ArticlePDF Available

A Study on Nutritional Composition and Value Addition of Crab Apple (Malus baccata)

Authors:

Abstract

Apple cultivation is main occupation of farmers in dry and high hills of Himachal Pradesh but this species of crab apple (Malus baccata) is grown wildly in the state but due to their smaller size, improper shape, poor colour, the fruit could not fetch good market value and gone as waste. By considering these parameters of the fruit, the study was conducted to evaluate nutritive composition and to develop food products i.e. fruit bar/ gelatinized layers and apple jam from highly nutritious underutilized fruit. The fruit contain high amounts of vitamin C content (17.13 mg/100g) and pectin content (5.57 % as calcium pectate). The nutritive composition in crab apple based fruit bar/ gelatinized layers and jam were studied during storage interval of 9 months. The results for fruit bar/ gelatinized layers shows that the TSS (0 B), pH, ascorbic acid(mg/100g), total and non-reducing sugars (%) decreased from 75 0 B – 74.37 0 B, 3.06-2.96, 5.27-5.05, 64.67-62.49 and 8.26 – 5.32, respectively while acidity and reducing sugars(%) increased from 1.20-1.37 and 55.98-58.60 with the increase of storage intervals. Similar trend was observed for crab apple jam during storage interval. The prepared products viz., fruit bar/gelatinized layers and apple jam was subjected for sensory evaluation to a panel of members at different storage intervals i.e. (fresh, 3, 6 and 9 months of storage period) and the products were found as acceptable in terms of colour, taste, consistency/texture even up to storage interval of 9 months at ambient conditions.
American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2017, Vol. 5, No. 1, 19-22
Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/5/1/4
©Science and Education Publishing
DOI:10.12691/ajfst-5-1-4
A Study on Nutritional Composition and Value Addition
of Crab Apple (Malus baccata)
Anita Kumari1,*, Y. S Dhaliwal2
1Department of Nutrition Biology, School of Interdisciplinary and Life Sciences, Central University of Haryana,
Mahendergarh, Haryana -123039, India
2Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, College of Home Science, CSKHPKV, Palampur- 176 062, India
*Corresponding author: e-anikum_fsn@yahoo.com
Abstract Apple cultivation is main occupation of farmers in dry and high hills of Himachal Pradesh but this
species of crab apple (Malus baccata) is grown wildly in the state but due to their smaller size, improper shape, poor
colour, the fruit could not fetch good market value and gone as waste. By considering these parameters of the fruit,
the study was conducted to evaluate nutritive composition and to develop food products i.e. fruit bar/ gelatinized
layers and apple jam from highly nutritious underutilized fruit. The fruit contain high amounts of vitamin C content
(17.13 mg/100g) and pectin content (5.57 % as calcium pectate). The nutritive composition in crab apple based fruit
bar/ gelatinized layers and jam were studied during storage interval of 9 months. The results for fruit bar/ gelatinized
layers shows that the TSS (0B), pH, ascorbic acid(mg/100g), total and non-reducing sugars (%) decreased from 750B
74.370B, 3.06-2.96, 5.27-5.05, 64.67-62.49 and 8.26 5.32, respectively while acidity and reducing sugars(%)
increased from 1.20 -1.37 and 55.98 -58.60 with the increase of storage intervals. Similar trend was observed for
crab apple jam during storage interval. The prepared products viz., fruit bar/gelatinized layers and apple jam was
subjected for sensory evaluation to a panel of members at different storage intervals i.e. (fresh, 3, 6 and 9 months of
storage period) and the products were found as acceptable in terms of colour, taste, consistency/texture even up to
storage interval of 9 months at ambient conditions.
Keywords: crab apple, leather, jam, nutritional parameters, storage stability, organoleptic evaluation
Cite This Article: Anita Kumari, and Y. S Dhaliwal, A Study on Nutritional Composition and Value
Addition of Crab Apple (Malus baccata).” American Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1
(2017): 19-22. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-1-4.
1. Introduction
Himachal Pradesh is a Horticulture state of India and
apple cultivation is more common in dry and temperate
regions of Himachal Pradesh. Malusis is a genus of family
Rosaceae which contains about 30-35 species (Phipps,
1990). In this study, Malus baccata specie is used because
this fruit could not fetch good market price due to its
smaller size, inappropriate shape, unattractive fruit colour.
The main purpose of the study is to analyze the nutritional
composition of the fruit and to develop food products so
that the farmers can utilize this fruit in the forms of
products and prepared products can be commercialized.
Fruits have immense significance in human life as they
provide vitamins and minerals. Different fruits are
consumed by humans and every cultivar has different
nutritive value. Micronutrient deficiencies are of great
public health and socio-economic importance worldwide.
In Himachal Pradesh no work has been carried out on this
species.
The Malus baccata commonly known as crab apple
mostly found in Kinnaur, Kullu and Lahaul & Spiti
districts of Himachal Pradesh (India). The fruit is known
by the name of sheed palek, palanu and palek locally. The
fruit is yellowish green when mature and belongs to
family Rosaceae. The fruit ripens in the month of
September. Fruits are usually of small size, sub-acidic to
sweet in taste with some astringent taste. It is commonly
used as a rootstock for apple. It is cheaper and highly
nutritious underutilized fruit of temperate region and
possesses great therapeutic and medicinal value. The fruit
is eaten to obviate constipation, diarrhea and dysentery in
infants [6] the consumption of apples also reduces risk of
some cancers, cardiovascular diseases, asthma and
diabetes [4]. Nutritional and physical properties of crab
apple (Malus silvestris) were studied by Gezer et al., 2012.
The biochemical studies revealed that fruit contain
significant amount of organic and amino acids, fatty acids,
phenollic compounds, sugars and soluble solids [20].
Shrestha and Bhatia [18] and Sahni et al. (1994)
determined pH values and TSS for American, Maharaji,
Ambri and Golden delicious varieties of apple fruit. Singh
et al. [17] also studied nutritional composition of wild
apple (Malus baccata). Asghar et al [3] determine the
chemical composition of apple trees in Balochitsan.
Mukhtar [12] study the nutritional aspects of three
varieties of apple. By keeping in view the significance of
this underutilized fruit attempts have been made to
evaluate the nutritive composition and to develop food
products for the benefit of the society.
20 American Journal of Food Science and Technology
2. Materials and Methods
The crab apple was procured from Kinnaur district of
Himachal Pradesh. The fruits were sorted, graded and
washed under running tap water to remove adhering dirt
etc. The fruits were analyzed for their physico-chemical
analysis. The specific parameters viz fruit colour, flesh
colour and shape were assessed by visual appearance.
Physical methods viz., length and breadth of the fruit were
assessed by using vernier caliper. The TSS and pH content
was measured by hand refractometer and pH meter,
respectively. The acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid and pectin
were assessed by the method of Srivastava and Kumar
[19]. The moisture, protein, fat, ash and fibre and sugars
were estimated as per AOAC [1]. The carbohydrates were
determined as
( )
Total carbohydrates %
moisture % protein %
100 .
fat % fibre % ash %
+

= 
++ +

2.1. Fruit Bar/Gelatinized Layers
Formulation
The procured fruits were washed, peeled and seeds
removed manually. The fruits were cut into small pieces
and steamed for 4 minutes. The boiled material was
cooled to room temperature and grounded into a domestic
grinder to obtain homogeneous pulp. The pulp was sieved
with the help of muslin cloth. 1.0g potassium bisulphate
was added to 1 litre of pulp and stored in pre-sterilized
glass bottles for further use. The pulp (1000 ml) and sugar
(1 Kg) were mixed together and the contents were cooked
to 750Brix. The cooked material was poured in to previous
greased tray and dried. Spread second layer and dried
again. Repeat the process to a thickness of 1.0- 1.25 cm.
Dry at 40°C for 4-5 hours. The prepared fruit
bar/gelatinized layers was stored for 3, 6 and 9 months of
storage interval and assessed for their nutritional analysis
as per the approved methods of Ranganna [14] and also
analyzed for sensory parameters viz., colour, taste, flensory
parameters viz., colour, flavour, texture/consistency and
overall acceptability to a panel of 10 judges by using 9
point Hedonic scale at different storage intervals.
2.2. Crab Apple Jam
The jam was prepared as per FPO specifications and
sealed in air tight containers. The prepared jam was stored
for 3, 6 and 9 months of storage interval and assessed for
their nutritional analysis as per the approved methods of
Ranganna [14] and also analyzed for sensory analysis for
colour, taste, flavour, texture/consistency and overall
acceptability to a panel of 10 judges by using 9 point
Hedonic scale at different storage intervals.
3. Results and Discussion
Table 1 exhibits specific parameters of crab apple fruit.
The fruit and flesh colour was observed as yellowish
green and pale yellow with round shape and culled in
appearance. The mean values for length, breadth and
weight were recorded as 4.75 (cm), 5.66 (cm) and 85.20
(g), respectively. The mean values for TSS (0B), pH,
acidity, reducing, total and non reducing sugars were
reported as 11.10, 2.64, 4.38, 3.12, 7.50 and 4.16
respectively. The vitamin C and pectin contents were
noted as 17.13 mg/100g and 5.57 per cent, respectively.
The data on proximate composition reveal that moisture,
fat, fibre, ash, protein and total carbohydrate contents
were reported as 78.53, 0.36, 1.26, 0.41, 0.43 and 19.01
per cent, respectively. The results of the present
investigation are in aggrement with Gopalan et al [8].
Table 1. Specific parameters of crab apple
Parameters
Observations/ Mean values
Specific parameters
Fruit colour
Yellowish green
Flesh colour Pale yellow
Shape
Round
Physical parameters
Length (cm)
4.75
Breadth (cm) 5.66
Weight (g)
85.20
Nutritional parameters
TSS (
0
B ) 11.10
pH
2.64
Acidity (% Malic acid) 4.38
Ascorbic acid (mg/100g)
17.13
Reducing sugars (%) 3.12
Total sugars (%)
7.50
Non- reducing sugars (%) 4.16
Pectin (% as calcium pectate)
5.57
Proximate composition
Moisture (%)
78.53
Fat (%)
0.36
Fibre (%) 1.26
Ash (%)
0.41
Protein (%) 0.43
Total carbohydrates (%)
19.01
4. Quality Evaluation of Products
4.1. Fruit Bar/Gelatinized Layers
Fruit bar/ gelatinized layers were prepared by taking
consideration of high amount of pectin content present in
the fruit. The recipe was standardized in the laboratory
and prepared product was evaluated for its nutritional
profile at fresh, 3, 6 and 9 months of storage intervals.
Table 2 shows a decreased trend in TSS during storage
and it may be attributed due to conversion of sugars into
acid. Similar findings have been reported by Aruna et al.
[2] who observed a decrease in TSS values from 82.93 to
81.50oB in papaya bar during storage of 9 months. So, the
finding gives credence to the present results. The pH
values during storage decreased from 3.06 to 2.96 and
acidity increased from 1.20 to 1.37 per cent. Organic acid
formed by ascorbic acid degradation might have increased
the acidity on storage [2,5]. Ascorbic acid content
decreased with the enhancement of storage period. Further
scrutiny of the data revealed that the reducing sugar
content increased with the increase of storage interval.
American Journal of Food Science and Technology 21
The increase in reducing sugar content during storage
might be due to inversion of non-reducing sugars into
reducing sugars. Contrary to the total sugars, a decreased
trend was observed from the beginning of storage interval
to 9 months of storage. Results are in agreement with
Aruna et al. [2]. A significant decrease in non- reducing
sugars was observed from the initial day of analysis to 9
months of storage period. The decrease in non -reducing
sugars in fruit bar/gelatinized layers may be due to higher
rate of conversion of non-reducing sugars into reducing
sugars. The results are in agreement with those reported
by Aruna et al. [2]. The sensory scores for fruit
bar/gelatinized layers are presented in Table 2 which
exhibits that with storage, the colour scores decreased
during 9 months of storage. The reduction of colour scores
during storage might be due to effect of storage on colour
pigments. Similar findings have been reported by Sharma
[15] in dheu and karonda based bar. The taste, flavour and
texture scores were also decreased with the enhancement
of storage interval. On a whole, the overall acceptability
of the product decreased after storage period of 9 months.
But the scores ranged within the acceptable limits even up
to storage interval of 9 months. Similar findings have been
coded by Sharma [15] for dheu and karonda bar.
4.2. Jam
Table 3 show that the initial TSS for crab apple jam
was noted as 68.03oB which increased with the increase of
storage period. The increase in TSS during storage might
be due to solubilization of solids present in the juice.
Same trend was noted by Das [7] and Katoch [10] in
seabuckthorn jam during storage. The mean pH value for
jam was 3.06 which decreased to 3.00 during 9 months of
storage. The decrease in pH is due to chemical reaction
taking place during storage. The results of the present
investigation are in confirmation with the findings of Roy
et al. [16] and Krishnaveni et al. [11] who observed
a decrease in pH for jack fruit and mango RTS beverage
during 180 and 30 days of storage, respectively. An
increase in acidity was observed during storage and it
might be due to formation of organic acid by degradation
of ascorbic acid. The decrease of ascorbic acid is
due to the degradation of ascorbic acid to carbolic
acid. Similar findings have been reported by Roy et al.
[16], Krishnaveni et al. [11] and Das [7]. The data
on reducing sugar content reveal an increase in trend
was observed in jam during storage and it might be
due to the conversion of sucrose into glucose and
fructose with the increase in storage period. Storage had
significant effect on total sugar and non- reducing sugar
content. The values decreased as the storage period
increased. Similar observations have been reported by
Krishnaveni et al. [11] and Sharma [15]. The sensory
scores for jam show that the colour scores decreased
during 9 months of storage. The reduction of colour scores
during storage might be due to effect of storage on colour
pigments. Similar findings have been reported by Shivani
(2011) in nectarine jam. The taste, flavour and texture
scores were also decreased with the enhancement of
storage interval. On a whole, the overall acceptability of
the product decreased after storage period of 9 months.
But the scores ranged within the acceptable limits even up
to storage interval of 9 months.
Table 2. Effect of storage on nutritional and sensory parameters of crab apple leather
Parameters
Storage (months)
Fresh
6
Mean
CD (P≤0.05)
TSS (0B)
75.00
74.67
74.77
0.07
pH
3.06
3.00
3.02
0.02
Acidity (% citric acid)
1.20
1.34
1,29
0.01
Ascorbic acid (mg/100g)
5.27
4.99
5.05
0.09
Reducing sugars (%)
55.98
57.71
57.72
1.77
Total sugars (%)
64.67
59.17
62.49
3.46
Non- Reducing sugars (%)
8.26
4.74
5.32
2.03
Sensory Parameters (9 point Hedonic Scale)
Colour
8.70
8.30
8.52
0.31
Taste
8.70
8.50
8.37
0.38
Flavour
8.60
8.20
8.20
0.42
Texture
8.70
8.40
8.37
0.33
Overall acceptability
8.67
8.35
8.37
0.20
Table 3. Effect of storage on nutritional and sensory parameters of crab apple jam
Parameters
Storage (months)
Fresh
6
Mean
CD (P≤0.05)
TSS (0B)
68.03
68.17
68.15
0.12
pH
3.06
3.00
3.00
0.09
Acidity (% citric acid)
1.20
1.36
1.32
0.02
Ascorbic acid (mg/100g)
5.41
4.86
4.91
0.25
Reducing sugars (%)
15.95
16.23
16.19
0.34
Total sugars (%)
60.34
58.61
58.81
4.58
Non- Reducing sugars (%)
42.32
40.26
40.77
3.80
Sensory Parameters (9 point Hedonic Scale)
Colour
8.30
7.90
8.00
0.62
Taste
8.50
8.10
8.12
0.70
Flavour
8.20
8.10
7.92
0.72
Texture
8.50
8.10
8.17
0.38
Overall acceptability
8.37
8.05
8.05
0.82
22 American Journal of Food Science and Technology
References
[1] AOAC. (1990). Approved methods of association of official
analytical chemists, Washington, D.C, U.S.A, 11th Edition.
[2] Aruna A, Vimla V, Dhanalakshmi K and Reddy V. (1999).
Physico- chemical changes during storage of papaya fruit ( Carica
papaya L.) bar (Thandra), Journal of Food Science and
Technology, 36 (5), 428-433.
[3] Asghar, R.., N. Mohd. and K, Siraj. (2004). Stuctural and
biochemical study of apple bark spiltting discorder in balochistan
pak, J Bio Science, 7(6), 916-920.
[4] Boyer, J. and R.H. Liu. (2004). Apple photochemical and their
health benefits, Nutrition Journal, 3(5), 1-15.
[5] Chauhan S. K, Lal B.B and Joshi V.K. (1997). Preparation and
evaluation of protein enriched mango fruit bar. Indian Food
Packer, 24 (5), 5-9.
[6] Considine, M. (1982). Food and food production encyclopedia,
Van-Nostrand, 24(3).
[7] Das, J.N. (2009). Studies on storage stability of jamun beverages,
Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66 (4), 508-510.
[8] Gopalan, C., Rama Sastri, B.V. and Balasubramanan. (2004).
Nutritive value of Indian food, National Institute of Nutrition,
Indian Council of Medical Research.
[9] İbrahim, Gezeri., Mehmet, Musa Ozcan., Haydar, Hacıseferogulları.
and Sedat, Calısır. (2012). Some nutritional and physical properties
of crab apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) fruit, International Journal of
Farming and Allied Sciences, (1- 4), 101-107.
[10] Katoch, S., Kalia, M and Singh, V. (2006). Product development
of seabuckthorn in supplementation with guava and apple fruits
vis- a- vis their feasibility, Journal of Food Science and
Technology, 43 (5), 532-534.
[11] Krishnaveni, A., Manimegalai, G. and Saravana, Kumar R. (2001).
Storage stability of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) RTS
beverage, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38 (6),
601-602.
[12] Mukhtar, A.e.a. (2010). Some nutritional and microbiological
aspects of apples of common varieties avalaible for household
consumption, The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 253-257.
[13] Phipps, J.B.e.a. (1990). A checklist of the subfamily maloideae
(rosaceae), Can. J. Bot, 68(10), 2209.
[14] Ranganna, S. (2005). Handbook of analysis and quality control for
fruits and vegetables products, 3rdedition, Tata Mcgraw – Hills.
[15] Sharma R. (2011). Nutritional quality evaluation and value
addition of Dheu (Artocarpus lakoocha) and Karonda (Carissa
carandas) fruits, M.Sc. Thesis, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi
Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur.
[16] Roy, A.K., Joshi, S and Nath, N. (1997). Effect of homogenization
on sensory quality and rheological characteristics of pulp and
beverages from ripe ‘Dushehari’ mangoes, Journal of Food
Science and Technology, 34 (3), 212-217.
[17] Singh, S.P., Yadav, D.S., Jasumali, Devi R.K. and Raman, S.K.
(1996). Nutritious pickle and preserve from wild aonla and heitup
(Wild apple), Indian Horticulture, 22 (3), 28-30.
[18] Srestha, M. K. and Bhatia, B. S. (1982). Apple juice- Physico-
chemical characteristics and storage study, Indian Food Packer, 13
(3), 53-60.
[19] Srivastava, R.P. and Kumar, S. (2003). Fruit and vegetable
preservation Principles and practices, International book
distributing company, Lucknow. , U.P. (India).
[20] Wu J, Gao H., Zhao L., Liao X., Chen F., Wang Z., Hu X. (2007).
Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars,
Food Chemistry, 103, 88-93.
... Malus baccata (L.) Borkh commonly known as Crab apple, berry apple, wild apple, Siberian crab apple, Manchurian crab apple and Chinese crab apple. The fruit is known by the name of sheed palek, palanu and palek locally in India (Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). ...
... The fruit is known by the name of sheed palek, palanu and palek locally in India (Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). Malus baccata was widely grown as a popular ornamental tree in the gardens and parks of Europe, North America and South America (Yoshizawa et al. 2004;Aladedunye and Matthäus 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). ...
... Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). Malus baccata was widely grown as a popular ornamental tree in the gardens and parks of Europe, North America and South America (Yoshizawa et al. 2004;Aladedunye and Matthäus 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). The fruit is yellowish green when mature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Crab apple (Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.) was mainly distributed in Europe as an ornamental plant, but the nutritional properties of its edible fruits were not fully revealed. The aim of the current study was to characterize the phytochemical composition of ripen carb apple fruits and to evaluate their nutritional and antioxidant potentials. The fruits were assayed for moisture and ash content, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, titratable acidity (TA), pH, total phenolic compounds and natural pigments. Among the analyzed carbohydrates cellulose was found in the highest content (6% dw), followed by sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and 1.8 % dw uronic acids. The total chlorophylls and carotenoids contents in their fruits were 6.51 and 4.80 μg/g fw, respectively. Total monomeric anthocyanins were not detected. The highest content of total phenolic compounds (2.67 mg GAE/g fw) was found in 95 % ethanol extract from fruits, while the total flavonoids were relatively low – 0.1 mg QE/g fw. DPPH assay (17.27 mM TE/g fw) and FRAP assay (14.34 mM TE/g fw) demonstrated in vitro antioxidant activities of crabapple. Malus baccata fruits were evaluated as a rich source of dietary fibers and phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant potential that could be used in human nutrition.
... Crabapples (also known as wild apples), belonging to the genus Malus (Rosaceae), are small sized edible fruits with a diameter of 3-5 cm and usually ripen in September (Dadwal, Agrawal, Sonkhla, Joshi, & Gupta, 2018). The matured fruits are yellowish red and have a sour and sweet taste followed with some astringency (Kumari & Dhaliwal, 2017). It is reported that the natural populations of crabapples occur in Asian countries, including Russia, Mongolia, China and India (Hallmann, Orpel, & Rembiałkowska, 2011). ...
... Several research teams have confirmed the protective effects of crabapple fruits against cardiovascular diseases, asthma and diabetes in animal models (Boyer & Rui, 2004). Also, the risk of constipation, diarrhea and dysentery in infants may be reduced by the consumption of the fruits (Kumari & Dhaliwal, 2017). However, few researchers attempt to review the recent advances in characterization of bioactive phytochemicals in crabapples and evaluation of their beneficial effects on human health. ...
... In the study of Kumari and Dhaliwal (2017), crabapple fruits (Malus baccata) were utilized to produce the fruit bar/gelatinized layers and jam. Also, the effects of storage time on the nutritional value and sensory parameters of these two products were examined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Crabapples belong to the genus Malus (Rosaceae), which are small sized edible fruits with unique aroma and taste. According to previous studies, crabapples are rich in bioactive compounds and possess a series of health-promoting properties. Various crabapple-based food products and additives have also been developed by different research groups in recent years. In this paper, we aim to summarize the current knowledge about the phytochemical compositions, health-promoting properties and food applications of crabapples for the first time. It is shown that crabapples are good sources of polyphenols, terpenoids, vitamins, lipids, fibers, soluble sugars, microelements, organic acids and amino acids, which exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and/or in vivo. Nowadays, the crabapple fruits have been successfully utilized to produce vinegar, jam, mixed beverage, fruit bar/gelatinized layers and lipophilic antioxidant. In a word, crabapples may have great potential in the development of new functional food and drinks.
... Malus baccata (L.) Borkh commonly known as Crab apple, berry apple, wild apple, Siberian crab apple, Manchurian crab apple and Chinese crab apple. The fruit is known by the name of sheed palek, palanu and palek locally in India (Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). ...
... The fruit is known by the name of sheed palek, palanu and palek locally in India (Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). Malus baccata was widely grown as a popular ornamental tree in the gardens and parks of Europe, North America and South America (Yoshizawa et al. 2004;Aladedunye and Matthäus 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). ...
... Тhis plant is widely distributed throughout the world, as its natural populations occur in Asia (mainly Russia -eastern Siberia, Primorsky Krai; Mongolia, Northern China, India, especially in Himachal Pradesh) and cultivated varieties grown in Europe and China (Hallmann et al. 2011;Rudikovskaya et al. 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017;Dadwal et al. 2018). Malus baccata was widely grown as a popular ornamental tree in the gardens and parks of Europe, North America and South America (Yoshizawa et al. 2004;Aladedunye and Matthäus 2014;Kumari and Dhaliwal 2017). The fruit is yellowish green when mature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Crab apple (Malus baccata (L.) Borkh) has been cultivated throughout Europe as an ornamental plant, but the nutritional properties of its edible fruits were not fully revealed. The aim of the current study was to characterize the phytochemical composition of ripen crab apple fruits and to evaluate their nutritional and antioxidant potentials. The fruits were assayed for moisture, ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds and natural pigments. Among the analyzed carbohydrates cellulose was found in the highest content (6% dw), followed by sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and 1.8 % dw uronic acids. The total chlorophylls and carotenoid contents in their fruits were 6.51 and 4.80 μg/g fw, respectively. Total monomeric anthocyanins were not detected. The highest content of total phenolic compounds (2.67 mg GAE/g fw) was found in 95 % ethanol extract from fruits, while the total flavonoids were relatively low – 0.1 mg QE/g fw. DPPH assay (17.27 mM TE/g fw) and FRAP assay (14.34 mM TE/g fw) demonstrated in vitro antioxidant activities of crab apple. Malus baccata fruits were evaluated as a rich source of dietary fibers and phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant potential that could be used in human nutrition.
... Increase in acidity might also be due to formation of acids by degradation of polysaccharides and oxidation of reducing sugars or by breakdown of pectic substances and uronic acid (Iqbal et al., 2001;Hussain et al., 2008) [8,7] . Similar types of observations regarding acidity were reported by Singh et al. (2006) [21] during storage of dehydrated aonla products, Safdar et al. (2014) [18] during storage of guava leather, Deepika et al. (2016) [6] during storage of aonla bar, Anita and Dhaliwal (2017) [3] during storage of crab apple bar and Prasanth and Mishra (2017) [16] during storage of guava bar. Changes in total sugar content of jamun bar during storage Changes in total sugar content of jamun bar during storage are presented in table-5. ...
... Total sugar exhibited gradual decrease during storage which may be due to increase in reducing sugar by acid hydrolysis of total and non-reducing sugar and thereby inversion of total and non-reducing sugar to reducing sugar. Similar patterns of decreasing trend in total sugar were reported by Akhila (2014) [2] during storage of jamun jam, Shere (2014) [20] during storage of jamun-mango bar, Bhatt and Jha (2015) [4] during storage of wood apple bar and Anita and Dhaliwal (2017) [3] during storage of crab apple bar. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of present investigation was to study the effect of different storage temperature and packaging material on moisture, TSS, acidity and total sugar of jamun fruit bar during storage period. Jamun bar was prepared from fruits of Konkan Bahadoli variety. The bar was standardized by using different level of sugar and citric acid. The selected bar sample of best combination i.e. CC2 (50 per cent sugar and 0.40 per cent citric acid) were packed in butter paper or vegetable parchment paper (VPP), low density polyethylene pouch (LDPE) and aluminium foil (AlF). These packets were stored for a period of 180 days at refrigerated temperature (6±1℃) and ambient temperature (28±1℃) and changes in moisture, TSS, acidity and total sugar were recorded and elaborated.
... The fruits are small, usually rounded, growing on long thin stalks [3]. More studied species are M. sieversii, M. orientalis, M. sylvestris and M. prunifolia, because they have made a significant contribution to the genotype of M. domestica [5][6], but there are a number of poorly studied species [7][8][9], including M. sargentii. ...
Article
Full-text available
Malus sargentii Rehd. is a highly ornamental species, also used as a pollinator in industrial gardens. The species remains poorly studied. There are no data in the literature on the conjugation of the traits of flowers, fruits, and leaves. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to clarify the presence of correlations between traits for further selection. The object of the study is Sargent’s apple tree. 6 flower traits, 6 fruit parameters and 9 leaf traits are described. It was found that out of 210 correlation coefficients, 27 coefficients are reliable. 3 pleiades of signs were revealed: fruit diameter, fruit weight, fruit length; leaf blade length, leaf length; length of the right stipule, width of the right stipules, width of the left stipules. An inverse correlation was found between the length of the filament and the width of the leaf in the middle of the leaf blade (r=-0.68). The parameters of the fruit are closely related to the characteristics of the flower: the thickness of the pedicel correlates with the length of the filament (r=0.58), the length of the fruit (r=0.59), the diameter of the fruit (r=0.64), and the width of the right stipule (r=0.53) with the leaf characteristic. ). The number of flowers in the corymb is related to the length of the pedicel (r=0.60), and there is also a relationship between fruit weight and fruit length (r=0.61).
... The loss of ascorbic acid may be due to the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the stored product.Saravana et al. (2004) also observed the loss of ascorbic acid in papaya and whey-based mango jam with the advancement in the storage period.Saravana et al. (2004) andKumari and Sandal (2011) also observed the loss of ascorbic acid in papaya and whey-based mango jam with the advancement in the storage period. Similar observations were reported in crab apple jams byKumari and Dhaliwal (2017). According to the data, the reducing, nonreducing and total sugars increased significantly with the increase in storage period, and the values of all the sugars varied nonsignificantly among the varieties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fruits play an important role in maintaining a healthy life. Nectarine is a hybrid fruit of peach and plum, wherein efforts were made to develop intermediate moisture food products (jam and jelly) from nectarine varieties (May Fire, Snow Queen, and Silver King). The study aimed to determine the effect of storage on the nutritional (TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, and sugars) and sensory parameters (color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability) of jam and jelly at different storage intervals. Storage had a nonsignificant effect on the total soluble solids, with reported mean values of 69.670 Brix, while the pH content of jam varied significantly from 2.90-2.20 during 6 months of storage. The values for acidity and total sugars increased (P≤0.05) significantly from 1.92-2.03 percent and 57.04 to 56.93 percent, respectively. However, the ascorbic acid content decreased significantly from 4.64 - 1.66 mg/100 g. In the case of jelly, the total soluble solids and pH decreased from 67.78 – 67.440 Brix and 2.70 – 2.48, respectively, during storage for 6 months at ambient temperature. The ascorbic acid content decreased from 4.56-2.10 mg/100 g. Among cultivars, there was a nonsignificant difference in the nutritional parameters of jam, but in the case of jelly, different cultivars had a significant effect on TSS, pH, and ascorbic acid content. Organoleptically, the nectarine jam was rated as ‘liked very much’, while the jelly ‘liked slightly’, with good storage acceptance up to 6 months. Being nectarine as a superfood can be explored to develop speciality food products for vulnerable sections of society.
... Crabs, fish and shellfish are important sources of protein, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), carbohydrates, glutamic acids, vitamins A, B, C and D and minerals (phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iron and iodine) in food [1]- [9]. They are involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as well as in the development and functioning of the retina, brain and nervous system [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The interactions between selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) were assessed on fish, crabs, and molluscs to assess the risks to public health associated with dietary exposure to mercury from their consumption. To this end, mass concentrations of mercury and selenium have been determined in the edible tissues of three species of fish, in crabs and molluscs taken from the rivers of the gold zones of Fizi in South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We found values greater than 1 µg/g Hg in all fish samples regardless of the river, but also that the Kimbi River was the most polluted with an average mercury content of about 5 µg/g. Crabs and molluscs also had Hg values greater than 1.
... Recently, many studies have reported that Malus spp. contain many phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, phloridzin, etc. (Kumari & Dhaliwal, 2017;Qin, Xing, Zhou, & Yao, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to analyze the phenolic compounds in Malus spp. and evaluate their antioxidant and pro‐apoptotic effects in BGC‐803 gastric cancer cells. The results showed that cyanidin‐3‐galactoside was the main polyphenol in Malus “Royalty” (MR), while catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidin B1 and B2 contents were higher in Malus “Cinnabar” (MC) and Malus micromalus (MM) than in MR fruits. The total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidative properties of Malus spp. fruits followed an order of MR > MC > MM. Fruit extracts could inhibit BGC‐803 cells growth and induce apoptosis, with IC50 values of 0.47, 0.36, and 0.31 mg/ml for MR, MC, and MM, respectively. Furthermore, fruit extracts induced cell apoptosis through increasing Bcl‐2 and Bcl‐xl (pro‐apoptosis) expression and inhibiting Bax and Bak (anti‐apoptosis) expression, thereby accelerating cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that red fruits (i.e., MR and MC) were more effective against cancer cells than green fruits (i.e., MM). Practical applications Fruits of Malus spp. are ≤5 cm in size, considerably smaller than apples. They are rich in various natural bioactive compounds that are often consumed as a dietary supplement or used as natural raw materials for function food. In the current study, it is comprehensively characterized profile and bioactivity of phenolic metabolites in Malus spp. fruits of different colors, and found that red fruits are more effective in reducing the free radicals and inducing cancer cells apoptosis than green fruits. These findings are valuable for food technologists and food manufacturers, especially those who produce crabapple supplement. The study investigated the molecular mechanism of how Malus spp. fruits exert anti‐cancer functions. This lays a theoretical foundation for future research on developing anti‐cancer function food and provides helpful guidance for fruit market management and fruit processing industry.
Article
Full-text available
The global food system is a key contributor to climate change and causes widespread environmental damage. Its lack of diversity and inability to produce sufficient fruits and vegetables are leading to a worldwide health catastrophe. The unexpected variety of underutilized species is progressively renowned to be dynamic to environmental health and particularly significant for supportive climate change mitigation. Underutilized fruits can provide a variety of meals sustainably, as well as provide livelihood advantages and a couple of provided by the fruits. The agro-biodiversity hotspot in India's North-Western Himalayan area is recognized for its vast diversity of lesser-known, underused, and ethno-medicinal significant fruit crops. First, based on the available literature review, we give an overview of these environmental, nutritional, and livelihood advantages, demonstrating that underutilized fruits significantly contribute to essential fruit intake in rural communities. Then we covered some prevalent risk factors in different agro-climatic zones due to climate change and reviewed potential underutilized fruits. We examine different interventions addressing technological and consumer behavior constraints with the potential to boost the consumption and production of edible underutilized fruit crops. This review aims to detail the underutilized fruit found in the North-Western Himalayan region and all aspects related to nutritional importance, Ethno-botanical and traditional uses, and phytological and toxicological studies of these crops.
Article
Full-text available
A checklist of the economically and ecologically important subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae) is presented. One thousand one hundred and ten species are recognised in 23 genera, as well as 33 species in 13 intergeneric hybrid genera. An alphabetic arrangement is used within each taxonomic rank. The larger genera are subdivided into infrageneric groupings to represent structure. Several new infrageneric taxa were created to reconcile different sources. This checklist is believed to be complete to 1986 and represents the compilation and synthesis of over 170 publications. The following new names are published: Crataegus series Henryanae Phipps, ser.nov. et stat.nov.; Crataegus section Hupehensis Phipps, sect.nov.; Crataegus series Hupehenses Phipps, ser.nov.; Crataegus section Lacrimatae Phipps, sect, et stat.nov.; Malacomeles paniculata (Rehder) Phipps, comb.nov.; Sorbus subgen. Micromeles (Decne.) Phipps, Robertson & Spongberg, subgen. et stat.nov.; Sorbus section Albo-carmesini H.A. McAllister, sect.nov.
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.
Article
Fruit pulp and juice ingredients were mixed with apple and guava pulp in different proportions. The blending of the seabuckthorn pulp with guava/apple pulp was tried in different proportions to obtain the jam. Out of four selected combinations, jam prepared by using seabuckthorn pulp at minimum level of 25% was good. The apple and guava have lower acidity in comparison to seabuckthorn. Guava extract was combined with seabuckthorn extract in 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 ratios to have proper jelly setting. The pure seabuckthorn jelly was improved by adding pectin. The jelly prepared with 50:50 proportion was highly acceptable due to proper setting, flavour, taste and colour. Blending of seabuckthorn pulp with guava pulp in 40:60 ratio yielded better acceptability and colour of jams and jellies.
Article
Beverages i.e., RTS, nectar, squash and syrup were prepared from the jamun fruits and studied for their storage stability. The total soluble solids (TSS) of RTS remained unchanged upto two months of storage while nectar squash and syrup did not change in the first month of storage. Total acidity of RTS and nectar did not get altered in the first month of storage. There was slight increase in the level of total acidity in the squash and syrup during the storage period. Ascorbic acid content of all the four products declined continuously during storage. Browning showed a continuous increase in syrup whereas rest of the three products showed same trend after first month of storage. The qualities of RTS, nectar and syrup were found to be acceptable upto five months of storage.
Article
Red delicious, Kala kulu and Golden delicious apples taken from different marketing locations and retail stores during minimum availability period were analyzed for nutritional and microbial quality. Twenty one samples were analyzed for proximate composition and 72 samples were examined for surface contaminants using standard techniques. The highest weights of large, medium and small sized apples belonged to Red delicious variety. Peeling reduced both volume and pH of apple juice extracted. The energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein and fiber contents were high in Golden delicious variety while moisture in Kala kulu and the ash contents were high in Red delicious. Bacteriological analysis showed that gram +ive bacteria were the dominant strains associated with apple surface. The most common genus of fungi grown on the surface was Aspergillus and Penicillium. It was observed that washing with cold running tap water reduced the microbial contamination on apple surface.
Article
Homogenization of pulp, squash, nectar, and ready-to-serve beverage from ripe 'Dushehari' mangoes reduced pulp particle size, which improved the consistency and acceptability of the beverages. The beverages were stored at 4 ± 1°C, 28 ± 2°C and 38 ± 2°C for 30 days. Storage at 4 ± 1°C was found to ensure maximum retention of chemical and sensory characteristics. All mango products were non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids. An Integrated model ln K = b0 + b1 ln P + b2 ln S + b3/T, was found to predict satisfactorily the combined effects of temperature (T, Kelvin), pulp content (P, %) and total soluble solids (S, %) on 'K' for unhomogenized or homogenized mango products.
Nutritious pickle and preserve from wild aonla and heitup
  • S P Singh
  • D S Yadav
  • Devi R K Jasumali
  • S K Raman
Singh, S.P., Yadav, D.S., Jasumali, Devi R.K. and Raman, S.K. (1996). Nutritious pickle and preserve from wild aonla and heitup (Wild apple), Indian Horticulture, 22 (3), 28-30.
Some nutritional and physical properties of crab apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) fruit
  • Gezeri İbrahim
  • Musa Mehmet
  • Ozcan
  • Hacıseferogulları Haydar
  • Calısır Sedat
İbrahim, Gezeri., Mehmet, Musa Ozcan., Haydar, Hacıseferogulları. and Sedat, Calısır. (2012). Some nutritional and physical properties of crab apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) fruit, International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, (1-4), 101-107.