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Aloe Vera is a very important and effective plant with so many health application and stuperfying that scarcely any part of human body remain uninfluenced by its healing medicinal use. It acts as a natural fighter against all classes of infection, an important effective anti-oxidant, helps in treating all digestion related problems, heartburns, arthritis, stress, kidney-stone, skins-burns, diabetes, rheumatism, pain, asthma, cancer, AIDS, It also acts as a laxative beauty enhancer and produced that effect on lowering blood sugar level in diabetics and maintain the blood sugar. It is commonly known as Barbados or Curaçao Aloe, is an herbal medicine with a long traditional use in different cultures. The main limitation of the current clinical knowledge about aloe vera gel is small clinical studies that often lack rigorous methodology. Several clinical trials are being conducted to further evaluate the use of aloe vera gel for a variety of disorders, as well as to further confirm traditional uses of the plant extract.
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1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, Teerthanker Mahaveer College of Pharmacy, TMU,
Moradabad, U.P, India
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Teerthanker Mahaveer College of Pharmacy, TMU,
Moradabad, U.P, India
Aloe Vera is a very important and effective plant with so many health application and stuperfying that scarcely
any part of human body remain uninfluenced by its healing medicinal use. It acts as a natural fighter against all
classes of infection, an important effective anti-oxidant, helps in treating all digestion related problems, heartburns,
arthritis, stress, kidney-stone, skins-burns, diabetes, rheumatism, pain, asthma, cancer, AIDS, It also acts as a
laxative beauty enhancer and produced that effect on lowering blood sugar level in diabetics and maintain the blood
sugar. It is commonly known as Barbados or Curaçao Aloe, is an herbal medicine with a long traditional use in
different cultures. The main limitation of the current clinical knowledge about aloe vera gel is small clinical studies
that often lack rigorous methodology. Several clinical trials are being conducted to further evaluate the use of aloe
vera gel for a variety of disorders, as well as to further confirm traditional uses of the plant extract.
Key words- Aloe Vera, cancer, diabetes, skin burn etc.
Aloe vera is a very effective and important herbal plant in many other plants, it gives so many medicinal activities
and pharmacological effects for human beings and animal. Aloe vera also be used for medicinal application in
different system of our cultures. Aloe vera acts as an antimicrobial agent that removes or inhibit the growth and
development of microorganism such as microorganism (bacteria), fungi, protozoan etc. The Antimicrobial drugs are
removes and supressed the microbes or protect the growth and development of bacteria (micro-biostatic). Various
parts of this plant were useful in curing a wide range of health related issue. This plant synthesizes a vast array of
secondary metabolites that are
important for medicines. Clinical efficacy of many synthetic antibiotics is questioned now days with the emergence
of multidrug resistance pathogens. The increasing failures of chemotherapeutics and antibiotics exhibited by
pathogenic microbial infection have led to the screening of several medicinal plants for potent microbial activity.
Aloe Vera is one of the medicinal plants looking like a cactus with green, its shape like sharp knife ,leaves that are
flesh, narrowing, spinous, emarginated & filled up from a clear white viscous gummy gel [1].Aloe vera is a hardy,
perennial, tropical, drought-resistant, succulent plant .The aleo vera has produced the immense traditional role in
endemic system of rules of medicine such as the Siddha, Unani, Ayurveda and Homeophathy.[2].The Aloe vera leaf
contain more than 75 food (nutrients), 200 chemical active compounds including 20 minerals, 18 amino acid & 12
vitamins, controls then ageing process of skin. The cleaning of eyes with aloe vera protects eyes from UV rays when
coming in the sunlight. Now days it is commonly used in medicines, in juices, drinks & cosmetics products. The
leaves of Coriander were also used in antimicrobial analysis. Food preservative is an old topic & people have been
using high salted, high molasses system acid, alcohol, smoking, under water, underground storage & so on to extend
food shelf life. With the industrial development chemical preservative are widely used in the food processing
industry. However, with the development of food industry as well as great attention of peoples to food safety & have
higher demand to food preservative method & try to food more secure & efficient preservatives. Coriander has been
widely studied & reported about its fruit its fruit in domestic & foreign. There essential oil is mainly extracted from
its fruits & there are relatively few research reports about physiological functions of stems & leaves including
antiseptic efficiency. It has a good prospect of application as a natural food preservative [3]. The Complex sugar
polymer is the more powerful vital dynamic compound in charge of the invulnerable empowering action present in
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the Aloe vera gel. [5] Aloe vera is a customary, dry spell dispute, sticky plant. The aloe name is originates from the
Arabic "Alloeh" or Hebrew "Halal" means intensely Shiny specialist. It has delivered a substantial conventional part
in indigenous arrangement of pharmaceutical framework like ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy.[6] Aloe
barbadensis mill operator is a semi tropical plant is one of the 250 types of Aloe vera. "Ghee kunwar" is most
normal for its powerful therapeutic properties, aloe vera its Sanskrit name is an individual from Lilly family. The
plant found in spear molded, and sharp pointed, and rugged and edged leaves [7]. Aloe vera is found as the world
wild herbs along the shoreline of India. It's development and gathering is done on a substantial scale in numerous
territories of India and different places, for example, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar Nepal, China,
Australia, America, Pakistan Himalaya slopes etc.[8] Aloe vera is most regular most established restorative plant
ever known as the most helpful therapeutic plantin all over world.[9] About more than 200 mixes are found in Aloe
barbadensis and around 75 have natural action and pharmacological exercises are contain in the aloe vera clear out.
It contains different mixes including, for example, sugars, proteins, glycoproteins, amino acids natural acids,
anthraquinones (e.g. aloe-emodin), anthrones and their glycosides anhydroglucosyl) - aloeemodin-9-anthrone,
otherwise called aloin An and B), chromones, , lipids sugars, vitamins and minerals [10, 11, 12,]. Aloe vera contains
various utilizations and for the most part they are utilized as a nourishment additive and solution prepration and
natural medications definition. Aloe vera additionally utilized as a part of pills, splashes, balms moisturizers, fluids,
drinks, jams, gels, suspension, and corrective creams[13].Many diverse aloe vera species are found around on the
planet are utilized for conditions treats the cancer.[14] such a large number of medical advantages are appropriated
in aloe vera have been alloted to the polysaccharides contains in the gel of the aloe vera clears out. This plant
otherwise called "the mending plant". Aloe vera utilized for customary restorative application as a part of a few
framework for millennia.[15],[16],17],[18] It has been set up that Aloe vera has development advancing exercises of
hostile to contagious properties of aloe vera leave are dictated by Casian. The concentrates or parts of Aloe vera
animate the multiplication of various cell sorts. In Many studies are demonstrated that treatment with Aloe vera gel,
removes delivered the outcome in quicker mending of wounds.[19],[20],[21],[22],[23] Many reports of Aloe vera
gel has a gainful action on the injury recuperating in both typical and diabetic rats.The most common wide use of
Aloe vera as a remedy to enhance the activity of wound healing and other medicinal activities.Its mechanism in
healing of wounds has not been studied in detail. The Aloe vera is most important and useful plant in the herbal
drugs manufacturing and other formulation its gives useful and valuable compounds.
Kingdom- Plantae
Order- Asparagales
Division- Spermatophyte
Subdivision- Angiospermae
Class- Monocotyledoneae
Genus- Aloe
Species- Barbadensis Mill[24]
Synonyms: Aloe, Musabbar, Kumari
Biological source [26]
Aloe Vera is consisting of the fresh juice collected by incision, from the bases of the leaves of different species of
aloe. Aloe perryi, or Aloe Barbadensis Mil and Aloe ferox.
Family: It’s belonging to the Liliaceae family.
Aloe perryi Baker is found in Socotra and Zanzibar islands and in there neighbouring areas and so the aloes get from
this species is known as Socortrine or Zanzibar aloe. Aloe vera Linn is otherwise called Aloe vulgarise Lamarek, or
Aloe barbadensis Mil. Aloe officinalis Forskal. It was once delivered on the Island of Barbados. It is now almost
completely made on the Dutch Island of Curacoa, Aruba and Bonaire. The aloes obtained from this species is known
as Curacao or Barbados aloe. Aloe ferox Miller and hybrid of this species with Aloe ofricana and Aloe spicata, A.
platylepia and other species of Aloe grows in Cape Colony and so is known as Cape aloe.
Microscopical Description
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The Plant is a common looking perpetual with small, thick to some degree isolated stem 30-60 cm high The leaves
are opaque green stalkless ,gloat, lanceolate, erect spreading instead of inward, sharp toothed at edge, around 30-60
cm long 10 cm board and 1.8 cm thick with of juice. The flower stalk is longer than leaves and is layered and
extended. The plant achieves adulteration after four year and has leaves with a length averaging between two and
three feet and a base width from three to five inches. Each leaf weighing from two to four pounds. The plant’s
complete life cycle is twelve years. It produces an average of twelve to thirty leaves. The odour is characteristic
while the taste is nauseous and bitter. [28]
Geographical Source
Aloe vera are indigenous to East and South Africa, yet have been brought into the West Indies and into topical
nations, and will even thrive in the nations verging on the Mediterranena. In India, it is found in Rajasthan, Andhra
Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, UK, Himachal Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, It is economically developed in Aruba,
Bonaire, Haiti, India, South Africa, the United of America and Venezula .It has turned into a typical family solution
for assortment of uses.[29]
Taste :- Bitter
Odour :- None
Size & Shape :- Plant growing to 60-100cm in lance-shaped with elongated strands
Colour :- Leaves are green to grey- green flower
Flower :- Yellow tubular in 25-35cm in a slender loose staments
Root :- Root fibers that can reach 30-40 cm in length [30]
Cultivation and Collection
There are more than 250 species of aloe mature around the over in world. Be that as it may, just two species are
developed today industrially, with Aloe barbadensis Miller and Aloe aborescens being the most prevalent.The Aloe
vera plant is grown in warm tropical territories and cannot survive solidifying temperatures.It is an evergreen
perpetual developing to 0.8 m by 1 m at a slow rate.The plants incline toward light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soil
requires all around depleted soil can develop in healthfully poor soil. The plant inclines toward corrosive,
nonpartisan and essential (basic) soil. It can't develop in shade. It requires dry or clammy soil and can endure dry
spell. They are xerophytic plant. It can be proliferated by seed. Seed are sown in the spring in a warm green house.
The seed as a rule sprouts in 1-6 months at 16oC. The seedlings are exchanged to the pots containing very much
depleted soil. They are permitted to develop in sunny part for in any event there initial two winters. The
counterbalance will be accessible, for the most part in spring. The plants produce balance uninhibitedly and they can
be isolated whenever of the year the length of it warms enough to urge new attach development to permit restoration
of the plant. Young equalization are planted in the earth after the swirling season in lines organized at a detachment
of 60m.In the second year leaves are accumulated by local people by guaranteeing their hands in light of the thorny
method for takes off. The leaves are cut close to the base, kept within lamp fuel tins and taken them to a focal spot
for the arrangement of aloe. Juice of aloe is available in parenchymatous cells of pericycle that are adhesive cell. In
a solitary entry point adhesive cells apply. [31]
Preparation of Aloe vera
Curacao or Barbados aloe
In West Indies the cut leaves are arranged with their cut surface on the inner side, on the side of V shaped vessel of
about 1-2 m long and the flowering juice is collected in a tin vessel that is placed below the V- shaped vessel. This
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juice in this manner gathered is focused either by unconstrained vanishing, or all the for the most part by bubbling
until it happens to the consistency of thick honey. These conditions favours the crystallization of barbaloin and this
aloe contain crystals of barbaloin because of the presence of which it becomes opaque and so also known as hepatic
or livery aloe. On cooling, it is than filled, ground, boxes, or other helpful containers and solidifies.[32]
Socortrine Aloe
When it is readied, it is usually filled goat skins, and spontaneous evaporation is allow for about a month when it
becomes viscous pasty mass which are than packed into cases. In European countries it is dried in wooden pans with
hot air till moisture is about 10%.[33]
Zanzibar Aloe
This aloe is prepared similar to Socortrine aloe. It is packed in skin, of carnivorous animals. This aloe is also known
as monkey skin aloe.[34]
Cape Aloe
The leaves of the plants from which Cape aloe is gotten air slice off near the stem composed around a hole in the
ground, in which a sheep skin is spread, with smooth side upwards. Exactly when a sufficient measure of juice has
drained from the forsakes it is moved by warmth in iron cauldrons and in this way filled boxes or skin in which it
solidifies on cooling. Broad measures of the prescription are exchanged Cape Town and Mossel Bay. [35]
Chemical Constituents
The most critical dynamic boss constituents of Aloe vera are the three isomeric of Aloins, Barboloin and
Isobarbaloin, which constitute the purported crystalline Aalin, present in the medication at from 10 to 30%
constituent are shapeless Aaloin, sap, emodin and Aloe-emodin. Barbolin is available in all the varities of aloe vera.
It is marginally yellow shaded, severe, water dissolvable, crystalline substance, present in Curacao aloe and in
follow sum in Cape aloe and present in Socortrine and Zanzibar aloe. The central constituents of Socortrine and
Zanzibarn aloe are Barbaloin. Aloe is comprised of an immeasurable scope of mixes which can be separated into
three extensive gatherings. The principal bunch, complex sugars (among which acemannan emerges) are inside the
leaves gel and have an insusceptible empowering activity. next are the anthraquinoes, contained in the peripheral
part of the skin, with a solid purgative activity . lastly are a few substances with a wide cluster of activities, for
example, minerals, vitamins, crucial , superfluous and semi-vital amino acids, natural acids, phospholipids,
proteins, lignin and saponins[40].
Fig: 1. Active Constituents of Aloe Vera plant
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Phyto-Chemical Properties of Aloe Vera
The Aloe vera plant contains flavonoids, terpenoids, lectins, unsaturated fats, cholesterol, anthraquinones,
chromones mono and polysaccharides ,tannins, sterols, salicylic corrosive, destructive regular acids, proteins,
saponins, vitamins, minerals, aloin, anthrone, aloe emodin, aloetinic corrosive, choline and salicylate, complex
mucopolysaccharides like hyaluronic corrosive, sapogenins and chemical, for example, catalase, celluase and
Substituent and Adulterants
Candelsbmm (Natal aloes) is dull greenish black to dull brown in colour, opaque. When scraped it gives a pale
greyish green or a yellow powder. It can be distinguished as it gives negative test to borax test and produces a peep
blue colour. Jafferabad aloes and the Mocha aloes are the other two types of aloe which is used a adulterant.[41]
Pharmacological Activity of Aloe Vera
The therapeutic cases made about Aloe vera, as with various herbs and plants, are perpetual.
Teeth and Gums
Commonly Dentistry reported that Aloe vera in to a great degree effective tooth gels is as reasonable as toothpaste in
fighting to the cavities.The examiners took a gander at the germ-doing combating limit of an Aloe vera tooth gel
with two understood toothpastes and found that the gel was practically as convincing, and now and again far
superior than the business brand toothpastes at controlling pit bringing on oral bacteria.[43]
Wound Healing
Wound recuperating Property of Aloe vera gel has been credited to Mannose-6-phasphate.actually, glucomannan
and plant development harmone gibberellins connects with development variable receptor of fibrobroblast and
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invigorate its action and prolifection for expansion collagen blend its topical and oral organization of aloe as
indicated by Hayes.[44]
The five Phytosterols of Aloe vera, lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol and 24-methy-
lenecycloartanol demonstrated hostile to diabetic impacts in sort 2 diabetic mice. Aloe vera contain polysaccharides
which expand the insulin level and show hypoglycaemia Properties.[45]
Anti-Inflammatory Action
The Anti-inflammatory activity of aloe vera gel has been uncovered by various in vitro and in vivo contemplates
bradykinase movements of body. The peptidase bradykinase was isolated from aloe and shown to break down the
bradykinin, an inflammatory substance that induces pain.[46]
Anti-Tumor Activity
Different glycoproteins are available in Aloe vera. The counter tumor and antiulcer affects and to build expansion of
ordinary human dermal cells .[47]In late studies, a polysaccharide division has appeared to repress the authoritative
of benzopyrene to essential rodent hepatocytes, in this manner keeping the arrangement of possibly disease starting
benzopyrene-DNA adducts In the provoking of glutathione s-transferase and an impediment of the tumor-promating
effects of phorbol myristic acidic corrosive deduction has in like manner been represented which propos possible
favorable circumstances of using aloe gel as a piece of cancer.[47]
Effects on the Immune system
Alprogen stifled calcium immersion into pole cells, in this way smothering the antigen-antiboby-interceded arrival
of histamine tamine and leukotriene from pole cells.In a study on mice that had beforehand been embedded with
murine sarcoma cells acemannan animates the blend and arrival of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor festering variable
from macrophages in mice, which consequently began a resistant strike that achieved defilement and backslide of
the damaging cells.[48]
Medicinal Uses
Aloe vera is anthelmintic, cathartic, carminative, deobstuent, depurative, diuretic, stomachic, and emmenagoge.
Juice is utilized as a part of healthy skin prescription, dyspepsia, amenorrhea, smolders, colic, hyperdenosis,
hepatopathy, splenopathy, obstruction, range, menorrhea, stomach, tumors, dropsy carbunles, sciatica, lumbago and
flatulence. Aloe vera gel is very useful in ulcerative colitis and pressure ulcers. [49]
1.Anti-Cancer Properties
The Aloe vera produced an important role in cancer-causing nature has not been assessed well. The constant misuse
of anthranoid-contaning intestinal medicines has been speculated to assume a part in colorectal tumor, be that as it
may, no causal social between anthranoid diuretic misuse and colorectal malignancy has been exhibited and have
Aloe vera juice enables the body to recover itself from moreover the mischief brought on by radio and
chemotherapy that obliterate strong sound safe invulnerable cells basic for the recovery. aloe vera emodin, an
anthraquinone , can smother or control the advancement of undermining or repress and supressed the development
of threatening growth bringing about cells making it to have hostile to anti-neoplastic properties.[50]
2.Anti-Ulcer Activity
This study was performed to choose the effects of Aloe vera on indomethacin actuated ulcers in rats. Aloe vera
demonstrated verifiably basic unfriendly to ulcer activity commensurate to standard medicine omeprazole. The
mean ulcer records of two medicines are molded to be statically basic. Thusly, the results were suggestive of
threatening to ulcerogenic development of aloe vera . however , the cell frameworks for these activity stay to be
The sterile property of Aloe Vera is a result of proximity of six clean experts particularly lupeol, salicylic destructive
, urea nitrogen , cinnamonic destructive, phenols and sulfur. These blends have inhibitory action on parasites,
organisms and diseases. Despite the way that an extensive part of these usages are captivating controlled trials are
critical to choose its practicality in all diseases.[52]
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The aloe vera is effective active medicinal plant of herbal drugs formulation. It suppressed the cyclooxygenase
decreases prostaglandin E2 generation from arachidonic corrosive as of late, the novel calming compound called C-
glucosyl chromone was disengaged from gel extracts.It very useful plant in treatment in anti-inflammation activity
of aloe vera [53]
5.Anti-bacterial Activity
Aloe vera gel was bactericidal against pseudomonas aeruginosa and acemannan kept it from holding fast to human
lungs epithelial cells in a monolayer society. A took care of Aloe vera gel prepration ruined the improvement of
development Candida albicans. The gel contains 99.3%of water, the staying 0.7%is made up of solid with starches
constituting for a sweeping parts. concentrated concentrates of Aloe leaves are used as diuretic and as a haemorrhoid
treatment. Aloe gel can fortify the body's resistant framework Glucomannan and acemannan have been exhibited to
revive wound recuperating, actiuating macrophages. ,bracing safe structure additionally antibacterial and antiviral
effects.The preliminary phytochemistry revealed closeness of terpenoids ,flavonoids and tannins . Aloe secundiflora
could be a rich wellspring of antimicrobial agenstsand its utilization by the neighborhood individuals of need
victroria district of Kenyas.[53]
6.Anti-fungal Activity
A refined aloe vera gel prepration reported suppressed the growth of fungus albbicans.The purified aloe proteins
has been found to exhibit potent antifungal activity against candida paraprilosis ,candida krusei and candida
7.Chronotropic Activity
Trough Chronotropic (Heart Rate) impacts, the heart rate is moderated so the diastolic period (the time between real
solid compressions [the systolic period]) is longer. It is amid the diastolic period that the heart chambers are loaded
with blood, prepared for the following beat. Be that as it may, generally as essential, this is the time when the heart
unwinds and gets its own sustenance. In the event that the heart rate is too quick, the diastolic cardiovascular support
time frame is too short. This makes the heart less proficient in pumping and coursing blood.[54]
8.Anti-diabetic Activity
The primary restriction of the current clinical information about aloe vera gel is little clinical studies that regularly
need thorough approach. A few clinical trials are being directed to promote assess the utilization of aloe vera gel for
an assortment of clutters, and additionally to assist affirm customary employments of the plant extract.[54]
9.Anti-oxidant Activity
The utilization this study was to quantify the capacity of fluid concentrate of Aloe vera on oxidative damage and
Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1, generally called Band 3) expression in human erythrocytes introduced to the water
dissolvable free radical initiator 2.2'- azobis-2-amidinopropano dihydrochloride (AAPH). In addition, add up to
phenolic blends in the concentrates were determined as catechin corresponding and the diverse malignancy
counteractive action operator activities were stood out from regular and built standard cell fortifications, for
instance, BHA and ascorbic corrosive. Since Aloe Vera separate did not bring about an utilization of the cytosolic
cancer prevention agent, glutathione (GSH) when it was immediate hatched with GSH in fundamental circulated air
through fluid arrangement, this shows Aloe vera extricate does not continue auto oxidation at this test condition.[53]
10.Anti-viral Activity
In this study we attempted the antiviral activity of an unpleasant hot glycerine concentrate of Aloe vera gel which
was produced in Bushehr (Southwest of Iran) against HSV-2 replication in Vero cell line. The concentrate exhibited
antiviral development against HSV-2 not simply before association and area of disease to the Vero cells also on post
association periods of contamination replication. Thus, blends of Aloe verafrom Bushehr could be a tolerable
confident as a trademark source.[55]
These pharmacological activity are contains in the Aloe vera plant in active form and produced the effects on
different disease and disorder in human beings. They are very important and effective to the act as a
pharmacological agents.
Side Effects and Precautions
Extended use
Oral aloe can cause cramping and diarrhea, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances and dehydration if used for an
extended period time. Long haul utilization of aloe may expand the danger of colorectal tumor.
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Gastrointestinal symptoms
Aloe gel should not contain aloin, which is the compound most often responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms.
Before a colonoscopy
Individuals must avoid using aloe vera for 1 month prior to having a colonoscopy, because it can stain the colon and
make visualization difficult.
Individuals who are oversensitive to garlic, onions, and tulips are more probable have a sensitivity to aloe.
Carcinogenic activity
The 2-yea investigation of a nondecolorized entire leaf concentrate of aloe vera given in a creature's drinking water
discovered clear confirmation of cancer-causing action in male and female rodents, in view of tumors of the
extensive intestine.[54]
Use not recommended
People with intestinal problems, heart disease, hemorrhoids, kidney problems, or electrolyte imbalances should not
take aloe. People with diabetes should use caution if taking aloe vera, and check blood glucose levels regularly.
Liver toxicity and hepatitis
A report of liver toxicity and hepatitis has led many people to question the safety of aloe supplements.
Aloe Vera may increase the risk of bleeding. Alert is promoted in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs
that may increase the risk of bleeding.
Increased risks
Aloe may cause increased risk of irregular heartbeat, kidney failure, thyroid dysfunction, urinary stones, and uterine
contractions. Due to aloe contains estrogen-like substance chemicals, this may alter the effects of other agents
believed to have estrogen-like properties.[54]
I was studied about the too much information of herbal plant i.e Aloe Vera. It is a specific plant, it show various
types of activities in medical era .so it play an important role in pharmaceutical field. Aloe Vera and its preparation
have been widely used as a medicine since ancient times. Various researches have been conducted to prove the
efficacy of aloe Vera in various health problems. The active ingredient hidden in its succulent leaves have the power
to soothe human life and health in a myriad ways. Aloe Vera as the wonder plant is multiple from being an
antiseptic, ant-inflammatory agent, helps in relieving like cancer and diabetes, and being a cosmetic field.
Sometime pleasure attains such the high magnitude that one becomes quite incapable of expressing his feelings in
words. I am highly indebted to Prof. K.K. Jha, Director Teerthanker Mahaveer College of Pharmacy, TMU,
Moradabad (U.P), India for their invaluable advice patience & encouragement.
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This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera (AVE) against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxic effect of AVE was evaluated by MTT and NRU assays in human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A-549) cancer cell lines. AVE-induced morphological changes were also visualized under phase contrast microscope. Further, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels were detected using DCF-DA and Rh-123 stains, respectively under a fluorescence microscope. Cell cycle progression was measured by flow cytometric analysis. DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The profile of genes related to apoptosis (p53, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3 and -9) was assessed by quantitative real time PCR. AVE exhibited significant cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner to both MCF-7 and A-549 cells with an IC50 values of 195 μg/mL and 298 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, AVE induces overproduction of ROS and decreases MMP level in MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that AVE-induced SubG1 cell cycle arrest. The increased p53, bax, capsase-3 and -9 gene expression levels and decreased bcl-2 gene expression level positively correlated AVE-induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, this study provides mechanistic details of anticancer potential of A. vera. This study also proved that AVE could be a promising anticancer agent in preventing and treating cancer diseases.
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Cryptosporidiosis has been considered as a serious diarrheal disease, especially in immunodeficient patients, where they failed to clear the infection leading to several consequences of infection (i.e death). The role of cell mediated immunity in clearing the infection was demonstrated by the increased susceptibility of HIV/AIDS patients to infection. To date, no specific treatment has been proven for cryptosporidiosis in immunodeficient patients. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera gel for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent and dexamethasone immunosuppressed mice in comparison to that of nitazoxanide. Mice were orally administrated with Aloe vera gel, in a daily dose of 250 mg/L in drinking water, for 14 consecutive days post infection. Parasitological, molecular and immunological measures were recorded on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 32nd days post infection. Our in vitro results showed that 250 mg/L of prepared gel achieved the highest parasitic reduction. The body weights of Aloe vera treated mice on the 21st and 32nd day post infection, either in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed groups, were nearly the same as those of their corresponding control groups. Aloe vera gel succeeded in clearing cryptosporidiosis with a percent reduction of 100% in immunocompetent mice and 99.67% in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Aloe vera reduced the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, -6 and -17. The success of Aloe vera gel, in clearing cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed mice, was obvious either from the reduction of Cryptosporidium DNA or the oocysts in stool samples; and from the improvement of histopathological sections.
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Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their beneficial and adverse effects on skin and skin disorders. One of the medicinal plants, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), is reputed to have medicinal properties. For centuries, it has been used for an array of ailments such as mild fever, wounds and burns, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, sexual vitality and fertility problems to cancer, immune modulation, AIDS and various skin diseases. In this study, antibacterial activity of leaf and gel extracts of A. vera were tested against gram positive and gram negative skin infections isolates. For this purpose, one hundred and fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from skin wounds, burns and acne patients from various hospitals of Karachi, a cosmopolitan and heavily populated city of Pakistan, and the strains were identified by conventional methods. Among the total iso ates, 90% of the organisms were gram positive while the remaining 10% were gram negative. The gel extracts of A. vera showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates while the leaf extracts showed no such activity. In parallel, five standard antibiotics were also tested against the isolated strains. The data showed promising results in case of A. vera compared to five broad-spectrum antibiotics. Additionally, the study also demonstrated that the skin infectious isolates were resistant against broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: The African-Arabian succulent genus Aloe L. (Aloaceae/Asphodelaceae) is represented by approximately 120 infrageneric taxa in southern Africa, including A. ferox Mill., a species long used in commercial natural products. Aims of the study: To assess the documented ethnobotanical knowledge and biocultural value of utility in the genus in southern Africa. Materials and methods: A survey of over 350 multidisciplinary publications was undertaken. Results: Local uses for medicine and wellbeing were identified for over half the species of Aloe occurring in the Flora of Southern Africa region. The most frequently cited medicinal uses were the treatment of infections and internal parasites, digestive ailments and injuries. Numerous species were recorded for their social uses, notably as ingredients in tobacco snuff. Conclusion: The exceptional infrageneric diversity of Aloe, and extensive therapeutic uses in southern Africa, indicate its cultural importance in the subcontinent. These factors highlight the need for the conservation of the species as well as their potential as a source of natural products.
Aloe vera is a perennial, drought-resisting, succulent plant belonging to the Asphodelaceae family which, historically has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes. It has a vast traditional role in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy. Clinical evaluations have revealed that the pharmacological active ingredients are concentrated in both the gel and rind of the aloe vera leaves. Bioactive compounds from aloe vera are very effective in various treatments, such as burns, allergic reactions, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, acid indigestion, ulcers, diabetes, skin diseases, dysentry, diarrohoea, piles and inflammatory conditions of the digestive system and other internal organs, including the stomach, small intestine, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The active ingredients have been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.
Ficus carica grows in tropical and subtropical regions of India, it is used in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy. Different biologically active compounds were isolated form this plant. The barks, leaves,fruits are considered to be very effective in various treatments, such as diabetes, skin diseases, ulcers, dysentry, diarrohoea, stomachache, piles . Latex is widely used for warts, skin ulcers and sores, and taken as a purgative and vermifuge. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its Pharamacognosy, phytochemistry, and traditional properties.
The effect of Aloe vera juice in combination with glibenclamide was investigated in diabetic patients. There was no response to glibenclamide alone but Aloe vera juice significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose within two weeks and of triglycerides within four weeks. It showed no effect on cholesterol levels and had no toxic effects on kidney or liver function as assessed by blood chemistry. The results support the use of Aloe vera in the treatment of diabetes.
Aloe vera gel has been claimed to have antidiabetic activity but not all published results are consistent. We investigated the effect of oral administration of one tablespoonful of Aloe vera juice, twice a day for at least 2 weeks in patients with diabetes. Blood sugar and triglyceride levels in the treated group fell; cholesterol levels were not affected. The results suggest the potential of aloe vera juice for use as an antidiabetic agent.
Extracts of Aloe vera Linne have been found to exhibit cytotoxicity against human tumour cell lines. This study examines the anti-tumour effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) isolated from Aloe vera Linne, in human and animal cell lines. Its anti-mutagenic effects were examined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Growth inhibition was specifically exerted by DEHP against three leukaemic cell lines at concentrations below 100 μg mL−1. At 100 μg mL−1 DEHP, K562, HL60 and U937 leukaemic cell lines showed growth inhibition of 95, 97 and 95%, respectively. DEHP exhibited an inhibitory activity of 74, 83 and 81%, respectively, in K562, HL60 and U937 cell lines at a concentration of 10 μg mL−1. At a concentration of 1 μg mL−1, DEHP exerted an inhibitory activity of 50, 51 and 52%, respectively, in K562, HL60 and U937. In a normal cell line, MDBK, DEHP exerted 30% growth inhibition at a concentration of 100 μg mL−1, and showed no inhibitory activity at concentrations below 50 μg mL−1. It was found that DEHP exerted anti-mutagenic activity in the Salmonella mutation assay. The number of mutant colonies of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 upon exposure to AF-2 (0.2 μg/plate) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of different DEHP concentrations (decreasing to 90.4, 83.9, 75.4, 69.6 and 46.9%, respectively, for DEHP concentrations of 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 μg/plate). In the case of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, DEHP reduced AF-2-induced mutagenicity at 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 μg/plate to 57.4, 77.5, 80.0, 89.0 and 91.5%, respectively. The isolated compound from Aloe vera Linne, DEHP, was considered to be the active principle responsible for anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects in-vitro.
The therapeutic effects of Aloe vera have been examined in preventing progressive dermal ischaemia caused by burns, frostbite, electrical injury, distal dying flap and intra-arterial drug abuse. In vivo analysis of these injuries showed that the mediator of progressive tissue damage was thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Experimentally Aloe was compared to a variety of antithromboxane agents to include U38450, a lodoxamide, a lazaroid and Carrington wound gel. In the burn injury Aloe was comparable to the lodoxamide and lazaroid with an 82% to 85% tissue survival when compared with the control and the Carrington wound gel (p=0.05). Tissue survival in the experimental frostbite injury was 28.2% when compared with the control (p=0.05). Similar results were obtained for the electrical injury, and intra-arterial drug abuse. Clinically burn patients treated with Aloe healed without tissue loss as did those with frostbite (p=0.001). In the intra-arterial drug abuse patients Aloe reversed the tissue necrosis. This therapeutic approach was used to prevent progressive tissue loss in each injury by actively inhibiting the localized production of TxA2. Aloe not only acts as a TxA2 inhibitor but maintains a homeostasis within the vascular endothelium as well as the surrounding tissue.