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Current status of coral reefs in Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia

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The present study aimed to determine the current status of corals using the coral video transect (CVT) method in the east coast, west coast, and isolated areas of Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 65 genera from 21 families of corals were identified, from which the scleractinian corals of Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were dominant in the coral assemblages. Nine reef sites were categorised as having ‘good’ (51.4%–60.3%) coral condition and four reef sites as having ‘fair’ (37.6%–49.2%) coral condition. This study concluded that the reefs around Tioman Island were in ‘good’ average coral condition and have high generic diversity with mixed coral morphological structures. The east coast and isolated areas had better live coral cover compared to the west coast area due to less coastal development and human impacts.
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http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/
Turkish Journal of Zoology
Turk J Zool
(2017) 41:
© TÜBİTAK
doi:10.3906/zoo-1511-42
Current status of coral reefs in Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia
Saad SHAHBUDIN1,*, Khodzori FIKRI AKMAL2, Salleh FARIS2, Mohammad-Noor NORMAWATY1, Yukinori MUKAI1
1Department of Marine Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
2Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
* Correspondence: ocean@iium.edu.my
1. Introduction
Coral reefs are important ecosystems that provide goods
and services to marine tropical and subtropical regions
(Moberg and Folke, 1999). In Peninsular Malaysia, coral
reefs are found in several localities o the west coast, south
coast, and east coast of the peninsula (Aendi and Rosman,
2012). e east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has extensive
development of coral reefs with a total of 323 scleractinian
coral species identied (Harborne et al., 2000). e most
recent report on the status of hard coral diversity increased
this list to 431 species in this region (Aendi and Rosman,
2012). is gure represents approximately 75% of the
total number of 571 coral species identied in the South
China Sea (Huang et al., 2015).
Although coral reefs provide various important
ecosystem services to human populations, their health
status has been declining due to human intervention
together with detrimental impacts of climate change and
ocean acidication (Wilkinson, 2008; Jordan et al., 2010;
Unsworth et al., 2010). Reef Check Malaysia reported that
the coral coverage in several reefs of the east coast region
was exposed to high rates of sedimentation resulting from
construction and land reclamation activities (Reef Check
Malaysia, 2008). ese pressures aect reef diversity and
distribution by reducing light availability. In addition,
tourism activities may also be a major impact causing a
decrease in live coral coverage (Jonsson, 2003; Toda et
al., 2007). Trampling action by inexperienced snorkelers
and scuba divers may have a negative impact that can
cause partial mortality of corals (Zakai and Chadwic-
Furman 2002; Toda et al., 2007). Besides the natural
and anthropogenic factors, the lack of a comprehensive
database is impeding conservation eorts towards coral
reef ecosystems. erefore, management action based on
comprehensive studies of marine biodiversity should be
performed to ensure the conservation and sustainability of
coral reef ecosystems.
Several studies about coral species diversity were
conducted at Tioman Island by Harborne et al. (2000) at
seven reef sites, i.e. Batu Malang, Juara Bay, Gut, Tokong
Bahara, Seri Buat, Tulai, and Renggis Islands; by Aendi
et al. (2007) at several reef sites from Paya to Genting
villages; and by Amri et al. (2008) at one reef site in Tekek
Bay. e most recent study of generic coral diversity was
done by Toda et al. (2007) at three reef sites, i.e. Manggo,
Tulai and Renggis Reefs, at this island. It is an important
task to keep up-to-date list of corals and perform a
continuous evaluation of the status of coral diversity and
reef conditions at Tioman Island.
is present study describes the generic diversity and
distribution of corals at 13 reef sites in the east coast,
west coast, and isolated areas of Tioman Island. e
classication of coral morphology class score and the coral
condition for each reef site were also determined. Data
Abstract: e present study aimed to determine the current status of corals using the coral video transect (CVT) method in the east
coast, west coast, and isolated areas of Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 65 genera from 21 families of corals were identied,
from which the scleractinian corals of Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were dominant in the coral assemblages. Nine reef sites were
categorised as having ‘good’ (51.4%–60.3%) coral condition and four reef sites as having ‘fair’ (37.6%–49.2%) coral condition. is study
concluded that the reefs around Tioman Island were in ‘good’ average coral condition and have high generic diversity with mixed coral
morphological structures. e east coast and isolated areas had better live coral cover compared to the west coast area due to less coastal
development and human impacts.
Key words: Scleractinian corals, non-scleractinian corals, so corals, r-K-S ternary diagrams, Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia
Received: 24.11.2015 Accepted/Published Online: 20.09.2016 Final Version: 00.00.2016
Research Article
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
2
and information related to the current status of coral reefs
will help the relevant stakeholders such as the Department
of Marine Park Malaysia in updating coral inventories
at generic level and providing reliable information to
sustainably manage coral reef ecosystems.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area
Tioman Island lies between 02°48ʹ52.1ʺN and
104°10ʹ29.3ʺE, 32 km o the east coast of Peninsular
Malaysia in the state of Pahang. e land and coastal
areas up to 2 nautical miles around the Tioman Island was
established in 1994 as a Marine Park under the Fisheries
Act (1985) to protect its biodiversity (DMPM, 2011). A
total of 13 reef sites were selected surrounding this island
as shown in Figure 1. e reef sites were divided into three
areas: east coast area (Dalam Bay, Benuang Bay, Benuang),
west coast area (Genting Village, Tomok Island, Renggis
Island, Soyak Island, Terdau Bay), and isolated area (Gado
Bay, Bayan Bay, Tulai Bay, Sepoi Island, Labas Island). ese
areas were divided based on dierences in environmental
settings, coastal developments, and human activities that
might establish a gradient of human impacts allowing
comparisons in diversity and distribution of corals. e
isolated area refers to the area located far from Tioman
Island, with no coastal development and less impact from
tourism activities. All the reef sites around Tioman Island
are fringing reef with a depth range from 3 to 16 m.
2.2. Corals survey method
e coral video transect (CVT) method developed by the
Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) was adopted
in this study (Abdo et al., 2004). Four 30-m transect lines
were aligned at each reef site with a 3-m interval between
each transect. A total of 52 transect lines were used in this
study. An underwater video camera (Olympus underwater
camera TG-3 in video resolution 1980 × 1080 HD)
protected with a waterproof casing (Olympus PT-053) was
used to record the benthic substrate communities along
the transect lines with the distance of the camera being
approximately 30 to 50 cm from the substrate and held at
a perpendicular angle to the bottom. e camera was run
along the transect lines at a speed of 6 min per transect
line to get clear and sharp images for laboratory analysis.
Additional close-up images of corallites were taken to help
with the coral identications.
2.3. Image processing and data analysis
e recorded videos of benthic communities along four
30-m transect lines for each reef site were converted to 300
picture frames. All picture frames with 10 random points
per frame were analysed using Coral Point Count with
Excel extension (CPCe) soware version 4.1 (Kohler and
Gill, 2006) to determine the percentage cover of benthic
communities. e coral condition was indicated by total
percentage of three major benthic categories namely live
corals (scleractinian corals, non-scleractinian corals, and
so corals), dead corals (coral rubbles and dead coral
with algae), and others (algae, other invertebrates, and
abiotic elements). e coral condition was classied based
on the percentage cover of live corals following Gomez
et al. (1994) as excellent (100%–75% live coral), good
(74.9%–50% live coral), fair (49.9%–25% live coral), and
poor (24.9%–0% live coral). Numbers of coral genera were
directly counted along the transect lines from the video
recorded. e abundance of each coral genus for every
reef site was determined based on the number of its colony
and was categorised as low (≤25 colonies) or high (≥25
colonies). Coral genera were identied following the Indo
Pacic Coral Finder Toolkit (Kelley, 2009) supported by
Corals of the World (Veron, 2000).
2.4. Coral morphology class score
All reef sites were plotted on the r-K-S ternary diagrams
based on the total cover of various coral morphologies in
each of the three groups, namely ruderals (r), competitors
(K), and stress-tolerators (S), following Edinger and Risk
(2000) (Table 1). e coral morphology classes (C’s) of
1, 2, 3, and 4 were assigned to each reef site according
to its placement on the r-K-S ternary diagrams. Reef
dominated by >60% massive, sub-massive, and massive
platy corals, categorised as stress-tolerator type of corals
(S), were assigned as class 1 (C 1). Reef dominated by
>50% branching non-Acropora corals, free living Fungia
corals, and encrusting and foliose corals, categorised
as competitor type of corals (K) were assigned as class
2 (C 2). Reef dominated by >50% Acropora corals and
non-scleractinian corals (Millepora and Heliopora),
categorised as ruderal type of corals (r), were assigned as
class 3 (C 3). Mixed coral morphology reefs represented
in approximately equal proportions of these ruderal (r),
competitor (K), and stress-tolerator (S) type of corals were
assigned as class 4 (C 4).
2.5. Multivariate analyses
Cluster analysis was performed to determine the group
of similarities between all reef sites based on distance
similarity (Johnson and Wichern, 1992). e data were
initially normalised using the log (x + 1) transform function
and the Euclidean method was used to analyse the cluster
variables. e multidimensional (MDS) ordination (Field
et al., 1982) was used to illustrate the group of similarities
between all reef sites from the data interaction derived
from the cluster analysis. Cluster analysis and MDS
plots were created using Paleontological Statistic (PAST)
soware version 3 (Hammer et al., 2001).
3. Results
3.1. Coral diversity and distribution
A total of 65 coral genera from 21 families were recorded
in this study. Out of these 65 coral genera, 55 genera
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
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corresponded to scleractinian corals, 2 genera were non-
scleractinian hard corals (Millepora and Heliopora), and
8 genera were so corals (Table 2). Acroporidae was
dominant with a cover of 31.4% on average followed by
Faviidae, Poritidae, and Alcyoniidae with 21.2%, 11.1%,
and 8.9%, respectively. e genus Acropora had the highest
average coverage at Tioman Island with 19.7%, followed
by Montipora 11.0%, Porites 10.7%, Sinularia 6.5%, Favites
6.1%, and Galaxea 5.0%. Other genera had <5% average
coverage. e genera Acropora, Montipora, Favia, Favites,
Platygyra, Porites, Galaxea, and Fungia were found at all
reef sites. Among these genera, Acropora and Montipora
were found very well distributed and abundant at all reef
sites. e genus Porites was found well distributed and
abundant in the west coast and isolated areas.
Cluster analysis was done to determine group of
similarities between all reef sites based on the number of
coral genera found at Tioman Island. e dendrogram and
MDS plots revealed two major groups (G I, G II) (Figures
2a and 2b). Benuang, Terdau Bay, Labas Island, Soyak
Figure 1. Locations of 13 reef sites at Tioman Island, east coast area: Dalam Bay (E1), Benuang Bay (E2),
Benuang (E3); west coast area: Genting Village (W1), Tomok Island (W2), Renggis Island (W3), Soyak
Island (W4), Terdau Bay (W5); isolated area: Gado Bay (I1), Bayan Bay (I2), Tulai Bay (I3), Sepoi Island
(I4), Labas Island (I5).
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
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Island, Benuang Bay, Gado Bay, Tulai Bay, and Dalam Bay
were in group I. Other sampling stations were in group II.
Group I consists of a higher number of coral genera that
ranged between 32 and 44 genera and most of them were
categorised as ‘good’ coral condition.
3.2. Coral condition and reef classication
Live coral coverage at Tioman Island was 51.4% ± 1.6.
e east coast area recorded higher live coral coverage
compared to the isolated and west coast areas with 57.7% ±
2.0, 51.2% ± 1.5, and 47.8% ± 2.9, respectively. Nine out of
the 13 reef sites were categorised as ‘good’ coral condition,
while Genting Village (W1) and Tomok Island (W2) in the
west coast area and Tulai Bay (I3) and Sepoi Island (I4)
in the isolated area showed ‘fair’ coral condition. Dalam
Bay (E1), Benuang Bay (E2), and Benuang (E3) in the east
coast area showed ‘good’ coral condition with a higher
percentage of live coral coverage compared to the other
reef sites. e highest percentage of live coral coverage was
recorded at Benuang Island (E3). Soyak Island (W4) and
Terdau Bay (W5) in the west coast area recorded a higher
percentage of dead corals compared to the other reef sites
(Table 3).
Analysis of the r-K-S ternary diagrams showed that
most reef sites were grouped in class 4 (C 4) with mixed
coral morphological structures. ree reef sites (Tomok
Island: W2, Gado Bay: I1 and Tulai Bay: I3) were grouped
in class 1 (C 1), of which stress-tolerator corals such as
massive corals (Porites, Favia, Favites, Platygyra, and
Goniastrea), sub-massive coral (Galaxea), and massive-
platy coral (Euphyllia) ranged between 61.7% and 77.8%.
One reef site (Bayan Bay: N2) located in the isolated area
was grouped in class 2 (C 2), of which competitor corals
such as non-Acropora branching coral (Pocillopora),
encrusting and foliose coral (Montipora and Pavona), and
mushroom coral (Fungia) was 50.1% (Table 4; Figure 3).
4. Discussion
4.1. Coral composition at Tioman Island
In the present study, a total of 57 genera from 17 families of
hard corals including scleractinian and non-scleractinian
corals were found at Tioman Island. e result was slightly
lower than the previous report on the coral reefs of the
east coast of Peninsular Malaysia by Harborne et al.
(2000). ey found a total of 59 genera from 17 families
of hard corals at this island. However, it can be postulated
that the hard corals were diversied at Tioman Island.
e present study also recorded a total of 8 genera from
4 families of so corals at Tioman Island. Unfortunately,
a comparison of diversity for so coral could not be
made due to unavailable data in the previous studies by
Harborne et al. (2000), Aendi et al. (2007), Amri et al.
(2008), and Toda et al. (2007). us, the generic data of
so corals, order Alcyonacea, provide useful information
and can be considered the rst record on the diversity and
distribution of this order at Tioman Island.
e result of coral family analysis showed that
Acroporidae (31.4%) had the highest coverage, followed by
Faviidae (21.2%) and Poritidae (11.1%). is is consistent
Table 1. Coral morphology categories used in reef surveys adapted following Edinger and Risk (2000).
Morphology Code Description rKS group
Acropora AC Acropora branching, bottlebrush, corymbose, digitate, tabular, and
submassive r
Branching coral CB Branching non-Acropora corals; especially Porites cylindrica, some other
spp. K
Encrusting coral CE Low relief, oen small colonies K
Massive-platy coral CMP Plate-like corals forming large massive colonies, especially Euphyllia,
Lobophyllia spp. S
Massive coral CM Massive or dome-like corals of all sizes. S
Foliose coral CF Foliose, either horizontal or vertical, non-Acropora, especially Montipora,
Echinopora K
Tabular coral (non-Acropora) CTB Tabular non-Acropora, esp. Montipora r
Submassive coral CSM Multilobate or “lumpy” corals, sometimes columnar or mixed massive-
columnar, especially Goniopora, Galaxea S
Mushroom coral CMR Free-living fungiid corals K
Millepora CME Various species of Millepora. (hydrocoral) r
Heliopora CHL Blue coral (a hydrocoral) r
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
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Table 2. Average percentage, diversity, distribution and abundance patterns of coral genera at Tioman Island.
No. Coral genera
Reef Site
Average
(%)
East coast West coast Isolated
Dalam Bay
Benuang Bay
Benuang
Genting Village
Tomok Island
Renggis Island
Soyak Island
Terdau Bay
Gado Bay
Bayan Bay
Tulai B ay
Sepoi Island
Labas Island
E1 E2 E3 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5
SCLERACTINIAN CORAL
Acroporidae 31.4
1Acropora √√ √√ √√ √√ √ √√ √√ √√ √√ √√ √√ √√ √√ 19.7
2Montipora √√ √√ √√ √√ √ √√ √ √√ √√ √ √√ √√ 11.0
3Astreopora - √ - √ - √ √ √ √ - - - √ 0.5
4Isopora - √ - - - - - - √ - √ 0.3
Faviidae 21.2
5Favia √√√√√√√√√√√√2.5
6 Favites √√ √√ √√ √ √√ √√ √ √√ √ √√ 6.1
7 Barabattoia ---√---√-----0.1
8 Platyg yra √ √ √√ √ √ √ √√ √ √ √ √√ √ √√ 4.4
9 Echinopora √ √√ √√ √ - √ - √ √ √ - √ √ 2.1
10 Goniastrea √√√√- √√√√√√√√3.1
11 Diploastrea √√√√√- √√√√√√- 0.8
12 Caulastrea ----√--------0.0
13 Montastrea √√√√√√√√√- √√√0.7
14 Cyphastrea √ √ - - - - √ √ √ - √ - √ 0.8
15 Solenastrea ----------√--0.0
16 Oulophyllia √ - √ √ - - √ - √ - √ √ √ 0.3
17 Plesiastrea ---------√-√0.1
18 Leptoria - √ - - - √ - √ - - √ 0.3
19 Leptastrea -----------√0.1
Poritidae 11.1
20 Porites √√ √√ √√ √√ √√ √ √√ √√ √√ 10.7
21 Goniopora - - - √ - √ - - - √ 0.4
Pocilloporidae 2.9
22 Pocillopora √√√√- √√√√√√√√2.8
23 Stylophora - √ - ----------0.0
24 Seriatopora -------√-----0.0
Mussidae 3.6
25 Lobphyllia √√√√√- √√√√√- √1.5
26 Symphyllia √√√√√- √√√√√√√1.3
27 Scolymia --√----√--√--0.1
28 Cynarina -------√-----0.0
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
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29 Acanthastrea √ √ √ - - - √ √ - √ √ √ - 0.6
Oculinidae 5.0
30 Galaxea √√ √√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √√ √ √√ √ √ 5.0
Agariciidae 4.8
31 Pavona √√√√√√√√√- √√√2.9
32 Pachyseris √ √ √ - √ - - √ - √ √ - √ 1.0
33 Leptoseris - - - - - √ - √ - - 0.2
34 Gardineroseris √ √ √ - - - √ √ - √ √ √ - 0.7
Fungiidae 3.1
35 Cycloseris -----√----√--0.1
36 Fungia √√√√√√√√√√√√√2.4
37 Herpolitha ----√------0.1
38 Halomitra ----------√--0.0
39 Sandalolitha - √ √ √ - √ √ √ - - √ - - 0.4
40 Ctenactis - √ - √ - - - √ - - - 0.2
41 Polyphyllia --√--√-------0.0
Pectiniidae 0.1
42 Pectinia -√-√---------0.1
43 Oxypora ---√---------0.0
44 Echinophyllia --√----------0.1
Dendrophyllidae 0.6
45 Turbinaria - - √ - √ - √ - - √ - √ 0.3
46 Tub a stre a -------√----√0.3
Merulinidae 0.7
47 Merulina - √ √ - √ √ √ √ √ - - - √ 0.3
48 Hydnophora √ √ √ - - √ √ √ √ - √ - - 0.4
49 Scapophyllia --------√----0.0
Euphyllidae 3.0
50 Plerogyra - √- - √√√√√- √√√0.6
51 Physogyra - √ - - - - √ - √ - √ 0.2
52 Euphyllia √ √√ √ - - - √ √ √ √ √√ √ √ 2.2
Siderastreidae 0.4
53 Psammocora - √ - - - √ - - √ - √ 0.4
Astrocoeniidae 0.0
54 Stylocoeniella ------------0.0
Trachyphyllidae 0.0
55 Trachyphyllia --√----------0.0
NON-SCLERACTINIAN CORAL
Milleporidae 0.3
56 Millepora --√---√--√--0.3
Helioporidae 1.1
57 Heliopora --√--√-√--√--1.1
SOFT CORAL
Nephteidae 1.0
Table 2. (Continued).
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
7
with their characteristics, namely that they naturally have
the most number of species (Veron, 2000). According to
Wallace (1999), Acroporidae comprises the largest number
of species and has been dominated by the genus Acropora
with approximately 60% coverage. Acroporidae, Faviidae,
and Poritidae also are commonly found conspicuous and
prolic in Indo-pacic reefs (Veron, 1995). In addition,
Alcyoniidae (so corals) was also recorded as among the
highest coverage of coral families with 8.9%. is family is
known as among the family members that have dominated
the Indo-Pacic reefs (Verseveldt, 1980; Malyutin, 1992).
Acropora, Montipora, and Porites are among the highest
coverage of coral genera recorded at Tioman Island.
Previous studies also reported that coral communities
along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia including
Tioman Island were dominated by the genera Acropora,
Porites, and Montipora (Harborne et al., 2000; Toda et al.,
2007). is is due to the fact that these coral genera have
their own ability to tolerate and survive with the changes in
environmental parameters, such as currents, wave actions,
and uctuation of suspended sediment concentrations
(Hong and Sasekumar, 1981; Ammar and Mahmoud,
2006; Unsworth et al., 2010).
For instance, Acropora and Montipora are considered
to have fast-growing species that are able to expand more
rapidly in certain areas compared to other slow-growing
Porites species (Rogers, 1990; Karlson and Hurd, 1993;
Unsworth et al., 2010). However, slow-growing Porites
species have greater longevity of their coral skeleton
compared to more fragile Acropora and Montipora species
(Hong and Sasekumar, 1981). Porites species can also
potentially grow faster than Acropora species in areas where
suspended sediments are high (Ammar and Mahmoud,
2006). Porites colonies have the ability to remove sediment
accumulated on their surfaces through their own cleaning
mechanism, namely mucus secretions or ciliary action
(Hong and Sasekumar, 1981). erefore, it can be assumed
that the high distribution and abundance of this genus in
the west coast area is caused by its ability to adapt with
increased sediment inputs due to environmental factors
and anthropogenic impacts.
Data on the distribution of coral genera collected in
this study also showed that Favia, Favites, Platygyra, and
Galaxea were common coral genera found in all reef
sites at Tioman Island. Since these genera have mainly
colonies with massive and sub-massive forms, they have
greater tolerance to environmental changes if compared to
non-massive coral colonies (Hong and Sasekumar, 1981).
Hong and Sasekumar (1981) reported that these stress
tolerator types of coral are able to endure strong current
and wave action and as well as high suspended sediment
concentrations.
In the family Alcyoniidae, Sinularia was commonly
found at all the reef sites located in the east coast and
isolated areas. Due to directly facing the open sea, these
two areas are exposed to strong waves and currents,
especially during the northeast monsoon season. Having
the structural exibility to tolerate this type of condition,
so corals are able to thrive on the exposed side of reefs
(Hong and Sasekumar, 1981). e other factor that
inuences the growth of so corals is the ability to inhibit
the growth of their adjacent hard corals by releasing toxins
(Maida et al., 1995; Fabricius, 1998). Hence, so corals are
able to grow and compete with hard corals to dominate
certain areas of the reefs.
Based on the analysis of r-K-S ternary diagrams, most
of the reef sites at Tioman Island were assigned as class 4
(C 4) with mixed coral morphologies. e result indicated
that Tioman Island has good habitat complexity and
heterogeneity providing the optimum conditions for sh
58 Nepthea - √ √ - √ √ √ √ √ - - - √ 0.7
59 Dendronephthya --√----√----√0.3
Alcyoniidae 8.9
60 Cladiella -----√----- -√0.2
61 Sinularia √√ √√ √√ - - √√ √√ √ √√ 6.5
62 Lobophytum √ √ √√ - - - √ √ √ √ - - 1.2
63 Sarcophyton √ √ - - - - √ √√ √ - - √ 1.0
Xeniidae 0.0
64 Xenia --√----√-----0.0
Clavulariidae 0.5
65 Clavularia - - - - - √ - - - √ 0.5
Total Genera 32 37 40 24 21 26 36 44 33 20 38 23 38
*√ = Low abundance (≤25 colonies); √√ = High abundance (≥25 colonies)
Table 2. (Continued).
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
8
and other marine organisms. As supported by previous
research, habitat heterogeneity is the most commanding
factor that aects the diversity and abundance of sh
populations, including commercial sh, by providing
many structural habitats for them (McClain and Barry,
2010). us, the reef sites around Tioman Island deserve
Figure 2. a) Cluster analysis of 13 reef sites based on the number of coral genera found in Tioman Island; b) Ordination of 13
reef sites using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot based on the signicant clusters from a).
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
9
Table 3. Percentage coverage of live corals, dead corals and coral condition at Tioman Island
Reef Site Live corals
(%)
Dead corals
(%)
Others
(%) Coral condition
East coast area
E1 Dalam Bay 53.8 19.4 26.8 Good
E2 Benuang Bay 59.1 29.7 11.2 Good
E3 Benuang 60.3 13.5 26.2 Good
Average 57.7 ± 2.0 20.9 ± 4.7 21.4 ± 5.1 Good
1. West coast area
W1 Genting Village 45.1 20.6 34.3 Fair
W2 Tomok Island 37.6 28.8 33.6 Fair
W3 Renggis Island 51.4 21.3 27.3 Good
W4 Soyak Island 51.9 36.1 12.1 Good
W5 Terdau Bay 52.8 37.8 9.4 Good
Average 47.8 ± 2.9 28.9 ± 3.6 23.3 ± 5.3 Fair
2. Isolated area
I1 Gado Bay 51.0 25.0 23.9 Good
I2 Bayan Bay 52.6 21.2 26.2 Good
I3 Tulai B ay 47.2 24.4 28.4 Fair
I4 Sepoi Island 49.2 20.4 30.4 Fair
I5 Labas Island 55.9 24.8 19.2 Good
Average 51.2 ± 1.5 23.2 ± 1.0 25.7 ± 1.9 Good
Total average 51.4 ± 1.6 24.8 ± 1.9 23.8 ± 2.3 Good
Table 4. Summary of r-K-S percentage and coral morphology class scores at Tioman
Island.
Reef site r% K% S% C no.
East coast area
E1 Dalam Bay 31.3 14.7 54.0 C 4
E2 Benuang Bay 8.8 37.1 54.1 C 4
E3 Benuang 19.2 43.2 37.6 C 4
1. West coast area
W1 Genting Village 25.3 40.4 34.3 C 4
W2 Tomok Island 15.0 12.0 73.0 C 1
W3 Renggis Island 43.5 21.2 35.3 C 4
W4 Soyak Island 28.0 21.3 50.7 C 4
W5 Terdau Bay 31.0 11.1 57.9 C 4
2. Isolated area
I1 Gado Bay 9.6 28.7 61.7 C 1
I2 Bayan Bay 39.3 50.1 10.6 C 2
I3 Tulai B ay 9.4 12.8 77.8 C 1
I4 Sepoi Island 31.1 40.9 28.0 C 4
I5 Labas Island 21.5 28.8 49.7 C 4
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
10
the highest degree of protection since they can potentially
increase the sheries sector.
4.2. Reef condition at Tioman Island
e coral condition in Tioman Island varied from ‘fair’ to
good’. Most of the reef sites with less coastal development
and human activity were categorised as ‘good’ coral
condition. Dalam Bay, Benuang Bay, and Benuang, which
were located in the east coast area, and Gado Bay, Bayan
Bay, and Labas Island, which were located in the isolated
area, have shown ‘good’ coral condition with a high
percentage of live coral coverage. e results of cluster
analysis and MDS plots also showed that most of the reef
sites in these areas consist of a high number of coral genera
and are categorised as ‘good’ coral condition. ese areas
experience less human activity since they are located far
from resorts and residential areas.
Meanwhile, several reef sites located in developed
areas and that directly received the impacts from human
activities were categorised as ‘fair’ coral condition. is is
supported by the previous study done by Toda et al. (2007)
that found the ‘fair’ coral condition in Genting Village
(formerly known as Mango Reef). Genting Village was
categorised as a developed area with many resorts and
residential sites and has been a focal point for tourists
to venture into water sport activities such as snorkelling,
diving, and boating. Rapid development of coastal areas
and the extensive nature of human activities may represent
the greatest threat to corals (Reef Check Malaysia, 2008;
Wilkinson, 2008; Unsworth et al., 2010). Scuba divers,
snorkelers, and reef walkers could become the major
contributors toward coral reef degradation (Zakai and
Chadwic-Furman, 2002; Wielgus et al., 2004; Toda et
al., 2007; Praveena et al., 2012). ese factors, together
with boating activities in shallow water areas, might
increase the re-suspension of bottom sediment. e high
suspended sediment concentrations will reduce the light
Figure 3. Coral morphology class score for 13 reef sites in Tioman Island. Most of the reef sites were plotted under
mixed coral morphologies and received class 4 (C 4). ree reef sites (Tomok Island, Gado Bay, and Tulai Bay)
dominated by stress-tolerator corals and received class 1 (C 1). One reef site (Bayan Bay) dominated by competitor
corals and received class 2 (C 2).
SHAHBUDIN et al. / Turk J Zool
11
intensity required for zooxanthellae algae (Symbiodinium
sp.) to undergo photosynthesis. en it will simultaneously
inhibit the growth rate of reef-building coral species since
they have symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium sp.
As a result, some coral species that are unable to tolerate
this condition will not survive (Soegiarto, 2000; Chua and
Ross, 2002; Toda et al., 2007).
It can be concluded that the intensive coastal
development, increasing numbers of tourists, and
shortcomings in environmental conservation eorts may
lead to the irreversible decline of coral condition and the
number of coral genera in this island. As a consequence,
signicant steps should be taken to conserve and protect
the coral reefs. Positive action needs to be implemented
to balance the pace of coastal development and number of
tourists in order to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs
around Tioman Island. Proper guidelines and policies in
terms of carrying capacity for snorkelers and divers at
particular localities and time should be implemented. If no
action is taken, it will inevitably put corals under stress and
some of the coral species might vanish in the near future.
Acknowledgements
is research was supported by e-Science fund (SF12 -
016 - 0045) under the Ministry of Science, Technology
and Innovation, Malaysia. e authors wish to express
their gratitude to laboratory teams of INOCEM, IIUM
for their invaluable assistance and hospitality throughout
the sampling period. Appreciation also goes to the
Department of Marine Park, Malaysia, for providing a
permit to conduct this study in a marine protected area.
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... Phân tích diễn biến theo thời gian (hình 2) tại 12 điểm khảo sát chỉ rõ sự cải thiện đáng kể về độ phủ với độ phủ san hô cứng trung bình hiện nay lên đến 49,0% (n = 12, SD = 18,1). Đây là giá trị cao hơn nhiều so với tổng độ phủ san hô (cứng và mềm) ở các vùng rạn khác ở Việt Nam như Nha Trang (19% [5]), Ninh Hải (28,8% [6]) và tương đương ở đảo Tioman, Malaysia (51,4% [7]). Điều đó chứng tỏ hoạt động quản lý đã hỗ trợ tốt cho quá trình phục hồi của san hô tạo rạn. ...
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