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Biological Activities of Frankincense Essential Oil in Human Dermal Fibroblasts


Abstract and Figures

Although frankincense essential oil (FREO¹) has become increasingly popular in skin care, research on its biological activities in human skin cells is scarce, if not completely absent. In the current study, we explored the biological activities of FREO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. FREO exhibited robust anti-proliferative activity in these skin cells. It also significantly inhibited collagen III, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1. We also studied its effect in regulating genome-wide gene expression. FREO robustly modulated global gene expression. Furthermore, Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis showed that FREO affected many important signaling pathways that are closely related to inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling. This study provides the first evidence of the biological activities of FREO in human dermal fibroblasts. Consistent with existing studies in other models, the current study suggests that FREO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of inflammation and tissue remodeling in human skin.
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Accepted Manuscript
Biological Activities of Frankincense Essential Oil in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Xuesheng Han, Damian Rodriguez, Tory L. Parker
PII: S2214-0085(17)30002-0
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopen.2017.01.003
Reference: BIOPEN 34
To appear in: Biochimie Open
Received Date: 12 December 2016
Revised Date: 25 January 2017
Accepted Date: 27 January 2017
Please cite this article as: X. Han, D. Rodriguez, T.L Parker, Biological Activities of Frankincense
Essential Oil in Human Dermal Fibroblasts, Biochimie Open (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.biopen.2017.01.003.
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Title: Biological Activities of Frankincense Essential Oil in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Authors and Affiliations:
Xuesheng Han
, Damian Rodriguez, and Tory L Parker
dōTERRA International, LLC, 389 S. 1300 W. Pleasant Grove, UT 84062, USA
Corresponding author: Xuesheng Han, dōTERRA International, LLC, 389 S. 1300 W. Pleasant
Grove, UT 84062, USA. Email:
Running title: Effect of Frankincense essential oil in human skin cells
Although frankincense essential oil (FREO
) has become increasingly popular in skin care,
research on its biological activities in human skin cells is scarce, if not completely absent. In the
current study, we explored the biological activities of FREO in pre-inflamed human dermal
fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to
inflammation and tissue remodeling. FREO exhibited robust anti-proliferative activity in these
skin cells. It also significantly inhibited collagen III, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and
intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1. We also studied its effect in regulating genome-wide
gene expression. FREO robustly modulated global gene expression. Furthermore, Ingenuity®
Pathway Analysis showed that FREO affected many important signaling pathways that are
closely related to inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling. This study provides
the first evidence of the biological activities of FREO in human dermal fibroblasts. Consistent
with existing studies in other models, the current study suggests that FREO possesses promising
potential to modulate the biological processes of inflammation and tissue remodeling in human
Keywords: inflammation; immune response; tissue remodeling; alpha-pinene; anti-
proliferation; skin health
FREO, frankincense essential oil
1. Introduction
Frankincense is a resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia. Historically, frankincense
whole resin, its extract, and essential oil have been extensively used for a number of health
purposes in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. FREO has been traditionally used for its anti-
inflammatory property. Recently, FREO has become increasingly popular for promoting skin
health. However, a literature search showed no published study of the biological activities of
FREO in human skin cells.
In this study, we explored the biological activities of a commercially available FREO in
human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. We first studied the effect of FREO on the levels of 17
important biomarkers related to inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling in the
skin cells. Then, we studied the effect of FREO on the expression levels of 21,224 genes, using
genome-wide analysis of the same cells. The results showed that FREO was biologically active
and significantly affected expression of these biomarkers and genes.
2. Materials and Methods
All experiments were conducted in a BioMAP HDF3CGF system, a cell culture of human
dermal fibroblasts that is designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a robust and
reproducible way. The system consists of three components: a cell type, stimuli to create the
disease environment, and set of biomarker (protein) readouts to examine how treatments
affect that disease environment [1].
2.1. Cell cultures
Primary human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (HDFn) were obtained as previously described
[2]. HDFn were plated in low serum conditions, 24-h before stimulation with cytokines. Cell
culture and stimulation conditions for HDF3CGF assays have been described in detail
elsewhere, and were performed in a 96-well format [2,3].
2.2. Protein-based readouts
Direct ELISA was used to measure the biomarker levels of cell-associated and cell
membrane targets. Soluble factors from supernatants were quantified using HTRF® detection,
bead-based multiplex immunoassay, or capture ELISA. Overt adverse effects of the test agents
on cell proliferation and viability (i.e., cytotoxicity) were measured using SRB
assay. For
proliferation assays, cells were cultured and then assayed after 72 h, which was optimized for
the HDF3CGF system. Detailed information has been described elsewhere [2]. Measurements
were performed in triplicate wells. See Table S1 in Supplementary Materials for a glossary of
the biomarkers used in this study.
2.3. RNA isolation
Total RNA was isolated from cell lysates using the Zymo Quick-RNA™ MiniPrep kit (Zymo
Research Corporation, Irvine, CA), according to manufacturer’s instructions. RNA concentration
was determined using NanoDrop ND-2000 (Thermo Fisher Scientific). RNA quality was assessed
with a Bioanalyzer 2100 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) and an Agilent RNA 6000 Nano
Kit. All samples had an A260/A280 ratio between 1.9 and 2.1, and an RNA Integrity Number
score greater than 8.0.
2.4. Microarray analysis for genome-wide gene expression
A 0.003% (v/v) concentration of FREO was tested for its effect on expression of 21,224
genes in the HDF3CGF system after 24-h treatment. Samples for microarray analysis were
SRB, sulforhodamine B
processed by Asuragen, Inc. (Austin, TX), according to the company’s standard operating
procedures. Biotin-labeled cRNA was prepared from 200 ng of total RNA with an Illumina®
TotalPrep™ RNA Amplification kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and one round of amplification. The
cRNA yields were quantified via UV spectroscopy, and the distribution of transcript sizes was
assessed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100. Labeled cRNA (750 ng) was used to probe Illumina
Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA). Hybridizing, washing,
staining with streptavidin-conjugated Cyanine-3, and scanning of the Illumina arrays was
performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Illumina BeadScan software was used
to produce the data files for each array; raw data were extracted using Illumina BeadStudio
Raw data were uploaded into R [3] and analyzed for quality-control metrics using the
beadarray package [4]. Data were normalized using quantile normalization [5], then re-
annotated and filtered to remove probes that were non-specific or mapped to intronic or
intragenic regions [6]. The remaining probe sets comprised the data set for the remainder of
the analysis. Fold-change expression for each value was calculated as the log
ratio of FREO to
vehicle control. These fold-change values were uploaded to Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®
QIAGEN, Redwood City, CA, to generate the network and pathway
2.5. Reagents
FREO (lot number 143504A, dōTERRA International LLC, Pleasant Grove, UT, USA) was
diluted in DMSO to 8X the specified concentrations (final DMSO concentration in culture media
IPA, Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis
was no more than 0.1% (v/v)); 25 µL of each 8X solution was added to the cell culture to a final
volume of 200 µL. DMSO (0.1% (v/v)) served as the vehicle control. Gas chromatography–mass
spectrometry analysis of FREO indicated that its major chemical constitutes (i.e., >5%) were
alpha-pinene (57%), limonene (8%), and caprylyl acetate (7%).
3. Results
3.1. Bioactivity profile of FREO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts
Four different concentrations (0.003, 0.001, 0.00033, and 0.00011% (v/v)) of FREO were
initially tested for biological activity in the dermal fibroblasts. None of the four concentrations
was overtly cytotoxic, and, therefore, the highest concentration (i.e., 0.003%) was analyzed
further. FREO showed significant anti-proliferative activity in dermal fibroblasts. Biomarkers
were designated if FREO values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from vehicle controls,
with an effect size of at least 10% (more than 0.05 log ratio units) (Figure 1). The level of a
tissue remodeling biomarker, collagen III, decreased in response to FREO. FREO significantly
reduced levels of
interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (
) and
intracellular cell adhesion
molecule 1 (
), both important inflammatory biomarkers. FREO also slightly lowered the
levels of PAI-I, serine proteinase inhibitor and inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
and urokinase (uPA), which is involved in tissue remodeling.
IP-10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10
ICAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1
Figure 1. The bioactivity profile of FREO (0.003% (v/v) in DMSO) in BioMAP System HDF3CGF. X-
axis denotes protein-based biomarker readouts. Y-axis denotes the relative expression levels of
biomarkers compared to vehicle control values, in log form. Vehicle control values are shaded
in gray, denoting the 95% confidence level. A * indicates a biomarker designated with “key
activity,” i.e., biomarker values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from vehicle controls, with
an effect size of at least 10% (more than 0.05 log ratio units).
3.2. Effects of FREO on gene expression: a genome-wide total RNA expression assay
To further explore the effect of 0.003% (v/v) FREO on human skin cells, we analyzed its
effect on the RNA expression of 21,224 genes. The results show a robust effect of FREO on
regulating human genes, with many genes being upregulated and many others being
downregulated. Among the top 83 regulated genes (absolute value of the fold-change ratio of
gene expression over vehicle control ≥ 1.5) by FREO, 42 were upregulated, and 41 were
downregulated (Table S2). IPA analysis showed that the bioactivity of FREO significantly
overlapped with many canonical pathways (Figure 2) from the literature-validated database
(IPA®, QIAGEN, Redwood City, CA, Many of these signaling
pathways are closely related to the biological processes of inflammation, immune response,
and tissue remodeling in human cells. See Supplementary Materials for more details.
Figure 2. Top 20 canonical pathways matching FREO’s bioactivity profile of gene expression in
the HDF3CGF system, produced via Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®, QIAGEN, Redwood City,
CA, Each p-value is calculated with the right-tailed Fisher's Exact
Test. The p-value measures the likelihood that the observed association between a specific
pathway and the dataset is due to random chance. The smaller p value (the bigger - log (p-
value), indicated by the black bars) the pathway has, the more significantly it matches with the
bioactivity of FREO. A ratio, indicated by each gray bar, is calculated by taking the number of
genes from the FREO dataset that participate in a canonical pathway, and dividing it by the total
number of genes in that pathway.
4. Discussion
4.1. The anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties of FREO
Inflammation is a protective response that involves immune cells, blood vessels, and
molecular mediators. The purpose of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury,
remove necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the injury and inflammatory process, and
initiate tissue repair. Chronic inflammation may lead to a variety of diseases, such as hay fever,
periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer [7,8].
FREO significantly reduced the levels of IP-10 and ICAM-1, important pro-inflammatory
biomarkers, suggesting its anti-inflammatory potential. Alpha-pinene, the top constituent of
FREO, is widely recognized as the major anti-inflammatory component of FREO. Gayathri et al.
showed that alpha-pinene showed anti-inflammatory properties in human peripheral blood
mononuclear cells and mouse macrophages through inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α,
interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, and mitogen activated protein kinases [9]. An in vitro study showed
that isolated alpha-pinene had the ability to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory
cytokines [10]. Another study found that alpha-pinene inhibited the nuclear translocation of
NF-kB induced by
in THP-1 cells, explaining its benefits in the treatment of
upper and lower airway diseases [11].
Recent research has also provided evidence that alpha-pinene has some immune-enhancing
properties, particularly regarding enhanced T-cell activity. In two related studies, the effects on
human immune function of essential oils from trees were investigated [12,13]. In both studies,
it was found that exposure to alpha-pinene increased T-cell activity and decreased stress
hormone levels. Consistent with these studies, microarray results of current study showed that
FREO affected some important inflammation- and immune-related signaling pathways. Gene
expression of many cytokines and other important players in inflammation and immune
responses was significantly inhibited in pre-stimulated, inflamed skin cells, indicating that FREO
has potential immune modulating properties.
4.2. Potential roles of FREO in the wound healing process
Wound healing is an intricate process, where the skin or other body tissue repairs itself
after injury. This process is composed of several phases: blood clotting (hemostasis),
inflammation, growth of new tissue (proliferation), and remodeling of tissue (maturation) [14].
The wound healing process is not only complex, but also fragile, and it is susceptible to
disruption, leading to the formation of non-healing, chronic wounds [15]. Collagen III is
secreted by fibroblasts during the wound remodeling or repairing process, prior to the
deposition of collagen I. FREO dramatically lowered the level of collagen III, and therefore, it
would likely improve healing by reducing the chance of scar formation or wound persistence.
Additionally, the robust, anti-proliferative activity of FREO in skin cells could also contribute to
better wound healing.
The significant, anti-proliferative activity of FREO observed in this study may have important
implications in skin and other cells. An in vitro study showed that FREO induced cell death in J82
bladder cancer cells via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress [16]. FREO and/or its top constituent,
alpha-pinene, has also been shown to be anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic toward several
other types of cancer cells [17–21]. Further research into FREO’s activities in cancer cells will
better our understanding of its biological mechanism of action.
5. Conclusions
To our knowledge, this was the first study of the biological activities of FREO in human
dermal fibroblasts. FREO was significantly anti-proliferative to these cells. FREO significantly
inhibited the production of collagen III, IP-10, and ICAM-1. Genome-wide gene expression
analysis showed that FREO modulated global gene expression. It also robustly affected signaling
pathways which are relevant to inflammation and tissue remodeling.
This study was funded by dōTERRA Intl (UT, USA). We would like to thank Editage (www.editage
.com) for English language editing.
Conflicts of Interest
X.H., D.R., and T.P. are employees of dōTERRA.
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Please consider as potential referees:
Zhenhua Liu, Ph.D.
Dr. Liu is an expert in the research of health benefits of natural products, and their impact on
molecular pathways such as Wnt-pathway.
Sreejayan Nair, Ph.D.
Dr. Nair is an expert in studying the health benefits of natural compounds, including essential
Runzhi Lai, Ph.D.
Dr. Lai is an expert in molecular biology and biochemistry.
Frankincense essential oil
(FREO) was anti-proliferative to human dermal fibroblasts.
FREO significantly inhibited collagen III, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and
intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1.
FREO robustly modulated global gene expression.
FREO affected many important signaling pathways that are closely related to
inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling.

Supplementary resource (1)

... FRK essential oil is derived from FRK resin via steam distillation and has many applications in the field of aromatherapy [28]. In addition, FRK essential oil is reported to influence multiple substantial signaling pathways related to immune responses, inflammation and tissue remodeling in human skin [29]. It also displayed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including; Staph aureus and Escherichia. ...
... Spray drying technique is an efficient and cost-effective technique used to obtain amorphous nanosized powders and it is suitable for scaling up production in industrial applications [65]. In addition, materials like proteins can provide protection for entrapped volatile oils by forming a surrounding coat that can act as a barrier to prevent their deterioration and volatilization [29]. During spray drying technique, carbohydrates like lactose, dextran or mannitol can be used to improve the drying properties of the protein that will form the wall matrix used to encapsulate the essential oil by forming a dry crust around the protein droplets during the process of spray drying, and therefore minimizing the diffusion of these volatile oils through the wall matrix [67]. ...
... FRK essential oil was found to dramatically lower the level of collagen III, resulting in improvement of the healing process and reduction of scar formation [16]. Also, it can improve angiogenesis and enhance permeation of active molecules through the skin causing improved tissue regeneration and remodeling [29]. In addition, FRK resin can reduce scar formation by accelerating the reepithelialization and growth of organized granulation tissue [109]. ...
The implementation of naturally available curative compounds or the utilization of green biopolymers especially industrial byproducts, are recently applied to develop new topical formulations for treating or managing skin wounds. In this study, frankincense (FRK) essential oil was extracted from Bosolica papyrifera oliogum resin, investigated for its constituents that showed higher oxygenated fraction (86.33%) than the hydrocarbon fraction (6%), with octyl acetate (ester) as the most abundant constituent (36.96%), and then the oil was encapsulated into whey protein NPs using spray drying technique. A bionanocomposite film was then prepared by embedding FRK essential oil-loaded whey protein NPs into FRK resin using solvent casting technique. Morphological analysis by TEM showed that the prepared NPs were spherical in shape with diameter of about 151 nm and EE % of about 75.9%. The fabricated film showed good tensile strength and improved sustained release of FRK essential oil compared to the oil-loaded whey protein NPs alone. Moreover, it exhibited a significant antimicrobial behavior with very weak hemolytic activity. More importantly, when this film was applied in a full thickness animal wound model, it displayed remarkably improved healing with enhanced collagen deposition associated with decline in the gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and an increase in the gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting the excellent feasibility of this film as a highly efficient wound dressing.
... Due to different therapeutic benefits, consumers are using frankincense essential oil in skin care [23] and aromatherapy [3]. Frankincense oil also shows impressive anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties [24,25], but the present study showed that the commercial essential oil market is full of adulterated oils. ...
Full-text available
A comparative analysis of the chemical constituents present in twenty-one commercial and two lab-distilled frankincense (Boswellia carteri) essential oils was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chiral gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CGC-MS) for authentication. Out of the twenty-one commercial samples, six were adulterated with synthetic limonene, three were contaminated with synthetic octyl acetate, three were adulterated with castor oil, and two samples each were contaminated with frankincense resin and Boswellia occulta species, respectively, and one was contaminated with the Boswellia serrata species. Additionally, one sample was contaminated with phthalates as well as a cheap essential oil with similar compositions. Furthermore, one sample was adulterated with copaiba resin and frankin-cense resin in combination with synthetic octyl acetate. Additionally, one was contaminated with Boswellia serrata species, which was further adulterated with castor oil and frankincense resin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the enantiomeric distribution of chiral terpenoids present in commercial frankincense essential oil with lab-distilled frankincense oil for authentication. The CGC-MS analysis showed the presence of a total of eight chiral terpenoids in lab-distilled frankincense essential oils, which can be used as chemical fingerprints for the authen-tication of frankincense essential oil.
... 51 Thus, the antibacterial effects of BC extract on these wounds may contribute to wound healing by eliminating the infection and facilitating the initiation of normal tissue repair processes. 52 In an in vivo study, frankincense was shown to promote healing by reducing scar formation, 53 and in an animal investigation, it was shown to enhance vascularization, suppress inflammation, and improve wound healing in diabetic mice. 54 The findings of the study by Faraji et al. 16 showed that BC can be used as a safe natural medicine in the heal- ...
Full-text available
Background: Today, despite the existence of various chemical and physical treatments for wound healing, the use of traditional medicine including herbal medicine is still widely used in most developed and developing countries. Objectives: To investigate the antimicrobial and wound healing activities of alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii (BC) plant. Methods: The BC extract was prepared using alcohol 70%. The chemical groups and extract compounds were determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, respectively. The antimicrobial and wound healing activities of different concentrations of BC extract and its combination with penicillin-streptomycin were assessed by agar well diffusion and infected wound model in in albino rabbits, respectively. Results: FTIR revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl, alkyl C-H stretches, aromatic C=C bends, and aromatic C-H bends in the BC extract. The HPLC revealed 14 different compounds including thujene (48.0%) as the most abundant ingredient. All BC concentrations showed antibacterial and wound healing activities. The 10% concentration of BC extract had the strongest antibacterial effect. Also, the combination of penicillin-streptomycin with BC extract showed synergistic antibacterial effect. The 5% concentration of BC was the best wound healing compound which healed the wound in 6 days and decreased the wound size 10 mm each day. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the potential abilities of BC as an antibacterial and wound healing medicinal plant. Further studies are required to justify the in vivo use of this plant.
... Frankincense oil (FO) is an essential oil extracted from the resinous dried sap harvested from Boswellia sacra trees of the genus Boswellia native to Arabian Peninsulam (Oman, Yemen) and northeastern (Somalia) [19]. FO has been used for thousands of years as part of the practice of aromatherapy due to their therapeutic and healing properties. ...
... Regarding frankincense efficacy, our findings reflected that although wound healing scores of the group were higher than those of the betadine group, this difference was not statistically significant. Frankincense has been shown to improve healing by reducing the chance of scar formation in vivo study (Han et al., 2017) and in an animal study frankincense showed to promote vascularization and inhibit inflammation improve wound healing in diabetic mice (Hou et al., 2015). Some reasons could be proposed to explain why frankincense lacks significant effect on episiotomy wound healing in the current study. ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional Persian medicine manuscripts refer to plants such as Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (myrrh) and Boswellia carteri Birdw. (frankincense), which could be used to improve wound healing process. Since that time, local midwives in Iran continue to provide these herbs to precipitate episiotomy wound healing. Aim of the study: To investigate the efficacy and safety of myrrh- and frankincense-based sitz-baths on episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 primiparous women with singleton pregnancies after normal vaginal delivery at Hafez hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from July to October 2019. Study participants were randomly allocated in three groups (2 intervention groups and 1 control group). Women in intervention groups were assigned to receive either 10-minute sitz-bath of myrrh extract or frankincense extract twice a day for 1 week. While the women in control group received the betadine sitz-bath for the same period of time. The main outcome was the episiotomy wound healing, which was measured using the REEDA scale before intervention, on 2nd and 7th postpartum days. Results: An improvement in the episiotomy wound healing was significantly greater in patients receiving myrrh than those receiving the frankincense or betadine on 2nd (p=0.003 and p<0.001) and 7th (p=0.043 and p=0.015) postpartum days. However, the total REEDA score was not statistically different between the frankincense and betadine groups on 2nd and 7th postpartum days (p>0.05). Conclusion: The present results suggest that myrrh was more efficient than frankincense and betadine in healing of the episiotomy wound and could be recommended as a safe natural therapy.
... Regarding skincare, Frankincense is particularly helpful for older skins, and has a definite tonic effect, helping to restore some tone to slack looking facial skin, and slowing down the appearance of wrinkles [31]. ...
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Over the years, there has been an escalating interest in the use of herbal medicine worldwide. The use of traditional medicine has provided valuable formulas on the selection, preparation and application of herbal remedies. In this study, the effects of ginger, frankincense, and black seed methanolic extracts, on hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and spatial memory were investigated using albino mice. Five groups of mice (each n = 8) were used, Group I. control, received 1% Tween 80; Group II, control received gum acacia 5%; Group III, received black seed extract; Group IV, received frankincense extract; Group V, received ginger extract. Group VI, received the mixture extract. Sub-acute administration was applied (1, 5 and 24 hrs before scoring). The levels of glutamate and GABA were measured by using HPLC. Western blot was performed to evaluate synaptic proteins expression. The extract increased the glutamate levels without any changes in GABA levels; it also enhanced the hippocampal long-term potentiation. In addition, extracts effectively enhanced the spatial recognition memory (hippocampal-dependenttask) in mice using Y-maze test. The amelioration of LTP and spatial memory in mice caused by extracts treatment was accompanied by improvement in AMPA-mediated synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Interestingly, the protein levels of GluR1 AMPA subunit and NR1 NMDA subunit expressions were significantly increased in mice hippocampus. Memory enhancing is combined with increased glutamate level. These results provide a support for the potential therapy of ginger, frankincense, and black seed extracts for enhancing cognition.
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Essential oils (EOs) are natural, aromatic, volatile, and complex mixture of compounds produced as liquid secondary metabolites by the plants. Besides their primary functions as protective and signaling molecules in the plants, EOs have been long exploited by humans for therapeutic purposes. So far, more than 3000 EOs are extracted from angiosperms mostly from Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Asteraceae families. Several studies are conducted on EOs for their biological activities ranging from antimicrobial to anticancer activities and identified many bioactive components. However, there is a need for more rigorous scientific studies, including clinical trials in the appropriate experimental models. Today, EOs have become one of the most traded commodities, and its global market is anticipated to reach more than $15 billion by 2025. More than 300 EOs are available in the food and fragrance markets, but the toxicity/ or poisoning from EOs remains alarming in many countries.
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Pine needle oil from crude extract of pine needles has been used as an anti-cancer agent in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The α-pinene is a natural compound isolated from pine needle oil which has been shown anti-cancer activity. In previous study, we found that pine needle oil exhibited significant inhibitory effect on hepatoma carcinoma BEL-7402 cells. In this study, we investigate the inhibition of α-pinene on hepatoma carcinoma BEL-7402 cells in vitro and in vivo and further explore the mechanism. The results show that liver cancer cell growth was inhibited obviously with inhibitory rate of 79.3% in vitro and 69.1% in vivo, Chk1 and Chk2 levels were upregulated, CyclinB, CDC25 and CDK1 levels were downregulated. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.
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Background Regardless of the availability of therapeutic options, the overall 5-year survival for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer remains less than 5%. Gum resins from Boswellia species, also known as frankincense, have been used as a major ingredient in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of health-related conditions. Both frankincense chemical extracts and essential oil prepared from Boswellia species gum resins exhibit anti-neoplastic activity, and have been investigated as potential anti-cancer agents. The goals of this study are to identify optimal condition for preparing frankincense essential oil that possesses potent anti-tumor activity, and to evaluate the activity in both cultured human pancreatic cancer cells and a xenograft mouse cancer model. Methods Boswellia sacra gum resins were hydrodistilled at 78°C; and essential oil distillate fractions were collected at different durations (Fraction I at 0–2 h, Fraction II at 8–10 h, and Fraction III at 11–12 h). Hydrodistillation of the second half of gum resins was performed at 100°C; and distillate was collected at 11–12 h (Fraction IV). Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS); and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Frankincense essential oil-modulated pancreatic tumor cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by colorimetric assays. Levels of apoptotic markers, signaling molecules, and cell cycle regulators expression were characterized by Western blot analysis. A heterotopic (subcutaneous) human pancreatic cancer xenograft nude mouse model was used to evaluate anti-tumor capability of Fraction IV frankincense essential oil in vivo. Frankincense essential oil-induced tumor cytostatic and cytotoxic activities in animals were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Longer duration and higher temperature hydrodistillation produced more abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, in frankincense essential oil fraactions. Human pancreatic cancer cells were sensitive to Fractions III and IV (containing higher molecular weight compounds) treatment with suppressed cell viability and increased cell death. Essential oil activated the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, induced a rapid and transient activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and suppressed levels of cyclin D1 cdk4 expression in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, Boswellia sacra essential oil Fraction IV exhibited anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities against pancreatic tumors in the heterotopic xenograft mouse model. Conclusion All fractions of frankincense essential oil from Boswellia sacra are capable of suppressing viability and inducing apoptosis of a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Potency of essential oil-suppressed tumor cell viability may be associated with the greater abundance of high molecular weight compounds in Fractions III and IV. Although chemical component(s) responsible for tumor cell cytotoxicity remains undefined, crude essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins might be a useful alternative therapeutic agent for treating patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis.
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Antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum of volatile substances from Streptomyces globisporus JK-1 grown on autoclaved wheat seed was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal spore germination and mycelial growth of P. italicum cultures as well as sporulation and disease incidence on fungal-inoculated fruit were suppressed in the presence of the volatiles. For naturally infected fruit, disease incidence was reduced from 25% to 7.5%. Suppression of the infection process of P. italicum on Shatang Mandarin fruit (Citrus microcarpa) was observed via scanning electronic microscopy, showing inhibited spore germination on the Shatang Mandarin, and abnormal morphology for conidiophores and hyphae exposed to the volatiles. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometric analyses, 41 volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. globisporus JK-1, and the most abundant compound was trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin), an earthy smelling substance. Among these, technical grade formulations of eight were chosen for further study: phenylethyl alcohol, caryophyllene, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, acetophenone, d-limonene, isoledene, and aromadendrene. d-Limonene, isoledene and aromadendrene showed no observable antifungal activity in vitro and in planta at tested concentrations. Both phenylethyl alcohol and caryophyllene showed weak inhibitory activity in vitro but no significant efficacy against P. italicum on Shatang Mandarin. Dimethyl disulfide or dimethyl trisulfide showed antifungal activity in vitro and efficacious control on Shatang Mandarin at a concentration of 100 μL L−1 of airspace in treatment containers. Acetophenone showed antifungal activity in vitro at a concentration of 100 μL L−1and efficacious control on Shatang Mandarin at the highest concentration of 1000 μL L−1. Volatiles from S. globisporus JK-1 have potential for control of blue mold of citrus species through fumigant action.
AIM: To study the effects of alpha-pinene on nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the expression of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha) in human monocyte THP-1 cell line. METHODS: THP-1 cells were incubated with a-pinene (1, 10, and 100 mg/L, for 30 min) before being stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/L, 30 min). The location of NF-kappaB p65 subunit (NF-kappaB/p65) in THP-1 cells was detected by immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The expression of NF-kappaB/p65 in nuclei and that of IkappaBalpha. in cytoplasm were measured by Western-blot analysis. RESULTS: The majority of FITC-labelled NF-kappaB/p65 was located in the nuclei being stimulated with LPS. Whereas, no such fluorescence was seen in the nuclei of the groups pretreated with a-pinene or control cells. alpha-Pinene pretreatment decreased the NF-kappaB/p65 nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, and this effect was dose-dependent, but there was no reaction in LPS-unstimulated THP-1 cells. alpha-Pinene pretreatment increased IkappaBalpha protein level in cytoplasm, compared with that in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSION: In a dose-related fashion, (x-pinene inhibits the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB induced by LPS in THP-1 cells, and this effect is partly due to the upregulation of IkappaBalpha expression.
Motivation: When running experiments that involve multiple high density oligonucleotide arrays, it is important to remove sources of variation between arrays of non-biological origin. Normalization is a process for reducing this variation. It is common to see non-linear relations between arrays and the standard normalization provided by Affymetrix does not perform well in these situations. Results: We present three methods of performing normalization at the probe intensity level. These methods are called complete data methods because they make use of data from all arrays in an experiment to form the normalizing relation. These algorithms are compared to two methods that make use of a baseline array: a one number scaling based algorithm and a method that uses a non-linear normalizing relation by comparing the variability and bias of an expression measure. Two publicly available datasets are used to carry out the comparisons. The simplest and quickest complete data method is found to perform favorably. Availability: Software implementing all three of the complete data normalization methods is available as part of the R package Affy, which is a part of the Bioconductor project Supplementary information: Additional figures may be found at
We devised a high-throughput chemoproteomics method that enabled multiplexed screening of 16,000 compounds against native protein and lipid kinases in cell extracts. Optimization of one chemical series resulted in CZC24832, which is to our knowledge the first selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) with efficacy in in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. Extensive target- and cell-based profiling of CZC24832 revealed regulation of interleukin-17-producing T helper cell (T(H)17) differentiation by PI3Kγ, thus reinforcing selective inhibition of PI3Kγ as a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.