Article

Biopsychosocial Pathways Linking Subjective Socioeconomic Disadvantage to Glycemic Control in Youths with Type I Diabetes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Older adolescent and young adults (OAYA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) living in contexts of socio-economic disadvantage (SED) suffer disproportionately from poor glycemic control and related health complications. Although SED may convey a variety of risks, it may exacerbate diabetes-related stress levels, which in turn may account for observed disparities in health outcomes. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between subjective SED, diabetes-related perceived stress, and diurnal cortisol secretion in urban OAYA with T1D. A secondary goal was to determine if cortisol was related to measures of blood glucose (HbA1c and mean blood glucose). Analyses were conducted among OAYA ages 17 to 20 years (n = 61) affected by T1D, who provided daily saliva samples for four days, measures of glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c and mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor), and completed psychosocial questionnaires. We found that subjective SED was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol rhythm via diabetes-related stress. Flattened cortisol rhythm was, in turn, was associated with higher levels of HbA1c, but not with mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor. These results represent some of the first empirical evidence on how distal social factors (i.e., subjective SED) and proximal psychological processes (diabetes-related perceived stress) are connected to condition-relevant biological mechanisms (i.e., elevated HbA1c), via broad biological pathways implicated in health (i.e., flatter cortisol slope).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... While the physiological response to acute stress-a process known as allostasis -can be beneficial in the near-term (e.g., by providing additional energy and mental acuity for effectively managing a given stressor), it can become detrimental over time through chronic exposure (21)(22)(23). Prolonged or repeated exposure to stress and the corresponding activation of the body's stress response systems (i.e., the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) system) may result in biological "wear and tear"-or allostatic load (23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36). As allostatic load accumulates within the body over time, stress response systems may become dysregulated, perpetuating inflammatory processes and the development of various diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, influenza, and some cancers (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of an association between psychosocial stress and mortality continues to accumulate. However, despite repeated calls in the literature for further examination into the physiological and behavioral pathways though which stress affects health and mortality, research on this topic remains limited. This study addresses this gap by employing a counterfactual-based mediation analysis of eight behavioral, biological, and psychological pathways often hypothesized to play a role in the association between stress and health. First, we calculated the survival rate of all-cause mortality associated with cumulative psychosocial stress (high vs. low/moderate) using random effects accelerated failure time models among a sample of 7108 adults from the Midlife in the United States panel study. Then, we conducted a multiple mediator mediation analysis utilizing a counterfactual regression framework to determine the relative contributions of each mediator and all mediators combined in the association between stress and mortality. Exposure to high psychosocial stress was associated with a 0.76 times reduced survival rate over the follow-up period 1995–2015, while adjusting for age, sex, race, income, education, baseline health, and study design effects. The mediators accounted for 49% of this association. In particular, smoking, sedentary behavior, obesity/BMI, and cardiovascular disease displayed significant indirect effects and accounted for the largest reductions in the total effect of stress on mortality, with natural indirect effects of 14%, 12%, 11%, and 4%, respectively. In conclusion, traditional behavioral and biological risk factors play a significant role in the association between psychosocial stress and mortality among middle and older adults in the US context. While eliminating stress and the socioeconomic disparities that so often deliver people into high-stress scenarios should be the ultimate goal, public health interventions addressing smoking cessation, physical activity promotion, and cardiovascular disease treatment may pay dividends for preventing premature mortality in the near-term.
... The HPA axis has been studied in subjects with diabetes with varying results (Sharma, Wigham, & Veldhuis, 2014), but salivary cortisol has only been used in a limited number of studies on individuals with T1DM in relation to stress. High midnight salivary cortisol was linked to depression, smoking, physical inactivity, and season in adults with T1DM in one meta-analysis (Melin, Thunander, Landin-Olsson, Hillman, & Thulesius, 2014), and flattened cortisol slope was associated with stress and subjective socioeconomic disadvantage in older adolescents with T1DM in another study (Zilioli, Ellis, Carre, & Slatcher, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Autonomic neuropathy (AN) commonly arises as a long‐term complication in diabetes mellitus and can be diagnosed from heart rate variability (HRV), calculated from electrocardiogram recordings. Psychosocial stress also affects HRV and could be one of several confounders for cardiac AN. The present work investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on HRV in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and assessed the use of salivary cortisol as a biomarker for psychosocial stress in this context. Methods A total of 167 individuals 6–60 years old (113 with T1DM and 54 healthy controls) underwent 24‐hr ECG recordings with HRV analysis. Salivary cortisol was sampled thrice during the registration day. Perceived psychosocial stress along with other factors of possible importance for the interpretation of HRV was documented in a diary. Results Heart rate variability (high‐frequency power during sleep) was reduced (p < .05) with older age, longer diabetes duration, higher mean glucose levels, physical inactivity, and perceived psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol levels in the evening were increased (p < .05) in women in ovulation phase, in individuals with preceding hypoglycemia or with hyperglycemia. The amplitude of salivary cortisol was reduced (p < .05) with the presence of perceived psychosocial stress, but only in adult healthy controls, not in individuals with diabetes. Conclusion Psychosocial stress might be a confounder for reduced HRV when diagnosing cardiac AN in T1DM. Salivary cortisol is, however, not a useful biomarker for psychosocial stress in diabetes since the physiological stress of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia seems to overrule the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol.
... To our knowledge, only one study has examined interrelationships between youth-reported SSS and health in a population of adolescents with a chronic illness (Zilioli, Ellis, Carré, & Slatcher, 2017), and no studies have examined this association in adolescents with asthma. Youth with asthma are at risk for a number of psychological and physical health problems that are associated with increased morbidity and impaired quality of life, including stress and depressive symptoms (McQuaid & Fedele, 2017), obesity (Green, 2014), and sleep disorders (Koinis-Mitchell, Craig, Esteban, & Klein, 2012). ...
Article
Objective: Asthma prevalence and morbidity are disproportionately higher among youth with lower socioeconomic status (SES). Examination of subjective social status (SSS) may improve understanding of associations between SES and health outcomes in pediatric asthma. Method: Fifty adolescents with asthma (Mage = 13.2 years, SD = 1.23; 54% male; 55.1% African American) completed the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status-Youth Version, Daily Life Stressors Scale, Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form, Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale-short version, and Asthma Control Test during the baseline visit of a study of health behaviors. Body mass index z scores (BMIz) were calculated using height and weight obtained during the visits. Hierarchical linear regressions examined associations between SSS and psychosocial and physical health outcomes, controlling for caregiver-reported objective SES. Results: Caregiver-reported objective SES was not associated with adolescent SSS. SSS-society was associated with daily stress (b = -3.14), t(47) = -2.13, p = .033; asthma control (β = .34, p = .045); BMIz (β = .38, p = .013); and sleep quality (β = .49, p = .001). SSS-community was associated with daily stress (b = -3.76), t(46) = -3.07, p = .002, and sleep quality (β = .36, p = .010). SSS was not associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Adolescents' SSS may not always reflect caregiver's objective SES. Perceived social status may play a role in the experience of daily stress, asthma control, BMIz, and sleep quality among adolescents with asthma. SSS may offer a novel means of assessing health disparities in pediatric asthma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Non-Caucasian adolescents with T1D reported similar nutritional intake to Caucasians but were more likely to have overall poorer health indicators, suggesting that factors other than nutritional behaviors may place minority youth at greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Consistent with previous literature, low SES was associated with higher HbA1c values (e.g., [45]). Differences in disease-related variables, such as duration of illness and insulin regimen, may place early adolescents at different levels of risk for a confluence of poorer nutritional behaviors and health indicators. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To characterize the intake of macronutrient and fiber in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine their association with health indicators. Methods Baseline data from an RCT were examined. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 257, mean age 12 ± 1.2 years, 49.4% girls) reported dietary intake via two separate 24-hour recall interviews during a two-week period. Demographic and medical variables were abstracted from questionnaires and medical charts. Results Controlling for demographic and diet variables, a higher percentage of daily energy intake from fats was associated with poorer HbA1c. In contrast, an association between higher percent of energy intake from proteins and carbohydrates was found with higher systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Conclusions Many early adolescents with T1D did not meet diabetes nutritional guidelines. Lower adherence to nutritional guidelines, specifically more than recommended energy intake from fats, was associated with poorer HbA1c. Addressing nutritional guidelines and increasing adherence as part of treatment may improve health outcomes for youth with T1D.
... For example, in adolescents and adults with T1D, better problem solving and memory skills predict greater knowledge about diabetes tasks [24] and higher rates of adherence [25]. Emerging findings by Zilioli et al. [26] cite an association among socioeconomic disadvantage, diabetes-related stress, and biological markers of diabetes outcomes. Further research is needed to disentangle how sociodemographic variables interact and ultimately lead to disparities in diabetes outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in youth is growing across all racial/ethnic backgrounds, with the most marked increase in African-American youth under 5. Underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for health complications. This review focuses on the reported disparities, demographics of samples in behavioral interventions, and study design considerations. Recent findings: Recruitment data from two ongoing behavioral intervention trials for young children with T1D are presented to compare enrolled/non-enrolled individuals and to discuss culturally appropriate study design considerations. Data were compared to the demographics of children (ages 1-6) with T1D in the clinic populations from the recruitment sites. Enrolling a representative sample and designing culturally appropriate behavioral interventions are important for generalizability, yet there is a gap between the individuals participating in T1D research and those who are most negatively affected by T1D. Suggestions are offered for ways to expand inclusion of diverse samples in behavioral intervention research in T1D.
Article
Objective: This study investigated the links between naturalistically observed and self-reported interpersonal problems, diabetes management, and glucose levels in older adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Design: Sixty-eight older adolescents and young adults (aged 17-20 years) participated in a cross-sectional study that consisted of three home visits and a daily diary segment. Main outcome measures: Participants wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for four days to capture interpersonal problems and wore a continuous glucose monitor for blood glucose levels. Researchers also collected HbA1c values, conducted an interview to assess diabetes management, and collected participant-reported severity of interpersonal problems. Results: High EAR-observed interpersonal problems were associated with poor diabetes management. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high EAR-observed interpersonal problems continued to explain variance in poor diabetes management after including self-reported interpersonal problems and covariates. Conclusion: These findings corroborate literature suggesting that negative interactions are associated with type 1 diabetes management. This study is the first to use the EAR to capture naturalistically observed interactions in this population and identify its utility beyond self-reports. These findings highlight the importance of considering naturalistically observed interactions when developing interventions to promote better diabetes management in older adolescents and young adults.
Article
While individual and family risk factors that contribute to health disparities in children with type 1 diabetes have been identified, studies on the effects of neighborhood risk factors on glycemic control are limited, particularly in minority samples. This cross‐sectional study tested associations between family conflict, neighborhood adversity and glycemic outcomes (HbA1c) in a sample of urban, young Black adolescents with type 1 diabetes(mean age = 13.4 ± 1.7), as well as whether neighborhood adversity moderated the relationship between family conflict and HbA1c. Participants (N = 128) were recruited from five pediatric diabetes clinics in two major metropolitan US cities. Diabetes‐related family conflict was measured via self‐report questionnaire (Diabetes Family Conflict Scale; DFCS). Neighborhood adversity was calculated at the census block group level based on US census data. Indictors of adversity were used to calculate a neighborhood adversity index (NAI) for each participant. Median family income was $25,000, suggesting a low SES sample. In multiple regression analyses, DFCS and NAI both had significant, independent effects on glycemic control (β = 0.174, P = 0.034 and β = 0.226 P = 0.013, respectively) after controlling for child age, family socioeconomic status and insulin management regimen. Tests of effects of the NAI and DFCS interaction on HbA1c found no significant moderating effects of neighborhood adversity. Even within contexts of significant socioeconomic disadvantage, variability in degree of neighborhood adversity predicts diabetes‐related health outcomes in young Black adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Providers should assess social determinants of health such as neighborhood resources that may impact adolescents' ability to maintain optimal glycemic control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Background and Objective The negative effects of stress on persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are well‐established, but effective interventions to reduce stress among emerging adults with T1D are limited. The study objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) to reduce stress and improve diabetes health outcomes in a population of high‐risk, urban emerging adults with poorly controlled diabetes Methods 48 participants aged 16‐20 years of age with T1D (mean duration= 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: MSBR, cognitive‐behavioral stress management (CBSM), or a diabetes support group. Data were collected at baseline, end of treatment and three months after treatment completion. Measures of self‐reported stress and depressive symptoms, diabetes management and glycemic control were obtained. Results MBSR was found to reduce self‐reported stress at end of treatment (p = .03, d = ‐0.49) and three‐month follow‐up (p = .01, d = ‐0.67), but no effects on diabetes management or glycemic control were found. Diabetes support group participants had improved glycemic control at the end of treatment (p = .01, d = ‐0.62) as well as reduced depressive symptoms at three‐month follow‐up (p = .01, d = ‐0.71). Conclusions Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of MBSR to improve psychosocial adjustment in emerging adults with poorly controlled T1D but require replication in adequately powered studies. Findings also support the value of peer support in improving health outcomes in this age group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Diabetes is a chronic disease causing tremendous burden on people worldwide. In the 2017 Standards of Medical Care for Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the assessment and integration of psychosocial factors such as depression and diabetes distress into initial and routine patient care to improve outcomes and overall quality of life for patients with diabetes. Psychological conditions, such as depression, distress and stress, serious psychological distress, fatalism, self-efficacy, and social support influence diabetes-related self-management and outcomes and should be incorporated into clinical care practices, addressed in research interventions, and considered in policy implementations. These factors are important to consider as they can significantly impact glycemic control and other outcomes in adults with diabetes. Integrating behavioral and physical care for patients with diabetes will take a coordinated effort, focused on systematic screening, clear treatment pathways, and ongoing monitoring. However, efforts to integrate care have promise to better address the healthcare goals of providing patient-centered care, decreasing both morbidity and cost, and increasing satisfaction with care.
Article
Full-text available
Using daily diary data, this study examined the associations between positive and negative parent–youth experiences and youth cortisol and physical health symptoms among a sample of adolescents (N = 132, mean age = 13.39). On days when girls reported more negative experiences than usual, they exhibited more physical health symptoms and flatter evening cortisol slopes than usual. Negative experiences with mothers were associated with higher dinner and bedtime youth cortisol levels (between-person). Daily positive experiences with fathers were linked with lower dinner cortisol levels. Youth with high levels of negative experiences, on average, were less sensitive to daily variation in negative experiences than youth who experienced lower parental negativity. We discuss the benefits of a daily diary approach.
Article
Full-text available
The evidence on whether there is work stress related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is equivocal. This study assessed the relation between work stress and diurnal cortisol rhythm in a large-scale occupational cohort, the Whitehall II study. Work stress was assessed in two ways, using the job-demand-control (JDC) and the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. Salivary cortisol samples were collected six times over a normal day in 2002-2004. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol decline (slope) were calculated. In this large occupational cohort (N = 2,126, mean age 57.1), modest differences in cortisol patterns were found for ERI models only, showing lower reward (β = -0.001, P-value = 0.04) and higher ERI (β = 0.002, P-value = 0.05) were related to a flatter slope in cortisol across the day. Meanwhile, moderate gender interactions were observed regarding CAR and JDC model. We conclude that the associations of work stress with cortisol are modest, with associations apparent for ERI model rather than JDC model.
Article
Full-text available
Social isolation may operate as a psychosocial stressor which disrupts functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Using data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we tested whether living alone, not being married and social network size were associated with diurnal cortisol patterns at 60-64 years. We hypothesised that recent onset compared with long-term isolation would be more strongly associated with cortisol awakening response, cortisol decline over the day and evening cortisol. Models were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, psychological distress and financial difficulties. Those widowed within the last three years had a 36% (95%CI 6%, 73%) higher night time cortisol than those who were currently married. Those newly living alone also had a higher night time cortisol and flatter diurnal slope than those living with others. Independently of multiple behavioural and psychosocial correlates, recent onset of social isolation is related to diurnal cortisol patterns that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE To assess the proportion of youth with type 1 diabetes under the care of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States meeting targets for HbA(1c), blood pressure (BP), BMI, and lipids.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were evaluated for 13,316 participants in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry younger than 20 years old with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year.RESULTSAmerican Diabetes Association HbA(1c) targets of <8.5% for those younger than 6 years, <8.0% for those 6 to younger than 13 years old, and <7.5% for those 13 to younger than 20 years old were met by 64, 43, and 21% of participants, respectively. The majority met targets for BP and lipids, and two-thirds met the BMI goal of <85th percentile.CONCLUSIONS Most children with type 1 diabetes have HbA(1c) values above target levels. Achieving American Diabetes Association goals remains a significant challenge for the majority of youth in the T1D Exchange registry.
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: The purpose of this article was twofold: a) to review studies of stress and glycemic control in diabetes, and b) to present a data analysis that illustrates the complexities of investigating stress in relation to blood glucose. The literature review emphasized human studies and the strengths and weaknesses of alternative designs. Special consideration was given to longitudinal investigations, and an analysis of data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was presented to exemplify this approach. Nine individuals with Type 1 diabetes who participated in this project at the University of Iowa were studied over a period of 2 years. Stress was multiply measured (Life Experiences Survey, Hassles Scale, Perceived Stress Scale) as was blood glucose control (daily reflectance meter readings; monthly HbA1c). Within-subject time-series analyses and a combined longitudinal/cross-sectional model were used to analyze data. Two of the nine subjects manifested significant correlations between stress and HbA1c, and six subjects exhibited significant associations between stress and daily level or variability of glucose readings. The latter correlations varied in sign and appeared to cluster around specific individuals rather than a particular measure of stress or blood glucose. Conclusion: While the subjects may not represent the full spectrum of individuals with Type 1 diabetes, results were consistent with earlier longitudinal research in suggesting that the strength and direction of the relationship between stress and blood glucose control varies considerably between individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Early life family conflict is associated with physical health problems later in life, but little is known about the biological pathways through which conflict at home exerts it deleterious effects on health. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between naturalistically assessed conflict in everyday family environments and diurnal cortisol in preschool-aged children. Design: Forty-four children aged 3-5 from two-parent families provided six saliva samples per day over 2 days from a Saturday morning through Sunday night. For a full day on either Saturday or Sunday, children wore a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parents provided reports of child externalizing behaviors as well as daily reports of child conflicts. Main Outcome Measures: Diurnal salivary cortisol over the two weekend days of the study. Results: Greater Electronically Activated Recorder-assessed child conflict at home was associated with children having lower cortisol at wakeup (p < .009) and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes (p < .007). These associations remained significant even after controlling for parent reports of child externalizing behaviors, parent reports of daily child conflicts, and child age and sex. Conclusion: These findings indicate that taking into consideration everyday conflicts at home may be key to our understanding of stress-health links in young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
Evidence for the association of cortisol with mortality or disease events is mixed, possibly due to a failure to consider diurnal cortisol patterns. Our objective was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol patterns throughout the day with cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective cohort study among 4047 civil servants, the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured diurnal cortisol patterns in 2002-2004 from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a normal weekday: at waking, +30 min, +2.5 h, +8 h, +12 h, and bedtime. Participants were subsequently followed for all-cause and cause-specific mortality until January 2010. Participants included 4047 men and women aged 61 yr on average at baseline. We assessed all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular death. There were 139 deaths, 32 of which were deaths due to cardiovascular disease, during a mean follow-up period of 6.1 yr. Flatter slopes in cortisol decline across the day were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for 1 sd reduction in slope steepness 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.55). This excess mortality risk was mainly driven by an increased risk of cardiovascular deaths (hazard ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval = 1.32-2.64). The association with cardiovascular deaths was independent of a wide range of covariates measured at the time of cortisol assessment. There was no association between morning cortisol, the cortisol awakening response, and mortality outcomes. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the relationship between a flatter slope in cortisol levels across the day and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a nonclinical population.
Article
Full-text available
To review interventions with adherence-promoting components and document their impact on glycemic control via meta-analysis. Data from 15 studies that met the following criteria were subjected to meta-analysis: 1) randomized, controlled trial, 2) study sample included youth aged <19 years, 3) youth had type 1 diabetes, 4) study reported results on glycemic control; and 5) study reported use of adherence- or self-management-promoting components. The 15 studies included 997 youth with type 1 diabetes. The mean effect size for pre- to posttreatment change for the intervention versus control group comparison was 0.11 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.23). This is a small effect, demonstrating very modest improvements in glycemic control. However, analysis for the pre- to posttreatment effects for the intervention group alone did show significant variability [Q(14) = 33.11; P < 0.05]. Multicomponent interventions, those that targeted emotional, social, or family processes that facilitate diabetes management, were more potent than interventions just targeting a direct, behavioral process (e.g., increase in blood glucose monitoring frequency). Interventions that focus on direct, behavioral processes and neglect emotional, social, and family processes are unlikely to have an impact on glycemic control; multicomponent interventions showed more robust effects on A1C. Future clinical research should focus on refining interventions and gathering more efficacy and effectiveness data on health outcomes of the pediatric patients treated with these interventions.
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigate the postonset hospitalization rate and risk factors during 1987–1994 in Wisconsin, in a population-based, incidence cohort followed from diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus at ages 0–29 (n = 577). The overall rate was 8.9 ± 0.60 (standard error) per 100 person-years of diabetes, whereof 5.7 was due to hyperglycemia, 1.9 to hypoglycemia, and 1.3 to other and undetermined causes. Major risk factors for hospitalization were longitudinally measured glycosylated hemoglobin level (rate ratio = 1.5 per 2% increase, 95% confidence interval 1.4–1.7), black/other race (rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.0–3.6), diagnosis in a non-university-based setting (rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2–3.2), female sex (rate ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0–2.4 at age 11), age in males (rate ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4–0.8 per 5-year increase), and public or no insurance up to 18 months postdiagnosis (rate ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.4). For individuals less than 18 years, “black/other race” was replaced in the model by “having other than two biologic parents in the home” (rate ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.5). Hence, hospitalization is common in children, adolescents, and young adults with diabetes, primarily for problems with glycemic control.
Article
Full-text available
Investigated problem-solving ability and reported regimen adherence among children, early adolescents, and middle adolescents with IDDM in response to hypothetical social situations where a choice between diabetes regimen adherence and peer desires must be made. Sixty-seven 8- to 17-year-olds with IDDM from two distinct U.S. geographical areas participated. Results indicated that compared to children with IDDM, adolescents with IDDM had better problem-solving abilities in response to social pressure situations, possibly reflecting their greater cognitive maturity. However, adolescents were also more likely to choose behaviors that are less regimen adherent. Differences in levels of problem-solving ability and adherence between the two regional subsamples were also found. Similar developmental patterns were found in both groups, showing the robust nature of the observed age-related trend of decreasing adherence in social situations despite increasing problem-solving abilities. Findings were interpreted in the context of normal adolescent development. Results are conceptually important for those interested in the transaction between peer and social influences and adherence for children and adolescents with IDDM, as well as other health behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Abdominal obesity has been suggested to be associated with perturbations of the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In a population of 51-yr-old men (n = 284) salivary cortisol concentrations were determined on repeated (n = 7) occasions over a random working day, and perceived stress was reported in parallel. Cortisol values were then related to reported stress (stress-related cortisol). A standardized lunch was used as a physiological challenge. A low dose (0.5 mg) dexamethasone suppression test was also performed as well as determinations of testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Body mass index [weight (kilograms)/height (meters)2]; waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR); sagittal trunk recumbent diameter (D); fasting insulin; blood glucose; triglycerides; and total, low density (LDL), and high density (HDL) lipoprotein cholesterol were also determined. Cortisol concentrations were highest in the morning, and lunch was followed by a peak (P = 0.044). Two types of diurnal cortisol curves were identified, one characterized by a high variability with high morning values, and another with low variability and low morning values. Both correlated strongly with suppression of salivary cortisol by dexamethasone (P < 0.001). Stress-related cortisol secretion was associated with D (P = 0.051), low IGF-I (P = 0.006), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.078). When the type of diurnal cortisol curve was taken into consideration by statistical weighting, stress-related cortisol secretion in subjects with high variability showed associations with testosterone (P < 0.001), D, total and LDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), fasting insulin (P = 0.039), and glucose (P = 0.030) as well as, negatively, triglycerides (P < 0.001). When weighted for a low variability of diurnal cortisol secretion, stress-related cortisol secretion showed strong negative relationships with IGF-I, testosterone, and HDL. Furthermore, strong, consistent relationships (all P < 0.001) were found with obesity factors (body mass index, WHR, and D), and with metabolic (insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total and LDL cholesterol) as well as hemodynamic variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate). These results clearly show interactions between diurnal cortisol secretion related to perceived stress and anthropometric, endocrine, metabolic, and hemodynamic variables. This seems to occur with apparently normal regulation of the HPA axis (high morning peaks and variability as well as dexamethasone suppression of cortisol), where other endocrine variables are not affected. With a low diurnal cortisol variation and blunted dexamethasone suppression, indicating abnormal regulation of the HPA axis, perceived stress-dependent cortisol values were strongly related to perturbations of other endocrine axes as well as abdominal obesity with metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities. Perturbations of the regulations of the HPA axis such as those described in combination with low dexamethasone suppressibility are known to follow long term overactivation of the axis by factors such as environmental stress.
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The objective of this study was to assess the degree of diabetes care and education achieved for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus at the community level in relation to social status and to elucidate potential pathways that mediate any social class gradient. A population-based sample of 684 adults with Type I diabetes (41% women, mean +/- SD age 36 +/- 11, diabetes duration 18 +/- 11 years) in the district of North-Rhine (9.5 million inhabitants), Germany, were examined in their homes using a mobile ambulance. Results: HbA1c (normal 4.3-6.1%) 8.0 +/- 1.5%, incidence of severe hypoglycaemia (injection of glucose or glucagon) 0.21 cases per patient-year; 62% of patients had participated in a structured group treatment and teaching programme for intensification of insulin therapy; 70% used 3 or more insulin injections per day, 9% were on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; 91% reported to have had measurements of HbA1c during the preceding year, and 80% to have had an examination of the retina by an ophthalmologist. Care was insufficient with respect to the quality of blood pressure control (70% of patients on antihypertensive drugs had blood pressure values > or = 160/95 mmHg), patient awareness of proteinuria/albuminuria (27% of patients had not heard about it) and prevention of foot complications (only 42% with a diabetes duration over 10 years had remembered to have a foot examination during the preceding 12 months). There was a pronounced social gradient with respect to micro- and macrovascular complications (prevalence of overt nephropathy 7 vs 20% for highest vs lowest quintiles of social class [OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.5, p = 0.002]) and diabetes-specific quality of life. HbA1c, blood pressure and smoking accounted for part of the association between social class and microvascular complications. The social class gradient was not due to inequality to access to health services, but to lower acceptance among low social class patients of preventive and health maintaining behaviour. In conclusion, achieved standards of care are high with respect to the implementation of intensified treatment regimens, the level of patient education achieved, treatment control and eye care, whereas areas for improvement are blood pressure control and preventive measures for foot care. A substantial social gradient in diabetes care persists despite equal access of patients to health services.
Article
Full-text available
To examine the relationship between stressful life events and alterations in glycemic control in adults with diabetes. The occurrence of stressful experiences was recorded using the life Events and Difficulties Schedule of Brown and Harris in 55 adults with type 1 diabetes. The two most recent measures of glycemic control (HbA1c) were obtained from medical records, with poor glycemic control defined by the sample median (> or =7.7%). Subjects whose control deteriorated over time or who remained in poor glycemic control were significantly more likely to report severe personal stressors (SPS) in the month before HbA1c measurement, compared with subjects whose control remained fair or whose control improved (43 and 25% vs. 7 and 0%; P = 0.000). Subjects whose control remained fair or whose control improved were significantly more likely to report only positive life events during the same time period (80 and 11% vs. 0 and 0%, respectively; P = 0.000). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that SPS, sex, and lack of further education were all significantly associated with either remaining in poor control or deterioration of control. The study has shown that recent severe stressors are associated with poorer glycemic control. Positive life events were associated with fair or improved glycemic control. This study has its limitations, and future studies should be prospective in design. While it is not always possible to avoid stress, learning to recognize and cope with stressors may help individuals with diabetes maintain good glycemic control and improve overall quality of life.
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether elevations of cortisol levels have more pronounced effects on glucose levels and insulin secretion in the evening (at the trough of the daily rhythm) or in the morning (at the peak of the rhythm), nine normal men each participated in four studies performed in random order. In all studies, endogenous cortisol levels were suppressed by metyrapone administration, and caloric intake was exclusively under the form of a constant glucose infusion. The daily cortisol elevation was restored by administration of hydrocortisone (or placebo) either at 0500 h or at 1700 h. In each study, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and cortisol were measured at 20-min intervals for 32 h. The initial effect of the hydrocortisone-induced cortisol pulse was a short-term inhibition of insulin secretion without concomitant glucose changes and was similar in the evening and in the morning. At both times of day, starting 4-6 h after hydrocortisone ingestion, glucose levels increased and remained higher than under placebo for at least 12 h. This delayed hyperglycemic effect was minimal in the morning but much more pronounced in the evening, when it was associated with robust increases in serum insulin and insulin secretion and with a 30% decrease in insulin clearance. Thus, elevations of evening cortisol levels could contribute to alterations in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the role of cognitive distortions in the relationship between adherence behavior, diabetes-specific stress, general stress, and metabolic control. Obtained questionnaire data, glucometer readings, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbgA(1c)) assays from 143 youths (11-18 years old) with type 1 diabetes. Examined path model of relationships between cognitive distortions, stress, adherence behavior, and metabolic control. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Higher levels of negative cognitive distortions were associated with more stress (both diabetes-specific and general). Higher levels of general stress then led to less adherent behavior and subsequently poorer metabolic control (higher HbgA(1c)). More diabetes-specific stress also led to poorer metabolic control, as well as general stress. The findings indicate an indirect role of negative cognitive distortions in metabolic control. The current findings suggest that instead of the proposed direct link between cognitive distortions and adherence behavior, an indirect relationship may exist through stress.
Article
Associations among neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of externalizing behavior problems were investigated in a longitudinal sample of early adolescents (from age 11 to 13). Mothers' reports of parental monitoring (at age 11), mothers' and youths' reports of the amount of youths' unsupervised time (at age 11), and youths' reports of positive parental involvement (at age 12) were used to predict initial levels (at age 11) and growth rates in youths' externalizing behavior as reported by teachers. Census‐based measures of neighborhood structural disadvantage, residential instability, and concentrated affluence were expected to moderate the effects of parenting processes (e.g., parental monitoring) on externalizing behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that less parental monitoring was associated with more externalizing behavior problems at age 11, and more unsupervised time spent out in the community (vs. unsupervised time in any context) and less positive parental involvement were associated with increases in externalizing behavior across time. Furthermore, the decrease in externalizing levels associated with more parental monitoring was significantly more pronounced when youths lived in neighborhoods with more residential instability.
Article
Context: The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. Objective: The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. Design: This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002-2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 min, +2.5 h, +8 h, +12 h, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycaemic in 2002-2004 (phase 7) were re-examined in 2012-2013 (phase 11). Setting: The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985-1988. Participants: 3270 men and women aged 60.85 years on average in 2002/2004. Outcome measures: Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in 2012-2013. Results: Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio 1.15; 95% CI 0.99-1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future IFG or T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.22) as was high bedtime cortisol (odds ratio 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.20). Conclusions: In this non-clinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance.
Article
To examine general and diabetes-related stressors in early adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Data were from 205 participants (58% female; 33% minority; 11-14 years) enrolled in a clinical trial. Teens identified their top 3 stressors and responded to open-ended questions. A content analysis method was used to identify themes across stressor categories. Eight-two percent of teens reported that school was a top stressor, followed by social life (49%) and diabetes (48%). We identified 5 themes of general life stressors (fitting in, having friends, balancing competing demands, living with family, and feeling pressure to do well) and 3 themes of diabetes-specific stressors (just having diabetes, dealing with emotions, and managing diabetes). Though teens with T1D experienced stressors specific to T1D, they perceived stress related to normal adolescent growth and development more frequently. Teens with T1D may need psychosocial support that holistically addresses both typical developmental and diabetes-related stressors. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
A major challenge in characterizing features of the daily cortisol curve is variability in features over time. Few studies have examined the stability of daily features of the cortisol curve over long periods or the predictors of long term changes. Repeated salivary cortisol measures on 580 adults from the MESA Stress study were used to examine the stability of various features of the daily cortisol curve (wakeup value, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the early and late decline slope and the area under the curve (AUC)), over short periods (several days) and long periods (approximately 6-years) and to investigate the association of demographic factors with the changes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to estimate the short and long term stability. Piecewise linear mixed models were used to assess factors associated with changes in features over time. For most features, short term stability (ICCs: 0.17–0.74) was higher than long term stability (ICCs: 0.05–0.42), and long term stability was highest when several days were averaged for each time point. The decline over the day showed the highest long term stability: when several days for each wave were averaged the stability of the daily decline slope across 6 years was similar (or higher) than the stability across short periods. AUC had high stability over short periods (ICCs: 0.65–0.74) but much lower stability across long periods (ICC: 0.05). All features of daily cortisol curve investigated changed significantly over the approximately 6 year follow-up period. The wakeup cortisol became higher; the CAR became smaller; both the early and late decline became flatter; and the AUC became larger. Hispanics experienced significantly larger increases in the wakeup value; and African-Americans and Hispanics showed less flattening over time of the early decline slope than Non-Hispanic Whites. Our findings have implications for characterization of features in studies linking cortisol to health outcomes. The presence of variability over time suggests opportunities for future investigation of the predictors of changes over time as well as the links between these changes and health outcomes.
Article
Monte Carlo simulation is a useful but underutilized method of constructing confidence intervals for indirect effects in mediation analysis. The Monte Carlo confidence interval method has several distinct advantages over rival methods. Its performance is comparable to other widely accepted methods of interval construction, it can be used when only summary data are available, it can be used in situations where rival methods (e.g., bootstrapping and distribution of the product methods) are difficult or impossible, and it is not as computer-intensive as some other methods. In this study we discuss Monte Carlo confidence intervals for indirect effects, report the results of a simulation study comparing their performance to that of competing methods, demonstrate the method in applied examples, and discuss several software options for implementation in applied settings.
Article
Examined family composition as it related to health status, treatment adherence, and parent–adolescent relationships of 119 12–16.75 yr olds with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Health-related functioning was measured by metabolic control, the Self-Care Inventory, the Teen Adjustment to Diabetes Scale, and the Diabetes-Responsibility and Conflict Scale. Family functioning was measured by the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, the Issues Checklist, and the Parent Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire. Findings revealed that Ss with DM1 from intact (INT), single-parent (SP), and blended (BLND) families did not differ on measures of adjustment to diabetes and adherence to treatment. Ss and their parent(s) from INT, SP, and BLND families also did not differ on measures of general or issue-specific parent–teen conflict, communication skills deficits, overt conflict, extreme beliefs or functional/structural family problems. Combining INT and BLND family data revealed that Ss from two-parent (TP) families were in better metabolic control than Ss from SP families. When race was looked at, results revealed that African-American Ss from SP families were in poorer metabolic control than African-American Ss from TP families and Caucasian Ss from both TP and SP families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies indicate general psychological stress plays a role in the glycemic control of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Disease-specific rather than general measures may be more closely related to measures of health outcomes. Therefore, measurement of diabetes-related stress is needed to advance knowledge of significant relationships between stress and glycemic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of diabetes-related stress for youth with T1DM. A 65-item diabetes stress questionnaire for youths (DSQY) was previously developed for use with older children and adolescents. The DSQY was completed by 417 youths with T1DM and the results were analyzed to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the questionnaire, as well as relationships of diabetes stress with demographic and clinical variables. A factor analysis of the DSQY yielded an eight-factor solution with acceptable internal consistencies. Significant relationships were observed between glycemic control and stress related to parents and dietary issues. While age and socioeconomic status were unrelated with DSQY scores, higher stress was associated with longer diabetes duration, female gender, and racial/ethnic minority status. The DSQY is a reliable and valid measure for assessment of diabetes-specific stress in youths with T1DM.
Article
There is a growing interest in understanding how the experience of socioeconomic status (SES) adversity across the life course may accumulate to negatively affect the functioning of biological regulatory systems important to functioning and health in later adulthood. The goal of the present analyses was to examine whether greater life course SES adversity experience would be associated with higher scores on a multi-system allostatic load (AL) index of physiological function in adulthood. Data for these analyses are from 1008 participants (92.2% White) from the Biomarker Substudy of the Study of Midlife in the US (MIDUS). Multiple indicators of SES adversity in childhood (parent educational attainment, welfare status, financial situation) and two points in adulthood (educational attainment, household income, difficulty paying bills, availability of money to meet basic needs, current financial situation) were used to construct SES adversity measures for each life course phase. An AL score was constructed using information on 24 biomarkers from 7 different physiological systems (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cardiovascular, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, inflammatory immune activity). Analyses indicate higher AL as a function of greater SES adversity at each phase of, and cumulatively across, the life course. Associations were only moderately attenuated when accounting for a wide array of health status, behavioral and psychosocial factors. Findings suggest that SES adversity experience may cumulate across the life course to have a negative impact on multiple biological systems in adulthood. An important aim of future research is the replication of current findings in this predominantly White sample in more ethnically diverse populations.
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of Cushing syndrome (CS) which is caused by chronic exposure to glucocorticoid excess, either endogenous or exogenous, and that is characterized by several clinical symptoms such as central obesity, purple striae, proximal muscle weakness, acne, hirsutism and neuropsychological disturbances. Diabetes occurs as a consequence of an insulin-resistant state together with impaired insulin secretion which are induced by glucocorticoid excess. The management of patients with CS and diabetes mellitus includes the treatment of hyperglycemia and, when possible, the correction of glucocorticoid excess. This review focuses on the disorders of glucose metabolism in patients exposed to glucocorticoid excess, addressing both the pathophysiological aspects and the clinical and therapeutic implications.
Article
To determine the relation of stressful life events to metabolic control. We interviewed adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (n = 132; average age at enrollment = 12 years) annually for 5 years. Each year we administered measures of stressful life events, psychological distress, and self-care behavior. We downloaded data from blood glucose meters, and obtained measures of metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c) from medical records. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, stressful life events predicted greater psychological distress, poorer self-care behavior, and worse metabolic control in both cross-sectional and longitudinal (lagged) analyses. Cross-sectionally, many of these relations were stronger among older than younger adolescents. Self-care behavior partly mediated this association. Stressful life events are related to poor metabolic control-especially for older adolescents. A primary mechanism appears to be a lack of good self care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
We investigated the effect of financial hardship on mortality risk in a community-dwelling sample of adults 50 years of age and olderin the United States. The 1996 Health and Retirement Study cohorts were followed prospectively to 2004 (N = 8,377). Gender-stratified grouped Cox models were used to estimate the difference in the relative risk (RR) of mortality between a specific number of financial hardships (one, two, or three or more) and no hardships; and the predictive utility of each individual financial hardship for mortality during the follow-up period. Gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and functional limitations in 1996 showed that women reporting one (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.92) or three or more (HR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.05-2.46) and men reporting two (HR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.21-2.69) financial hardships had a substantially higher probability of mortality compared to those reporting no financial hardships. Individual financial hardships that predicted mortality in fully adjusted models for women included receiving Medicaid (HR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.68-2.98) and for men receiving Medicaid (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.57-2.84) and receiving food stamps (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.09-2.33). These findings suggest that over and above the influence of traditional measures of socioeconomic status, financial hardship exerts an influence on the risk of mortality among older adults and that the number and type of hardships important in predicting mortality may differ for men and women.
Article
Salivary cortisol measures are increasingly being incorporated into large-scale, population-based, or epidemiological research, in which participants are selected to be representative of particular communities or populations of interest, and sample sizes are in the order of hundreds to tens of thousands of participants. These approaches to studying salivary cortisol provide important advantages but pose a set of challenges. The representative nature of sampling, and large samples sizes associated with population-based research offer high generalizability and power, and the ability to examine cortisol functioning in relation to: (a) a wide range of social environments; (b) a diverse array individuals and groups; and (c) a broad set of pre-disease and disease outcomes. The greater importance of high response rates (to maintain generalizability) and higher costs associated with this type of large-scale research, however, requires special adaptations of existing ambulatory cortisol protocols. These include: using the most efficient sample collection protocol possible that still adequately address the specific cortisol-related questions at hand, and ensuring the highest possible response and compliance rates among those individuals invited to participate. Examples of choices made, response rates obtained, and examples of results obtained from existing epidemiological cortisol studies are offered, as are suggestions for the modeling and interpretation of salivary cortisol data obtained in large-scale epidemiological research.
Article
High cortisol level is known to be associated with osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), susceptibility to infections and depression and may protect against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study assesses the association between cortisol level, 6- to 7.5-year mortality risk and prevalence of chronic diseases. Subjects were selected from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, an ongoing multidisciplinary cohort study in a general population of older persons (>/=65 years). Serum cortisol was measured in 1181 men and women in 1995/1996 (second cycle) and salivary cortisol in 998 men and women in 2001/2002 (fourth cycle). Six to seven and a half year mortality and prevalence of chronic diseases. Men with high salivary morning cortisol had a higher mortality risk than men with low levels [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, P = 0.04 for the third vs. the lowest tertile]. Women with high salivary evening cortisol had a higher mortality risk than women with low levels (HR = 1.82, P = 0.04 for the third vs. the lowest tertile). In men, high serum cortisol was independently associated with chronic nonspecific lung disease (CNSLD): odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, P < 0.01; hypertension: OR = 1.38, P < 0.01; DM: OR = 1.38, P = 0.02. In women, high salivary evening cortisol was independently associated with DM: OR = 1.33, P = 0.01 and CNSLD: OR = 0.58, P = 0.02. No independent association between cortisol and number of chronic diseases was found. High salivary cortisol levels are associated with increased mortality risk in a general older population. High cortisol levels are associated with higher risks of hypertension and DM and lower risk of CNSLD.
Article
In acute illness, cortisol secretion increases whereas that of the adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declines. The present study examined if a similar dissociation of cortisol and adrenal androgen secretion occurs in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Serum concentrations of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate obtained at 08.00 were compared in 13 post-pubertal diabetics (mean age 18.0 years) in good control (HbA1C less than 8.0%) and 10 post-pubertal diabetics (mean age 17.0 years) in poor control (HbA1C greater than 10.0%). Those in poor control had significantly higher serum cortisol (597 +/- 94 nmol/l vs 479 +/- 208, p less than 0.05), lower dehydroepiandrosterone (13.1 +/- 5.5 nmol/l vs 25.3 +/- 16.9, p less than 0.025) and lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (4.5 +/- 2.4 mumol/l vs 7.0 +/- 3.7, p less than 0.025). The ratios of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to cortisol were also significantly lower in those with poor control. It is concluded that poor control of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus results in a dissociation of cortisol and adrenal androgen secretion.
Article
A model of daily stress and metabolic control in Type I diabetes was tested in which stress has dual effects upon glycemic level: (a) direct, through psychophysiological mechanisms, and (b) mediated, through regimen adherence. Learned resourcefulness was postulated to moderate both effects. Two approaches to measuring daily stress were also compared: stress mean and variability. Daily stress and adherence were measured in 62 adult diabetics on six occasions over 2 months, after which glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained. Stress had a direct association with metabolic control that was not mediated by adherence. Although learned resourcefulness failed to moderate this relationship, it did relate directly to metabolic control, in the unexpected direction. The variables combined to explain 37% of the variance in metabolic control. The utility of the intraindividual approach to daily stress measurement was supported.
Article
Glucocorticoid excess can decrease glucose utilization, increase hepatic glucose production, and stimulate glucagon secretion, lipolysis, proteolysis, and gluconeogenesis. These hormones also exert a permissive effect on gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. All of these effects are accentuated by insulin deficiency. Hypercortisolemia potentiates the actions of catecholamines and glucagon on glucose production. Glucocorticoids, as long as present in permissive amouts, appear to play a minimal role - if any - in acute glucose counterregulation but may be important in the development of stress-induced hyperglycemia.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether measures of anxiety, stress, and means of coping with stress differ in diabetic adolescents in good, fair, and poor metabolic control. Trait anxiety, perceived daily stress, and coping responses to a recent stressful event were assessed in 27 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Information also was obtained regarding the type of stressful events that subjects referred to in completing the coping measure, as well as their appraisals of the events. Hemoglobin A1 (HbA1) obtained at the time of the study was used as a measure of antecedent metabolic control. Based upon their HbA1, patients were divided into three metabolic control subgroups: good control (M = 8.4%; n = 8), fair control (M = 10.9%; n = 9), and poor control (M = 13.3%; n = 10). Patients in these subgroups were similar with regard to age, disease duration, and socioeconomic status. Results indicated that the subgroups did not differ on the anxiety and stress measures; however, analyses of the coping data indicated that patients in poor control employed significantly more wishful thinking and avoidance/help-seeking than did patients in good metabolic control. Furthermore, the metabolic control subgroups differed in the type of stressful events reported and their appraisals of the stressful events. These results support the hypothesis that the ways in which individuals with diabetes appraise and cope with stress is related to their metabolic control. The findings are discussed in relation to methodological issues and treatment implications. J Dev Behav Pediatr 8:136-140, 1987. Index terms: diabetes, stress, coping, adolescents. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Article
Psychosomatic research findings correlating psychologic stress with diabetic control fail as yet to provide valid conclusions. Investigators have presented many contradictory findings. The two major pathways by which stress could affect control, a) changes in compliance behavior, and b) a neurohumoral axis, have not been clearly distinguished from each other. The study of adolescent cohorts is associated with the problem of heterogeneity, limiting the application of results to other diabetic populations. Methods of determining diabetic control have been incomplete and the definition and measurement of stress have major inadequacies for the analysis of such a complex psychosomatic problem. Existing evidence is comprehensively reviewed and evaluated. The authors use a modified definition of stress to construct a stress scale specific to pregnant diabetics.
Article
In a study of school-age children with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), life stress, metabolic control (glycosylated hemoglobin), and psychiatric and psychosocial variables were assessed repeatedly for up to 6 years. Life stress was defined as the number of undesirable life events and extent of life change necessitated by all life events. In univariate longitudinal analyses, total life change units were related to metabolic control, with a trend for number of undesirable events to be associated with metabolic control. In multivariate analyses, metabolic control was related to life change units, whether the glycosylated hemoglobin was in the 1st year of IDDM, IDDM duration, and the diagnosis of pervasive noncompliance with medical regimen. The relationship of life stress to metabolic control among youths with diabetes in significant but clinically modest and may be partially mediated by serious noncompliance with the medical regimen.
Article
In 129 children, aged 12.6 +/- 3.8 years, affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus, the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, T3, fT3, T4, fT4, rT3, TSH, cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated and compared with those of a control group of 458 healthy age-matched children. The results were also correlated with hemoglobin HbA1C. The DHEAS-standard deviation score (DHEAS-SDS; -0.36 +/- 0.77) was significantly different from zero in diabetic children, while the cortisol serum level was higher than in control subjects (485 +/- 94 vs 359 +/- 132 nmol/l). Moreover, the DHEAS-SDS and DHEAS-SDS/cortisol ratio correlated negatively with HbA1c. Diabetic patients also showed lower T3 values (2.22 +/- 0.4 vs 2.32 +/- 0.3 nmol/l) and a higher rT3/T3 ratio (0.17 +/- 0.09 vs 0.15 +/- 0.05) than controls. There was a negative correlation between T3 and HbA1C. Cholesterol (4.77 +/- 1.08 vs 4.51 +/- 0.76 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.82 +/- 0.53 vs 0.63 +/- 0.37 g/L) levels were higher in diabetic children and positively correlated with HbA1c, but not with DHEAS-SDS. We can therefore conclude that diabetes, particularly if poorly controlled, tends to induce a dissociation of cortisol and DHEAS secretion and a low T3 syndrome, similar to that seen in other illnesses.
Article
A total clinic sample of 67 diabetic and their parents were followed prospectively together with a referent group in this longitudinal study of psychosocial factors in childhood diabetes. Measurements of psychosocial stress showed statistically more negative life events and coping problems in the diabetic group during the first two years of life. The crisis/coping pattern at onset of the disease varied but most parents/and children scored low distress already after 4 weeks. High distress at onset correlated to high distress at a twelve month follow-up interview. Among the parents planful problem solving and distancing were the most prevalent coping mechanisms. The diabetic children had a rather good adaptation to the disease after 12 months of disease duration. Psychiatric problems were not more common in the diabetic children compared to a normal group. Metabolic imbalance correlated to external locus of control, low development quotient and many life events.
Article
The common clinical assumption that stress has a deleterious effect on metabolic control in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has not been confirmed in children and adolescents. This cross sectional study of 43 children and adolescents with IDDM and their families examined the relations between family life stress, family social support, and metabolic control. High family life stress was found to be strongly correlated with HbA1c in the whole group (n = 43) and in children under 12 years (n = 27) when considered separately. Family social support was not found to be directly related to HbA1c, but was found to buffer the effects of family life stress. These findings support the hypotheses that family stress affects metabolic control in IDDM and that good social support buffers these deleterious effects.
Article
The authors investigate the postonset hospitalization rate and risk factors during 1987-1994 in Wisconsin, in a population-based, incidence cohort followed from diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus at ages 0-29 (n = 577). The overall rate was 8.9 +/- 0.60 (standard error) per 100 person-years of diabetes, whereof 5.7 was due to hyperglycemia, 1.9 to hypoglycemia, and 1.3 to other and undetermined causes. Major risk factors for hospitalization were longitudinally measured glycosylated hemoglobin level (rate ratio = 1.5 per 2% increase, 95% confidence interval 1.4-1.7), black/other race (rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.6), diagnosis in a non-university-based setting (rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), female sex (rate ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4 at age 11), age in males (rate ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8 per 5-year increase), and public or no insurance up to 18 months postdiagnosis (rate ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.4). For individuals less than 18 years, "black/other race" was replaced in the model by "having other than two biologic parents in the home" (rate ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.5). Hence, hospitalization is common in children, adolescents, and young adults with diabetes, primarily for problems with glycemic control.
Article
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important predictor of a range of health and illness outcomes. Research seeking to identify the extent to which this often-reported effect is due to protective benefits of higher SES or to toxic elements of lower social status has not yielded consistent or conclusive findings. A relatively novel hypothesis is that these effects are due to chronic stress that is associated with SES; lower SES is reliably associated with a number of important social and environmental conditions that contribute to chronic stress burden, including crowding, crime, noise pollution, discrimination, and other hazards or stressors. In other words, chronic stress may capture much of the variance in health and social outcomes associated with harmful aspects of lower social status. Low SES is generally associated with distress, prevalence of mental health problems, and with health-impairing behaviors that are also related to stress. Research targeting this hypothesis is needed to determine the extent to which stress is a pathway linking SES and health.
Article
As our knowledge of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes increases, so does our appreciation for the pathogenic complexity of this disease and the challenges associated with its treatment. Many new concepts about the pathogenesis of this disorder have arisen. The role of genetics versus environment in disease formation has been questioned, and the basis on which type 1 diabetes is characterised and diagnosed is the subject of much debate. Additionally, the care and treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes has seen a rapid evolution; with genetically engineered insulins, glucose monitoring devices, and algorithms all contributing to a decrease in disease-related complications. We focus this seminar on these changing views, and offer a new perspective on our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and on principles for therapeutic management of patients with this disorder.
Article
The relationship between salivary cortisol levels at the beginning of the school year and parent reports of temperament using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) were investigated in 35 first graders. Cortisol was sampled in the morning, afternoon, and evening on the first and fifth days of school and two weekend days later in the school year. On the first day of school compared to weekend days, children displayed a steeper cortisol slope across the day due to lower afternoon and evening levels. By the fifth day of school, cortisol levels, on average, were not different than on weekend days. However, using change scores to reflect the response to school days relative to weekend days, children who scored higher in Surgency (i.e., enjoyment of intense play, high activity level, impulsivity, lack of shyness) continued to display a steeper cortisol slope on the fifth day of school with higher morning and lower evening cortisol levels. In contrast, shyness, which negatively contributes to Surgency, was positively correlated with evening change scores on the fifth day of school.
Article
Our analyses examine the role neighborhood structural characteristics--including concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, and immigrant concentration--as well as collective efficacy in promoting physical health among neighborhood residents. Using data from the 1990 census, the 1994 Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Community Survey, and the 1991-2000 Metropolitan Chicago Information Center-Metro Survey, we model the effects of individual and neighborhood level factors on self-rated physical health employing hierarchical ordered logit models. First, we find that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is not significantly related to self-rated physical health when individual level demographic and health background are controlled. Second, individuals residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of collective efficacy report better overall health. Finally, socioeconomic disadvantage and collective efficacy condition the positive effects of individual level education on physical health.
Article
Associations among neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of externalizing behavior problems were investigated in a longitudinal sample of early adolescents (from age 11 to 13). Mothers' reports of parental monitoring (at age 11), mothers' and youths' reports of the amount of youths' unsupervised time (at age 11), and youths' reports of positive parental involvement (at age 12) were used to predict initial levels (at age 11) and growth rates in youths' externalizing behavior as reported by teachers. Census-based measures of neighborhood structural disadvantage, residential instability, and concentrated affluence were expected to moderate the effects of parenting processes (e.g., parental monitoring) on externalizing behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that less parental monitoring was associated with more externalizing behavior problems at age 11, and more unsupervised time spent out in the community (vs. unsupervised time in any context) and less positive parental involvement were associated with increases in externalizing behavior across time. Furthermore, the decrease in externalizing levels associated with more parental monitoring was significantly more pronounced when youths lived in neighborhoods with more residential instability.
Article
Previous research has demonstrated links between low socioeconomic status (SES) and clinical asthma outcomes, as well as links between stress and asthma. The objective of this study was to test whether adolescents with asthma from different SES backgrounds differed in biological profiles relevant to asthma, including immune and cortisol measures. The second objective was to test whether psychological stress and control beliefs could explain these differences. Adolescents with persistent asthma from either low (N= 18) or high (N= 12) SES neighborhoods were interviewed about their stress experiences (chronic stress, acute life events, interpretations of ambiguous life events) and control beliefs. Blood was drawn to assess immune (cytokines, eosinophils, IgE) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) markers associated with asthma. Adolescents in the low SES group had significantly higher levels of a stimulated cytokine associated with a Th-2 immune response (IL-5), higher levels of a stimulated cytokine associated with a Th-1 immune response (IFN-gamma), and marginally lower morning cortisol values compared with the high SES group. Low SES adolescents also had greater stress experiences and lower beliefs about control over their health. Statistical mediational analyses revealed that stress and control beliefs partially explained the relationship between SES and IL-5/IFN-gamma. Our finding that low SES was associated with elevations in certain immune responses (IL-5/IFN-gamma) in adolescents with asthma suggests the importance of further exploration into relationships between SES and Th-2/Th-1 responses in asthma. Our findings also suggest that psychological stress and control beliefs may provide one explanation for links between SES and immune responses in childhood asthma.