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Utilization of plastic bottle waste in sand bricks

Authors:
  • POLITEKNIK SULTAN MIZAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

Abstract and Figures

Disposal of large quantity of plastic bottle has emerged as an important environmental challenge, and its recycling is facing a big problem due to non-degradable nature. Due to plastic does not decompose biologically, the amount of plastic waste in our surroundings is steadily increasing. The proposed sand bricks which is made up by adding plastic bottle waste in crush form in sand bricks may help to reuse the plastic bottle waste as one of the additives material of bricks, and to help the disposal problem of plastic waste. The properties of sand bricks which contain varying percentages of plastic were tested for compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence. It shows that an appreciable improvement in the performance of bricks can be achieved by introducing crush type of plastic waste into sand bricks. In view of utilization of plastic waste material for developing sustainable construction material, the present paper reviews plastic waste materials in different compositions of 0% to 15% that were added to the raw material to develop plastic waste sand bricks. The compression strength of the bricks is reviewed and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. It was found that the reduction in compressive strength, due to replacement of sand by waste plastic bottle, is minimal and can be enhanced by addition of super plasticizer. The water absorption and efflorescence however showed excellent performance. KEYWORDS: Plastic Waste, Compressive Strength, Water Absorption, Efflorescence, Environmental Issue.
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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 5(1)35-44, 2015
© 2015, TextRoad Publication
ISSN 2090-4304
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Corresponding Author: Norlia Md Desa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic of Sultan Mizan
Zainal Abidin, 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia, E-mail: liiya69@yahoo.com
Utilization of Plastic Bottle Waste in Sand Bricks
Siti Aishah Wahid, Sullyfaizura Mohd Rawi, Norlia Md Desa
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Polytechnic of Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia
Received: October 14, 2014
Accepted: December 16, 2014
ABSTRACT
Disposal of large quantity of plastic bottle has emerged as an important environmental challenge, and
its recycling is facing a big problem due to non-degradable nature. Due to plastic does not decompose
biologically, the amount of plastic waste in our surroundings is steadily increasing. The proposed sand
bricks which is made up by adding plastic bottle waste in crush form in sand bricks may help to reuse
the plastic bottle waste as one of the additives material of bricks, and to help the disposal problem of
plastic waste. The properties of sand bricks which contain varying percentages of plastic were tested
for compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence. It shows that an appreciable
improvement in the performance of bricks can be achieved by introducing crush type of plastic waste
into sand bricks. In view of utilization of plastic waste material for developing sustainable construction
material, the present paper reviews plastic waste materials in different compositions of 0% to 15% that
were added to the raw material to develop plastic waste sand bricks. The compression strength of the
bricks is reviewed and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. It was found that
the reduction in compressive strength, due to replacement of sand by waste plastic bottle, is minimal
and can be enhanced by addition of super plasticizer. The water absorption and efflorescence however
showed excellent performance.
KEYWORDS: Plastic Waste, Compressive Strength, Water Absorption, Efflorescence, Environmental
Issue.
INTRODUCTION
Plastic is a very common material that is now widely used by everybody in this world. Plastic has
many advantages as it is compact and light in weight. Common plastic items that are used are bags,
bottles, containers and food packages. The great problem with plastic is its disposal. Plastic is made of
polymer chemicals and they are not bio degradable. This means that plastic will not decompose when it
is buried. Though plastic is a very useful material that is flexible, robust and rigid they become waste
after their use and they pollute the atmosphere.
Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially
useful materials. The increase in the popularity of using environmental friendly, low cost and
lightweight construction materials in building industry has brought about the need to investigate how
this can be achieved by benefiting to the environment as well as maintaining the material requirements
affirmed in the standards. To protect the environment as well as to take advantage of plastic, recycling
procedure is used.
The use of waste plastic bottles for the production of bricks is an optimal method to solve the
problem of storing waste materials and to optimize the cost for the production of building materials. In
this study, plastic bottle waste in bottle factory will be used to incorporate with cement and sand to
produce sand bricks. The bricks will then be tested to study the compressive strength, water absorption
and efflorescence.
In the recent past research, the replacement and addition have be done with the direct inclusion of
polyethylene or plastic fibre, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles in shredded form, chemically
treated polyethylene fibre, PET in aggregate form by replacing natural coarse aggregate. Most of
replacements have been done by volume calculation, and showed the decreased in compressive strength
as the plastic fibre increased. In this study, recycled plastic bottle have been introduced in crush form
as the fibre [5]. The replacement has been done by weight calculation instead of volume calculation.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The increase in the popularity of using environmental friendly, low cost and lightweight
construction materials in building industry has brought about the need to investigate how this can be
achieved by benefiting to the environment as well as maintaining the material requirements affirmed in
the standards. Brick is one of the most accommodating masonry units as a building material due to its
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Wahid et al.,2015
properties. Attempts have been made to incorporate waste in the production of bricks such as the use of
paper processing residues, cigarette butts, fly ash, textile effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge,
polystyrene foam, plastic fiber, straw, polystyrene fabric, cotton waste, dried sludge collected from an
industrial wastewater treatment plant, rice husk ash, granulated blast furnace slag, rubber, craft pulp
production residue, limestone dust and wood sawdust, processed waste tea, petroleum effluent
treatment plant sludge, welding flux slag and waste paper pulp [6].
In [3], it describes the used of various types of waste materials in different proportions and adopted
different methods to produce bricks. Different tests were conducted on produced bricks to evaluate
their properties following the various available standards. Compressive strength and water absorption
are two common parameters considered by most researchers as required by various standards. It is
noted that although many of the studied bricks made from waste materials meet the various standard
requirements and a number of patents have been approved, so far commercial production and
application of bricks from waste materials is still very limited. The limited production and application
of bricks from waste materials is also related to the absence of relevant standards and the slow
acceptance by industry and public. Standardization plays an important role in disseminating
knowledge, exploiting research results and reducing time to market for innovations.
Recently, in [5] mentioned that there are various research works have been done to find out the safe
and environment friendly disposal of plastics. India generates 56 lakh tons of plastic waste annually,
where Delhi accounting for staggering 689.5 tons a day. Approximately, 60% of total plastic waste is
collected and recycled in the country per day and remain is uncollected and littered. Besides of that,
concrete all over the globe has been utilized for the required infrastructure. Both materials
consumptions are increasing day by day in their respective field. The inclusion of waste plastic in
concrete by replacing or adding the concrete ingredients is one of the appropriate ways to dispose it.
In term of costing, cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed
that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30%-47% when
compared with the use of sand concrete blocks. While the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings
of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi
and other locations due to its more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks [4].
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
Plastic waste preparation
The main objective of this research work is to develop an efficient way to utilize the waste of
plastic bottle which is a great threat for the sustainment of ecological balance. The plastic bottles waste
was collected from Global Dynamic (M) Sdn Bhd located at Bukit Kor, Marang, Terengganu,
Malaysia. The rejected bottles which have defects were collected and put into crusher to form small
pieces. Then, the plastics were sieved to choose the smallest size. The steps are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Plastic waste preparation
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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 5(1)35-44, 2015
Sand Bricks preparation
The sand brick preparation was done at SIZ Hardware and Supplier Sdn. Bhd Dungun
Terengganu Malaysia. The proportion of sand, sand dust and cement (9:9:4) were put into the mixer.
Then, two buckets of water (ratio of 2) were poured and mixed up together. The plastics materials then
were put into ratios and were mixed together with the raw materials. Finally, the mixture was put into
the mold to form bricks.
Figure 2: Sand bricks preparation
Sand Bricks Testing
Three types of testing were conducted in this research work, which is compression test as per BS
5628: Part 1: 1992, water absorption test and efflorescence test as per CSA A82 standard.
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Wahid et al.,2015
a) Compression test (BS 5628: Part 1: 1992)
This test is done to know the compressive strength of brick. It is also called crushing strength of
brick. Generally, 3 specimens of bricks are taken to laboratory for testing and tested one by one. In
this test, a brick specimen is put on crushing machine and applied pressure till it breaks. The
ultimate pressure at which brick is crushed is taken into account. All five brick specimens are tested
one by one and average result is taken as brick's compressive/crushing strength. The procedures are
explained in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Procedures for compression test
b) Water absorption test
In this test, bricks are weighed in dry condition and let them immersed in fresh water for 24 hours.
After 24 hours of immersion, those are taken out from water and wipe out with cloth. Then, brick is
weighed in wet condition. The difference between weights is the water absorbed by brick. The
percentage of water absorption is then calculated. The less water absorbed by brick the greater its
quality. Good quality brick doesn't absorb more than 20% water of its own weight. The process is
shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Water absorption test process
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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 5(1)35-44, 2015
Procedures
i. Dry the specimen in a ventilated oven at a temperature of 105°C to 115°C till it attains substantially
constant mass.
ii. Cool the specimen to room temperature and obtain its weight (M1) specimen too warm to touch
shall not be used for this purpose.
iii. Immerse completely dried specimen in clean water at a temperature of 27+2°C for 24 hours.
iv. Remove the specimen and wipe out any traces of water with damp cloth and weigh the specimen
after it has been removed from water (M2).
v. Water absorption, % by mass, after 24 hours immersion in cold water as shown in equation 1.
(1)
c) Efflorescence test (CSA A82)
The presence of alkalis in bricks is harmful where it forms a gray or white layer on brick surface by
absorbing moisture. To find out the presence of alkalis in bricks, this test is performed. In this test, a
brick is immersed in fresh water for 24 hours. Then, it is taken out from water and allowed to dry in
shade. If the whitish layer is not visible on surface, it proofs that absence of alkalis in brick. If the
whitish layer visible about 10% of brick surface, then the presence of alkalis is in acceptable range.
If that is about 50% of surface, then it is moderate. If the alkali’s presence is over 50%, then the
brick is severely affected by alkalis.
Procedures
i. Distilled water to be filled in a dish of suitable size. The dish should be made of glass, porcelain or
glazed stone ware.
ii. Place the end of the bricks in the dish, the depth of immersion in water being 25mm. Place the
whole arrangements in a warm (for example, 20oC to 30oC) well ventilated room until all the water
in the dish is absorbed by the specimen and the surface water evaporate.
iii. Cover the dish with suitable cover, so that excessive evaporation from the dish may not occur.
iv. When the water has been absorbed and bricks appear to be dry, place a similar quantity of water in
the dish and allow it to evaporate as before.
v. Examine the bricks for efflorescence after the second evaporation and report the results as:
- NIL-When there is not perceptible deposit of efflorescence
- SLIGHT-Not more than 10% area of the brick covered with a thin deposit of salt.
- MODERATE-Covering up to 50% area of the brick.
- HEAVY-Covering 50% or more but unaccompanied by powdering or flacking of the brick surface.
- SERIOUS-When there is a heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or flacking of the
exposed surfaces.
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Wahid et al.,2015
Figure 5: Efflorescence test process
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of Different Ratio of Plastic Waste on Compression Test
Table 1: Maximum load and compressive strength of different ratio of plastic waste
Sample
Weight (kg)
Density (kg/m3)
Max load at crushing (kN)
Compressive strength (kN/m2)
0%
2.60
1994.4
252.67
12404.03
5%
2.42
1856.3
236.67
11618.56
10%
2.40
1840.9
121.33
5956.31
15%
2.10
1610.8
60.67
2978.39
From the compression test result, it is clearly showed that the value of compressive strength
decrease as the ratio of plastic waste increase. The virgin (0% plastic waste) sand brick showed the
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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 5(1)35-44, 2015
highest value of compressive strength of 252.67kN. This followed by 5%, 10% and 15% plastic waste
which are 236.67kN, 121.33kN and 60.67kN. The same goes to maximum load values as shown in
Figure 6. The values decrease as the plastic waste ratio increase. This might be because of the plastic
waste does not possess cemntitious property. It does not bind well with the cement and thus the
strength was subsequently reduced. Figure 5 shows the compressive strength versus plastic waste ratio.
Due to the crushy nature of the grinded bottle waste, the strength was reduced with the increase in
proportion of the waste. This result showed the same trend as the previous research for the flakes type
of plastic waste conducted by [1].
Figure 6: Graph of compressive strength versus plastic waste ratio
Figure 7: Graph of maximum load versus plastic waste ratio
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0% 5% 10% 15%
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (kN/mm2)
PLASTIC WASTE RATIO
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF DIFFERENT
RATIO OF PLASTIC WASTE
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0% 5% 10% 15%
MAX LOAD AT CRUSHING (kN)
PLASTIC WASTE RATIO
MAXIMUM LOAD AT CRUSHING OF
DIFFERENT RATIO OF PLASTIC WASTE
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Wahid et al.,2015
Effect of Different Ratio of Plastic Waste on Water Absorption Test
Table 2: Percentage water absorbed of different ratio of plastic waste
Sample
Weight before (kg)
Weight after (kg)
% water absorbed
0%
2.60
3.20
23.08
5%
2.42
2.77
14.46
10%
2.40
2.67
11.25
15%
2.10
2.13
9.52
Water absorption test showed excellent performance of the plastic waste brick. As the plastic
waste ratio increase, the percentage of water absorption decreases. The values range from 14.46% to
9.52%. The virgin bricks showed poor performance since it absorbed 23.08% of water. Good quality of
bricks shall not absorb more than 20% of water. This concludes that the presence of plastic waste in the
bricks helps on the performance of the bricks.
Figure 8: Graph of different of water absorbed versus plastic waste ratio
Figure 9: Graph percentage of water absorbed versus plastic waste ratio
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0% 5% 10% 15%
WATER ABSORPTION (kg)
PLATIC WASTE RATIO
DIFFERENT OF WATER ABSORPTION
BEFORE AND AFTER IMMERSION
WEIGHT BEFORE
WEIGHT AFTER
0
5
10
15
20
25
0% 5% 10% 15%
% WATER ABSORBED
PLASTIC WASTE RATIO
PERCENTAGE OF WATER ABSORBED OF
DIFFERENT PLASTIC WASTE RATIO
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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 5(1)35-44, 2015
Effect of Different Ratio of Plastic Waste on Efflorescence Test
Table 3: Salt deposited of different ratio of plastic waste
Sample
NIL
SLIGHT
MODERATE
HEAVY
SERIOUS
0%
5%
10%
15%
The efflorescence test also showed the excellence performance of the sand bricks. There is no
absence of grey or a white deposit was shown on its sand bricks surfaces for all ratios. It was showed
that all of the sand bricks indicate no absence of soluble salts or alkali. From this test, we can conclude
that no alkalis was presence in this sand brick.
Figure 10: Efflorescence observation
CONCLUSION
The comprehensive strength decreases with increasing waste plastic ratios. The virgin (0% plastic
waste) sand brick showed the highest value of compressive strength of 252.67kN. This followed by
5%, 10% and 15% plastic waste which are 236.67kN, 121.33kN and 60.67kN. This may be attributed
to the decrease in the adhesive strength between the waste plastic and the cement paste. It seems that
the bonding between the plastic particles and the cement paste is weak. However, the mixes of sand
bricks and plastics waste seems possible because water absorption less than 15% for all ratios.
Furthermore, there are only slight salt/alkalis presence in the sand bricks mixes with plastic waste. The
reduced compressive strength values of waste plastic bricks mixes show that it can be used only in
situations that required low-degree workability. Such situations are numerous in civil engineering
applications, namely, precast bricks, partition wall panels, canal linings, and so forth. Recommendation
for further study, it will emphasize on grind the waste into fine powder and mix into such proportion to
achieve maximum packing density. It may result to increase in compressive strength and binder, or
plasticizer should be added to the mixture to increase the bind between plastic surface and cement
particle [2].
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Wahid et al.,2015
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance and constructive comments provided by Mr Zairi
Ismael Rizman in the completion of this paper.
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Plasticizer. ISRN Civil Engineering, 2012: 1-5.
3. Zhang, L., 2013. Production of Bricks from Waste Materials-A Review. Construction and
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4. Hiremath, P.M., S. Shetty, P.G.N. Rai and T.B. Prathima, 2014. Utilization of Waste Plastic in
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... Proper management of solid wastes through recycling into new products will help to promote a sustainable environment, conservation of natural resources, and cheap raw materials [4]. On the other hand, the lack of adequate management of solid wastes will add to the existing environmental problem; hence, solid wastes must be properly managed by recycling them into new useful products [3,5]. Being that plastic wastes cannot decompose easily and are produced in huge quantities, their deposition into landfills may not be a permanent solution [13]. ...
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Managing plastics waste is a global challenge that challenges the health of our ecosystem due to their high rate of production and non-biodegradability. However, it is important to handle PWs properly to curtail the environmental emissions associated with their incineration and dumping into landfills. The world's building industry is influenced by looking at the expense of construction materials and the required raw materials to manufacture them with the supporting climate that is rising at an unprecedented pace. The recycling of plastic waste into new useful building construction products will be a great advantage In this analysis, the shredded PET waste gathered from the recycling center was heated to 230 0C and used as a binder for the complete substitution of cement with a river sand aggregate for the manufacture of polymer interlocking / paving stones. The physical characteristics and mechanical performance of the aggregate materials and PET polymer concrete (including their distribution of particle size, silt , clay and dust content, relative stiffness, water absorption, porosity, flexural and compressive strength) were tested on various PET waste: 100%, 90%, 70%, 50% and 30% sand mixing percentages. The results showed that the produced interlocks from 30% PET and 70% river sand (3:7) achieved higher density, flexural, and compressive strength than the other combination percentages. The least strength and porosity were exhibited by the polymer concrete produced with 100 % PET. The compressive strength of the PET polymer concrete produced with 30 % PET waste composition was higher than that of cement concrete at 28 days curing. Based on the test results, PET polymer concrete at 30 % PET replacement can be used for interlocking tiles / paving stones due to its strength, low water absorption, and eco-friendliness, especially in water-logged areas. This prospect of interlocking tile production using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste and sand would not only minimise the cost of building production, but will only act as a waste diversion to mitigate environmental emissions caused by plastic waste disposal.
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Plastic waste is a significant environmental problem for almost all countries; therefore, protecting the environment from the problem is crucial. The most sensible solution to these problems is substituting the natural aggregates with substantial plastic waste in various building materials. This study aimed to optimise the mixed design ratio of cement brick containing plastic waste as aggregate replacement. Plastic cement brick mixtures were prepared by the incorporation of four different types of plastic waste such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene and polypropylene into cement bricks with different cement contents (150, 300 and 450 g) and plastic replacement percentages (0, 3 and 6%). Compressive strength and water absorption of the plastic cement bricks were analysed using a statistical model through the response surface methodology. It revealed the optimum cement brick mixed design is C3-1% PET with the compressive strength of 27.50 MPa and water absorption of 1.16%. The optimised plastic cement brick also satisfied the general ASTM C62-17 requirements for building bricks despite the higher porosity observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis also showed that the addition of the plastic waste into cement brick was unlikely to modify the chemical compound within the cement brick mixtures. Thus, the proposed mathematical model can predict the required hardened properties of plastic cement bricks and could lead to greater utilisation of plastic waste in building materials.
Article
Background: Plastic waste (PW) is becoming increasingly hazardous to the environment as a result of its massive production, causing significant damage to both the ecosystem and its inhabitants. Managing plastic waste is a global concern due to its non-biodegradable nature. However, it is important to handle PWs properly to curtail the environmental emissions associated with their incineration and dumping into landfills. This research investigates the possibility of producing tiles from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste bottles and fly ash. The mechanical properties, as well as the chemical resistance of the manufactured PET polymer tiles, are reported in this study. Methods: PET waste was used in varying proportions (from 30% to 100%) by sand weight. The shredded PET waste was heated at 230 o C before being suitably blended with fly ash. It was then poured into the designated mold, removed after one hour, and cooled for 24 hours before testing. Results: The assessment of the physical and mechanical properties of the materials revealed that the tiles produced with 30% PET content performed better in terms of material density and strength compared to the samples with higher PET content. The highest compressive strength being 6.88 MPa. Based on the results of the tests, the produced PET tiles have a low water absorption efficiency of 80% lower when compare to cement and ceramic tiles (the water absorption values are between 0.98% and 0.09%). Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that PET waste bottles can be used to produce long-lasting, durable, and extremely low water absorption eco-friendly tiles for both residential and commercial applications. This prospect of tile production using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste and fly ash would not only minimize the cost of building products but will also act as a waste diversion to mitigate environmental emissions caused by plastic waste disposal.
Article
Bangladesh is currently hosting about 1.30 million Rohingya people in its southeastern region, the most persecuted ethnic minority of the world. The present semi structured living shelters mostly made of bamboo and plastic sheets, are not resistant to environmental disasters like- monsoon rain, cyclone, mudslide, and prone to cause vector borne diseases. This study developed plastic brick, where a waste 500 mL polyethylene terephthalate bottle was utilized which was manually compacted with air dried fine sand as the filler material. Cardboard frame was used to shape the brick like a normal clay brick. The filled bottle was placed at the central portion of the frame where hand blended mortar was used to cover the whole frame up to the marked dimensions. The prepared brick samples were subjected to compression test and the average strength obtained was 2.88 and 3.29 N/mm² for 14- and 28-day crushing age samples, respectively and demonstrated a high potential for the bricks to be used in construction works. The hazard due to environmental disasters in the displacement camps along with managing plastic waste, utilization of plastic brick can be a low cost, useful, and sustainable way towards a safe and rigid living structure.
Conference Paper
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Concrete is a basic material for all civil works which is made from cement sand and stones. Now a days collecting sand from natural beds of rivers and aggregates is becoming difficult due to environmental clearances. Replacement of fine aggregate or coarse aggregates in cement concrete with some industrial by-product is highly desirable. Due to its lower cost, it makes an attractive alternative if adequate performance can be obtained. This paper presents the results of experimental study on the use of polyethylene hand cut macro fibre on the mechanical properties of cement concrete. The polyethylene in fibre form with size 120 mm length and 4 mm width have been replaced by fine aggregate. The fine aggregate was replaced by plastic fibre with 1% by weight. The compressive strength and tensile strength of controlled specimen and treated specimen have been evaluated at 7 days and 28 days. It was observed the compressive strength of cement concrete decreased after the inclusion of plastic fibre. The inclusions of plastic fiber have no significant effect on tensile strength. It has been seen that there is a zilch chemical reaction of plastic fibre with the matrix during the hydration process. This was due to the density difference in fine aggregate and polyethylene. The compressive strength significantly decreased by 50.42% at 28 days. The tensile strength decreased by 8.52% which is nominal as compare to the compressive strength decrement rate.
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The fresh and hardened properties of waste virgin plastic mix concrete have been studied (CUR Report 1991). A number of concrete mixes were prepared in which sand was partially replaced by waste plastic flakes in varying percentages by volume. Waste plastic mix concrete with and without superplasticizer was tested at room temperature. Forty-eight cube samples were moulded for compressive strength tests at three, seven, and twenty-eight days. Eight beams were also cast to study the flexural strength characteristic of waste plastic mix concrete. It was found that the reduction in workability and compressive strength, due to partially replacement of sand by waste plastic, is minimal and can be enhanced by addition of superplasticizer.
Article
Bricks are a widely used construction and building material around the world. Conventional bricks are produced from clay with high temperature kiln firing or from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, and thus contain high embodied energy and have large carbon footprint. In many areas of the world, there is already a shortage of natural source material for production of the conventional bricks. For environmental protection and sustainable development, extensive research has been conducted on production of bricks from waste materials. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of research on utilization of waste materials to produce bricks. A wide variety of waste materials have been studied to produce bricks with different methods. The research can be divided into three general categories based on the methods for producing bricks from waste materials: firing, cementing and geopolymerization. Although much research has been conducted, the commercial production of bricks from waste materials is still very limited. The possible reasons are related to the methods for producing bricks from waste materials, the potential contamination from the waste materials used, the absence of relevant standards, and the slow acceptance of waste materials-based bricks by industry and public. For wide production and application of bricks from waste materials, further research and development is needed, not only on the technical, economic and environmental aspects but also on standardization, government policy and public education related to waste recycling and sustainable development.
Article
Accumulation of unmanaged industrial or agricultural solid waste especially in developing countries has resulted in an increased environmental concern. Recycling of such wastes as a sustainable construction material appears to be viable solution not only to pollution problem but also an economical option to design of green buildings. In view of utilization of industrial and agricultural waste material for developing sustainable construction material, the present paper reviews various waste materials in different compositions that were added to the raw material at different levels to develop waste-create bricks (WCB). Various physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the bricks incorporating different waste materials are reviewed and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. The reviewed approach for the design and development of WCB using industrial solid waste is useful to provide a potential sustainable solution.Highlights► The various methodologies for development of waste-create bricks have been reviewed. ► Physico-mechanical and chemical properties of waste-create bricks are studied. ► Wastes-create bricks give an economical option to green design of building. ► The study is useful to design and develop the sustainable construction material. ► The study helps in developing property-composition relationship.
Utilization of E-Waste and Plastic Bottle Waste in Concrete
  • A Arora
  • U V Dave
Arora, A. and U.V. Dave, 2013. Utilization of E-Waste and Plastic Bottle Waste in Concrete. International Journal of Students Research in Technology & Management, 1 (4): 398-406.