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Empirical studies indicating significant birth-order-related personality differences

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... Tako er smo nastojali utvrditi postoji li povezanost redoslijeda ro enja i samoprocijenjene inteligencije. S obzirom na dosadašnja istraživanja (Zajonc i Mullally, 1997;Eckstein, 2000) koja ukazuju na postojanje povezanosti redoslijeda ro enja i inteligencije te u skladu s istraživanjima koja pokazuju da postoji pozitivna povezanost izme u kvocijenta inteligencije i samoprocjenjene inteligencije (Borkenau i Lieber, 1993;Furnham i Rawles, 1995;Furnham, Fong i Martin, 1999), generirali smo hipotezu da postoji povezanost redoslijeda ro enja i samoprocjenjene inteligencije i to tako da e prvoro eni postizati više rezultate u samoprocjenjenoj inteligenciji. Nalazi ovog istraživanja nisu dali potvrdu takvim o ekivanjima. ...
... Oslanjaju i se na rezultate prethodnih istraživanja (Bohmer i sur. 1993;Eckstein, 2000;Jefferson i sur. 1998) o ekivali smo da e prvoro eni imati bolji prosjek ocjena, no rezultati istraživanja su pokazali da ne postoji povezanost izme u ove dvije varijable. ...
... We have also tried to establish whether there is a correlation between birth order and self-estimated intelligence. With regard to research that has been carried out so far (Zajonc and Mullaly, 1997;Eckstein, 2000), indicating that there is a correlation between birth order and intelligence and with regard to research showing there is a positive correlation between the IQ and the self-estimated intelligence (Borkenau and Lieber, 1993;Furnham and Rawles, 1995;Furnham, Fong and Martin, 1999), we generated the hypothesis that there is correlation between birth order and self-estimated intelligence in the sense that the firstborn will achieve higher scores in self-estimated intelligence. Findings of this research have not confirmed such expectations. ...
... Childhood and the family are central to the story of human behavior because they provide the immediate causal context for developmental scenarios. Childhood is the quest for seeking out a family niche; this eventually becomes the child's personality (Eckstein, 2000). Since each individual is a social, creative, decision-making human being that has a unified purpose, they cannot be fully known outside of their contexts (Blake, 1987). ...
... There is a different psychological experience for every individual child based on the child's ordinal position in their family. There is a constant struggle for Birth Order 8 power and a sense of competence in the family (Eckstein, 2000). However, it is important not to utilize birth order as a means to stereotype people into rigid categories from which they cannot escape. ...
... However, it is important not to utilize birth order as a means to stereotype people into rigid categories from which they cannot escape. While considering birth order, there should be concern for other issues such as gender, age differences between siblings, blended families, the death of a sibling, family atmosphere, family values, and early recollections to form a comprehensive picture of the individual (Eckstein, 2000). ...
Article
Birth order plays a substantial role in a child's life because the family is the first social system to which a child is exposed. One hundred subjects from a private liberal arts New England College were surveyed and asked to report their birth order, perceived traits, career choice, and college major. Analysis revealed there is statistically significant data regarding the relationship between first children and predicted, typical first child personality traits. The second hypothesis pertaining to birth order and chosen college majors was not statistically significant. However, there does exist a significant relationship between those subjects that tended to select personality traits that are identified as last children and the association with selected college majors. This could imply that psychological birth order may in fact play a significant responsibility in shaping a child's career choice. The findings of this analytical study are intended to encourage further investigation. The knowledge from this study can be seen as advantageous for the social work profession. It is imperative for social workers to understand and acknowledge every individual client in the context of the social systems in which they live in an effort to make progress and empower clients to achieve their goals.
... Studies have explored the relationship between birth order and personality traits (Pollet, Dijkstra, Barelds, & Buunk, 2010;Stewart, Stewart, & Campbell, 2001), interpersonal relational styles (Salmon, 2003), and achievement, intelligence, and social attitudes (Sulloway, 2007a;Wichman, Rodgers, & MacCallum, 2006). However, the process of separation with respect to birth order has not been addressed (Eckstein, 2000). ...
... Scholars disagree on the extent to which birth order affects personality traits and behavior. Some studies find little or no relationship between the two (e.g., Abdel-Kahlek & Lester, 2007;Freese, Powell, & Steelman, 1999;Pollet et al., 2010), thereby supporting the null hypothesis, whereas others consider it to be profound (e.g., Dixon, Reyes, Leppert, & Pappas, 2008;Eckstein, 2000;Sulloway, 1996Sulloway, , 2008. Sulloway (1995Sulloway ( , 2000Sulloway ( , 2002 argued that a metaanalysis of studies on birth order from 1940 to 1999 yielded modest but consistent trends regarding differences between siblings with respect to birth order. ...
... That is, the mental ideation of middleborns in our study was less focused on families and more on the participant's social environment relative to firstborns and lastborns. This pattern is in line with previous studies that found middleborns to be more socially oriented than their siblings (Eckstein, 2000;Phillips & Phillips, 2000); to report that they feel less close to their families, including parents and grandparents (Salmon, 1998(Salmon, , 1999Salmon & Daly, 1998); and to seek less comfort from parents in times of emotional distress (Rohde et al., 2003). Our findings were also cross-validated by the PATHSEP. ...
Article
The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults.
... 252) Por exemplo, se o primogênito é excelente na escola, os nascidos mais tarde provavelmente não se interessarão tanto pelos estudos, mas sim por outras atividades onde o primogênito possa mostrar falta de interesse ou habilidade. Estes processos de seleção de interesses, papéis e identidades têm sido usados para explicar as diferenças de personalidade apresentadas por irmãos (Adler, 1954(Adler, /1912Dreikurs, 1963;Eckstein, 2000;Sulloway, 1999). A posição ocupada por cada criança lhe trará obstáculos particulares e lhe exigirá estratégias e traços que podem vir a se tornar características marcantes do seu comportamento nos próximos estágios de vida. ...
... Na sua vida posterior, quando não é mais o centro das atenções, poderá apresentar dificuldades" (Adler, 1954(Adler, /1912. Algumas pesquisas indicaram limitações em habilidades sociais, maior incidência de comportamentos problemáticos e intervenções terapêuticas na infância de filhos únicos (Eckstein, 2000). Por outro lado, estes aspectos já foram atribuídos à monitoração excessiva e a superproteção parental (Dunn & Plomin, 1990;Falbo, 1984). ...
... Vários estudos indicaram que os primeiros filhos tendem a ser mais dependentes da aprovação de outras pessoas, e, portanto, mais sugestionáveis por figuras de autoridade (Eckstein, 2000), apoiando as ideias de Adler (1954Adler ( /1912, que sugeriu que primogênitos destronados tentam recuperar sua posição atendendo as expectativas dos pais. Neste sentido, Newman, Higgins e Vookles (1992) concluíram que estes indivíduos dependem mais dos padrões externos, ditados pelos pais ou outras pessoas, para pautar o seu comportamento e formar a sua autoavaliação, em comparação aos não primogênitos. ...
Article
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Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women) with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3) answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles) and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations. Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.
... interaction patterns and certain personality characteristics (Leman, 1997;Dreikurs, 1989;Dreikursová-Fergusonová, 2005;Eckstein, 2000). ...
... There are some birth-order characteristics relevant to creativity and personality dimensions (Adler, 1935;1995;Dreikurs, 1989;Dreikurs, Grey, 1997;Sulloway, 1999;Dacey, Lennon, 2000;Eckstein, 2000;Čechová, 2004): ...
... Results of older research (Yarial, 1985;Runco, Bahleda, 1986;Fernald, Solomon, 1987) indicated that in tests of divergent thinking were the best the only children, then first-born, after them the youngest and finally middle born. The newer research (Sulloway, 1999;Dacey, Lennon, 2000;Eckstein, 2000) confirms the unconventionality and thus the creativity of laterborn siblings. ...
Article
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The study focuses on the connection between the birth-order in a sibling constellation and the creativity and personality traits of adolescents. The study searches for the answer to questions of whether creativity is connected with the birth-order in the sibling constellation (in the sense of the position among siblings and gender) and what personality traits it is connected to. The personality traits of the individual positions in the birth-order (first-born, second-born, the middle, the youngest and the only child) are compared. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and the Urban Creative Thinking Test (TSD-Z) were applied for creativity identification. To measure personality dimensions, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory was applied to a sample of 158 adolescents - University students of humanities and artistic-technical departments (mean age 19.91 years). The data on family constellation (birth-order, size of family, family and sibling constellation, age differences, etc.) were gathered, based on our own Questionnaire of Family Constellation. Our results confirmed the higher performance of the second-born adolescents in the Torrance Creative Thinking Test. The adolescents that grew up with a sibling of the same gender were more conscientious and more extravert. The creativity performance of a woman was higher if she grew up with a brother and a sister. The men growing up with a brother and a sister were more agreeable than the women in the same sibling constellation.
... However, only a few point out the risk factors for such changes. Risk factors are aspects of individual behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, hereditary, or congenital characteristics associated with a condition related to health (5,6) . ...
... On the other hand, these aspects have been attributed to excessive monitoring and parental overprotection. An only child becomes both the target of high parental expectations, usually oriented to the first-born, and receives typical favors and care, as the youngest child (6) . ...
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To identify the main risk factors related to children and their parents, associated with speech and language disorders. A prospective descriptive study conducted with 170 children and their parents assisted at a school clinic in the period between March 2010 and July 2012. A protocol was developed for this study in order to identify risk factors for language and speech disorders. Data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the Χ2 and Student' s t-test . The demographic profile is composed of male children aged between 4 and 5 years old, ethnicity declared by parents as being white, residents of the western region of the city of São Paulo, and whose parents had completed high school. The factors related to family and considered as risks for language impairment were being an only child and having a family history of speech and language disorders. As for the children' s health, prematurity, hospitalization for a long period, and the presence of deleterious oral habits were also considered as risk factors. The protocol allows establishing the main risk factors related to children with speech and language disorders. It is suggested that children who present with one or more of the aforementioned risk factors should be regularly monitored for speech and language development and, if necessary, referred for early intervention.
... Nestes contextos familiares é referido a existência de um número médio entre quatro a cinco filhos, estando os jovens participantes numa ordem, entre os irmãos, como terceiro ou quarto irmão. Neste sentido, de acordo com alguns estudos encontrados sobre a influência da ordem de nascimento na construção identitária dos indivíduos (e.g., Abreu, 2011;Eckstein, 2000;Magalhães, 2008Magalhães, , 2009, estes indicam há socialmente um estereótipo de que numa fratria em que os indivíduos ocupam a posição dos filhos do meio, estes filhos são mais negligenciados pelos pais e que, por sua vez, tendo em consideração a posição que ocupam no agregado familiar, os indivíduos filhos do meio esperam e agem de acordo com uma atenção parental partilhada com os irmãos mais velhos e com os irmãos mais novos. ...
... O núcleo familiar dos jovens participantes é caraterizado com baixo nível socioeconómico e cultural, pouco estruturado e alargado a um número médio entre quatro a cinco filhos, estando os jovens participantes numa ordem, entre os irmãos, como terceiro ou quarto irmão. De acordo com alguns estudos (e.g., Abreu, 2011;Eckstein, 2000;Magalhães, 2008Magalhães, , 2009 Os resultados obtidos na aplicação da escala DISI-O corroboram estudos anteriores (e.g., Dellas & Jerningan, 1981;Martins & Carvalho, 2012a, 2012b, 2013b, 2013dMeeus, 1993;Taveira, 1986Taveira, , 2000Veiga & Moura, 1999, no sentido em que os valores médios encontrados nas dimensões DISI-O indicam que há maior saliência na dimensão IM. Concretamente, os resultados obtidos, em termos de identidade vocacional, indicam que os jovens participantes, em pleno período de adolescência, estão a viver um período de exploração das questões da identidade, manifestando pouco investimento e dificuldades em fazer escolhas (Marcia, 1966). ...
Research
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Os contextos de vida atuais trazem desafios que renovaram o interesse da Psicologia da Educação pela investigação da identidade vocacional. A promoção de oportunidades para os jovens adquirirem conhecimento necessário à transição sustentada para a vida ativa, como sujeito e ator é um desses desafios. A presente investigação teve como objetivo estudar as características de identidade vocacional de jovens institucionalizados em cinco centros educativos portugueses. O design da investigação constituiu-se em dois estudos. No Estudo 1 realizou-se a vertente de estudo quantitativa, com a aplicação de uma ficha de caraterização sociodemográfica e da escala Dellas Identity Status Inventory-Occupation (DISI-O). Decorrente deste estudo realizou-se o Estudo 2, a vertente qualitativa, onde se efetuaram entrevistas semiestruturadas e a recolha documental da diversa documentação institucional dos jovens participantes. No Estudo 1 participaram 136 jovens, todos rapazes, com uma média de idades situada nos 16 anos, maioritariamente de nacionalidade portuguesa e em cumprimento de Medidas Tutelares Educativas em regime semiaberto. Os jovens frequentavam cursos de Educação e Formação de Adultos (EFA) de tipologia B3 para obtenção de equivalência ao 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico, bem como para certificação de uma qualificação profissional. Os resultados do Estudo 1 revelam que os participantes percecionavam o seu desenvolvimento vocacional na dimensão Identidade em Moratória. Uma etapa do desenvolvimento marcada por um período de exploração das questões da identidade, manifestando pouco investimento e dificuldade em fazer escolhas sobre uma profissão futura. Esta fase é posta em evidência no Estudo 2. No estudo 2, na análise do discurso dos 15 jovens entrevistados, encontraram-se vozes reveladoras da inexistência de práticas de orientação vocacional nos centros educativos e de cursos pouco apelativos para a exploração e investimento vocacional. Os professores através do feedback que proporcionam foram considerados como agentes educativos influentes na orientação vocacional dos jovens. (Present life challenges have renewed the interest of Educational Psychology for vocational identity research. The promotion of opportunities for the youth to acquire the necessary knowledge for a sustained transition to work life, as subject and actors, is one of those challenges. The aim for this research is to study the vocational identity characteristics of institutionalized youngsters in five portuguese educational centers. The research design has been developed on two studies. Study 1, related to a quantitative analysis, done through the application of a socio-demographic characterization form as well as the Dellas Identity Status Inventory-Occupation scale (DISI-O). Sequentially, Study 2, a qualitative approach, with semi-structured interviews and documental research of diverse institutional documentation of the young participants. On Study 1 have participated 136 young males, with an average age of 16 years old, all institutionalized in five educational centers following legal decision, most of them in semi-open regime. The participants were attending courses of Adult Education and Training (EFA) of type B3 to obtain equivalency to the 3rd cycle of basic education, as well as professional certification. The results of Study 1 indicated that the participants perceived their vocational development in the Moratorium Identity (IM) dimension. A stage of development marked by exploration of identity issues and little investment and difficulties in making vocational choices. This phase is emphasized in Study 2. On Study 2, the speech of the 15 interviewed youngsters revealed lack of vocational guidance practices in the educational centers and the existence of non-appealing courses for vocational exploration and investment. Teachers, through the feedback they give, were considered influential educators in vocational guidance of these youngsters.)
... Prvorođeno dijete je na neki način tutor mlađima, pa se pokazalo da ta činjenica unaprjeđuje mentalni razvoj i akademsko postignuće (Zajonc i Mullally, 1997). Brojna istraživanja su pokazala da prvorođeni imaju viši IQ od kasnije rođenih (Eckstein, 2000). Dakle, premda rezultati istraživanja nisu nedvosmisleni, može se zaključiti da su u većini istraživanja prvorođeni pokazuju nešto viši kvocijent inteligencije od kasnije rođenih, postižu više stupnjeve obrazovanja, pa bi ranije rođeni mogli češće biti daroviti. ...
... sin jedinac među mnoštvom kćeri može funkcionalno biti kao jedino dijete (Sulloway, 1995). Na rezultate u istraživanjima povezanosti redoslijeda rođenja i osobina ličnosti mogu još utjecati i spajanje obitelji (dvoje razvedenih ljudi s djecom), smrt brata ili sestre, obiteljska atmosfera i obiteljske vrijednosti (Eckstein, 2000). ...
Article
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Emotional and social maturity and autonomy, physical and intelectual maturity, important for estimating children's readiness for going in elementary school, were measured. Then, the prediction of those characteristics was found, using predictor variable that describe a birth order. Subjects in research were preschool children (N=96) from the children groups in the Kindergarten "Maksimir" in Zagreb. According to results, possibility for prediction emotional and social maturity using predictor variable (birth order) was weak. However, possibility for prediction autonomy, physical and intelectual maturity using predictor variable was much better. Following results, could be presumed that is possible to predict autonomy, physical and intelectual characteristics with predictor variable (born order). But, prediction could be probably better at older subjects.
... The influence of background demographics on professional success is multi-facetted, ranging from birth order to socio-economic status. Literature (Eckstein, 2000;Dattner, 2011) indicates that first-born children are more confident, assertive and concerned about position and rank. Other attributes associated with first-born and only children include high-achievement orientation, high level of motivation, and leadership. ...
... A substantial percentage (52 per cent) had been employed for a relatively short period (1-9 years), yet the majority were between 35 and 49 years of age. A total of 41 per cent were eldest children, with a slightly higher percentage indicated in the successful category, supporting earlier research (Eckstein, 2000;Dattner, 2011) relating to the achievement-orientation of first-born children. Of the respondents who had siblings, the majority had only one (39 per cent) or two (20 per cent). ...
Article
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div>This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women’s career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, culture, barriers, external and internal support impact on the career success of women. This study surveyed a sample of 301 professional and business women in South Africa. The results of the empirical survey showed that there are statistical significant relationships between groups of women based on their demographics and their perceptions of the factors that influence their career success. </div
... Should the parents behave in this way; the only child can internalize the expectations and rules of his parents. If the parents do whatever the only children demand, they become self-indulgent and are deprived from the experience of autonomy and self-reliance (Eckstein, 2000;Rosen, 1961). ...
... The only children usually have high IQ, conversational abilities and their character traits which his adults demand him to have (Adams, 1972;Eckstein, 2000). In addition the only children are so smarter than other types of siblings that they can score the highest on intellectual performance tests. ...
... Laterborns tend to identify less with their parents and are often subject to domination or bullying by older siblings, which is hypothesized to make them more open to experience than firstborns, and more likely to empathize with the downtrodden, to be supportive of egalitarian social change, to question the status quo, to resist authority and pressure to conform, and to be the brebelsQ in the family. Sulloway's theorizing ignited a new wave of research on birth order and personality, with some studies supportive of the theory (e.g., Davis, 1997;Eckstein, 2000;Paulhus, Trapnell, & Chen, 1999;Rohde et al., 2003;Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003;Zweigenhaft, 2002;Zweigenhaft & Von Ammon, 2000) and others not (e.g., Beer & Horn, 2000;Freese, Powell, & Steelman, 1999;Jefferson, Herbst, & McCrae, 1998;Michalski & Shackelford, 2001). A possible reason for this inconsistency is that Sulloway's (1996Sulloway's ( , 2001 theory is more nuanced than it first appears and specifies a number of intervening factors (e.g., birth intervals, biological family composition, quadratic effects on personality differentiation within families) that influence the relation between birth order and personality development. ...
... Several recent studies (e.g., Davis, 1997;Eckstein, 2000;Paulhus et al., 1999;Salmon & Daly, 1998;Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003;Zweigenhaft, 2002;Zweigenhaft & Von Ammon, 2000) provide general support for Sulloway's family-niche model of personality development. Our study extended this past work by providing a more carefully targeted test of Sulloway's theory. ...
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We investigated differences between firstborn and secondborn siblings on major dimensions of personality, in the context of the proposal of Sulloway [Sulloway, F. J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics and creative lies. New York: Pantheon] that personality is influenced by the specialized niches siblings adopt in the quest for access to parental resources. Using a within-family methodology, we tested two predictions from Sulloway's model: that firstborns are more achieving and conscientious than secondborns and that secondborns are more rebellious and open to new experiences than firstborns. To test an alternative prenatal hypomasculinization theory proposed by Beer and Horn [Beer, J. M., & Horn, J. M. (2000). The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts. Journal of Personality, 68, 769–819], we also examined the size of birth-order effects in sister–sister versus brother–brother pairs. The hypothesized effects of birth order on personality were found in both Study 1 (n=161 sibling pairs) and Study 2 (n=174 sibling pairs) and provided support for Sulloway's family-niche model. No support was found for Beer and Horn's hypomasculinization model.
... 4,7,8 Studies in Asian cultures have found that firstborn sons naturally assume responsibility in decision-making, as influenced by traditional expectations of filial duty. 12,27 Stressors common to firstborns from diverse cultures include filial burden, unspoken expectations, sibling conflict, and perceived family judgment. 12,[28][29][30] Discussion of death is taboo in different cultures, including Asian 31 and African American, 32 and often leads to significant stress, a finding that this study supports. ...
Article
Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict.
... Birth order in non-twin sibling relationships also seems to be important as regards to the roles and positions in a family. For example the first born is expected to take a greater responsibility and have privileges which the last born child do not have (Eckstein, 2000). The twins in this study associated birth order with opposite characteristics and role-taking within the twin relationship, for example; the first-born being the leader and the second-born, the follower. ...
Article
We have explored how older twins experience and describe themselves in relation to their co-twin. The life stories of 20 older twins were analyzed with narrative analysis. Results showed that the twins described themselves from the point of differences in relation to the co-twin. This was based on experiences of how other people viewed them as alike, as well as on life events along the life course, which contributed to the perception of oneself as an individual in relation to the co-twin. The emphasis on unlikeness was therefore interpreted as a way of trying to establish a position as an individual within the co-twin relationship and to assert ones individuality to the rest of the social environment. To claim oneself as an individual was an ongoing identity work along the life course.
... Birth order in non-twin sibling relationships also seems to be important as regards to the roles and positions in a family. For example the first born is expected to take a greater responsibility and have privileges which the last born child do not have (Eckstein, 2000). The twins in this study associated birth order with opposite characteristics and role-taking within the twin relationship, for example; the first-born being the leader and the second-born, the follower. ...
Article
Full-text available
We have explored how older twins experience and describe themselves in relation to their co-twin. The life stories of 20 older twins were analyzed with narrative analysis. Results showed that the twins described themselves from the point of differences in relation to the co-twin. This was based on experiences of how other people viewed them as alike, as well as on life events along the life course, which contributed to the perception of oneself as an individual in relation to the co-twin. The emphasis on unlikeness was therefore interpreted as a way of trying to establish a position as an individual within the co-twin relationship and to assert ones individuality to the rest of the social environment. To claim oneself as an individual was an ongoing identity work along the life course.
... On the other hand, later-born are more likely to be radical, liberal and rebellious ( Moore and Cox, 1990 ; Sulloway, 1996 ; Davis, 1997 ; Rodhe et al , 2003 ; Stewart, 2004 ; Healey and Ellis, 2007 ; Dixon et al , 2008 ). First-born are more conforming and more likely to identify with the status quo than later-born ( Ernst and Angst, 1983 ; Burden and Perkins, 1987 ; Moore and Cox, 1990 ; Stewart and Stewart, 1995 ; Sulloway, 1995 and Zajonc and Mullally, 1997 ; Eckstein, 2000 ; Zweigenhaft and Von Ammon, 2000 ; Saad et al , 2005 ). First-born are more likely to be responsible, serious, organized and enjoy structure in their daily routines than younger siblings ( Moore and Cox, 1990 ; Sulloway, 1995 and Jefferson et al , 1998 ; Paulhus et al , 1999 ; Rodhe et al , 2003 ; Stewart, 2004 ; Healey and Ellis, 2007 ). ...
Article
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Traditional investment questionnaires may yield an incomplete measure of clients’ risk tolerance. Birth order has the potential to provide additional insight into the true nature of customers’ risk aversion, thereby assisting financial advisors to formulate the optimal investment portfolio for each client. We summarize research findings on birth order-related personality traits that have potential impact on the financial services industry. Marketing implications for investment firms are discussed in a framework that considers customers’ birth order differences in risk tolerance, patience, financial goals and conformity.
... One of the significant contributions to personality theories by Alfred Adler was the relationship between order of birth and personality (Adler, 1931;Eckstein, 2000). Adler observed that the personalities of the oldest, middle, and the youngest child in a family were likely to be different due to the distinctive experiences that each child has as a member of that family. ...
Article
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Interpersonal needs of the individual are the facilitator in the choice of his career. Individual make such choices which gratifies his need. This paper focuses upon the management students and their choice of electives. The sample size for the study is 396 management students who are sub-grouped on the basis of gender, category and the choice of electives. The research proves that the interpersonal needs have impact on the choice of electives.
... As it turns out, there is. Eckstein (2000) did a survey of 151 empirically based studies, which found a statistically significant connection between birth order and personality. Out of these 151 studies, he found some common trends. ...
... Miley (1969), , Watkins (1986), and Stewart and Stewart (1995) all compiled bibliographies on birth-order research, and Stewart and Stewart alone found 1,065 items published about birth order from 1976 to 1993. In an attempt to make sense of the broad amount of information available in birth-order research, Eckstein (2000) categorized the birth-order attributes of 154 birtb-order studies. The primary goal of this study was to expand that earlier research by categorizing and synthesizing the 200 studies we reviewed. ...
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Alfred Adler was one of the first theorists to use birth-order position in his conceptualization of clients. Birth order continues to inform professionals practicing from an Individual Psychology framework; however, the wealth of research on the topic can seem overwhelming. Using a modified version of Light and Smith's (1971) vote-counting methodology, the authors reviewed 200 published articles with statistically significant findings of birth order characteristics. From these studies, lifestyle characteristics associated with birth order were tabulated to provide a clear picture of results. Examples of typical characteristics associated with persons of specific birth-order positions include high success and achievement for first-born children, high need for achievement for only children, high sociability for middle children, and high social interest for youngest children. Implications for counselors conclude the article.
... According to Alfred Adler, the order in which someone is born among their siblings determines their personality. The formative influence of birth order on a person's core personality is one of Adler's most significant contributions to psychology (Eckstein, Winter 2000). In order to understand a persons personality involves interpreting means to disclose and make understandable the parts of an individual, meaningless in themselves, that is to interpret a symptom in the light of the whole (Murphy & Jensen, 2005). ...
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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between locus of control and birth order. Does your birth position predict your locus of control? Also, if birth order has an effect on the academic achievement of college students (n=54). A few subjects were disqualified from the study based on the fact that they were the only child. A demographics survey was designed to determine the academic success based on grade point average. The Rotter’s Locus of Control survey was used to determine the locus of control of the college students. Neither hypothesis investigated yielded the predicted results. This could be due to the small sample recruited by each birth position. Research procedures and future goals are discussed.
... Such information should be coupled with other issues such as gender, age differences between siblings, socioeconomic families, family atmosphere, family values and culture. 34 ...
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Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between birth order and child's temperament, anxiety and behavior in the dental setting. Materials and methods A total of 200 healthy children aged 5 to 7 years, were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. The study consisted of two sessions. In the initial appointment, parents were provided with instructions and asked to complete children's behavior questionnaire (CBQ). In the second appointment, identical dental treatments were rendered to all subjects. During treatment, Frankl scale for child's behavior, facial Image scale (FIS) for situational anxiety, and clinical anxiety rating scale for clinical anxiety were utilized. Analysis of data was done using U Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Only children had higher clinical (p = 0.041) and situational (p < 0.001) anxiety, and more negative behavior (p = 0.013) compared to children with siblings. In children with siblings, first-born child was in increased risk of developing negative behavior (p = 0.008), clinical anxiety (p < 0.001) and situational anxiety (p = 0.006). With an exception (sadness, p < 0.001), no significant differences in temperament scale were observed among children with different birth orders. Conclusion According to the results, only children and laterborns are at higher risk of developing worse outcomes in the dental setting. Clinical significance The role of birth order has been ignored as a possible factor of behavior during routine dental treatment and these findings may shed light on our understanding of behavior management strategies in the dental setting. Considering the increasing pattern of family with an only child both in modern and developing countries, this is more likely that the dental team will face children with negative outcome during dental treatment. How to cite this article Aminabadi NA, Sohrabi A, Erfanparast L, Oskouei SG, Ajami BA. Can Birth Order Affect Temperament, Anxiety and Behavior in 5 to 7-year-old Children in the Dental Setting? J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):225-231.
... However, research has consistently shown that looking at actual birth order offers useful insights. In his review of birth order articles from 1960 to 1999, Eckstein (1998) reported statistically significant birth order studies (though not psychological birth-order studies) and offers some support for works looking at actual birth order. His review specifically notes that research has shown personality differences among subjects according to four major categories: oldest, middle, youngest, and single (p. ...
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Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.
... Birth order in non-twin sibling relationships also seems to be important as regards to the roles and positions in a family. For example the first born is expected to take a greater responsibility and have privileges which the last born child do not have (Eckstein, 2000). The twins in this study associated birth order with opposite characteristics and role-taking within the twin relationship, for example; the first-born being the leader and the second-born, the follower. ...
Conference Paper
Abstract The aim was to explore, describe and understand experiences of twinship as told in the life stories of 35 older (70+) identical and fraternal twins, participants of the SATSA and Gender-studies in Sweden. Method: The open-ended interviews were analyzed with narrative analysis. Results: Twinship was described as relational, i.e, the relationship to the co-twin and as a negotiation between the individual and the twin identity. Three kinds of twin relationship patterns, characterized by different levels of emotional involvement were identified and labelled: nurturing, draining or superficial relationship. An attachment theoretical perspective was used in interpreting the differences in the relationship patterns. Each set of twins showed a unique balance between individualization and the twin identity which also was linked to the type of twin relationship pattern. In addition, these older twins experienced that their social environment tried to impose a twin identity upon them contradictive to their own experiences.
... As a result, later-born children become more agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience. Empirical studies have supported Sulloway's (1996Sulloway's ( , 2001 hypotheses about the effects of birth order on personality development (Eckstein 2000;Healey and Ellis 2007;Paulhus, Trapnell, and Chen 1999;Rohde 2003;Saroglou and Fiasse 2003). ...
... Several recent studies have explicitly tested Sulloway's thesis (cf. Jefferson et al., 1998;Paulhus et al., 1999;Zweigenhaft and Von Ammon, 2000;Eckstein, 2000;Beer and Horn, 2000;Michalski and Shackelford, 2002;Zweigenhaft, 2002). Two general trends were discerned. ...
Article
Recent literature in evolutionary psychology argues that the effects of birth order occur as a result of a Darwinian process guided by a child's quest to maximize parental investment. Specifically, children seek to occupy unique positional niches to be singular in their parents' eyes. Research following this paradigm reveals that laterborns are much more likely to be supportive and accepting of radical scientific innovations, whereas firstborns are more likely to conform to the status quo. The current research examined the validity of this finding within the consumption setting, and the results from an exploratory study appear to support it. This constitutes the first time that a Darwinian-based framework is used to explain birth-order effects within the consumer–marketplace domain.
... The lesser occurrence of being the only child was observed (9 %). Some studies pointed out that the only child becomes both the target of high parental expectations, usually oriented to the firstborn, and receives typical favors and care [32] . In the present study, later born children were more likely to have DLD than children of first born in agreement with previous studies [33][34] . ...
... These results may suggest that individuals occupying the first-born or middle-born psychological birth position may be at greater risk for difficulties coping with stress than expected for those individuals in the youngest-born psychological birth position. Similarly, in his review of 151 empirically based studies on birth order relative to personality, Eckstein (2000) cited three studies indicating a heightened vulnerability to stress among first-born individuals. Given that lack of coping resources, which are related to social interest and perceptions of social support, have been found to be predictive of emotional distress relative to anxiety and depression (Herrington et al., 2005), it would seem that birth order is a topic worthy of clinical attention. ...
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Stress has become a topic of major inquiry in recent decades among psychology and its allied disciplines. Although the stress response is an adaptive mechanism with short-term utility, individuals experiencing chronic stress may eventually manifest physiological and psychological incapacities as their abilities to cope are overwhelmed. Guided visual imagery can be an effective technique for the treatment of chronic stress within a broader Adierian framework. Through the use of guided visual imagery to narrow the attentional set while facilitating a psychophysiological healing response, individuals may be taught to enhance their innate potential to cope better with the vagaries of life.
... [29] Birth-order influences should be regarded in combination with other factors such as gender, age dissimilarities between siblings, socioeconomic families, family environment, family morals, and culture. [30] Conclusion ...
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Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. Materials and Method: A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM) scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as “Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule” (CFSS-DS) was employed. Results: The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p
... Last-borns have been found to be high in empathy (Eckstein, 2000), which has been shown to evoke altruistic motivation (Batson & Shaw, 1991). They are also most able to identify with others compared to those born earlier (Syed, 2004). ...
Article
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This study investigated the relationship between psychological birth order position and different types and levels of prosocial tendencies. An ex postfacto, between-family research design was used. Data on prosocial tendencies were obtained from 888 college students (females = 80.4%, mean age = 20.94 yrs, SD = 2.83; males = 19.6%, mean age = 21.62 yrs, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a biographical questionnaire as well as the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (Carlo & Randall, 2002). Data were analysed to compare and contrast prosocial tendencies between demographics using parametric ANOVAs, t tests and the Mann-Whitney Test. Significant differences in prosocial tendency scores were only found between middle-borns and last-borns on altruism, with middle-borns scoring significantly higher in prosocial tendencies than last-borns. There is no evidence to suggest that a definitive link between prosocial tendencies and birth order exists in this study.
... The high self-esteem of the first child psychological birth order can be explained by the positive relationship between positive identity perception because the first child psychological birth order is usually more assertive, more easy going and closer to parental authority (Sulloway, 1996). These children, who are defined as mature, conscious and responsible (Eckstein, 2000) and who are given more autonomy due to these characteristics, will have the opportunity to experience more activities that will enable them to develop self-confidence and positive identity perception. ...
... Several studies reported that first-born families tend to outperform among younger siblings (Sulloway, 1996;Zajonc, 2001). Moreover, thorough research those first-born children were found to be more motivated to succeed (Eckstein, 2000). In addition, other researchers suggested that birth order has a relationship with intelligence and achievement (Ernest & Angst, 1983). ...
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This study aims to investigate the most dominant personality and the relationship between birth order and Big – Five personality among Psychology Students in Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Participants (n=116) completed online questionnaires measuring birth order, and the Big Five personality taken from the IPIP sample test (IPIP, 2006) which used hierarchical model of personality structure that describes most traits in terms of five broad factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). The result indicated that the dominant personality (dimensions) is conscientiousness (mean=3.25). Furthermore, our findings showed the first-born child and last-born child has lower agreeableness compared to middle-born child and the later-born child has lower openness compared to middle-born child. Moreover, future studies are suggested to employ a larger population in order to interpret a more meaningful relationship between birth order and Big – Five personality dimensions.
... Una de las causas más aceptadas para este fenómeno es la hipótesis de dilución, la cual señala que los recursos declinan con el paso del tiempo, entonces los hijos últimos tienen acceso a menos recursos, tiempo y estimulación por parte de sus padres que sus hermanos mayores (Conley y Glauber, 2006). Eckstein (2000) reportó 151 artículos, publicados entre 1960 y 1999 donde se mencionaba que los atributos del primogénito son: mayor logro, mayor coeficiente intelectual y éxito académico, niveles más altos de motivación y necesidad de reconocimiento. En otro estudio realizado con 241 310 hombres noruegos, en el cual los investigadores examinaron solo a individuos nacidos en primer, segundo y tercer lugar pero que hubieran perdido a sus hermanos mayores en la infancia temprana. ...
Book
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... Eula Mae was the firstborn of her parents' six or seven children (note: while I know of six children, I recall my grandmother mentioning a child that was born and named who did not survive, and I feel fairly confident Eula may have had another sibling). Some research suggests firstborn children are more likely to be mature, responsible, and conscientious (Eckstein 2000). I suspect these characteristics were developed in Eula during her childhood. ...
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In this genealogical narrative, the author researches her deceased maternal grandmother Eula Mae’s life and explores ways that various events created the social climates that drove her grandmother’s decision-making and influenced her family’s trajectory. The author uses Black Feminist Theory to understand and reflect on relevant factors such as the presence of oppression and mental health issues, while applying information passed down from relatives with artifacts obtained through Ancestry.com, to gain appreciation for her grandmother’s choices. This document details a grandmother’s fight to create a new normal for her children by persevering through figurative chains of White supremacy and systemic racism and a granddaughter’s journey to obtain answers for the questions she didn’t have an opportunity to ask.
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In the last 15 years, a substantial number of studies have tested the theoretical validity of Bowen family systems theory. A review of this basic research provided empirical support for the relationship between differentiation and chronic anxiety, marital satisfaction, and psychological distress. Bowen's assumption that couples with the same level of differentiation marry was not supported. His specific theories of sibling position and triangulation also received little empirical support. Research on multigenerational transmission has generally ignored Bowen's theoretical perspective, and more research needs to test Bowen's claim that his theory is universal. In addition, researchers still need to examine the effect of differentiation on child functioning, physical health problems, and adaptability.
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The authors used data on 426 older mothers' relationships with their 1,823 adult children to explore the relationship between birth order and parental favoritism. The findings demonstrate that birth order continues to play an important role in explaining favoritism when families enter later stages of the life course. Last-born adult children were most likely to be named as those to whom their mothers were most emotionally close; firstborn children were most likely to be chosen as those to whom mothers would turn when facing personal problems or crises. Further analyses revealed that these patterns remained largely unaffected by family size, race, and child spacing. Middleborn children were substantially underrepresented in mothers' choices; such a pattern is particularly striking considering that the number of middle-born children far exceeded that of firstborn and last-born children in the sample.
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This study aims to know the relationship between the birth order and lifestyles among a sample of adolescent students. The sample of the study consisted of (200) students selected from the governmental schools in the Directorate of Education of Qabatiya, in the second semester of the academic year 2020/2021. The results of the study have revealed that the most common lifestyles among the sample of the study are represented by: (the belonging) style, (the submissive) style, (the avenger) style, (the pampered) style, respectively. The study has also found that there are statistically significant differences in the lifestyles of: (the victim, the domineering, the avenger, and the harmful) which are ascribed to the gender variable. Moreover, there are statistically significant differences in (the pampered) style in favour of the female students. The study has also indicated that there is no statistically significant relationship between the birth order and the lifestyles among the sample of the study. The researcher has recommended conducting more studies which deal with birth order and the lifestyles with other variables and other categories.
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Speech is the verbal mean of producing language & Language is the conceptual processing of communication. Children are considered to have speech delay if their speech development is considerably below the norm for children of same age. Objective: To est imat e t he effect s of demographic factors and family healthin children with speech delay. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted to nd the association of demographic factors and family history in children with speech delay. Convenient sampling technique was used. Sample of 50 children between the ages of 1 to 6 years with speech delay was collected from Outpatient department of Child & Family Psychiatry ward, Mayo Hospital, Lahore and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Results: Females were more affected than males i.e. 64% were male and 36% were female. Speech delay was more prevalent in children with 1st birth order i.e. 38%. Among them 76% were urban and 24% had rural background while 40% children came from monthly income below 10,000. 72% of Children were not having any family history of speech delay. Conclusions: It was concluded that gender and birth order can greatly inuence the speech disorders. First child has greater chances of having speech delay normally due to less exposure or less given chances to express, girls were at lesser risk than boys. Urban children were more prone to speech delay while speech delay in children was not linked to family history.
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In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students ( M age = 21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order.
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This paper analyzes if pre-schoolers can distinguish fantasy from reality and what factors influence it. Garner, Curenton, Taylor (2OO5) method was used in this study. The participants were 48 preschoolers aged from 2 years and 9 months old to 7 years and 5 months old. We tried to evaluate if they could distinguish the events which happen in the real world and which happen only in fantasy and what arguments they use when giving their explanation. The study shows that age is an important factor in fantasy-reality understanding. Older pre-schoolers make fewer mistakes when making the decision on what is real and what is fantasy. Also, they more often give the right explanation about their decision, which shows that they have already gained strong knowledge about what is real in life and what is only a fantasy. In this study family background, like parents' education and children's birth order, was also analyzed, but it was not related to children's fantasy-reality understanding. Keywords: fantasy-reality distinction, pre-schoolers, parents' education, birth order.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of psychological birth order, social interest, and coping strategies and their interactions on resilience in Turkish population (N = 247). The results indicated social interest, coping strategies of active planning, acceptance and cognitive restructuring, seeking external help and psychological birth order of the youngest and middle child were predictors of resilience. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS)
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Purpose of the articleThe presented study introduces the psychological factors which influence the creative development of young people in their families, especially from psychological position - acquired of birh of order - point of view. The study presents basic theoretical theses of birth orders´concept, as A. Adler and his followers introduced into psychological literature; it also brings information from empirical researches about the groups of five positions´ birth order: first-born, send-born, middle-born, youngest and parents´only children in relation to their psychological characteristics. The second part is dedicated to issue of birth order in relation to creativity, intelligence and personality traits of 153 adolescents - students of the last year of high school who passed the exams for the artistic - technical study at the Faculty of Architecture (61 men, 92 women) with the average age 18.32 years.
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Abstract: Speech is the verbal mean of producing language & Language is the conceptual processing of communication. Children are considered to have speech delay if their speech development is considerably below the norm for children of same age. Objective: To estimate the effects of demographic factors and family health in children with speech delay. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted to nd the association of demographic factors and family history in children with speech delay. Convenient sampling technique was used. Sample of 50 children between the ages of 1 to 6 years with speech delay was collected from Outpatient department of Child & Family Psychiatry ward, Mayo Hospital, Lahore and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Results: Females were more affected than males i.e. 64% were male and 36% were female. Speech delay was more prevalent in children with 1st birthorder i.e. 38%. Among them 76% were urban and 24% had rural background while 40% children came from monthly income below 10,000. 72% of Children were not having any family history of speech delay. Conclusions: It was concluded that gender and birth order can greatly inuence the speech disorders. First child has greater chances of having speech delay normally due to less exposure or less given chances to express, girls were at lesser risk than boys. Urban children were more prone to speech delay while speech delay in children was not linked to family history. Key Words: Children, Speech Delay, Demographic Factors,Family History
Confirmed previous findings that 1st-borns are "more timid about dangerous activities" by administering a retrospective self-rating to 130 undergraduates. 59% of the 1st-borns (N = 68) rated themselves conservatively, and only 39% of the non-1st-borns (N = 62) did. Results are explained in terms of maternal involvement.