation processes, several recommendations for improvement are
given. One of such recommendations was the inclusion of service quality to the dimension of the original
D&M IS success model (DeLone & McLean, 2002, 2003). This dimension was accepted and has also
been validated by several studies. The findings of these studies suggest that service quality perfectly
measures the success of IS system. We, therefore, propose e-service quality, which is the perception of
flexibility, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, truthfulness, and reliability of a travel website, as another
important dimension to measure the impact of Travel 2.0 on traveler’s booking/reservation/purchase
Elci et al. 5
System quality: It refers to the functional attributes of an e-travel site; system quality has a signifi-
cant influence on travelers’ online purchase intention (Liu, Arnett, & Litecky, 2000). Basically, potential
visitors surf the net either in search of information on a particular travel product and/or services or with
the intention to book/reserve/purchase a travel product and/or services. Academicians (e.g., Ho & Lee,
2007; Wen, 2009) have argued that “travel site quality in terms of functionality has a strong relationship
with customer satisfaction, loyalty or trust,” and, in our opinion, relying on the extant theory, travel site
quality has an impact on booking/reservation/purchase intentions.
Information quality: As mentioned above, travelers usually surf the Internet to look for information
about specific tourism destinations. In order to solicit booking/reservation/purchase intention or
decision, tourist information needs should be provided (Jeong, Oh, & Gregoire, 2003). Therefore, infor-
mation quality has been and will remain a critical factor shaping potential travelers beliefs (Smith, 2004).
Hashim, Murphy, and Law (2007) also realized that information quality ranked the highest in travel
website features that is considered effective by the users. Similarly, other scholars (e.g., Ho & Lee, 2007;
Jeong et al., 2003; Lin & Lu, 2000; Park et al., 2007; Shchiglik & Barnes, 2004) stated that information
quality, response time, and system accessibility affect tourist perceptions and behavioral intentions to use
online travel agencies, hotel, and airline sites.
E-service quality: is another important domain in e-travel website quality and has a huge impact on
customer satisfaction and online purchase intention (Yi & Gong, 2008). The prior literature demonstrated
that relevance of information content in e-travel sites is an important indicator for website traffic. Scholars
like Cai et al. (2004), Park et al. (2007), and Wan (2002) supported the motion. Perhaps, e-travel sites
perceived that ease of use and usefulness will influence travelers trust perception and may lead to subse-
quent booking or purchase. Relying on the extant literature, we came up with the following hypotheses.
H1: Information quality is positively related to booking/reservation/purchase intention.
H2: System quality is positively related to booking/reservation/purchase intention.
H3: E-service quality is positively related to booking/reservation/purchase intention.
Figure 1 below shows the relationships and interdependencies of information, e-service quality and system
quality as predictors of booking/reservation/revisit intention.
Figure 1. Conceptual Model
Source: Authors’ own.
6 Business Perspectives and Research 5(2)
Data Collection and Scale I ̇ tems
Random sampling technique was utilized for collecting data and scaling items. To achieve the study
objectives, a self-administered survey questionnaire was developed in English and back-translated to
Turkish. We conducted a pilot study with six participants; the aim was to increase data accuracy and to
diagnose the respondents’ understanding. No changes were made because it appears that they all under-
stand the questions. Four filter questions were used in selecting the respondents; the aim was to select
those who had prior online travel purchase experience. System quality was measured with five items
adopted from Ho and Lee (2007). Information quality was measured with two items adopted from Jeong
et al. (2003) and Shchiglik and Barnes (2004). E-service quality was measured with six items adopted
from Baloglu and Pekcan (2006) and Park et al. (2007). The reservation/booking/purchase intention was
measured with five items adopted from Lin (2010). The questionnaire also contains demographic vari-
ables such as age, gender, education, income, and marital status. Data analyses were carried out using
SPSS (version 18).
Results and Data Analysis
We contacted the participants through emails and various social media outlets in the republic of Turkey.
Four filter questions were used to enable us to get the target population and to facilitate a reliable
response. The first question was whether the participants travel or go for holidays domestically and the
number of times they did travel. If the response was yes, then the participant was redirected to the next
question. Otherwise, a message saying “thank you for your interest, but you are not among the target
audience” was displayed.
Based on the results 64 percent (449) travels 1–3 times per year, 29 percent travels 4–6 times per year,
and the rest travels 6 times or more per year. The third question was where the respondents purchased
flight tickets and booked hotel rooms and tours; 67 percent of them made reservation and purchased
online, while 33 percent conducted their transactions through travel agencies. Two respondents volun-
teered to add comments; they stated that they conducted transactions via travel agencies in order to reduce
uncertainty and risks. The fourth filter question was “Do you check websites like TripAdvisor before your
booking or reservation?” Seventy-five percent of the respondents said yes, while others said no.
A total of 2,114 participated in the online survey that lasted for two months between June and August
2014. At the end, only 700 valid questionnaires were used for data analysis; we eliminated those with
missing data. The response rate was 33 percent. Table 1 presents the demographic breakdown of the
sample (n = 700). Most of the respondents were male 76 percent, thus highlighting male dominance in
oriental countries like Turkey. The overwhelming majority (94 percent) of the respondents aged between
21 years and 30 years, 4 percent of the respondents aged between 41 years and 50 years, and the rest rep-
resented 1 percent of their group, respectively. Forty-six percent of the respondents have a monthly income
between 2000 and 4000TRY and 32 percent of the respondents’ monthly income is below 2000TRY.
Seventy-seven had bachelor’s degrees, 17 percent had higher degrees (Master/PhD). In respect to occupa-
tion, 52 percent of the respondents were students, while 25 percent were employees (Table 1).
Elci et al. 7
Table 1. Respondents’ Profile (n = 700)
Frequency Percentage
Female 169 24.1
Male 531 75.9
Total 700 100.0
Under 20 8 1.1
21–30 657 93.9
31–40 8 1.1
41–50 27 3.9
Total 700 100.0
Income in TL
Below 2000 222 31.7
2000–4000 319 45.6
4000–6000 95 13.6
Above 6000 64 9.1
Total 700 100.0
High school 47 6.7
Bachelor’s degree 536 76.6
Higher degree 117 16.7
Total 700 100.0
Student 362 51.7
Employer 24 3.4
Employee 178 25.4
Retired/Not working 136 19.4
Total 700 100.0
Source: Detailed result of the analyses of authors’ survey instrument.
Exploratory factor analysis utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was
applied on all items. The results in Table 2 indicate that all factors were significant, the factor loadings
of the items ranged from 0.48 to 0.93 with Eigenvalue greater than 1. However, one item each was elimi-
nated from e-service and system quality, respectively; this is because the items had cross-loadings. The
analysis yielded two factors which collectively explained 58.95 percent of the variance. The items were
forced to load on one single factor in order to check common method bias (Harman’s single-factor test);
one factor accounts for 38.91 percent of the variance suggesting that the potential threats of common
method bias do not exist (McFarlin & Sweeney, 1992). Alpha values were higher than the cutoff level
0.70 (Nunnally, 1978). The inter-item correlation coefficients presented in Table 2 among the variables
were all below 0.85, suggesting evidence for discriminant validity (Kline, 2005). Thus, the scale items
indicate evidence of internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity.
8 Business Perspectives and Research 5(2)
Table 2. Scale Items and Exploratory Factor Analysis Results
Scale Items Factor Loadings Eigenvalue % of Variance α
System Design Quality 6.99 35.66 0.79
e-Service Quality
eSerQual1 0.76
eSerQual 2 0.69
eSerQual3 0.74
eSerQual4 0.75
eSerQual5 *
eSerQual6 0.48
System Quality 0.71
Sys Qual1 0.64
Sys Qual2 *
Sys Qual3 0.67
Sys Qual4 0.86
Information Quality 0.76
InfoQual1 0.83
InfoQual2 0.80
Intentions 1.95 23.29 0.88
PurInt1 0.92
PurInt2 0.91
PurInt3 0.93
PurInt4 0.76
PurInt5 0.60
Source: Detailed result of the analyses of authors’ survey instrument.
Notes: KMO measure of sampling adequacy = 0.84; Bartletts’ test of sphericity = 9494.1, df = 136, p < 0.001. The total variance
explained by all factors is 58.95 percent. * Dropped as a result of exploratory factor analysis.
Table 3 presents standard deviations, means, and correlation coefficients of the research variables.
According to the evidence, e-service quality positively and significantly relates with booking/reservation/
purchase intention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). System quality positively and significantly relates with booking/
reservation/purchase intention (r = 0.26, p < 0.01). Information quality positively and significantly relates
with booking/reservation/purchase intention (r = 0.20, p < 0.01). This provides preliminary support for
hypotheses 1, 2, and 3.
To adequately test the hypotheses, we carried out regression analyses (see Table 4). The results show
that e-service quality is positively and significantly related to booking/reservation/purchase intention
= 0.28, t = 4.16, p = 0.00), that system quality is positively and significantly related to booking/reser-
vation/purchase intention (
= 0.18, t = 2.66, p = 0.05), and that information quality is negatively related
Elci et al. 9
to booking/reservation/purchase intention (
= –0.17, t = –2.55, p = 0.05). In order to validate our find-
ings, we conducted bootstrapping analysis with a resampling of 10,000 respondents and we have a simi-
lar observation. When the results in Tables 3–5 are collectively considered, this study provides evidence
that H1 and H2 were supported, while H3 was rejected.
Table 3. Means, Standard Deviations (SD), and Correlations of Study Variables
Variables Mean SD 1 2 3 4
1. e-service quality 4.61 0.47
2. System quality 4.60 0.57 0.81**
3. Information quality 4.65 0.63 0.80** 0.80**
4. Booking/reservation/purchase 4.12 0.90 0.29** 0.26** 0.20**
Source: Detailed result of the analyses of authors’ survey instrument.
Notes: Composite scores for each variable were computed by averaging respective item scores. ** Correlations are significant
at the 0.01 level.
Table 4. Regression Results: Direct Effects
Dependent Variables and Standardized Regression Weights
Booking/Reservation/Purchase Intention
Step 1
e-Service Quality 0.28 4.16**
System Quality 0.18 2.66**
Information Quality –0.17 –2.55*
R20.09 –
Source: Detailed result of the analyses of authors’ survey instrument.
Note: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table 5. Bootstrapping Simulation (10,000)
Direct Effect Value Se LL 95% CI UL 95% CI Significance
e-service quality purchase intention 0.540 0.239 0.378 0.726 0.000
System quality purchase intention 0.283 0.088 0.115 0.447 0.001
Information quality purchase intention –0.239 0.069 –0.379 –0.106 0.000
Source: Detailed result of the analyses of authors’ survey instrument.
Discussion of Findings
Our study result shows that system quality and e-service quality are positively related to booking/reser-
vation/purchase intentions. This finding is aligned with prior study of consumer behavior of travel web-
site users (Law & Bai, 2008). The current study also supports the notion that e-service quality will
10 Business Perspectives and Research 5(2)
influence tourists’ booking/reservation/purchase behaviors; and the finding is in line with prior studies
(Fassnacht & Köse, 2007). As a next step, the findings also asserted that system quality significantly
influences tourists’ booking/reservation/purchase intention. Prior studies also noted that system quality
has the potentials to influence booking, or reservation behaviors of tourists (Kim & Niehm, 2009).
Finally, the study also supports the notion that information quality will influence tourists’ booking/
reservation/purchase behaviors. However, the current findings show that the relationship is negative.
This is surprising as prior scholars have shown a positive relationship between the variables in question
(e.g., Lin & Lu, 2000). A possible explanation for the contradicted findings might arise from the sample
in our study, in the sense that they had a bad experience with travel websites.
Fundamental difference has been found between male and female orientation toward the use of social
media and travel website. Wolin and Korgaonkar (2005) argued that men are more disposed to online
advertisement than women. Abubakar (2012) however opined that women lurk online more than men.
Our demographic result showed 75.9 percent men to women ratio, indicating a significant male domi-
nant study context; hence, we inferred that the negative association between information quality and
booking/reservation/purchase intention is largely attributed to the masculinity of our study sample.
Similarly, 93.3 percent of our respondents had bachelor’s degree or higher level of education.
This implies that our study sample comprises of highly educated and knowledgeable individuals who
can easily filter out vital information, hence a possible justification for negative association of informa-
tion quality to booking/reservation/purchase intention.
Lastly, Kotler and Keller (2006) argued that generational cohort relate, act, behave and have similar
outlook and values. Generation Xers known for their technology competence and use of website and the
Internet in general accounts for 93.9 percent of our sample. This implies that the expectation of genera-
tion Xers in travel websites will be more inclined toward the system quality and design than information
quality, hence providing a further support for the result of our third hypothesis.
Given the fact that e-travel sites are a competitive business tool, we examined the effectiveness of web-
sites design quality on booking/reservation/purchase behavioral intentions from a traveler’s perspective.
Our research aims to extend the body of knowledge regarding the effect of e-service, system, and infor-
mation quality on booking/reservation/purchase intention, due to the fact that travelers plan trips with the
help of the Internet. The credo behind this study is to provide tourism enterprises a nuanced understand-
ing regarding the interaction of the aforementioned variables.
System quality can be measured by tourist perceived degrees of user-friendliness in e-travel sites;
thus, the perception of positive online system quality is very critical. The impact of previous, present,
and potential travelers’ positive experiences is not only limited in determining the continued intention to
do business with the firm but also increases trust and incite confidence. On the other hand, unpleasant
experience ruins the image and changes the travelers’ impressions about system quality of the e-travel
site; thus, this may discourage them from returning to the website. Prompt replies, answering of inqui-
ries, return policies, and security assurance may enhance e-service quality. E-service quality is essential
for the retention of customer’s e-travel sites; hence, marketers and managements should apply effective
relationship management systems. E-service quality and system quality exert a greater influence on
travelers’ retention, long-term relationship, as well as increased loyalty. Information quality is essential
in both stages (pre and post purchase): it is one of the critical success factors for e-travel sites; for
example, prices of airline tickets keep changing.
Elci et al. 11
Managerial Implication
Firms should take note that travelers uses the attributes of information, that is, information format and
content to interpret the message communicated and their understanding of it. Thus, tourism managers
should make sure that e-travel sites’ format and content are in accordance with customers’ perspectives, for
example, by conducting customer polls. In this respect, the online atmosphere has to accommodate infor-
mation seekers or travelers by offering better e-service, system, and information qualities. Tourism policy
planners and marketers should also consider taking account of this in order to enhance their competitive
advantage because their success depends on the volume of transaction.
Hoteliers and hospitality managers should pay more attention to the perception of travelers
through their contribution via Travel 2.0 website. This is because the strong perception of e-service
quality and system quality will result in improved business for the industry. E-service quality should
not be considered as a mere measure of customer satisfaction but should be regarded as an overall
experience of service excellence.
Limitation and Future Direction
Cross-sectional design and self-report measures are the shortcomings of the study. In addition, the study
was conducted online; thus, the validity and suitability of the respondents may be questionable. Finally,
the study is only applicable to Turkey. The article also failed to consider the effects of website trust and
brand image. Hence, the outcome of this study should be considered with caution. We encourage future
researchers to investigate the impact of website trust as a moderator in the relationship between informa-
tion system and e-service quality and booking/reservation/purchase intention. In addition, there is a need
to evaluate and research how businesses can integrate and encourage Travel 3.0 in their business model.
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... A well-designed, user-friendly reservation website enhances the online travel booking experience [18]. It is clear that information technology not only facilitates the booking process but is also an important factor influencing reservation behaviour [19]. In the actual reservation process for tourist attractions, tourists need to face a complex and diverse network and technological environment. ...
... Using the Internet as a new reservation method has become increasingly popular [30]. Some researchers emphasized the technical attributes of travel reservations [19,31]. For example, Elhaj [32] pointed out that online travel reservation was a type of booking method made by tourists based on a network and booking platform. ...
... With the advance of research, more attention is being paid to the reasons behind tourists' reservation intentions, including system quality and functional attributes [19,37], the quality of reservation websites [38,39], information quality [40], and e-service quality [41]. Obviously, high-quality, useful, and reliable information and convenient and advanced technology are the basal stimulants encouraging tourists to book. ...
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Travel reservation is an important way to improve tourist experiences and digitally manage tourist attractions in the COVID-19 context. However, few studies have focused on the online reservation intentions of tourist attractions and its influencing factors. Based on the theory of the technology acceptance model (TAM), two variables (perceived risk and government policy) are introduced to expand on the theoretical model. This study investigates the influence of subjective norms, government policy, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived risk on reservation intentions of tourist attractions. An online survey was conducted in China, and 255 questionnaires were collected. The data were analysed using SPSS 26.0 and AMOS 28.0 to construct a structural equation modelling and analyse the path. The findings show that (1) subjective norms have no significant impact on reservation behaviours under voluntary situations; (2) perceived usefulness positively affects tourists’ reservation intention; and (3) perceived risk has a significant negative impact on reservation intention, and government policy is the main factor affecting tourists’ reservation intentions. These findings enhance the understanding of tourists’ reservation intentions and extend the TAM theory. From the practice perspective, tourist attraction operators should continue to strengthen the construction of the reservation system, improve tourists’ experiences, reduce the perceived risk of tourists, and other stakeholders such as the government should strengthen cooperation, promote the reservation system, and create a good reservation atmosphere.
... In this way, internet users can frequently and easily exchange information about brands and products, allow users to create and promote personal profiles relating to products and services on social media (Belanche, Flavián, & Pérez-Rueda, 2020). For this reason, a huge number of consumers prefer to use social media websites to obtain more information about brands (Elci, Abubakar, Ilkan, Kolawole, & Lasisi, 2017). ...
... The Web 2.0 technology has made available several social networks and online platforms for communication and information sharing among users (Christodoulides, Michaelidou, & Siamagka, 2013;Elci et al., 2017). Also, social media is a means of communication for brands, services, marketing, businesses, and customers (Chauhan & Pillai, 2013). ...
... Burmann and Arnhold (2008) stated that consumer purchase behaviors and information processes have been strengthened by the internet and Web 2.0 technologies. Recently, lots of customers tend to use social media to access the desired product and brand information (Christodoulides et al., 2013;Elci et al., 2017). ...
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Beyond its ability to enhance the generation of goals and objectives, understanding an organization's brand equity is a key driver in communicating values to consumers and end‐users. In a very competitive marketplace, it is high time universities ditched the traditional means of communication and comply with the trending social media communication forms so as to better capture both the virtual as well as the real social space of their students who, in turn, are ambassadors of the institutions. Using data solicited from 317 university students, this study found that universities can better position themselves to compete when they employ both user‐generated and firm‐generated social media communication in building their brand equity. Our study also validates electronic word of mouth as a mediator of the relationship between social media communication and higher education brand equity. Recommendations for practice were also suggested.
... As a consequence, the quality of information has continually remained a vital factor that will shape the minds and beliefs of potential travelers and users (Smith 2004). Travelers always have the urge to search the internet for relevant information about specific tourism destinations, and, of course, airlines, in order to make decisions on purchase, and as, mentioned earlier, the quality of information has powerful impact on decisions (Elci et al. 2017). ...
... The underlying constituent of tourism and travel services, like airline services, that singles it out from other sector is the intangible nature of those services. That is to say, tourism and travel offers service products to its customers, unlike physical goods offered by manufacturing industries (Elci et al. 2017). The intangible nature of tourism and travel products, which are termed services, makes it impossible for consumers to access the quality of the service until after consumption, thus feelings of uncertainty and the risk increases (Abubakar 2016). ...
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As the main communication platforms for today's competitive air transportation market expands, airline websites need to be user friendly to trigger positive electronic word of mouth. Website quality constitutes an influencing factor in consumer behavior and decision-making. Therefore the purpose of this study is to test informarion-task-fit on electronic word of month, purchase intention and website quality. The study tested the effect of information-task-fit on website quality, electronic word of mouth and purchase intention of users of Turkish Airlines. A total of 604 questionnaires was obtained online within six months, using a quantitative and cross-sectional approach. The proposed above relationships were evaluated via structural equation modeling. Results were as hypothesized, with the perception that the availability of information required by users on the website influence website quality, electronic word of mouth and purchase intention. The website quality also influenced users' intention to purchase and electronic word of mouth. These results offer insights into improving and maintaining website quality by making the website user friendly so as to attract greater audience. This study's comprehensive model is lacking in service airline literature, thus this is an added research on the influence of information-task-fit web information and design on supposed quality of service and intention to purchase. Managers should also maintain high standards by hiring professional website builders so as to increase their usage. This study provides implications for airline website quality. A conclusion and further studies are presented below.
... Chiou and Chen (2012) stressed that it is the decisive influential factor on behavioural intention, while Liu and Lee (2016) stated it indirectly relates to revisit intention. A study in the e-business (Elci et al., 2018) showed the essential of e-service quality for customer purchase retention. In the transport sector, Wang et al. (2020) found the relationship between service quality and intention to reuse rail transit, while Rajaguru (2016) found that airline service quality influences behavioural intention. ...
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An airport significantly facilitates passengers to travel domestically and internationally. It can also attract passengers to visit the region where it is located. The present research examines the influences of airport service quality, satisfaction, and airport image on behavioural intention towards visiting the destination country. The survey was conducted with 314 Cambodian outbound travellers. The research has employed Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling to measure the relationship of service quality, satisfaction, image, and behavioural intention. The results show that satisfaction strongly affects behavioural intention towards visiting the destination country, while air service quality has a moderate effect, and airport image has no effect.
... Travelers still have the urge to find useful details about different tourist destinations on the Internet and, of course, better airlines with good and satisfactory services, in order to make decisions on which to patronize. Furthermore, as earlier mentioned the standard of the knowledge has a significant influence on their choices and decisions (Elci, Abubakar, Ilkan, Kolawole, & Lasisi, 2017). Past user's information's should be accessibility on airline websites to possible and existing clients for them to easily and comfortably explore services like bookings, reservations, and intentions to use and purchase from these websites of make decision (Jeong, Oh, & Gregoire, 2003). ...
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Information technology expertise has comprehensively revamped and made well recognized, the hospitality and tourism industry. Electronic businesses, which are different type of commercial business was constructed and established with the help of the internet, and this now affects the way clients react. The current research seeks to explore the effect of information‐task‐fit, on electronic word of mouth (eWOM) of users of Turkish airlines. Furthermore, the present study examines the moderating role of website quality on the aforementioned relationship. Six hundred and four usable questionnaires were obtained online within a 6 month period with the use of Google forms The current study used a quantitative and cross‐sectional type of research method. The anticipated interactions were estimated using structural equation modeling. All anticipated relationships were supported, with discernment that the availability of users required information on the website impacted them to engage in eWOM. As hypothesized, the quality of the website, moderated the relationship between information‐task‐fit (INTF) and eWOM. The consequences of the present research proposes comprehensions into maintaining and why not improving the website quality by making the website user friendly, so as to attract potential users and keep current users. This study's complete model is scare in the airline service literature. In consequence there should be an added research on the influence of information task fit website information and design on supposed service quality and internet word of mouth. Managers should also uphold an elevation website ethics by employing good professional website builders to attract their usage. This study offers inferences for airline website quality.
... Our five-factor model demonstrated a moderate fit which is better in comparison with a one-factor model thereby suggesting that common method does not seems to be a problem (Podsakoff et al., 2003) see Table 2. Following Hair et al.'s (2006) recommendation, we performed confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS to ascertain the convergent and discriminant validity of our study data. The retained items loadings were all above the recommended threshold of 0.5, the benchmarked value of 0.7 for C.R and α as well as the 0.5 benchmarked value of 0.5 for AVE Elci et al., 2017;Hair et al., 2006;Hair et al., 2010). This result provides support for convergent validity among the measured constructs. ...
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The recent upsurge in theoretical advances in value co-creation in service organizations provides the credo to uncover the likely predictors of value co-destruction which may sometimes be the end point of the co-creation process. Thus, this paper aims to investigate how hotel employees' perception of leadership support, supportive organizational climate and management's commitment to value co-creation predicts value co-destruction in their organization. The survey was designed to solicit data that will help in answering our main research question; what organizational level factors are responsible for mitigating the deleterious effect of value co-destruction in hospitality industry? In total, 475 hotel employees from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) were surveyed to gather data that was subjected to SEM analysis. The findings confirm leadership support, supportive climate and management's commitment as predictors of value co-destruction while employee attribution only moderates the relationship between management's commitment to value co-creation and value co-destruction. This study unearths the importance of organizational involvement in militating against value co-destruction. Within the specific context of hoteling, management's commitment to value co-creation is moderated by employee attribution style. Practical implications with industry focused best practices are recommended. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Relatively, Karemu, Kachori, Josee, and Okibo (2014) found that a positive relationship exists between recruitment and organizational performance. In line with that, in the recent work of Atan and Mahmood (2019), employee competency in connection with effective recruitment has greater role in organizational performance and plays a vital role in every organization (see Abubakar, Ilkan, Al-Tal, & Eluwole, 2017;Elci, Abubakar, Ilkan, Kolawole, & Lasisi, 2017). ...
The impact of recruitment and training on employees increases psychological state, commitment, and employee attachment to the organization. Several researchers have continuously, for several decades, investigated the effect of recruitment and selection and the robust impact on employees; nevertheless, the effect of human resources practices on both the employees' satisfaction and retention as parameters of the organization performance cannot be overemphasized. Drawing from Social Exchange Theory (SET), the study identifies the significance of human resource practices (selecting and recruitment, training, and development) on employees. 277 questionnaires were collected from six private airline employees in Jordan. The hypotheses, validity, and reliability were tested through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The findings indicate that proper selecting and recruitment and training have a significant impact on organization. Also, Employee Engagement (EE) plays a mediating role on model variables. The study further indicates that employee engagement partially mediates the relationship between variables. Cross‐sectional data collection was employed; therefore, generalizing the findings should be done with caution. This study is of importance to human resources managers and policymakers to understand the significant impact of HR practices, attracting effective and efficient employees.
... Travellers now have more freedom to learn about hotel features and service attributes through travel websites. Numbers of tourism and hospitality firms that have turned their attention to new business opportunities on the Web are continuously on the increase (Elçi et al. 2017). Travellers' attitudes towards selecting a holiday destination have strongly influenced and transformed by online tourism (Browning et al. 2013;Chong et al. 2018). ...
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This paper explores the hotel experience of inbound travellers to five-star boutique hotels of Sri Lanka and ascertains how hotels have satisfied their customers’ expectations through assessment of the positive and negative reviews. A qualitative research method of content analysis incorporating quantitative elements is engaged for this study. Data comes from a survey conducted by the TripAdvisor website. This study reveals that all dimensions of service quality played an equally important role from the perspective of customers. However, consumers are not satisfied due to the presence of perceived quality gaps. It was revealed that to maximise customer satisfaction, boutique hotels need to refer to online reviews to obtain authentic information from their guests. Sri Lanka is making strong efforts to support its tourism industry which got affected by the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, therefore the findings of this paper will undoubtedly be useful for the trade.
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Purpose In the last decade, the hospitality sector has undergone numerous changes in the organization and structure of its business models. Specifically, the adoption of new digital technologies has initiated transformative changes toward circular economy and sustainability. The present study aims to analyze whether the use of the digital reservation system in circular entrepreneurship businesses has an impact on entrepreneurs’ satisfaction and trust in the in circular economy. Design/methodology/approach The data collected via a survey of 317 entrepreneurs who use a circular economy strategy were analyzed using SEM in a proposed model based on circular entrepreneurship businesses and the adoption of digital reservation systems. Findings The results showed a positive relationship between usability and perceived ease of use and user satisfaction and trust in using digital reservation systems to boost circular entrepreneurship in hospitality. Therefore, it was identified that adopting a digital reservation system can increase the efficiency of entrepreneur resources, as well as lead to creation of sustainable knowledge, augment the use of new sources of user information, improve prediction of services and demand and, consequently, boost sustainability and circular economy. Research limitations/implications Future research can use the results of the present study to investigate how digital technologies work and affect user trust, satisfaction, and use of these systems in entrepreneurs’ projects in hospitality. In addition, it would be interesting to explore how these factors influence hospitality in different business models that support circular economy in tourism. To this end, researchers can use the variables used in the present study, along with other variables, to extend the proposed model and deepen the authors' research. In summary, this study contributes to the literature on the use of applications in hospitality sector and offer useful insight on how the adoption and use of new technologies can drive the management of knowledge and technology development, decision making and acquisition of new data sources that improve the experience of both entrepreneurs and users that interact with their services to enable circular entrepreneurship. Practical implications Hospitality entrepreneurs can use the results of the present study to better evaluate how using these applications can affect the communication protocols with their employees and stakeholders. Furthermore, entrepreneurs operating in the hospitality sector can use the results to develop action plans focused on the circular economy, new knowledge creation, as well as development and adoption of new digital technologies that enable circular entrepreneurship. In this way, hospitality companies will be able to effectively combine both more traditional offline channels and new technologies, such as mobile applications or the Internet. Social implications The authors' prediction of a strong positive link between perceived usefulness and user trust was also supported by the results of data analysis. The finding that perceived utility increases user trust in entrepreneurs when making adopting these technologies is also consistent with other similar studies. Finally, the results of this study also confirmed the hypothesized link between the perceived utility of digital technologies and user satisfaction. Taken together, the results also highlight the relevance of analyzing the use of digital reservation systems in the hospitality sector to enable circular entrepreneurship. Originality/value Taken together, the results highlight the relevance of analyzing the use of digital reservation systems in the hospitality sector to enable circular entrepreneurship and increase the perceived usefulness of new digital technologies so that to improve sustainable actions and the circular economy globally.
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Online travel sales increased by 17% from 2007 to 2008 and reached EUR 58.4 billion in the European market in 2008 - or 22.5% of the market (up from EUR 49.8 bn. or 19.6% in 2007). A further increase of about 12% during 2009 to about EUR 65.2 billion may be expected (25% of the market). The UK accounted for 30% of the European online travel market in 2008, with Germany in second place at 18%. The direct sellers accounted for 64% of online sales in the European market in 2008, intermediaries 36%. In 2008 the breakdown of the market by type of service was as follows: Airtravel 54%; Hotels (and other accommodations) 19½%; Package tours 15%; Rail 7½%; Rental cars (and car ferries) 4%. In the last quarter of 2008 a significant slowdown in the European economy set in, which will affect the European travel market during 2009. (PDF) Trends in European internet distribution - of travel and tourism services. Available from: [accessed Dec 21 2019].
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The Web has been changing the retail market in many ways. Following a newmarket framework, this paper analyzes the unique characteristics of the Web forretail applications, examines its market effects, and presents two perspectivesfor business response strategies. The Web can either be used as a marketing tool,which is integrated into traditional business strategies, or can be viewed as anew marketplace, which demands new business design. Differences betweenthese two views will have strategic and implementation implications for bothtraditional and startup retailers as they adapt to Web marketing. Finally, wepropose some research issues and challenges that should be addressed to betterour understanding and promote the success of this new marketplace.
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Information technology and the Internet have had a dramatic effect on business operations. Companies are making large investments in e-commerce applications but are hard pressed to evaluate the success of their e-commerce systems. The DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model can be adapted to the measurement challenges of the new e-commerce world. The six dimensions of the updated model are a parsimonious framework for organizing the e-commerce success metrics identified in the literature. Two case examples demonstrate how the model can be used to guide the identification and specification of e-commerce success metrics.
Virtual community membership has a strong influence on a tourist’s behaviours and the way information is transmitted. Drawing on trust transfer theory as a theoretical framework, this study tests an empirical model that investigates the influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on destination trust and travel intention. The study also diagnoses gender differences in the proposed model. Data were obtained from a sample of 216 tourists in Cyprus. The findings from regression analyses suggest that eWOM is positively related to travel intention; eWOM is positively related to destination trust; and destination trust is positively related to travel intention. Additionally, the impact of eWOM on destination trust was significant for both genders but stronger for men, while the impact of destination trust on travel intention was stronger for women. The paper extends the existing literature regarding new response variables associated with eWOM.
Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-corns and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service. It did not have to be this way - and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy. Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it off en makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them. Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects.. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies.
In recent decades, a systemic notion of tourism has been gaining ground, leading to its recognition as a set of interacting elements. From this perspective, relationships have become an important factor in research for understanding tourism, proving useful in the planning and management of tourism destinations. By means of an comprehensive review of the main contributions in the scientific literature in this regard, this paper highlights that there is no one single conception or theoretical-methodological approach to studying relationships, and proposes a classification of the literature on the basis of six major research lines, with a view to identifying and analysing the main advances and gaps presented by each of the research lines. In short, the article identifies the main lines of research developed in this field, analysing the main contributions and making a series of proposals to guide the future research agenda regarding the analysis of relationships in tourism.