ArticlePDF Available

Usefulness of a nutraceutical diet to improve QoL and drugs use in a dog affected by a mast cell tumor: a case report

Authors:
  • Clinica Veterinaria di Russi, Russi (RA) Italy/SIONCOV/SICIV/
  • Forza10 USA Corp.
  • Sanypet FORZA10

Abstract

On October 2014, a 10-years-old male neutered boxer presented to the Wiligelmo Veterinary Clinic of Modena (Italy) for the sudden onset of 3 cutaneous nodular lesions. The first, a large movable lesion, was clearly visible on the dorsal face of the second finger of the right forepaw, which was linked to the paw by means of a tight peduncle. Intriguingly the skin of this lesion resulted intact, neither alopecic nor with signs of dermatitis. The second lesion, on right side of the tail, was subcutaneous, poorly movable and with a blackish, alopecic but not ulcerated skin. The same features characterized the third lesion on the left dorsal side of the gluteus region. All lymph nodes resulted in their normal dimensions. The skin presented some areas where the fur was easily detachable, dry, opaque and dispersed. Food history revealed the assumption of specific commercially available diets for gastrointestinal and dermatological issues.
Usefulness of a nutraceutical diet to improve qol and drugs use in a dog
affected by a mast cell tumor: a case report.
Paolo Guazzi1, Sergio Canello2, Gianandrea Guidetti3 , Alessandro Di Cerbo4*
1Wiligelmo Veterinary Clinic, Modena, Italy
2Research and Development Department, USA, Orlando, USA
3Research and Development Department, Padua, Italy, Modena, Italy
4Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Dental School, University G. D`Annunzio of Chieti-
Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Accepted on February 06, 2017
Case Report
On October 2014, a 10-years-old male neutered boxer
presented to the Wiligelmo Veterinary Clinic of Modena (Italy)
for the sudden onset of 3 cutaneous nodular lesions (Figure 1).
The first, a large movable lesion, was clearly visible on the
dorsal face of the second finger of the right forepaw (Figures
1A and 1B), which was linked to the paw by means of a tight
peduncle. Intriguingly the skin of this lesion resulted intact,
neither alopecic nor with signs of dermatitis. The second
lesion, on right side of the tail, was subcutaneous, poorly
movable and with a blackish, alopecic but not ulcerated skin
(Figure 1C). The same features characterized the third lesion on
the left dorsal side of the gluteus region (Figure 1D).
Figure 1. Graphical representation of mast cell tumor in
different cutaneous areas. (A-B) Interdigital lesion on the
dorsal face of the second finger of the right forepaw (6 cm of
length); (C) second lesion on right side of the tail (4.5 cm of
length); (D) third lesion on the left dorsal side of the gluteus
region (5 cm of length).
All lymph nodes resulted in their normal dimensions. The skin
presented some areas where the fur was easily detachable, dry,
opaque and dispersed. Food history revealed the assumption of
specific commercially available diets for gastrointestinal and
dermatological issues.
Body of the Case
The dog resulted overweighed after a general objective exam
(BCS evaluation 7/9). The cytological examinations of the 3
lesions revealed the presence of a well-differentiated mast cell
tumor.
Trichological exam showed the presence of fungal spores
compatible with Microsporum gypseum. Conversely, hemato-
biochemical analyses, radiographic and ultrasonography
investigations do not showed any significant alteration. Also
liver and spleen samplings, by mean of fine needle aspiration
biopsy, as well as exon 11 analysis do not revealed any mast
cell infiltrates or genetic mutations, respectively.
Firstly the dog was assigned to receive Griseofulvin for one
month, then a dose of 1 mg/kg Prednisolone and a tablet of
Epato 1500 (twice a day). After one month the amount of
Prednisolone was reduced to 0.75 mg/kg while the Griseofulvin
was interrupted. The most difficult therapeutic concern was the
necessity to use Prednisolone, as the only drug accepted by the
owners against mast cell tumor, and the need to avoid it in
order to prevent dermatophytosis spread. Three months later a
nutraceutical, immune modulating diet (IMMUNOACTIVE,
SANYpet S.p.A) was introduced [1-3]. One week later the
Prednisolone was reduced to 0.6 mg/kg and, after 15 days since
the beginning of the nutraceutical diet supplementation, was
interrupted. Three weeks later neoplastic lesions resulted
slightly reduced (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Graphical representation of mast cell tumor in
different cutaneous areas following 2 months of dietary
intervention. (A-B) Interdigital lesion on the dorsal face of the
second finger of the right forepaw (4 cm of length); (C) second
lesion on right side of the tail (4 cm of length); (D) third lesion
on the left dorsal side of the gluteus region (3 cm of length).
Case Report http://www.alliedacademies.org/veterinary-medicine-and-allied-science/
J Vet Med Allied Sci 2017 Volume 1 Issue 1
1
Only itraconazole was continued every other week. After one
month the right hind knee became aching and swollen with a
II/III degree of lameness. Radiographically, the only visible
alterations were ascribed to the presence of severe arthritis
process and ligament lesions; therefore Previcox 227, once a
day, was introduced.
Twenty days later the Previcox 227 dosage was reduced to
maintenance dosage, along with a reduction of the aching,
swollen and lameness, and completely interrupted after two
months. After one month since Previcox 227 interruption a
mycosis relapse occurred and itraconazole was re-introduced.
All neoplastic lesions resulted still stable.
Seven months later an increase in all three cutaneous tumors
was observable while no mycosis was present. Despite the
daily assumption of the nutraceutical diet, the dog resumed the
Prednisolone (1 mg/kg once a day) along with Kc Omega (2
capsules a day). Four months later the dog came to the clinic
with a severe dyspnea, a moderate pleural effusion but a severe
pneumothorax. Ultrasound investigation revealed a great
hepatic mass. Due to the severe dyspnotic picture and the
diffused metastases the animal was euthanized.
Starting from a Stage III mast cell tumor, poorly responsive to
drugs belonging to the class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors,
regardless surgical treatment and other chemotherapy protocols
(refused by the owner), the choice of Prednisolone was the
only therapeutic possibility towards such tumor. Unfortunately,
this treatment was in contrast with that for dermatomycosis,
which is facilitated by cortison-like drugs both locally and
systemically [4]. Therefore it was necessary an alternative
treatment that allowed reducing or even suspending the amount
of Prednisolone. A further difficulty was represented also by
the food hypersensitivity noticed during the anamnesis. The
use of a hypoallergenic nutraceutical diet, enriched with
botanicals (Cucumis melo, Aloe vera, Punica granatum, Piper
nigrum, Camellia sinensis, Ascophyllum nodosum, Grifola
frondosa, Glycine max, Echinacea purpurea, Poligonum spp.,
Carica papaya and Curcuma longa) with immune modulating
and anti-inflammatory activity [2] and a high omega 3 and 6
ratio (3:1) resulted to be a valuable support to the
pharmacological treatment, stabilizing the disease status for 11
months without the use of Prednisolone and allowing a better
response to dermatomycosis.
Both in human and veterinary medicine, recent literature
highlighted the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and
some phytotherapic compounds-based remedies in the
prevention and treatment of cancer [5,6]. For instance,
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and
eicosapentaenoic acid, showed to induce apoptosis and
autophagy in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [7]. As concerns
Curcuma longa [8], Aloe vera [9], Piper nigrum [10], Punica
granatum [11], Camellia sinensis [12], Ascophyllum nodosum
[13], Grifola frondosa [14], Glycine max [15], Echinacea
purpurea [16], Poligonum cuspidatum [17] and Carica papaya
[18] they all showed cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity
towards several cancer models both in vivo and in vitro.
Finally, it is of great relevance to remind that poor body
condition score and weight loss have been related to bad
prognosis in dogs affected by neoplastic condition [19], and
many owner s have great interest in change the diet of their pet,
in order to help it in the every-day life, at home, using food as
a simple, but very important tool to maintain a good QOL.
References
1. Cortese L. An immune-modulating diet increases the
regulatory T cells and reduces T helper 1 inflammatory
response in Leishmaniosis affected dogs treated with
standard therapy. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:295.
2. Guidetti G. In Vitro Effects of Some Botanicals with Anti-
Inflammatory and Antitoxic Activity. J Immunol Res.
2016;2016:5457010.
3. Destefanis S. Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical diet as
an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment in dogs affected
by Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12(1):
214.
4. Lakshmipathy DT, Kannabiran K. Review on
dermatomycosis: pathogenesis and treatment. Natural
Science. 2010;2(7):726-731.
5. Liu J, Ma DW. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Nutrients.
2014;6(11):5184-223.
6. Roudebush P, Davenport DJ, Novotny BJ. The use of
nutraceuticals in cancer therapy. Vet Clin North Am Small
Anim Pract. 2004;34(1):249-69.
7. Rovito D. Omega-3 PUFA ethanolamides DHEA and
EPEA induce autophagy through PPARgamma activation in
MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228(6):
1314-22.
8. Qadir MI, Naqvi ST, Muhammad SA. Curcumin: a
Polyphenol with Molecular Targets for Cancer Control.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(6):2735-9.
9. Cathcart P, Stebbing J. Aloe vera, a natural cancer soother?
Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(4):421.
10. Deng Y, et al. Anti-cancer effects of Piper nigrum via
inducing multiple molecular signaling in vivo and in vitro.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;188:87-95.
11. Sharma P, McClees, Afaq F. Pomegranate for Prevention
and Treatment of Cancer: An Update. Molecules.
2017;22(1).
12. Lassed S, Deus CM, Radja Djebbari R, et al. Protective
Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) against
Prostate Cancer: From In Vitro Data to Algerian Patients.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;4(2):
1691568.
13. Abu R, Jiang Z, Ueno M, et al. Anti-metastatic effects of
the sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from
Ascophyllum nodosum on B16 melanoma. Biochem
Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458(4):727-32.
14. Alonso EN, Ferronato MJ, Gandini NA, et al. Antitumoral
Effects of D-Fraction from Grifola Frondosa (Maitake)
Mushroom in Breast Cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2017;69(1):
29-43.
Citation: Di Cerbo A, Guazzi P, Canello S and Guidetti G. Usefulness of a nutraceutical diet to improve qol and drugs use in a dog affected by
a mast cell tumor: a case report.. J Vet Med Allied Sci 2017;1(1):1-4.
2
J Vet Med Allied Sci 2017 Volume 1 Issue 1
15. Suthar AC, Banavalikar MM, Biyani MK. Pharmacological
activities of Genistein, an isoflavone from soy (Glycine
max): part I--anti-cancer activity. Indian J Exp Biol.
2001;39(6):511-19.
16. Cichello SA, Yao Q, He XQ. Proliferative activity of a
blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea
root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939
cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines. J Tradit
Complement Med. 2016; 6(2):193-7.
17. Lee CC. Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive
antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and
anticancer agents. J Biosci Bioeng, 2015; 119(4):464-9.
18. Clement YN, Mahase V, Jagroop A, et al. Herbal remedies
and functional foods used by cancer patients attending
specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad. BMC Complement
Altern Med. 2016;16(1):399.
19. Michel KE, Sorenmo K, Shofer FS. Evaluation of body
condition and weight loss in dogs presented to a veterinary
oncology service. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18(5):692-5.
*Correspondence to
Di Cerbo A
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences,
Dental School, University G. D`Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara,
Italy
Tel: 392-3731318;
E-mail: alessandro811@hotmail.it
Di Cerbo, Guazzi, Canello, Guidetti
J Vet Med Allied Sci 2017 Volume 1 Issue 1
3
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Green tea (GT) has been studied for its effects as antioxidant and cancer-preventive agent. Epidemiological studies showed that GT consumption decreases the risk for prostate cancer (PC). To investigate whether erythrocyte oxidative stress (OS) is associated with PC and whether daily consumption of GT improves the oxidative phenotype, we performed a study in a group of Algerian PC patients, preceded by an in vitro study to characterize composition and antioxidant/antiproliferative activities of the GT used. This contained a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, demonstrating in vitro antioxidant activity and significant antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. Seventy PC patients and 120 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study, with glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase activity evaluated before and after GT consumption. The results showed a reduced GSH and catalase activity and a high level of MDA in erythrocytes from PC patients. The consumption of 2-3 cups per day of GT during 6 months significantly increased GSH concentration and catalase activity and decreased MDA concentration. In conclusion, GT significantly decreased OS in Algerian PC patients. Regular consumption of GT for a long period may prevent men from developing PC or at least delay its progression.
Article
Full-text available
D-Fraction is protein-bound β-1,6 and β-1,3 glucans (proteoglucan) extracted from the edible and medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa (Maitake). The antitumoral effect of D-Fraction has long been exclusively attributed to their immunostimulatory capacity. However, in recent years increasing evidence showed that D-Fraction directly affects the viability of canine and human tumor cells, independent of the immune system. Previously, we have reported that D-Fraction modulates the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, cell death, migration, invasion, and metastasis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to investigate if this modulation of gene expression by Maitake D-Fraction really modulates tumor progression. In the present work, we demonstrate for the first time that Maitake D-Fraction is able to act directly on mammary tumor cells, modulating different cellular processes involved in the development and progression of cancer. We demonstrate that D-Fraction decreases cell viability, increases cell adhesion, and reduces the migration and invasion of mammary tumor cells, generating a less aggressive cell behavior. In concordance with these results, we also demonstrate that D-Fraction decreases tumor burden and the number of lung metastases in a murine model of breast cancer.
Article
Full-text available
Background Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. MethodsA descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island. Data was analysed using χ2 analyses. ResultsAmong the 150 patients who reported use of herbal remedies/functional foods, soursop (Annona muricata L.) was the most popular; with 80.7 % using the leaves, bark, fruit and seeds on a regular basis. Other common herbal remedies/functional foods included wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. The most commonly used functional foods were beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), carrots (Daucus carata L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) used by 43.3 % of patients; and these were mostly blended as a mixture. Herbal remedies and functional foods were used on a daily basis and patients believed that this modality was equally (32.0 %) or more efficacious (14.7 %) than conventional treatment. Conclusions This survey identified the most common herbal remedies and functional foods used among prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients in Trinidad. Although functional foods rarely pose a problem, herbs may interact with conventional chemotherapy and physicians need to inform patients regarding probable herb-drug interactions.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND:Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS. Current therapies for this ocular disease rely on immunosuppressive treatments. Clinical response to treatment frequently varies from poor to good, depending on the clinical-pathological status of eyes at diagnosis and on individual response to therapy. In the light of the variability of clinical response to therapies, we evaluated the use of an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant nutraceutical diet with potential immune-modulating activity as a therapeutical adjuvant in cKCS pharmacological treatment. Such combination was administered to a cohort of dogs affected by cKCS in which the only immunosuppressive treatment resulted poorly responsive or ineffective in controlling the ocular symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty dogs of different breeds affected by immune-mediated cKCS were equally distributed and randomly assigned to receive either a standard diet (control, n = 25) or the nutraceutical diet (treatment group, n = 25) both combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy over a 60 days period. An overall significant improvement of all clinical parameters (tear production, conjunctival inflammation, corneal keratinization, corneal pigment density and mucus discharge) and the lack of food-related adverse reactions were observed in the treatment group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the association of traditional immune-suppressive therapy with the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties of the nutraceutical diet resulted in a significant amelioration of clinical signs and symptoms in cKCS. The beneficial effects, likely due to the presence of supplemented nutraceuticals in the diet, appeared to specifically reduce the immune-mediated ocular symptoms in those cKCS-affected dogs that were poorly responsive or unresponsive to classical immunosuppressive drugs. These data suggest that metabolic changes could affect the immune response orchestration in a model of immune-mediated ocular disease, as represented by cKCS.
Article
Full-text available
Several extrinsic factors, like drugs and chemicals, can foster autoimmunity. Tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), appear to correlate with the emergence of immune-mediated diseases. Accumulation of OTC, the elective drug for gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious disease treatment in broiler chickens, was reported in chicken edible tissues and could represent a potential risk for pets and humans that could assume this antibiotic as residue in meat or in meat-derived byproducts. We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of a pool of thirteen botanicals as a part of a nutraceutical diet, with proven immunomodulatory activity . In addition, we evaluated the effect of such botanicals in contrasting the in vitro proinflammatory toxicity of OTC. Our results showed a significant reduction in interferon- (INF-) γ production by human and canine lymphocytes in presence of botanicals ( p ⁎ < 0.05 ). Increased INF- γ production, dependent on 24-hour OTC-incubation of T lymphocytes, was significantly reduced by the coincubation with Haematococcus pluvialis , with Glycine max , and with the mix of all botanicals ( p ⁎ < 0.05 ). In conclusion, the use of these botanicals was shown to be able to contrast OTC-toxicity and could represent a new approach for the development of functional foods useful to enhance the standard pharmacological treatment in infections as well as in preventing or reducing the emergence of inflammatory diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Curcumin, is a polyphenol from Curcuma longa (turmeric plant), is a polyphenol that belongs to the ginger family which has long been used in Ayurveda medicines to treat various diseases such as asthma, anorexia, coughing, hepatic diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, wound healing and Alzheimer’s. Various studies have shown that curcumin has anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardio protective, anti-arthritic, chemo preventive and anti-carcinogenic activities. It may suppress both initiation and progression stages of cancer. Anticancer activity of curcumin is due to negative regulation of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, protein kinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oncogenes. This review f ocuses on the different targets of curcumin to treat cancer.
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. Conclusion The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the standard treatment in a model of CL.
Article
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention for the prevention and treatment of cancers. These natural agents are safe and cost efficient in contrast to expensive chemotherapeutic agents, which may induce significant side effects. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of diseases and ailments for centuries in ancient cultures. Pomegranate exhibits strong antioxidant activity and is a rich source of anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and hydrolysable tannins. Studies have shown that the pomegranate fruit as well as its juice, extract, and oil exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumorigenic properties by modulating multiple signaling pathways, which suggest its use as a promising chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the role of pomegranate in prevention and treatment of skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Piper nigrum is widely used as a folk medicine including usage for pain relief, fevers, as well as an anti-cancer agent. However the crude extracts of piperine free P. nigrum (PFPE), which inhibits breast cancer, and its mechanisms are still being kept secret. This research is aimed to elucidate the anti-cancer effects of PFPE and its mechanisms. Materials and methods: Anti-cancer effects of PFPE were investigated in N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis rats and breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75-1. Furthermore, the cancer prevention effects of PFPE were investigated in rats. Western blotting was employed to study proteins levels induced by PFPE. Results: PFPE was found to up-regulate p53, and down-regulate estrogen receptor (ER), E-cadherin (E-cad), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), c-Myc, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in breast cancer rats. Moreover, PFPE decreased protein levels of E-cad, c-Myc, and VEGF in MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that PFPE can enhance breast cancer cell response to phytochemicals, then induce cell cycle arrest, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation resulting in tumor size decrease in the PFPE treated group. It is further suggests that PFPE may suppress tumor cell invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. In addition, PFPE possessed cancer prevention effects through generation reactive oxygen species (ROS) to higher cancer cell cellular stress. Conclusions: PFPE could possess the anti-cancer and cancer prevention effect; hence, it deserves further investigation as a novel candidate for treating breast cancer.