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Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory

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... The land governance and tenure regime in Nigeria is skewed in favour of the government which, by virtue of the Land Use Act 1978, abrogated pre-existing community ownership rights and replaced same with usufructuary rights (Adeniyi 2015). Under the right conditions, including avenues for meaningful participation and shared costs and benefits, strong community involvement in comanagement enables them to become good and effective in natural resource management (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;FAO 2016a;Cronkleton et al. 2008;Bond et al. 2009). In Nigeria, due to substantial 123 GeoJournal alienation of the local communities, the 'free areas' (land outside the government reserves) are perceived as common-pool resources with open access and no exclusivity (Burger and Gochfeld 2000;Hardin 1968). ...
... Thus, indigenous lands became effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure (Nolte et al. 2012). In Nepal, forest co-management plans enabled local communities to protect and regulate the use of forest resources, manage plantations and sustainably harvest forest products including deadwood, grass, fuel wood and medicinal herbs in the buffer zones community forests which increased forest cover and generate ecological and economic benefits (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Jana 2009). Ghana empowered communities to manage forest and wildlife resources through community resource management areas system (Ghana 2014). ...
... Lack of current quantitative data on the trends (magnitude and direction of change) in natural resources generally and land-use and cover change in particular poses significant challenge to resource management. Ostrom and Nagendra (2006) concluded that natural resource users are likely to be more receptive to decisions regarding rules that affect resource use when presented with factual data generated from remote sensing, field investigations and laboratory experiments. The 1976/78 and 1993/95 land-use and vegetation mapping exercises carried out by the Forestry Resources Mapping Evaluation and Coordinating Unit (FORMECU) of the then Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (GEOMATICS, BEAK and UNILAG Consult, 1998) remain the latest publicly available national LULC data for Nigeria (Oyebo et al. 2010;FAO 2014). ...
Article
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Land-use and cover change reflects choices in natural resource governance. Despite heavy targets on the forest and woodland, the southwest Nigeria states have little quantitative information on the magnitude and direction of land-use change across the states. This drives unsustainable land management and deforestation. This study utilized vegetation sampling and enumeration, GIS mapping and analyses of base maps and multi-temporal Landsat imageries to generate current vegetation status and time-series land-use and cover change for the southwest Nigeria. The results suggest that the woody species density in the forest plots ranges from 512 to 1040/ha with mean density of about 770.67/ha and species diversity values range from 2.014 to 2.911. The woody species in the savanna woodland ranged from 624 to 1232/ha in density and species diversity varies between 1.189 and 2.737. Relatively fewer number of trees of larger diameter at breast height in forest and low number of species per family in savanna reflect the influence of selective forest logging and woodland degradation. The study area experienced a historical net deforestation rate of − 1.1% per annum between 1986 and 2016 with deforestation rate of the primary forest at − 3.3% between 1986 and 2016 and − 10% between 2006 and 2016. Savanna woodland grew 0.8% annually from 1986 to 2016. The states recorded net deforestation rate ranging from − 2.63 to − 7.41% between 2006 and 2016. Reforestation through exotic Teak and Gmelina plantation grew at 43% annually between 1986 and 2016.
... Dans les faits, l'efficacité de la gouvernance publique est conditionnée au niveau de légitimité attribué à la règle mise en place et à l'investissement réalisé pour le contrôle de celle-ci (Ostrom et Nagendra, 2006). Deux points qui pourraient être évités si la réglementation publique était élaborée et régulée de manière participative en incluant les utilisateurs (Ostrom et Nagendra, 2006 ;Dietz et al., 2008 ;Chhatre et Agrawal, 2009 ;Ostrom, 2009). ...
... Dans les faits, l'efficacité de la gouvernance publique est conditionnée au niveau de légitimité attribué à la règle mise en place et à l'investissement réalisé pour le contrôle de celle-ci (Ostrom et Nagendra, 2006). Deux points qui pourraient être évités si la réglementation publique était élaborée et régulée de manière participative en incluant les utilisateurs (Ostrom et Nagendra, 2006 ;Dietz et al., 2008 ;Chhatre et Agrawal, 2009 ;Ostrom, 2009). ...
Thesis
Ce travail de recherche repose sur la volonté de déterminer les différents enjeux qu’implique la mise en œuvre du buen vivir en Équateur. Cette notion traduit un état de bien-être subjectif, holistique et aborde la relation Homme/Nature en tant qu’équilibre. Le buen vivir est caractérisé par sa polysémie qui complexifie sa lisibilité mais permet l’exploration de certaines limites des différents courants de la science économique auquel il fait écho. Sa mise en œuvre induit un double défi : la possibilité de mettre en place un développement plus durable et la transformation de la structure productive équatorienne. Après avoir confronté la gouvernance du buen vivir à celle des ressources naturelles et de la transformation de la structure productive, nous analyserons son efficacité de manière multidimensionnelle à travers une analyse de données descriptive ne nous permettant pas la détermination d’une relation causale. Elle montre néanmoins une amélioration des indicateurs sociaux financée par l’augmentation de la dette externe et une diversification de la structure productive limitée. Nous complétons notre étude par une analyse qualitative reposant sur 40 entretiens réalisés auprès de parties prenantes clés de la mise en œuvre du buen vivir. Ces entretiens sont traités par une approche mixte d’analyse de contenu manuelle et assistée par le logiciel Iramuteq. La polysémie du buen vivir est plus contrastée, les parties prenantes privilégiant l’approche originelle pour le caractériser. Les politiques publiques sont globalement perçues comme inefficaces, soulignant les échecs des projets emblématiques. Les enjeux définis par les parties prenantes sont de quatre ordres : Changement structurel et Dette publique, Éducation au buen vivir, Économie politique de la transition et l’enjeu conceptuel de la définition d’un développement pluriculturel.
... Superposition of land use expectations and competition over land uses for different projects have produced conflicts, mainly due to ignorance of rights (physical or social), forceful displacement, and delayed justice Torre et al., 2014;Wehrmann, 2008). The large development projects especially the dams are directly proportionate to the increase in the population (demand); but, mainly affected agricultural lands (Ha et al., 2016), natural resources (Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006), which has created frustrations in rural masses (Nüsser, 2003). Such oppositions encouraged them to unite and protest for their rights, through voice attitudes (in the sense of Hirschman, 1970), protestations, recourse to the tribunals, or violent oppositions. ...
... Theoretically, the land use conflicts are the result of a lack of social justice and recognized rights in rural areas (Ostrom, 1990), such conflicts are sparked more when owners are forcibly dispossessed from natural resources, i.e., land, water, or forests (Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006;Tilt et al., 2009). According to the welfare economic aspects of land use conflicts (social welfare theory), the superposition of lands must not depend on from one use to another use, on its efficient distribution for the economic activities (Cheshire & Vermeulen, 2009). ...
Article
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In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
... Superposition of land use expectations and competition over land uses for different projects have produced conflicts, mainly due to ignorance of rights (physical or social), forceful displacement, and delayed justice Torre et al., 2014;Wehrmann, 2008). The large development projects especially the dams are directly proportionate to the increase in the population (demand); but, mainly affected agricultural lands (Ha et al., 2016), natural resources (Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006), which has created frustrations in rural masses (Nüsser, 2003). Such oppositions encouraged them to unite and protest for their rights, through voice attitudes (in the sense of Hirschman, 1970), protestations, recourse to the tribunals, or violent oppositions. ...
... Theoretically, the land use conflicts are the result of a lack of social justice and recognized rights in rural areas (Ostrom, 1990), such conflicts are sparked more when owners are forcibly dispossessed from natural resources, i.e., land, water, or forests (Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006;Tilt et al., 2009). According to the welfare economic aspects of land use conflicts (social welfare theory), the superposition of lands must not depend on from one use to another use, on its efficient distribution for the economic activities (Cheshire & Vermeulen, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
... Forests are open access resources which governed by institutions and enforcement. Appropriate monitoring and enforcement by community-based institutions and forest governance prevent deforestation (Ostrom andNagendra 2006, Nagendra andGokhale 2008). Given the backdrop, the objectives of the paper are twofold. ...
... Forests are open access resources which governed by institutions and enforcement. Appropriate monitoring and enforcement by community-based institutions and forest governance prevent deforestation (Ostrom andNagendra 2006, Nagendra andGokhale 2008). Given the backdrop, the objectives of the paper are twofold. ...
... Forest protection and enforcement of rules and regulationsare considered to be key factors in the improvement of forest condition (Yadav et al. 2003).The probability of forest degradation continues to decline with the increase in local enforcement (Chhatre and Agrawal 2008). Appropriate monitoring and enforcement by community-based institutions and forest governance prevents deforestation (Nagendra and Gokhale 2008;Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Pandey 1993Pandey & 2003. ...
... This finding shows that there is no deforestation due to proper application of enforcement of forest rules and regulation. This result supports the result of (Nagendra and Gokhale, 2008;Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;Pandey, 1993Pandey, & 2003 who advocates the community based institution reduced deforestation. One exceptional finding shows that the village Kalaboni has highest positive forest cover change with lowest enforcement index.The lowest enforcement takes place on account of growing conflict with the forest department. ...
Article
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Under Joint Forest Management (JFM), the community based institution like forest protection committees (FPCs) is working with the forest department to protect and manage around 25 million hectares of forest land in India. The paper attempts to formulate the community enforcement and monitoring indices across ten villages in Bankura (South) forest division of West Bengal. In addition, the paper tries to examine whether there is any impact on the change of forest area last ten years with the successful enforcement of rules and regulations. Besides, the paper also attempts to estimate the factors responsible for community enforcement at the micro level. This paper is based on primary data collected from 228 households in Ranibundh forest range under Bankura(South) forest division of West Bengal, India, in the month of February 2020. A multi stage sampling technique and questionnaire method have been used for data collection. Linear regression model is applied to estimate factors affecting the level of enforcement. The results of the paper reveal that the enforcement and monitoring indices are found to be 0.451 and 0.208 respectively. There is no deforestation across ten villages in Ranibundh forest range in Bankura (South) forest division due to successfully enforcement by communities. The level of enforcement is influenced by the caste, family size, landholdings, and forest income to total income, cooperation, monitoring and livelihood on non-timber forest products. The paper has an important policy implication for forest governance.
... How the socioeconomic context affects equity and effectiveness of restoration interventions It has been well established by a broad range of literature on conservation, land system science, and political ecology that whether land-use interventions succeed in enhancing ecological functionality and human well-being depends on the socioeconomic contexts on the ground, including, among other things, governance systems, power structures, and values (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006, Chhatre and Agrawal 2009, Klein et al. 2015, Erbaugh et al. 2020, Wells et al. 2020, Elias et al. 2021. Understanding the socioeconomic context of restoration is therefore a prerequisite for restoration to be executed in a way that promotes equitable and effective outcomes. ...
Article
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Ecosystem restoration is an important means to address global sustainability challenges. However, scientific and policy discourse often overlooks the social processes that influence the equity and effectiveness of restoration interventions. In the present article, we outline how social processes that are critical to restoration equity and effectiveness can be better incorporated in restoration science and policy. Drawing from existing case studies, we show how projects that align with local people's preferences and are implemented through inclusive governance are more likely to lead to improved social, ecological, and environmental outcomes. To underscore the importance of social considerations in restoration, we overlay existing global restoration priority maps, population, and the Human Development Index (HDI) to show that approximately 1.4 billion people, disproportionately belonging to groups with low HDI, live in areas identified by previous studies as being of high restoration priority. We conclude with five action points for science and policy to promote equity-centered restoration.
... Important to note is that the management of the collective plantations would be based on the existing CFUG system. Therefore, members of these groups could be directly involved as main agents in sustainably managing their own collective resources (Ostrom, 1994 and2006) and could benefit from the technical training that the intervention would offer. This way they would be having the chance to strengthen their existing knowledge and skills and at the same time develop specific expertise on olive cultivation and management. ...
Conference Paper
Climate change and extreme weather events undermine smallholder household food and income security in many rural areas of developing countries. Nature-based solutions and the use of Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS) into the local farming system have been claimed to sustainably help farmers adapt to climate change and to manage risk more effectively. Given the large array of conditions and complexity of the issue, this hypothesis should be empirically tested at the local level by means of appropriate methods. This paper investigates the implementation of three options based on the sustainable collective management of the existing wild olive forests and the plantation and cultivation of olive orchards in a mountain region of Nepal. The analysis is aimed at assessing the potential benefits of such strategy in comparison with the status-quo. This is done by applying different analyses of costs and benefits and comparing the results to assess which is the best option. The model considers the economic costs and benefits of the strategy as well as some positive social and environmental implications. The results of the analysis show that the proposed strategy is economically viable and worth implementing also because it allows to reach additional goals including improved CO2 sequestration, slope stabilization and restoration of marginal lands. This study provides evidence of the potential benefits stemming from projects aimed at improving common pool resources local self-governance and management in the considered area. The analysis makes it possible to gain an understanding of both social and economic benefits and produces policy-relevant results. These support the hypothesis that similar strategies based on the use of local resources and species, if properly designed, implemented and managed, could improve the resilience and well-being of other local communities.
... Changes in forest policy can influence the decision-making of resource managers as they navigate trade-offs between these types of conflicting objectives. Policy changes over recent decades in jurisdictions around the world have addressed many issues that affect the spatial and temporal patterns of harvesting (27)(28)(29)(30)-often catalyzed by shifting public values about stewardship, economics, and the allocation of benefits from harvesting. Prominent examples of such issues in the Pacific Northwest include the size and distribution of cut blocks (13,27); whether clear-cut logging should be replaced by alternatives, such as retention silvicultural systems (6); protection for ecological features, such as riparian areas, unstable steep slopes, and wildlife habitat, particularly for threatened and endangered species (31); and concern over the loss and protection of high-value, productive, old-growth stands (13,32). ...
Article
Industrial economic models of natural resource management often incentivize the sequential harvesting of resources based on profitability, disproportionately targeting the higher-value elements of the environment. In fisheries, this issue is framed as a problem of “fishing down the food chain” when these elements represent different trophic levels or sequential depletion more generally. Harvesting that focuses on high grading the most profitable, productive, and accessible components of environmental gradients is also thought to occur in the forestry sector. Such a paradigm is inconsistent with a stewardship ethic, entrenched in the forestry literature, that seeks to maintain or enhance forest condition over time. We ask 1) how these conflicting paradigms have influenced patterns of forest harvesting over time and 2) whether more recent conservation-oriented policies influenced these historical harvesting patterns. We use detailed harvest data over a 47-y period and aggregated time series data that span over a century on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada to assess temporal changes in how logging is distributed among various classes of site productivity and terrain accessibility, corresponding to timber value. Most of this record shows a distinct trend of harvesting shifting over time to less productive stands, with some evidence of harvesting occurring in increasingly less accessible forests. However, stewardship-oriented policy changes enacted in the mid-1990s appear to have strongly affected these trends. This illustrates both a profit-maximizing tendency to log down the value chain when choices are unconstrained and the potential of policy choices to impose a greater stewardship ethic on harvesting behavior.
... While not in reference to the specific challenge of conflict species conservation, several authors have highlighted how the use of incentives and sanctions will be necessary for successful DEG in the context of misaligned costs and benefits, externalities, or actions that have broad national significance (Caldecott and Lutz 1998;Gregersen et al. 2004;Bartley et al. 2008). It is critical that any sanctions, incentives, or other rules associated with upward accountability be considered legitimate in order to be effective and durable (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006), just as it is critical that upward accountability not replace downward accountability and thereby undermine the goals of decentralisation itself (Agrawal 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Decentralisation of environmental governance (DEG) proliferated around the world in the 1990s, inspired, in part, by theories of common-pool resource governance that argued that local communities could sustainably manage valuable but non-excludable resources given a set of proper institutional design principles. However, many species of wildlife, such as predators that consume livestock or herbivores that destroy crops, are considered undesirable by local communities; this challenges the applicability of DEG models for managing wildlife in these contexts. Numerous scholars have proposed methods to generate economic value from locally undesired wildlife species to incentivise their conservation, but the overall success of these approaches has been mixed. We explore the intersection of DEG and the management of wildlife entangled in human-wildlife conflict and challenge the assumption that simple models of devolution and decentralisation will lead to the successful governance of wildlife in such circumstances. We argue that conflict species governance is potentially compatible with DEG but requires a fuller consideration of institutions at multiple scales than is typically included in common-pool resource theory or decentralisation. Multiple mechanisms of accountability may be especially important in securing the conservation of wildlife in conflict scenarios.
... Nepal's Community Forestry programme has been globally acknowledged for its success in increasing forest cover and tree density, and restoring degraded forests, particularly in the mid hills (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Pokharel et al. 2007, Niraula et al. 2013Oldekop et al. 2019). Amidst this success, there is a general oversight on biodiversity conservation issues in community forest management . ...
Article
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Amidst its successes on various fronts of forest management, there are still concerns about overall biodiversity outcomes in community forests (CFs) of Nepal. The potential for biodiversity conservation is undermined by an orthodox focus of conservation efforts on protected areas and charismatic species, and the prevalence of management activities that potentially hinder biodiversity in community forests. However, the actual potential for biodiversity conservation and impacts of management activities is obscured by a lack of a robust and comprehensive accounts of biodiversity in CFs. Taking, as a case study, the 22 CFs in the remnant Jalthal forest of Jhapa district in southeastern Nepal, we examine its biodiversity status, prevalent threats to biodiversity, management interventions and conservation outcomes. We surveyed species across taxonomic groups, identified local uses of plant species, reviewed CF operational plans, discussed with local leaders experienced in forest management, and organised forest transect walks and in situ interviews with local community forest leaders. We demonstrate the richness, uniqueness and conservation significance of Jalthal forest and highlight the key role of biodiversity for the people living in proximity to the forest. Paradoxically, it is evident that along with biodiversity richness, the forest is equally threatened by invasive alien plants. Moreover, timber-centric management is dominant and a high demand for biomass extraction exists across the CFs. Despite playing an important role in protecting and managing Jalthal forest, the existing management practices of CFs are not sufficient to conserve biodiversity and address the emerging threats-primarily because they are weakly informed by relevant biodiversity data. Building an evidence-driven basis for forest management plans and enhancing the capacities of local communities to properly implement these plans can help restore degraded forests, conserve biodiversity and meet the local need for forest products. This paper reinforces the paradigm that conserving biodiversity outside protected areas, such as in community-managed forests, can indeed contribute towards broader biodiversity conservation goals in addition to providing ecosystem services to local forest-dependent populations.
... The social and environmental impacts of the programmes were analysed using a mixed-methods approach that combined a time-series analysis of remotely-sensed forest cover change with surveys and field interviews of PES programme participants and informed community members. A variety of studies have combined remote sensing and interview data to assess landscape change and conservation programmes (for example Schweik & Thomas 2002;Klooster 2003;Ostrom & Nagendra 2006;Codjoe 2007;Turner et al. 2007), but ours is one of the first to combine field interviews with remote sensing to evaluate the efficacy of PES programmes (see Arriagada et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Over the last decade, hundreds of payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes have been initiated around the world, but evidence of their environmental benefits remains limited. In this study, two PES programmes operating in the municipality of Coatepec (Mexico) were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in protecting the region’s endangered upland forests. Landsat satellite data were analysed to assess changes in forest cover before and after programme implementation using a difference-indifferences estimator. Additionally, surveys and interviews were conducted with local residents and a subset of PES programme participants to evaluate the programmes’ social and environmental impacts, particularly the effect of theprogrammesonlandowner behaviour. The remote-sensing data show that deforestation was substantially lower on properties receiving PES payments compared to properties not enrolled in the programmes, but the programmes did not prevent the net loss of forests within Coatepec. Moreover, the on-site interviews suggest that the payments may have had little impact on deforestation rates, and that other factors contributed to the conservation of forests in PES properties. These findings suggest that risk-targeted payments, robust monitoring and enforcement programmes, and additional conservation initiatives should be included in all PES schemes to ensure environmental effectiveness.
... These authors thus propose that SNA has the potential to be a valuable tool to support decision-making in conservation planning. This implication is also consistent with Ostrom and Nagendra (2006), who found that resource users are more likely to follow rules and to monitor others when they are engaged in resource use rule-making, as opposed to when an authoritative entity simply imposes rules. ...
Article
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Conflict among stakeholders is a familiar challenge to natural resource managers and researchers. Fostering trust and collaboration among diverse stakeholder groups is, therefore, a primary goal for natural resource conservation. One tool often used to understand stakeholder relationships and to foster collaborative conservation is social network analysis (SNA), a method that identifies patterns in social relationships among members of a population using networks and graph theory (Scott 2017). Through an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach, this study applied SNA to better understand social dynamics among six stakeholder groups associated with Utah’s Bonneville Salt Flats (Bonneville; USA). We sought to (1) build social network models (i.e., sociograms) depicting Bonneville-related social interactions among stakeholders, (2) identify potentially influential individuals (i.e., key players) in Bonneville’s stakeholder network; and engage these key players in (3) ‘member-checking’ social interaction trends gathered during the data collection year, and (4) discussing perceptions of their network’s influential social dynamics. Sharing SNA data and sociograms through semi-structured qualitative interviews with key players verified four seasons’ worth of social interaction trends within and among Bonneville stakeholder groups. These conversations also evoked key players’ reflection on social power dynamics, social network evolution, the influence of research into the Bonneville social network, and introspection about social connections therein. These emergent themes support applying SNA and qualitative interviews with key players in natural resource social networks to yield valuable information for managers who seek to foster collaboration while avoiding or abating resource-related conflict among stakeholder groups.
... It is critical that any sanctions, incentives, or other rules associated with upward accountability be considered legitimate in order to be effective and durable (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006), just as it is critical that upward accountability not replace downward accountability and thereby undermine the goals of decentralisation itself (Agrawal 1999). ...
Thesis
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Effective environmental governance is often viewed as one of the most important contributing factors to successful conservation. Good alignment between institutions and the geographical extents of ecological issues or systems they are meant to manage contributes to this success (known as “social-ecological fit”). However, issues and systems often extend beyond the control of any one organization or agency and thus require the efforts of multiple actors working together to achieve their common goals. Different governance structures may vary in the degree to which they foster networks for successful collective action. In this dissertation, I analyze the performance of Colombia’s environmental governance in conserving the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a flagship species entangled in human-wildlife conflict. My analysis considers the actions and interactions of three groups of conservation actors: 1) environmental authorities known as autonomous regional corporations (corporaciones autonomas regionales or CARs)—the primary entities responsible for implementing conservation policy in Colombia; 2) Colombia’s National Natural Park Service; and 3) nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Interinstitutional coordination is crucial as the known range of Andean bears in Colombia crosses the boundaries of 22 CARs and 22 national natural parks. My analysis was based on qualitative and social network data gathered via 67 semi-structured interviews with conservation practitioners during 2018-2019; these data were later integrated with a landscape connectivity model for Andean bears constructed with circuit theory. My research suggests that the successful coordination of large-scale wildlife conservation may yet require leadership from central institutions. Inconsistent program implementation among the CARs and limited information exchange potentially exacerbate human-bear conflicts, particularly at CAR borders. Only 30% of those CARs that shared habitat critical to Andean bear movement had communicated with one another about Andean bear research and conservation strategies. CARs were more likely to communicate with the National Natural Park Service or NGOs. These other entities were often located within the social network structure as intermediaries between otherwise disconnected CARs. These actors could use such strategic positions to facilitate coordination between CARs that share habitat important for Andean bear connectivity and, in so doing, improve social-ecological fit for the conservation of this species.
... Ostrom (17) argues that in SES studies it is unlikely that a simple, universally applicable, predictive model exists due to the complexity of places (see also refs. 18,19). Sustainability science, a field that studies interactions between nature and society, requires an understanding of the interactions between global processes and the local characteristics of particular places (20), which may differ in socioeconomic, political, and ecological conditions. ...
Article
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Replicability takes on special meaning when researching phenomena that are embedded in space and time, including phenomena distributed on the surface and near surface of the Earth. Two principles, spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, are generally characteristic of such phenomena. Various practices have evolved in dealing with spatial heterogeneity, including the use of place-based models. We review the rapidly emerging applications of artificial intelligence to phenomena distributed in space and time and speculate on how the principle of spatial heterogeneity might be addressed. We introduce a concept of weak replicability and discuss possible approaches to its measurement.
... Across contexts ranging from community-based forest management to national Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programs, mapping and monitoring systems are recognized as crucial components of effective resource governance (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006, Herold and Skutsch 2011, Andersson et al. 2014). In the context of ZDCs, mapping and monitoring systems can improve effectiveness by encouraging compliance with commitments and enabling adaptive management to refine ZDC interventions (Rasmussen andJepsen 2018, Garrett et al. 2019). ...
Article
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A growing number of companies have announced zero-deforestation commitments (ZDCs) to eliminate commodities produced at the expense of forests from their supply chains. Translating these aspirational goals into forest conservation requires forest mapping and monitoring (M&M) systems that are technically adequate and therefore credible, salient so that they address the needs of decision makers, legitimate in that they are fair and unbiased, and scalable over space and time. We identify 12 attributes of M&M that contribute to these goals and assess how two prominent ZDC programs, the Amazon Soy Moratorium and the High Carbon Stock Approach, integrate these attributes into their M&M systems. These programs prioritize different attributes, highlighting fundamental trade-offs in M&M design. Rather than prescribe a one-size-fits-all solution, we provide policymakers and practitioners with guidance on the design of ZDC M&M systems that fit their specific use case and that may contribute to more effective implementation of ZDCs.
... In the case of natural forests where property rights are held jointly, individual stakeholders have logged, mined, trafficked wild animals, and deforested for private agricultural use. In doing so, these stakeholders have generated private gains and public losses (Demsetz, 1967;Hardin, 1968;Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006;Ostrom, 1990;Stavins, 2011). Ostrom (1990) suggests that improvements in governance among proximate stakeholders can reduce the tragedy of the commons, even without demarcating property rights over the forest for each individual stakeholder. ...
... Unwritten norms (the second channel) may be changed by improved information provision and discussion. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that giving participants information about collective harvesting rates, as well as the opportunity to discuss these, decreases overharvesting (14,(24)(25)(26). In some laboratory studies, when communication is introduced, harvesting declines as much as (24,25) or more than (14) in conditions that include imperfectly enforced external regulation. ...
Article
Significance To halt deforestation, communities are increasingly being given the authority to manage their own forests. Although standard economic theory predicts that community management leads to overexploitation, field studies have reported that communities can sustainably manage their forests if specific conditions are present. One condition that is correlated with successful common pool forest management is community-led monitoring of the forest. However, whether such monitoring causes improvements in forest conditions is unclear. Using a randomized controlled trial, we provide causal evidence about the impact of community-led monitoring on forest use. Unlike prior studies, we estimate the effects of monitoring on both monitored and unmonitored forests. The results suggest that monitoring may simply displace forest loss to unmonitored forests, rather than reduce it.
... In this literature, an association between community-based monitoring and better environmental quality has been described in theoretical frameworks and suggested by numerous case studies (e.g., refs. [7][8][9]). Yet establishing a causal connection (10) between changes in monitoring and improved resource outcomes is challenging in case studies (11). ...
Article
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Significance Elinor Ostrom won the Nobel Prize in Economics for demonstrating that humans can create rules and institutions that permit sustainable management of shared resources without resorting to privatization or government expropriation. One purported enabling condition for success is monitoring of the shared resource by community members. Whether such monitoring can be encouraged where it is absent, and thereby improve resource management, is not well understood. In a randomized trial, we assessed whether an externally encouraged, community-based monitoring program improved water management. After 1 y, we detect modest reductions in groundwater pumping and modest improvements in water quality and user satisfaction. Although replications are needed, the results imply that externally encouraged, community-based monitoring can improve the management of shared resources.
... Experimental evidence with respect to community engagement in the management of natural resources is virtually absent, and the available evidence based on observational data sends mixed signals. For example, while community-managed forests appear less prone to deforestation and degradation than centrally-managed forests (e.g., Ostrom and Nagendra 2006 ;Ribot et al., 2010 ;Lund et al. 2015 ), the livelihood impacts are unclear (e.g. Sikor and Nguyen 2007 ). ...
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The evidence on the effectiveness of participatory development approaches in low-income countries is ambiguous. We randomly vary governance modalities to study elite capture in Ethiopian forest user groups and explore implications for livelihoods of group members. Top-down monitoring and punishment increases consumption and income, and decreases inequality. In contrast, internal monitoring has no effect on livelihoods. Additional heterogeneity analysis, based on observational data, reveals that while top-down monitoring works in groups where forest benefits are unimportant, internal monitoring improves economic outcomes in those groups where forest benefits are an important component of rural livelihoods. This suggests that participatory approaches work if targeted participants have strong incentives to voluntarily contribute effort.
... Ostrom's classic work builds on the 'mainstream institutionalist' premise that "people rationally pursue goals that they believe will lead to benefits for themselves" (Merrey, 2013;P142). This assumption is pervasive in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) approaches (Brockington, 2007;Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;Pagdee et al., 2006), which have, however, registered mixed results (Bennett and Dearden, 2014;Gibson et al., 2000;Kellert et al., 2000). ...
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Agricultural land reforms are crucial to promote investments in sustainable land management and food production amidst accelerating urbanization and increasing population growth. However, notable gaps remain in the literature regarding how land reforms designed at the national level are implemented in localized contexts, especially as they interplay with customary tenure regimes. Adopting an institutional bricolage perspective, we explore interactions between local tenure arrangements and government land reforms and the resulting implications for food production in rural Mali. We show that specific market-based land tenure arrangements in the study area emerged from a combination of urbanization pressures and government-designed land reform. We find that tenure security is linked to agricultural investment decisions, as also documented by previous studies. We likewise show that anxieties and ambiguities stemming from state-mandated land registration foster the emergence of monetized forms of access to collective land. These new market-based systems drive greater out-migration of productive community members, leading to labour shortages and weakening the social cohesion and mutual support systems upon which the most vulnerable depend. The findings show that top-down land reforms in rural Mali lead to disruptions of the social fabric, along with reorganizations of tenure systems to accommodate social norms and priorities. We illustrate how, in the context of centralized policy making with limited local consultation, community members resist cooperating and creatively search for alternatives to achieve their social goals. Empirical investigations of socio-institutional challenges such as land tenure arrangements are critical for effective scaling of agricultural innovations and sustainable food production.
... Elegimos utilizar los principios de diseño de Ostrom como nuestros principales criterios para evaluar el autogobierno porque muchos de los principios de diseño de Ostrom, si no todos, han sido corroborados por un gran número de estudios empíricos. Entre estos estudios se han incluido trabajos experimentales (Ostrom et al. 1994;Ostrom 2003;Cárdenas 2000;Janssen et al. 2010), estudios cuantitativos (Gibson et al. 2000(Gibson et al. , 2005 (Nagendra 2007;Ostrom y Nagendra 2006). Por lo tanto, existe una fuerte justificación teórica y empírica para usarlos como criterios de evaluación del autogobierno. ...
... It remains unclear whether the equalizing effect of forests is related to the resources provided by the forests or to the communal tenure regime under which these forests are frequently managed (Baland and François, 2005;Jagger et al., 2014). Under well-defined conditions, such as strong internal institutions, local enforcement mechanisms, and clearly defined rights, communal tenure regimes can be a key element for the simultaneous improvement of rural livelihoods and forest conservation (Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;Ostrom and Hess, 2007;Chhatre and Agrawal, 2008). Andersson and Agrawal (2011) found that conditional on local forest users being well organized and having effective rule-making, the detrimental effects of inequality on forest conditions are limited in forest commons. ...
Article
Common property in Latin America is mostly managed by indigenous populations, which are in most of the cases located in remote settlements. Tenure regimes and remoteness are considered to influence the amount of income and type of products extracted from forests. Most of the previous studies could not assess to what extent the contribution of forests to livelihoods is mediated by either tenure regimes or remoteness. Current research attempts to fill this gap in the literature by focusing on the economic contribution of forest products to rural livelihoods under different tenure regimes, common and individual property, and levels of remoteness. We collected data from four hundred households located in fifty villages in lowland forest areas in the Loreto Region, in Peru. We used the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index of poverty and the Gini coefficient to assess rural poverty and income inequality. The contribution of forest resources to total income and (in)equality is compared across different tenure regimes and different levels of remoteness. We provide evidence that forests are an important income source for the poorest households and this contribution is more pronounced among households living in villages under communal tenure regimes and remote areas. Forest income is significantly and negatively correlated with inequality under communal tenure regimes, but such a trend is not found in regions under private tenure. Game meat and non-timber forest products are the most important subsistence income sources for households living in remote villages and villages under common property regimes. This study illustrates that forests under common tenure are not only important from a conservation point of view, but also from a livelihood point of view, and this should be considered in both poverty policies and forest conservation and utilization policies.
... The BR model however, is more closely linked to the "Nature for people"/"People AND nature" paradigms, based on an understanding of humans as an integral part of social-ecological systems, and with a stronger focus on biocultural diversity (Sterling et al., 2017), and the flow of benefits and relational values between people and nature West et al., 2018;Winkler, 2019). In this sense, the inherent multidimensionality of the BR model has the potential to overcome problems associated with PAs, such their potential to negatively impact IPLCs (Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;West et al., 2006;Cumming, 2016). Although the "Nature AND people" paradigm appears as the predominant narrative upheld by young stakeholders in our work, as expressed through their concern with the social dimensions of BRs, both understandings of conservation were present throughout our study (Fig. 3). ...
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Young stakeholders are key actors in social-ecological systems, who have the capacity to be agents of sustainability transformation but are also at high risk of exclusion in the unfolding of global change challenges. Despite the focus of sustainability on future generations, there has been little research effort aimed at understanding young actors’ roles as biosphere stewards. In this work we investigate how young stakeholders perceive and participate in the implementation of sustainability objectives in 74 Biosphere Reserves of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme across 83 countries, through participatory group workshops, individual surveys and grey literature review. We explore to what extent youth perceptions are aligned or not with current understandings of Biosphere Reserves and how young stakeholders are acting in pursuit of Biosphere Reserve objectives. We find that young stakeholders have a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and challenges faced by environmental governance, such as resilience and adaptation to global change and the governance challenges of implementing adaptive co-management and increasing stakeholder participation. We also show that young stakeholders can be active participants in a wide range of activities that contribute to achieving conservation and development goals in their territories. They are particularly concerned with youth participation within all levels of Biosphere Reserve functioning and with the creation of sustainable livelihood opportunities that will allow future generations to remain in their native territories. Our study provides evidence of the importance of young stakeholder knowledge and perspectives as central actors in conservation and development initiatives, like Biosphere Reserves, and of the need to increase young stakeholder integration and participation within environmental governance.
... Elle fournira aussi le moyen d"impliquer toutes les parties concernées dans le processus de prise de décision, élément crucial pour concevoir des stratégies de développement globalement acceptables et adaptées au niveau local. (OSTROM & NAGENDRA, 2006). ...
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Le chapitre essaie de décrire la rivalité entre les populations riveraines du parc national de Virunga dans la province du Nord-Kivu. Entre temps l’exigüité des terres agricoles et les exigences de survie dans une phase post-conflits motivent les paysans à occuper des zones agricoles dans le parc national. La cogestion du parc devient un besoin urgent, mais comment s’y prendre ? Question de légalité et de légitimité dans la gestion ?
... Most Dalits who are on the lowest rung of the caste hierarchy, remain confined to the traditionally assigned roles and occupations that restrict their access to education and health care, and in turn restrict their employment opportunities, perpetuating the cycle of exclusion and poverty. (OHCHR, 2011) Most of the researchers (Agrawal, 1997 andChhetri et al. 2008) in their study have mentioned that women suppressed regarding the use of resource uses in their locality due to the education and hesitation due to the patriarchy society. In my mind, we researcher should know more realities about the passiveness and hesitation of these groups why they are not equal to other groups. ...
... Additionally, the complex and ever-changing nature of natural resources means that no single stakeholder can determine the solutions to NRM (Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;Ikhlayel, 2018). In this regard, stakeholders need to support one another, acknowledging that no group is inherently superior to another. ...
Article
The drive to ensure regular and reliable access to domestic water supplies is a major challenge for governments across sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the rural water systems in North-West Cameroon across rural districts using the lenses of Cultural Theory and Systems Thinking Analysis (STA). Different social groups were classified using Cultural Theory to assist in appreciating and presenting solutions to preventing water resources becoming degraded and ensure water supplies are maintained. STA focuses on causal feedback principles and therefore, was used to evaluate relationships between the stakeholders and systems. Thereby allowing the development of a suggested policy intervention mechanism for sustainable community-based Water Management (CBWM) in the region under study. Findings revealed that in Cameroon, the provisioning of domestic water to rural residents faces significant hurdles. This is due, in part, to the centralisation of governance, where the national government determines how water resources are managed throughout the country. This is despite the promulgation of laws that support the decentralisation of decision-making. It was found that CBWM systems prevailed due to the enormous contributions of local inhabitants, extended community networks and the diaspora. However, CBWM serve to reinforce the status and situational power of local elites, government officials and, to a lesser degree, men. Therefore, a concerted effort to implement a more democratic and transparent politico-cultural mechanism to manage water resources could serve both to resolve water management conflicts and develop suitable policy intervention mechanisms for sustainable CBWM.
... doi:10.1073/pnas.2007230117/-/DCSupplemental.*Because there are many contextual factors and conditions that influence the creation and performance of local institutions, it is always a challenge to conduct controlled comparative analyses, but behavioral experiments can help address such analytical challenges(11). ...
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Significance We offer evidence on the role of local, voluntary leaders during the initial stages of the self-governance process. Our findings, which show that unselfish leadership actions can foster self-governance under conditions that are unfavorable for collective action, provide hope for efforts to address creeping environmental degradation problems, such as climate change and biodiversity loss. The significance of these findings goes beyond environmental policy and speaks to the potential role of voluntary leaders in the formulation of policy responses to new, emerging threats to human well-being for which there are no established governance institutions.
... According to Naughton-Treves et al. (2005), after decades of expanding protected forest areas, the necessity of integrating human-rights concerns and equity into management objectives is now unquestionable. It is also widely argued that efforts to expand forest protected areas should explicitly consider the landscapes in which both protected and comanaged forest areas are rooted (Bray et al., 2008;DeFries et al., 2007;Hayes, 2006;Nagendra et al., 2009;Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006). ...
Article
This independent study assessed how forest management is a matter of local community governance and management by showing best cultural management practices in Ethiopia with special reference to Yotyet/Yewezera Community forest which is located in Eza Wereda, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. Forests are essential for human survival and well-being. They harbor two thirds of all terrestrial animal and plant species. They provide us with food, oxygen, shelter, recreation, and spiritual sustenance, and they are the source for over 5,000 commercially-traded products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to timber and clothing. Due to lack of evidence in Ethiopia and more broadly in Africa, Community Based Forest Management approaches have been underestimated. The study area, Yotyet/Yewezera natural forest has four adjacent villages with 3421 population number. These four villages were purposefully selected. In-depth semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), direct field observations and questionnaires were the main sources of the primary data in this research. In all the four villages eight community elders whose ages are above 70 years were selected purposefully. After giving enough awareness about the research objective and they were interviewed separately and finally they involved in to Focus Group Discussion. Qualitative historical analysis is employed to understand and interpret the forest governance and management. Three time periods were considered. The forests’ protection status was assessed during the feudal period (before 1974), during the Derg regime (1974–1991) and after 1991. The three time periods were characterized by major changes that affected the management role of the local community. From the beginning the forest was protected/governed/managed by representatives of the surrounding community which were known as local chiefs. These local chiefs were well respected by the community and their order towards forest management issue had been accepted and practiced accordingly. Apart from local chiefs there was also one strong traditional belief that was responsible for the wise management of the forest. This traditional belief was known locally as “Buezhe”. Buezhe was a thunder god and if there were violations against the rules and believes, it was believed that, it brings fire during rainy seasons and destroys the houses which are made of grass and wooden materials and properties like cattle and enset farms. When the illegal cutters watched the signs of Buezhe named as shine in the forest they stop cutting and return to their home due to the fear of punishment by Buezhe born fire. In addition to local chiefs and traditional belief (Buezhe), the role of the church which is found in the southern part of the forest named Atirfo Debrework Kidus Giyorgis is very substantial towards Yotyet/Yewezera forest governance. When there is some information about the threat on the forest the church condemn the thieves in Sunday Prayer. The district and zonal officials have to consider and give due attention in giving recognitions to the community for their effective protection and management role. Key Words: Forest management, the role of community, Local chiefs, Traditional belief, The church, Yotyet/Yewezera Forest, Eza Wereda
... https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.22.175513 doi: bioRxiv preprint people secure tenure or management and benefit rights to local forest makes them more likely to establish and follow usage rules and monitor the compliance of others (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006). Providing local performance payments to keep forests intact by developing avoided deforestation carbon projects also shows promise in sub-Saharan Africa (Anderson et al. 2012). ...
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Sub-Saharan Africa benefits from large investments in biodiversity conservation, yet there is no systematic and comprehensive data on which of the many direct threats to biodiversity should be prioritized by donors, governments, and conservation organizations. To identify the priority threats to biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa, we classified the direct threats to biodiversity using a standardized list of threats categories and data from a Delphi consensus of Africa biodiversity experts, known threats to IUCN Red-listed sub-Saharan African species, and National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans from 47 countries. After ranking the threats from each source and averaging the rankings, we found that the highest threats were: annual and perennial crops (non-timber); logging and wood harvesting (natural forests); fishing and harvesting aquatic resources (marine and freshwater); and hunting and collecting terrestrial animals. Within the sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa there was considerable variation. The highest ranked threat in Central Africa was hunting and trapping terrestrial animals followed by logging/wood harvesting. The highest threat in East Africa was annual and perennial crops followed by fishing and harvesting aquatic resources. The highest threat in Southern Africa was invasive non-native/alien species followed by annual and perennial crops, and in West Africa, annual and perennial crops and logging and wood harvesting were tied as the highest threats. There are known ways to address all of these threats, and concentrating investments targeting these threats while accounting for unique socio-ecological contexts across Africa is essential for the sustained conservation of biodiversity.
... Remote sensing along with GIS based application combining with useful tools like Landscape metrics enable to examine diversified issues of forest fragmentation as well as human induced forest degradation study across the globe very effectively as these techniques analyze the combined approaches constructed by ecological, institutional and socioeconomic impacts on forest landscape dynamics especially with fragmentation ( Southworth et al., 2006 ;Liverman et al. 1998 ;Fox et al., 2003 ;Moran and Ostrom 2005 ;Ostrom and Nagendra 2006 ;Y. Haila, 1999 ;Saunders et al., 1991 ;J. ...
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Structural pattern of a forest landscape may affect the habitat quality directly. Therefore, monitoring and assessing the changes of forest cover is important for a biodiversity as well as the local ecosystem. Forest fragmentation in unprotected land rapidly changes the forest shape and size in an entire landscape. The present study addresses the issues related to the changing pattern of Burdwan Forest Division (BFD) landscape during the past 29 years (1990-2019) using satellite images. The entire forest area was categorized into 38 forest patches. Supervised image classification using ArcGIS software was used to detect the temporal changes of the forest cover in BFD. Different landscape indices have also been calculated to consider fragmentation with the help of FragStat 4.2 software. The result of the forest cover changes shows that though there is a less variation of forest changes from 1990 (80.66% forest cover) to 2019 (80%) forest cover, patch level variation is striking. Result from different landscape indices shows that, the patches with larger size (ID-1, 6, 15, 17) are more fragmented and complex than the smaller (ID- 5, 9, 18). This result is also supported and validated by regression method. This study may be helpful for the forest division and planners for policy makers to mitigate the factors affecting the fragmentation of this protected forest and to adopt suitable strategies for maintain ecological balance.
... People's use of a resource is largely determined by perceived benefits, weighed against costs incurred through access or institutional barriers (Schweik, 2000), but is also influenced by local and historical factors at different scales such as recognition of traditional forest tenure and customary management and use practices, local implementation of agreements for protected-area use, local road access, commodity prices and cultural preferences. Understanding the local contexts in which the drivers at different scales interact -including global and national political and economic processes, institutional frameworks governing access to resources, the values of stakeholders and the ecological characteristics of the resources (Figure 30) -can help to inform management decisions (Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006). As the example in Box 34 illustrates, simple models of forest change drivers do not reflect complex local social and ecological realities. ...
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Assessing threats to genetic resources to food-tree species in Burkina Faso. Case study for FAO’s SOFO 2020. http://www.fao.org/3/ca8642en/CA8642EN.pdf Pp 52-53
... Consideration of these rules naturally leads to an interest in institutions and, therefore, in the economics and politics that lead to the establishment of institutions. A representative example of the integration of economics and politics in this manner may be the management of a common resource pool (e.g., water or a fishery or forest) ( Wade, 1987 ;Ostrom, 1990 ;Agrawal and Goyal, 2001 ;Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006 ). ...
Article
The evolution of group cooperation is still an evolutionary puzzle and has been studied from the perspective of not only evolutionary ecology but also social sciences. Some socio-ecological problems are caused by collapse of group cooperation. By applying theoretical studies about the evolution of cooperation, we can elucidate what causes the problems and find solutions. One of the appropriate examples is maintaining rice paddy field landscapes, which are a grand spectacle in Asia, and some are UNESCO world heritage sites. These magnificent landscapes and the associated biodiversity are at risk of abandonment for social and financial reasons. Rice paddy fields can be preserved not only by regular cultivation, which requires farmers to invest effort in cultivation, but also by the maintenance of common facilities such as irrigation canals. To investigate how this landscape might be preserved, we developed an agent-based model in which each farmer makes two types of efforts: an effort for land cultivation and an effort for collective action such as common facility maintenance. Additionally, we consider the side effects of rice production such as field deterioration from abandonment and water use competition. These factors determine the utility of each player who imitates the level of efforts necessary to invest in land cultivation and common facility maintenance of one with higher utility. This decision-making of each player can be described by the evolutionary game theory. We find that maintenance effort promotes cultivation effort, but not vice versa, even though we usually consider that each farmer's cultivation effort makes rice field landscape sustainable. We also find that if players and their near neighbors are responsible for maintaining their common facilities together, they continue to maintain them and cultivate, but if all players are responsible for maintaining all facilities in the whole farmland, players are likely to quit facility maintenance and stop cultivation. Competition for water use among all players, however, promotes cultivation more than competition among neighbors only. Therefore, rice paddy field landscapes can be sustainable if neighbors, but not the whole players, are responsible for maintaining their common facilities and cooperate together, and if the water usage of all players, but not neighbors, influences the productivity of each rice field.
... We cannot know the extent to which our specific experimental results generalize to participant populations and research settings beyond those we have studied. It is encouraging, however, that field research has demonstrated that many robust results from laboratory studies of social dilemmas (using similar experimental tasks with student samples) can be replicated in diverse populations and settings far removed from the college campus (e.g., Cardenas, 2000;Ostrom, 1990;Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006). Despite this caveat concerning external validity, the laboratory method allowed for greater methodological rigor (random assignment, controls) and its strengths in internal validity distinguish this study from previous studies of CMC using social dilemma tasks. ...
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Abstract: There is abundant evidence documenting the beneficial effect of face-to-face (FTF) group discussion on cooperation in social dilemmas. The primary research question was whether text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC), common today in blogs and wikis, would have the same facilitative effect on cooperation in a commons dilemma. We predicted that FTF groups would show higher levels of cooperation and outperform CMC groups in this mixed-motive task. Groups of 7-9 undergraduates were randomly assigned to FTF or CMC groups that permitted a group discussion between sessions of the commons dilemma simulation. The results demonstrated that FTF groups managed the common-pool resource more effectively than CMC groups. FTF groups reported stronger group identity and reached consensus on group decision strategies more often than CMC groups. FTF groups also attributed more cooperative intent to group members than CMC groups. Empirical and theoretical contributions of these findings are discussed. Status: Unpublished working paper (2020).
... Decreasing the power and role of traditional community institutions, due to top-down public policies, resulted in lower success rates in community-based programmes focused on rangeland management in Dirre, Ethiopia (Abdu and Robinson 2017). Decentralised governance was found to lead to improved management in forested landscapes (Dressler et al. 2010;Ostrom and Nagendra 2006). However, there are also cases when local elites were placed in control and this decentralised natural resource management negatively impacted the livelihoods of the poorer and marginalised community members due to reduced access to natural resources (Andersson and Ostrom 2008;Cullman 2015;Dressler et al. 2010). ...
... While scholars have yet to quantify changes in Nepal's tree cover, they have written extensively about the country's community forest program (e.g., Agrawal and Gibson 1999;Agrawal and Ostrom 2001;Chakraborty 2001;Gautam et al. 2004;Joshi et al. 2013;Poudel et al. 2013;MoFSC 2013;Birch et al. 2014). Numerous case studies have also used remote sensing and aerial imagery to map changes in forest cover at regional (i.e., sub-national) and village scales (e.g., Millette et al. 1995;Jackson et al. 1998;Gautam et al. 2002Gautam et al. , 2003Gautam et al. , 2004Nagendra et al. 2004Nagendra et al. , 2005Nagendra et al. , 2008Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Panta et al. 2008;Niraula et al. 2013). However, these studies only offer a mosaic of disjointed assessments of forest dynamics based on disparate methods and data. ...
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Since the 1980s, Nepal, one of the poorest countries in the world, has gained worldwide recognition for its successful community forestry program. Researchers, however, have not previously documented the spatially explicit impacts of this forest transition because of the topographic effects, e.g., shading, clouds, snow, and ice, hindered remote-sensing imagery analysis. This multidisciplinary research project used United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflected-correct imagery from 1988 to 2016 that were available in Google Earth Engine to map forest cover change across the country. We then used a Random Forest (machine learning method) and multilevel regression analyses to assess associations between changes in forest cover and physiographic and socioeconomic variables. We found that between 1992 and 2016, forest cover in Nepal almost doubled. Among other variables, being a member of a community-forestry user group, and receiving remittance income from children who had migrated elsewhere to work had a positive impact on forest cover.
... Investors in illegal land markets expect rent or profits on the capital they used for forest clearing, in which formal land tenure is never intended (Richani 2012). Formal tenure is less important than the rules and mechanisms used to manage and obtain economic benefits from land (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006). Since FARC withdrawal, the illegal land markets have boosted, similarly as peace processes with paramilitaries (Nussio and Howe 2012) in which actors recover their initial forest clearing investment by raising cattle or growing coca within a few years. ...
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In November 2016, after 52 years of armed conflict, the Colombian government and the primary rebel group, the FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia) reached a peace agreement. The agreement incorporated three changes to institutions governing forest land occupation and use: (a) the demobilization of FARC from forested places, (2) the future distribution of legal land titles and new road construction into forests, and (3) the eradication of illicit crops. However, we document unprecedented rates of forest disturbance in the months following the peace agreement in biodiversity hotspots across the country. Are the declaration of peace and the increased rates of forest disturbance related? Here, we present the first systematic assessment of the impact of the Colombian peace agreement on forest disturbance. Focusing on the Andes-Amazon Transition Belt (AATB), we used automated satellite image disturbance detection methods and ethnographic data to quantify and interpret forest cover change from 2010 to 2018 that span wartime, peace negotiation, and post-peace agreement stages. Our findings indicate that during the post-peace agreement period (2017–2018), the area of forest disturbance increased by 50% (about 238 000 ha) across the AATB in comparison with the four-year peace negotiation stage (2013–2016); these changes reflect the end of FARC-led gunpoint conservation in the region. Forest disturbance also spread deeper into the Amazon watershed and increased in area by 187% within the AATB's protected areas. We find that following the peace agreement and the withdrawal of FARC, key actors (viz. drug cartels, large landowners, campesinos and dissidents) with expectations of favorable land tenure policies swept into the region; this led to increases in large-scale cattle ranching, coca cultivation dispersal, and speculative illegal land markets each of which contributed to the widespread forest disturbance that we mapped. The rapid increase in forest disturbance occurred despite the interest of the international community in promoting forest conservation initiatives in the AATB and Colombia's existing conservation and land titling frameworks for public lands. Our findings underscore the need for conservation strategies sensitive to rapid institutional and demographic changes in the course of the peace agreement to prevent forests from becoming an unexpected casualty of premature and unstable peace.
... (2) Test how use of the diagnostic correlates with collaborative monitoring performance, and how it correlates with FLR performance. Local monitoring is generally thought to contribute to management success (Agrawal & Chhatre 2006;Ostrom & Nagendra 2006). However, some argue that other aspects of governance play a more significant role (Andersson et al. 2014). ...
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Monitoring is crucial to meet the goals of the major global forest landscape restoration (FLR) initiatives that are underway. If members of the global FLR community are going to learn from one another, a multi‐scalar, multi‐site monitoring approach is needed to generate information that can provide the basis for social learning and adaptive management, both of which are essential processes for FLR. This requires reframing and expanding the perspective of monitoring so that compliance monitoring is just one component of a multidimensional approach where collaborative monitoring and compliance‐oriented monitoring are complementary. However, FLR planners and implementers often lack experience in applying collaborative approaches in multi‐stakeholder settings, and there are few tools that show how to implement FLR or to engage in collaborative monitoring in FLR. Through a literature review, we identified the factors that contribute to successful collaborative monitoring in FLR and synthesized them into a diagnostic that was vetted by 20 global experts. The result is a checklist of 42 core success factors to be assessed at local, subnational and national levels at different stages in the planning and implementation of FLR. The tool has practical application by providing guidance on best practices: specifically, how to start collaborative monitoring, and more generally, how to plan, prepare for and evaluate FLR activities. This diagnostic complements other diagnostics, such as those used to identify FLR sites, as it can identify pre‐existing strengths and weaknesses in new initiatives, or pinpoint problems with ongoing implementation. It can identify pre‐existing strengths and weaknesses in new initiatives, or pinpoint problems with ongoing implementation. The diagnostic explicitly addresses issues of scale, including multiple sites, governance levels and changes over time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Persha et al.'s (2011) study of 84 sites found that conservation and livelihood synergies are more likely where there is local participation in governance. Ostrom and Nagendra (2006) ...
... In case of Community Forestry-to check, whether users are still on course of achieving their aims and if necessary to change the course in monitoring. Recent analyses of a large database on forest management have found out that existence of monitoring of resource use and sanctioning of rule violations has a strong correlation with improved forest condition (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Coleman, 2009), lending support to the proposition that monitoring and sanctioning, or as Gibson et al. refer to it, rule enforcement, plays a crucial role in the successful governance of Common Pool Resource (CPRs) such as forests. ...
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Forests have been a significant resource for economic development and growth. However, forests and forest resources are currently declining substantially, thus threatening the current and future local communities' ability to meet their basic needs from the forest. Effective monitoring is important to long term forest conservation programs. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which participatory forest monitoring influences forest conservation programs. Descriptive survey and correlational research designs were employed. Mixed methods approach was used to collect and analyze data. A sample size of 364 respondents was drawn from a target population of 4100 people engaged in forest conservation program using the Yamane (1967) Formula. A self-administered questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect data. Findings from the study reveal that, r=-0.021, which shows that there was a weak negative significant correlation between Participatory forest monitoring and Mau Forest Conservation program. Hence, frequent monitoring of forest conservation activities by CFA members led to improved forest condition. With a p-value=0.721, the null hypothesis failed to be rejected and concluded that there is no significant relationship between participatory Forest Monitoring and Mau Forest conservation program. This study suggests that effective monitoring is vital for long term forest management and that communities need to be trained so that they can competently monitor and to select indicators to evaluate changes in forest conditions. It is recommended that strict enforcement of laws guiding forest conservation builds a sense of trust among the CFA members hence promoting Participatory Forest Management initiatives.
... land, woody plants or forest), maintain it, exclude others, and transfer these rights to others (Schlager and Ostrom 1992). In this context, local people's ability to effectively take on a stewardship role for the woody plants they depend on can be undermined by unclear or absent property rights (Ostrom and Nagendra 2006;Ostrom 2009;RRI 2017). Consequently, unclear property rights may negatively affect forest management. ...
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Many people in less developed countries depend on woody plants, but sustainable management of woody plants often remains a challenge. We assessed people’s use, perceived property rights and management of woody plants in farmland and forests in a landscape of southwestern Ethiopia. We interviewed 180 households and surveyed woody plants in 192 plots. We found that 95 species were used for eleven major purposes. The majority of plants (52) were used for house construction followed by farming tools (42), fuelwood (38) and honey production (37). These benefits were sourced from farmland, forest with coffee management and forest without coffee management. Our study found that local people perceived land tenure security and tree use rights to be limited, especially for forests. We found abundant regeneration of the most widely used tree species in all land use types. However, some of these species, including important pole and timber species, appeared to be overharvested in forests. To improve biodiversity outcomes and sustainable use, it would be beneficial to recognize local people’s diverse needs for woody plants and grant them appropriate property rights. Conservation policies should encompass the entire landscape and empower local farmers to proactively manage tree populations while providing safeguards against overuse.
... Some studies focus on specific types of cooperation between the different spheres in society; for example, exploring the role and functioning of public-private cooperation in what are referred to as partnerships (Davies, 2002;Teisman and Klijn, 2002;Backstrand, 2006;Bitzer, 2011). Other avenues of investigation include: the extent to which citizen participation, deliberative capacity and other aspects of democracy are included in governance processes (Blair, 2000;Fung and Wright, 2001;Swyngedouw, 2005;Buizer and Van Herzele, 2012); the role of power in governance (Swyngedouw, 2000;Rodriguez et al., 2007;Stirling, 2008;Griffin, 2012); the role of scientific knowledge or sciencepolicy interfaces in governance (Haas, 2004;Van den Hove, 2007;Hegger et al., 2012); how governance may be implemented by employing different policy instruments (Bressers and Kuks, 2003;Jordan et al., 2005;Weber et al, 2013); and how institutional settings could be better equipped to deal with complex societal challenges (Healey, 1998;Healey, 1999;Bressers and Kuks, 2003;Dietz et al., 2003;Ostrom and Nagendra, 2006;Gupta et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation began with a desire to better understand the conceptual and empirical contexts for governance for sustainable development. How does current research define and explain governance for sustainable development? In line with established research, the present study takes up sustainable development as conceptualised and implemented using modes of governance which differ in character and in orientation towards steering and the goal of sustainable development. Like sustainable development, the concept of governance is under debate. Here, the 1987 WCED Brundtland Report definition is taken as a starting point: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1987, p. 1 of Chapter 2). Governance is understood as the act or manner of steering societal developments by public and/or private actors towards collective goals. A mode of governance for sustainable development is defined here as a type of steering arrangement with a certain institutional configuration (including public and/or private actors and different types of institutional relations) that is intended to influence societal changes towards sustainable development. The research focuses on three such modes of governance: adaptive management, transition management and payments for environmental services (PES). These have been selected due to their prominence in the discourse on governance for sustainable development. Adaptive management refers to efforts to enable a social-ecological system to maintain itself over long periods through learning-by-doing and cooperation, and efforts to enhance the adaptive capacity of a system to respond to changing circumstances. Transition management is based on innovation, experimentation and learning, with an orientation towards a long-term vision; it aims to fundamentally alter the structure of a socio-technological system in order to prevent environmental crisis. PES describes efforts to make environmental conservation economically viable by accounting for and preventing negative environmental externalities and by contributing to sustainable livelihoods. Research for this dissertation has found no academic studies that have comparatively examined the selected modes of governance for sustainable development based on empirical analysis. Such analysis can help to understand how the selected modes work in practice and whether they assist in a real-world context in moving towards sustainable development. This study achieves this by examining practical experience with 216 interventions in accordance with the three selected modes of governance as applied in the Dutch fen landscape. Research aim The present study aims to gain greater insight into the key challenges arising in steering towards sustainable development. It achieves this aim by:  Analysing three different modes of governance – adaptive management, transition management and PES – according to their steering mechanisms and orientation towards sustainable development;  Evaluating the three modes according to a set of criteria for governance for sustainable development;  Analysing practical experiences with the selected modes in the Dutch fen landscape.
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Chapter
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