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... Since the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide was proposed, it has inspired many empirical studies on the causes of suicidal ideation, attempts, and fatalities. Research on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide has been conducted in different samples, such as undergraduates (Hagan et al., 2015;Suh et al., 2017), prison inmates (Mandracchia and Smith, 2015), physicians (Fink-Miller, 2015), older adults (Cukrowicz et al., 2013), psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (Monteith et al., 2013), military service members (Bryan et al., 2010), sexual minorities (Silva et al., 2015), and firefighters (Chu et al., 2016). The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide was also validated cross-culturally across Korean and US undergraduate students (Suh et al., 2017). ...
... Research on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide has been conducted in different samples, such as undergraduates (Hagan et al., 2015;Suh et al., 2017), prison inmates (Mandracchia and Smith, 2015), physicians (Fink-Miller, 2015), older adults (Cukrowicz et al., 2013), psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (Monteith et al., 2013), military service members (Bryan et al., 2010), sexual minorities (Silva et al., 2015), and firefighters (Chu et al., 2016). The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide was also validated cross-culturally across Korean and US undergraduate students (Suh et al., 2017). Moreover, based on IPTS, Van Orden (2009) further confirmed and extended the theory that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were combined into interpersonal needs and constructed a corresponding Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) with 25 items to reflect whether current interpersonal relationship needs of the individual were met. ...
... Each of the shorter versions of INQ is a subset of the original 25-item version. The 18-item version has been used primarily in the older adult, veterans, and college student samples in the US and college student samples in China (e.g., Davidson et al., 2011;Rasmussen and Wingate, 2011;Wong et al., 2011;Monteith et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2013;Suh et al., 2017). The 15-item version introduced as an empirically derived refinement of the INQ-25 has been used in college student samples in the US, Singapore, China, and Switzerland (INQ-15;e.g., Van Orden et al., 2012;Hill and Pettit, 2013;Li et al., 2015;Baertschi et al., 2017;Teo et al., 2018), and Hallensleben et al. (2016) administrated the INQ-15 to a sample of German general population aged 14-75 years. ...
Article
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Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) is a self-report measure of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness with five versions in recent studies. There are five versions of INQ. But results from studies using different versions are quite different. Current suicide behavior among teenagers has attracted much attention. But which version is more suitable for teenage samples is still uncertain. It is important to compare the potential differences in different versions of INQ to identify the most psychometrically available version to predict teenagers' acquired capability for suicide and provide them with timely help to reduce teenagers' suicide rates. This study compared the construct validity, internal consistency, validity, and average test information of each version in the sample of teenagers. Results showed the 10-item version provided the most average test information in both thwarted belongingness subscale and perceived burdensomeness subscale, and the INQ-10 is more suitable for teenage samples.
... All five versions of INQ have been used in Western cultures to demonstrate the associations between interpersonal needs and different aspects of suicide, including suicide risk, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (for reviews, see Chu et al., 2017;Ma et al., 2016). The associations between interpersonal needs and suicide have also been found in Asian cultures, including China (Zhang, Lester, Zhao, & Zhou, 2013), Singapore (Teo, Suárez, & Oei, 2018), and South Korea (Chu et al., 2016;Suh et al., 2017). Although results from all five versions of INQ have been published, only the 10-and 15-item English INQ have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in a psychometric evaluation for all five versions of English INQ (Hill et al., 2015). ...
... This finding suggests that perceived burdensomeness may be a greater risk factor of suicide among Australian undergraduates, compared to Chinese undergraduates. This finding, however, is inconsistent with an earlier cross-cultural study (Suh et al., 2017), which found no significant differences in strength of the associations of the interpersonal factors with suicide risk across South Korea and America. Nevertheless, Suh et al. (2017) did not examine measurement invariance across cultures for the INQ. ...
... This finding, however, is inconsistent with an earlier cross-cultural study (Suh et al., 2017), which found no significant differences in strength of the associations of the interpersonal factors with suicide risk across South Korea and America. Nevertheless, Suh et al. (2017) did not examine measurement invariance across cultures for the INQ. Consequently, similarities between groups could be artifacts of assessments when measurement invariance is not established (Chen, 2008). ...
Article
Associations between unmet interpersonal needs and different aspects of suicide have been observed in both Western and non‐Western cultures using the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ). However, measurement invariance is a prerequisite for comparing differences between culturally different groups, and to date, no studies have examined measurement invariance of INQ across cultures. This study aimed to (a) validate Chinese versions of the INQ, (b) assess measurement invariance across gender for the Chinese INQ, (c) assess measurement invariance across Australian and Chinese cultures for the INQ, and (d) comprehensively assess the association of interpersonal needs with suicide ideation. A sample of 469 Australian undergraduates and a sample of 854 Chinese undergraduates were used in this study. For testing measurement invariance across gender, the sample of Chinese undergraduates was split by gender into the Chinese male and Chinese female samples. Five versions of INQ (10‐, 12‐, 15‐, 18‐ and 25‐item) were tested. The 10‐ and 15‐item Chinese INQ demonstrated adequate psychometric properties through various analyses (i.e., reliability, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling) and also demonstrated measurement invariance across gender via multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The 10‐item INQ demonstrated measurement invariance across Australian and Chinese cultures. Of the two interpersonal factors, only perceived burdensomeness was significantly associated with suicide ideation. Multigroup structural equation modeling demonstrated that perceived burdensomeness may be a greater risk factor of suicide among Australian undergraduates than among Chinese undergraduates. Practical and theoretical contributions of this study are discussed.
... The DSI-SS had good internal consistency in our sample (α = .87) and has demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of depression including in a study with Korean undergraduate students (Suh, Ebesutani, et al., 2017;Suh, Ryu, et al., 2017). ...
... A growing number of studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the INQ as a way to examine the applicability of the IPTS across diverse cultural contexts around the globe (e.g., Lester, 2008;Suh, Ebesutani, et al., 2017;Suh, Ryu, et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2013). Considering that suicide is one of the leading causes of death among Indian youth (Aggarwal, 2015;Patel et al., 2012), and there continues to be a dearth of published literature on this topic, there is a pressing need to better understand the factors associated with suicidality in this population. ...
Article
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Background With the second-highestAQ6 population in the world, suicide-related deaths in India are high, and adults under 30 are particularly at an increased risk. However, empirical examinations of factors contributing to suicide in India and assessments of reliability and validity of self-report measures assessing these constructs are rare. Aims The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ). Materials & Methods Undergraduate students in India (N = 432) completed the INQ and questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation, depression, fearlessness about death, and pain tolerance. Results Confirmatory factor analyses of the 15-item INQ indicated that after removing three items assessing perceived burdensomeness, the two-factor structure of INQ demonstrated acceptable fit with good internal consistency for each of the subscales (α = .84–.90). In line with the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS), thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness interacted to predict suicidal ideation. Additionally, these constructs were positively associated with suicidal ideation and depression, and weakly correlated with fearlessness about death and pain tolerance. Discussion Results support the relevance of the IPTS for understanding suicidal ideation among college students in India. Conclusion The results suggest that modified INQ demonstrates strong internal consistency, as well as good construct, criterion, and discriminant validity among Indian college students.
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. (Forkmann & Glaesmer, 2013;Glaesmer, Spangenberg, Scherer, & Forkmann, 2014;, Chinese (Zhang et al., 2013), French (Baertschi et al., 2017;Siefert-Boukaidi, Jover, Staccini, Pringuey, & Benoit, 2013), Portuguese (Campos & Holden, 2015), Slovene (Podlogar, Žiberna, Poštuvan, & Kerr, 2016), and Korean (Kim & Yang, 2015;Suh et al., 2017). To our knowledge, only one study has created a new measure of interpersonal needs; however, this measure only assesses perceived burdensomeness (Perceived Burdensomeness Scale; Peak et al., 2016). ...
... The ACSS total score is obtained by summing all scores on each item, with higher scores indicating higher levels of fearlessness about engaging in self-harming behaviors. Recently, researchers have translated the ACSS into German , Chinese (Zhang et al., 2013), Urdu (Shakir, Atta, & Malik, 2016), and Korean (Suh et al., 2017); however, the ACSS has been primarily administered in English. ...
Article
Over the past decade, the interpersonal theory of suicide has contributed to substantial advances in the scientific and clinical understanding of suicide and related conditions. The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that suicidal desire emerges when individuals experience intractable feelings of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and near-lethal or lethal suicidal behavior occurs in the presence of suicidal desire and capability for suicide. A growing number of studies have tested these posited pathways in various samples; however, these findings have yet to be evaluated meta-analytically. This paper aimed to (a) conduct a systematic review of the unpublished and published, peer-reviewed literature examining the relationship between interpersonal theory constructs and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, (b) conduct meta-analyses testing the interpersonal theory hypotheses, and (c) evaluate the influence of various moderators on these relationships. Four electronic bibliographic databases were searched through the end of March, 2016: PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Hypothesis-driven meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted using 122 distinct unpublished and published samples. Findings supported the interpersonal theory: the interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was significantly associated with suicidal ideation; and the interaction between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide was significantly related to a greater number of prior suicide attempts. However, effect sizes for these interactions were modest. Alternative configurations of theory variables were similarly useful for predicting suicide risk as theory-consistent pathways. We conclude with limitations and recommendations for the interpersonal theory as a framework for understanding the suicidal spectrum.
... The interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005;Van Orden et al., 2010 attempts to describe why people engage in suicidal behavior and has substantial support in explaining the etiology of suicidal ideation in different populations inside and outside the United States (Acosta et al., 2017;Chu et al., 2017;Suh et al., 2017). Thus, we considered it a useful theoretical framework for the present study. ...
Article
We examined two structural equation models of international students’ suicidal ideation using data from 595 international students in two public universities in the United States. The models represented competing hypotheses about the relationships among discrimination, cross-cultural loss, academic distress, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. The findings indicated there were direct, positive links between discrimination, cross-cultural loss, and academic distress to perceived burdensomeness; a direct, positive link between perceived burdensomeness and suicidal ideation; and indirect, positive links between discrimination, cross-cultural loss, and academic distress to suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness. The only predictors that related to thwarted belongingness were cross-cultural loss and academic distress, and there were no indirect links to suicidal ideation via thwarted belongingness. In fact, with all other variables in the model, thwarted belongingness was unrelated to suicidal ideation. Finally, academic distress was directly related to suicidal ideation. We discuss implications of the findings.
... The INQ-15 has been successfully translated and adapted to a number of linguistic and cultural contexts, showing excellent psychometric properties, including Chinese (Zhang, Lester, Zhao, & Zhou, 2013), French (Baertschi et al., 2017;Siefert-Boukaidi, Jover, Staccini, Pringuey, & Benoit, 2013), German (Glaesmer, Spangenberg, Scherer, & Forkmann, 2014;Hallensleben, Spangenberg, Kapusta, Forkmann, & Glaesmer, 2016), Korean (Kim & Yang, 2015;Suh et al., 2017), and Slovene (Podlogar, Žiberna, Poštuvan, and Kerr, 2016). This allows clinicians and community practitioners from those contexts to dispose of a valid and reliable psychometric tool to screen, assess, and monitor important risk factors for prevention and intervention in suicidality. ...
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Objective The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ‐15) is a self‐report measure of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, two constructs associated with suicidal ideation. The objective of the current study was to translate the INQ‐15 from English to Italian (INQ‐15‐I) and to test its factor structure, reliability, and validity in Italian samples. Method We examined (a) whether the components of the hypothesized two‐factor measurement model are invariant across a community sample (N = 510) and a clinical sample (N = 259); (b) the relations between the INQ‐15‐I factors and measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory‐II), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation); (c) the reliability and psychometric properties of the INQ‐15‐I. Results Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the adequacy of the two‐factor model to represent thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The model is invariant across community and clinical groups, showing excellent fit. The two INQ‐15‐I scales measure highly intercorrelated constructs. Both significantly correlate with depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation, and correlations are high in the clinical sample. Conclusion The INQ‐15‐I is a valid and reliable measure of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Implications for research, assessment, and intervention in suicidal ideation are discussed.
... Regarding the effect of Interpersonal Security onto Suicidal Ideation, it must be noted that several studies using the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide field had already highlighted the crucial role of social support and, more specifically, individuals' perceptions of social support and sense of belonging as protective factors against the risk for suicidality (Anestis, Bagge, Tull, & Joiner, 2011;Bryan, Morrow, Anestis, & Joiner, 2010;Joiner et al., 2009;Joiner et al., 2017;Silva, Ribeiro, & Joiner, 2015;Suh et al., 2017). However, there are at least two novelties emerging from our study: First, the high correlations observed among measures of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and measures based on Beck's (1976) cognitive "triad" of suicide, respectively. ...
Article
Suicidality and problem gambling represent global health issues. Based on evidence from recent literature, the aim of the present study was to test a theoretical model, in which: (1) Emotional Intelligence and Self and Other Representations of adult attachment combine into a latent factor representing Interpersonal Security; (2) Interpersonal Security negatively predicts Problem Gambling and Suicidal Ideation, respectively; (3) Problem Gambling positively predicts Suicidal Ideation. We used Structural Equation Modelling to test the study hypotheses. The model showed good fit to the data. Factor loadings were high and statistically significant. We found that the hypothesis of Emotional Intelligence and Self and Other Representations combining into a common factor, Interpersonal Security, is empirically supported. The joint effect of Interpersonal Security and Problem Gambling explains about the 63% of variance of Suicidal ideation. The path from Interpersonal Security to Suicidal Ideation is significant and high, whilst the path from Problem Gambling to Suicidal Ideation is not significant. Interpersonal Security explains about 16% of the variance of Problem Gambling. These results outline an integrated model of Suicidal Ideation and Problem Gambling in the community from an interpersonal-psychological perspective, with important implications for researchers, mental health practitioners, and policymakers.
... In addition, its adequacy has been examined in multiple samples of different ages, ethnicities, and clinical circumstances (Christensen et al., 2013;Cukrowicz et al., 2011;Czyz et al., 2015;Davis et al., 2014;Garza and Pettit, 2010;Kanzler et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2013). A recent cross-cultural study that compared the applicability of the IPTS among American and Korean university students indicated TB and PB as valid predictors of suicide ideation in both populations (Suh et al., 2017). However, Korean university students had significantly higher scores on both constructs compared to their American counterparts. ...
Article
The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (i.e., IPTS) proposes that suicidal desire occurs when an individual simultaneously experiences thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) (i.e., interpersonal needs). However, interpersonal needs have been inconsistent in predicting suicide ideation in Koreans. Therefore, we examined depressogenic personality dimensions—sociotropy and autonomy—as individual differences that may alter the effects of TB and PB on suicide ideation. We hypothesized that sociotropy will amplify the influence of TB on suicide ideation and that autonomy will regulate the degree to which PB leads to suicide ideation. This study was conducted with undergraduate students from a university located in Seoul, Korea. 313 students of whom 113 were males (36.1%) and 200 were females (63.9%) were included in the final analyses. Among the 313 participants, 42 (20.3%) endorsed suicide ideation. Significant correlations were identified between sociotropy and depression, and autonomy and depression. PB and sociotropy were valid predictors of suicide ideation even after controlling for depression. In addition, significant interactions were found between sociotropy and TB, and autonomy and PB.
... Yet, within this body of research, investigators have relied primarily on clinical and community samples with adults (Van Orden, Cukrowicz, Witte, & Joiner Jr, 2012) and individuals who self-identify as White (Stewart, Eaddy, Horton, Hughes, & Kennard, 2017). To consider the developmental and cultural specificity of IPTS, there is a need to examine whether the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability function similarly; and to evaluate the explanatory potential of the theory with adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds Suh et al., 2017). To date, few studies have utilized IPTS to examine the suicidal behaviors of Latina adolescents (Kene, Brabeck, Kelly, & DiCicco, 2016). ...
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The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has emerged as an empirically supported theory of suicide risk, yet few studies have utilized IPTS to examine the suicidal behaviors of Latina adolescents. In this study, we explore qualitatively the cultural and developmental appropriateness, as well as the explanatory fit, of IPTS within a sample of Latina adolescents. Data for this project were drawn from qualitative interviews conducted with Latina adolescents with (n=30) and without (n=30) histories of attempted suicide. We employed an analytic approach that combined deductive and inductive coding. Qualitative comparative analysis was then used to evaluate how core constructs of IPTS (perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, acquired capability) were linked to the occurrence of a suicide attempt. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability were present in 20 of the 30 adolescents who had attempted suicide, and absent in 22 of the 30 adolescents with no lifetime history of suicidal behaviors. Notably, alternative combinations of IPTS constructs were found in 10 cases of adolescents who attempted suicide, suggesting a need to adjust IPTS to fit the developmental and cultural contexts of Latina teens. Although our results suggest predominantly positive support for IPTS, participants varied in terms of how their experiences resonated with the conceptual definitions put forward by the theory. Ultimately, our findings point to the ways in which developmental tensions are exacerbated by broader sociocultural dynamics, contributing to a broader understanding of suicide risk among ethnic minority adolescents.
Article
This study attempted to explain suicide ideation and suicide attempts among undergraduate students in South Korea based on the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey of 402 university students (178 men, 224 women, average age 21.19 years old [SD = 2.06]) in South Korea. As a result of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, while adjusting sex, socioeconomic level, and depression, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness significantly explained the suicide ideation. However, the effect of the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicide ideation was not significant. Suicide ideation and acquired capability for suicide significantly predicted the frequency of suicide attempts, and the interaction between suicide ideation and acquired capability for suicide had a significant effect on suicide attempt frequency. These findings suggest that the feeling of being worthless to society and burdensome to others is a major risk factor affecting the suicide rates of undergraduate students in South Korea. It also suggests that in order to assess suicide risk and to prevent and intervene in suicide, the acquired capability for suicide, which is the ability to commit lethal suicide, along with suicide ideation should be considered.
Article
Background: Despite being a major public health concern, it is unclear how suicidal thoughts and behaviors differentially impact separate racial groups. Aims: The aim of the current study was to examine the occurrence of non-lethal suicide events, in addition to suicide attempt characteristics and factors contributing to suicide attempts. Method: A final sample of 7,094 undergraduates from a large Northeastern University, identifying as members of three racial groups (White [67.30%], Black [17.30%], and Asian [15.40%]), completed online questionnaires. Results: White participants reported increased likelihood of endorsing lifetime suicidal ideation and plan, whereas Black participants reported decreased likelihood of these events; no differences were found in rates of lifetime suicide attempts. Black participants’ suicidal behavior may involve greater ambivalence of intent. A higher proportion of Asian participants endorsed interpersonal factors as contributing to their suicide attempts, whereas a greater percentage of White participants reported internal contributing factors. Limitations: Findings are limited by the sample size and assessment of lifetime suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Conclusions: The findings present a more nuanced look at attitudes and actions related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors that may inform future research and risk assessment procedures.
Technical Report
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This report is the first WHO publication of its kind and brings together what is known in a convenient form so that immediate actions can be taken. The report aims to increase the awareness of the public health significance of suicide and suicide attempts and to make suicide prevention a higher priority on the global public health agenda. It aims to encourage and support countries to develop or strengthen comprehensive suicide prevention strategies in a multisectoral public health approach. This report proposes practical guidance on strategic actions that governments can take on the basis of their resources and existing suicide prevention activities. In particular, there are evidence-based and low-cost interventions that are effective, even in resource-poor settings.
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Objective: The suicide rate in South Korea was the highest among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in 2011. Although the suicide rate in adolescents is lower than that of adults and is reported to be decreasing in young males in some countries, it has consistently increased in recent years in South Korea. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of suicidal ideation and attempt in the past 12 months. Methods: A total sample of 72,623 adolescents aged 12-18 years who responded to a web-based anonymous self-reported survey between September and October 2010 was used for the analysis. Results: The suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates were 19.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Being female, having a poor perceived socioeconomic status and a poor perceived academic performance, subjective feelings of depression, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, perceived general medical health, and experiences of any involvement with sexual intercourse were the contributing factors that predicted elevated risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. In contrast to previous reports in other countries, the suicide attempt rate in Korean female adolescents peaked at age 13 years, and there were no differences in suicidal ideation in females by age. There were no differences in both suicidal ideation and attempt rates in males by age. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach that takes into consideration the characteristics of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation or suicide attempt is warranted for developing prevention and treatment programs.
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Evaluated the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire (HDSQ; Metalsky & Joiner, 1991). The HDSQ is a 32-item self-report measure of eight symptoms posited by L. Abramson, G. Metalsky, and L. Alloy (1989) to comprise a specific subtype of depression—hopelessness depression. Factor analytic results from 435 subjects suggested that: (a) Each of the eight subscales of the HDSQ reflects a distinct symptom of hopelessness depression; and (b) The eight subscales, taken together, reflect one higher-order construct—Hopelessness Depression Symptoms. Diathesis-stress results from a subset of 174 subjects indicated that the attributional diathesis × stress interaction predicted onset of hopelessness depression symptoms on the HDSQ but not nonhopelessness depression symptoms. The HDSQ should allow for enhanced precision in tests of the hopelessness theory of depression.
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Recently, the use of technology in assessment for personnel selection has increased dramatically. An important consideration is whether test scores obtained via Internet administration are psychometrically equivalent to those obtained by the more traditional paper-and-pencil format. Our results suggest that there is comparability of scores for many personality constructs, including conscientiousness. However, invariance was not found for some scales between persons allowed to choose formats and those not given a choice of formats. As testing-format preference may be related to membership in federally protected demographic groups, this latter finding was somewhat troubling. Additionally, we illustrate the use of an experimental laboratory design to investigate possible causes of a lack of measurement invariance in Internet and paper-and-pencil comparisons.
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This study examined the moderating effects of 3 risk factors-perfectionistic personal discrepancy, perfectionistic family discrepancy, and discrimination-on the associations between interpersonal risk factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) and suicide ideation in a sample of 466 Asian international students studying in the United States. We focused specifically on perceived discrimination and maladaptive perfectionism as moderating risk factors to Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We incorporated both personal and family discrepancy as indicators of maladaptive perfectionism. Personal discrepancy refers to the tendency of individuals to perceive that they failed to meet their own standards, whereas family discrepancy refers to individuals' tendency to perceive that they failed to meet their families' standards. Results highlight the significance of studying this overlooked population in the suicide ideation literature. Maladaptive perfectionism (i.e., personal and family discrepancy) as well as discrimination were found to be positively associated with suicide ideation. Moreover, family discrepancy and perceived discrimination were found to intensify the associations between interpersonal risk factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) and suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of considering interpersonal factors in addressing suicidal risks with populations from collectivistic cultures. Research and clinical implications are also addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background Suicide is a problem of worldwide concern and research on possible protective factors is needed. We explored the role of social support as one such factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that increased social support would be associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt in two nationally representative samples as well as a high-risk subsample. Methods We analyzed the relationship between social support and lifetime history of a suicide attempt, controlling for a variety of related psychopathology and demographic variables, in the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), a United States sample and the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study (APMS), an English sample. Results Results indicate that social support is associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt controlling for a variety of related predictors in both the full US sample (OR=0.68, p<.001) and the full English sample (OR=0.93, p<.01). Limitations The cross-sectional data do not allow true cause and effect analyses. Conclusions Our findings suggest social support is associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt. Social support is a highly modifiable factor that can be used to improve existing suicide prevention programs worldwide.
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The goal of the current report was to (1) theoretically and empirically integrate interpersonal theories addressing depression, social anxiety, and suicide and (2) document the interpersonal mechanisms through which social anxiety and depression increase risk for suicidal ideation. The authors examined the influence of depression and social anxiety on the interpersonal aspects of the interpersonal- psychological theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005) and suicidal ideation using structural equation modeling among 269 undergraduates. Results suggested that social anxiety was associated with thwarted belongingness, whereas depression was associated with burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. These findings suggest potential pathways through which social anxiety and depression lead to increased suicide risk. In addition to clinical implications, ramifications for interpersonal theories of depression, anxiety, and suicide are discussed.
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The following study investigates the measurement equivalence of an online and paper-and-pencil (PAP) survey of human values. For this purpose, a total of 250 respondents completed the 21-item version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire either online (n=125) or by PAP (n=125). This questionnaire was developed by Schwartz (Advances in experimental social psychology, Academic Press, New York, 1992) and has been included in the European Social Survey since 2002 to test his theory of basic human values. Measurement invariance was tested via a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis. The assessment of invariance included the three levels of configural, metric, and scalar invariance, and the latent means of the values between both samples were compared. Results of this study show that the measurements are invariant at the three levels (configural, metric, and scalar), but there are latent mean differences between the values across the surveys. These differences may be partly explained by age and level of education differences between the two samples. Based on these findings we conclude that the methods of measurement are essentially invariant. KeywordsOnline survey-Paper-and-pencil survey-Measurement invariance-Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis
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Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are important public health concerns in the United States. In 2008, a total of 36,035 persons died as a result of suicide, and approximately 666,000 persons visited hospital emergency departments for nonfatal, self-inflicted injuries. State-level data on suicide-related issues are needed to help establish program priorities and to evaluate the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies. Public health surveillance with timely and consistent exchange of data between data collectors and prevention program implementers allows prevention program practitioners to implement effective prevention and control activities. January 1, 2008-December 31, 2009. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a national- and state-level survey of a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population aged ≥12 years. NSDUH collects data on health-risks related to the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; initiation of substance use; substance use disorders and treatment; health care; and mental health. This report summarizes data on responses to questions concerning suicidal thoughts and behaviors contained in the mental health section among sampled persons aged ≥18 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report analyzes data on the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, planning, and attempts by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and state from 92,264 respondents in the 2008 and 2009 NSDUH. Prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors varied by sociodemographic factors, region, and state. During 2008-2009, an estimated 8.3 million (annual average) adults aged ≥18 years in the United States (3.7% of the adult U.S. population) reported having suicidal thoughts in the past year. The prevalence of having suicidal thoughts ranged from 2.1% in Georgia to 6.8% in Utah. An estimated 2.2 million (annual average) adults in the United States (1.0% of the adult U.S. population) reported having made suicide plans in the past year. The prevalence of reports of suicide planning ranged from 0.1% in Georgia to 2.8% in Rhode Island. An estimated 1 million (annual average) adults in the United States (0.5% of the U.S. adult population) reported making a suicide attempt in the past year. The prevalence of reports of suicide attempts ranged from 0.1% in Delaware and Georgia to 1.5% in Rhode Island. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts was significantly higher among young adults aged 18-29 years than it was among adults aged ≥30 years. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts was significantly higher among females than it was among males, but there was no statistically significant difference for suicide planning or suicide attempts. The findings in this report indicate that substantial variations exist at the regional and state level in the prevalence of adults who had suicidal thoughts, made plans to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide in the past year. Geographic differences in prevalence might be attributable to selective migration, sociodemographic composition of the population, or the local social environment (e.g., social relationship indicators such as divorce rates or resources for access to health care). These findings emphasize the importance of continued surveillance to collect locally relevant data on which to base prevention and control activities. A better understanding of the patterns of the precursors to suicide is crucial to planning and evaluating a broad spectrum of suicide prevention efforts. These results can be used by state health departments and federal agencies to measure progress toward achieving national and state health objectives (e.g., those outlined in the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention). Continued surveillance is needed to design, implement, and evaluate public health policies and programs that can lead to a reduction in morbidity and mortality related to suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. Possible strategies to implement could include universal strategies (e.g., public education campaigns that focus on improving recognition of suicide risk) and indicated strategies (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) that address the needs of persons exhibiting certain risk factors (e.g., persons who have made suicide attempts).
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Suicide is a leading cause of death in college age students. Identification of the associated risk factors has important implications for how to prevent and respond to this population; however, few studies have been performed on this topic in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with suicide ideation and attempts in college students. Three hundred sixty-eight college students participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The recent (over two weeks) suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempts were defined according to Moscicki's suicide behavior index. Sociodemographic variables were assessed and psychopathology measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant risk factors related to suicide ideation and attempts. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.8%, and the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 3.3%. The univariate analysis showed that students who had more severe depression (p<0.001), a higher probability for bipolar disorder (p<0.001) and decrement of academic achievement (p<0.005) were more likely to have suicide ideation. Those with factors such as severe depression (p<0.05), a higher probability of bipolar disorder (p<0.001), a low socioeconomic status (p<0.001), who lived alone (p<0.01), and were female (p<0.05) had a higher risk for suicide attempts. The most important predictors of suicide ideation, by the logistic regression analysis, were depression, probability for bipolar disorder and academic achievement, and the risks identified for suicide attempts were socioeconomic status and probability of bipolar disorder. Suicide ideation and attempts were common in college students. The results of this study suggest that early identification and management of mood disorders and other sociodemographic risk factors may have implications for intervention and prevention.
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The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) makes 2 overarching predictions: (a) that perceptions of burdening others and of social alienation combine to instill the desire for death and (b) that individuals will not act on the desire for death unless they have developed the capability to do so. This capability develops through exposure and thus habituation to painful and/or fearsome experiences and is posited by the theory to be necessary for overcoming powerful self-preservation pressures. Two studies tested these predictions. In Study 1, the interaction of (low) family social support (cf. social alienation or low belonging) and feeling that one does not matter (cf. perceived burdensomeness) predicted current suicidal ideation, beyond depression indices. In Study 2, the 3-way interaction among a measure of low belonging, a measure of perceived burdensomeness, and lifetime number of suicide attempts (viewed as a strong predictor of the level of acquired capability for suicide) predicted current suicide attempt (vs. ideation) among a clinical sample of suicidal young adults, again beyond depression indices and other key covariates. Implications for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed.
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A collective constructionist theory of the self proposes that many psychological processes, including enhancement of the self (pervasive in the United States) and criticism and subsequent improvement of the self (widespread in Japan), result from and support the very ways in which social acts and situations are collectively defined and subjectively experienced in the respective cultural contexts. In support of the theory, 2 studies showed, first, that American situations are relatively conducive to self-enhancement and American people are relatively likely to engage in self-enhancement and, second, that Japanese situations are relatively conducive to self-criticism and Japanese people are relatively likely to engage in self-criticism. Implications are discussed for the collective construction of psychological processes implicated in the self and, more generally, for the mutual constitution of culture and the self.
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Context: Since the development of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPTS; Joiner, 2005), a growing body of literature has emerged testing different aspects of the theory across a range of populations. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify support for the IPTS, and critical gaps in the evidence base, by systematically reviewing current evidence testing the effects of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability on suicide ideation and attempt. Methods: PsycInfo and PubMed databases were electronically searched for articles published between January 2005 and July 2015. Articles were included if they directly assessed the IPTS constructs as predictors of suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Results: Fifty-eight articles reporting on 66 studies were identified. Contrary to expectations, the studies provided mixed evidence across the theory's main predictions. The effect of perceived burdensomeness on suicide ideation was the most tested and supported relationship. The theory's other predictions, particularly in terms of critical interaction effects, were less strongly supported. Conclusions: Future research focused on expanding the availability of valid measurement approaches for the interpersonal risk factors, and further elaborating upon their mixed relationships with suicide ideation and attempt across multiple populations is important to advance theoretical and clinical progress in the field.
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Several measurement strategies to assess the tripartite model of emotion in child and adolescent samples, have been developed. However, no studies have comparatively examined the most suitable strategies in clinical samples of children and adolescents. This study involved the evaluation of 2 distinct measures of tripartite constructs relative to anxiety and depression criterion variables in a clinical sample of 226 children in Grades 1 through 12. Results indicated that the measures performed similarly overall, but some differences were pronounced enough to suggest that the measures indexed slightly different aspects of the same constructs. These differences appear consistent with the scale design of each instrument. Implications for measurement of these constructs in future research are highlighted.
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Empirically informed suicide risk assessment frameworks are useful in guiding the evaluation and treatment of individuals presenting with suicidal symptoms. Joiner et al. (1999) formulated one such framework, which has provided a concise heuristic for the assessment of suicide risk. The purpose of this review is to ensure compatibility of this suicide risk assessment framework with the growing literature on suicide-related behaviors. This review integrates recent literature on suicide risk factors and clinical applications into the existing model. Further, we present a review of risk factors not previously included in the Joiner et al. (1999) framework, such as the interpersonal theory of suicide variables of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and capability for suicide (Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010) and acute symptoms of suicidality (i.e., agitation, irritability, weight loss, sleep disturbances, severe affective states, and social withdrawal). These additional indicators of suicide risk further facilitate the classification of patients into standardized categories of suicide risk severity and the critical clinical decision making needed for the management of such risk. To increase the accessibility of empirically informed risk assessment protocols for suicide prevention and treatment, an updated suicide risk assessment form and decision tree are provided. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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It is argued that East Asian communication patterns differ from those of North America because of the Eastern emphasis on social relationships as opposed to the North American emphasis on individualism. This East Asian preoccupation with social relationships stems from the doctrines of Confucianism, which considers proper human relationships to be the basis of society. The cardinal principle of Confucianism is humanism, which is understood as a warm human feeling between people and strongly emphasizes reciprocity. As a philosophy of humanism and social relations, Confucianism has left a strong impact on interpersonal relationships and on communication patterns. The five most important areas of interpersonal relationships influenced by Confucianism are particulars, reciprocity, the in-group/out-group distinction, the role of intermediaries, and the overlap of personal and public relationships. Confucianism has also contributed to East Asian communication patterns of process orientation, differentiated linguistic codes, indirect communication emphasis, and receiver-centered communication. In contrast, North American patterns of communication represent outcome orientation, less-differentiated linguistic codes, direct communication emphasis, and sender-centered communication.
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Gay men and lesbians in South Korea are alienated and stigmatized due to the country's low tolerance of social differences, resulting in distress and suicidal impulses. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation in a gay and lesbian group in South Korea based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide. Differences between the gay and lesbian group and the heterosexual group were found in the direct path between perceived burdensomeness and suicidal ideation. The relationship was significant for both groups, but the path coefficient was greater for lesbians and gay men than for heterosexuals. These findings imply that perceived burdensomeness may be a more critical factor in suicidal ideation of lesbians and gay men.
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Purpose: This study aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of suicidal ideation among the elderly in Korea. Methods: This cross-sectional study used secondary data of the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The participants were 1,097 elderly Koreans who responded to the health survey. Sociodemographics, health related characteristics, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Risk factors of the suicidal ideation were also examined. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Of the 1,097 respondents, 30.5% had suicidal ideation during the past year. Depression and stress were the important risk factors; others included mobility, pain/discomfort, chronic illness, smoking, sleep, and leisure time physical activity. Sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, education, and marital status affected suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The high frequency of suicidal ideation in the elderly suggests the necessity of community-based interventions directed at depression and stress.
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The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide proposes that suicidal behavior is so frightening that in order for an individual to engage in suicidal behavior, desire for suicide must be accompanied by the capability to do so. The capability for suicide is characterized by both a sense of fearlessness about death and elevated physiological pain tolerance. The primary aim of the current project was to reevaluate and revise the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS; Van Orden, Witte, Gordon, Bender, & Joiner, 2008) and offer a revision to the scale. Expert review of the scale items resulted in retaining 7 items assessing fearlessness about death. The recommendation is made to refer to the revised scale as the ACSS-Fearlessness About Death (ACSS-FAD) to reflect its content more specifically. A model with the 7 retained items provided good fit to the data across 3 independent samples of young adults. Multiple-group analyses examining measurement invariance across men and women found that the latent structure of the scale is comparable across gender. Data are also presented demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity for the scale in young adults and an inpatient psychiatric sample. Findings support the viability of the ACSS-FAD, indicating the scale has a replicable factor structure that generalizes across males and females and is substantively related to the construct of fearlessness about death. Taken together, the present work extends knowledge of the psychometrics of the ACSS-FAD in particular and the nature of fearlessness about death in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although a significant association between eating disorder symptoms and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms has been consistently reported in the literature, there remains a paucity of studies aimed at better understanding processes that may account for this association. The present study employed structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which depression explains the relationship between eating disorder symptoms and OCD symptoms in an inpatient sample of individuals with eating disorders. A measurement model specifying significant associations between the three symptom domains provided a good fit to the data. Consistent with predictions, the present study found that the association between latent OCD symptoms and latent eating disorder symptoms was mediated by depression symptoms. Subsequent analysis also revealed structural invariance of the mediated effect between eating disorder patients with and without a comorbid OCD diagnosis. Implications of these findings for better understanding the phenomenological and functional relationship between eating disorders and OCD are discussed.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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The present study explored the validity of Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide in a sample of 439 Chinese university students 17 to 24 years of age. The results indicated that the three elements of the theory (thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability for self-harm) were associated with current suicidal ideation in the total sample of students. For men, only thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness predicted suicidal ideation, whereas all three elements of the theory predicted suicidal ideation for women. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for other variables, supported the role of burdensomeness and acquired capability for suicide, but not thwarted belongingness.
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This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
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a b s t r a c t Suicide in the military is a growing concern. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she experiences a combined disconnection from others, feelings that one is a burden on others, and the ability to do so, but this theory has not yet been rigorously tested with military samples. The current study tested the theory's hypotheses in pre-dicting history of suicide in a sample of 88 active duty US Air Force personnel, which was compared to a non-military undergraduate sample (n = 309) and a non-military clinical sample (n = 228). Active duty personnel demonstrated higher acquired capability when compared to a clinical non-military sample. As compared to non-military undergraduates, active duty personnel demonstrated less perceived burden-someness, but did not differ in terms of thwarted belongingness. The interaction of burdensomeness and acquired capability significantly predicted suicidal history, but the three-way interaction between burdensomeness, belongingness, and acquired capability did not, providing partial support for the theory in a military sample.
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Public HealthIn the gloomy realm of suicide research, South Korea stands out for its high suicide rate among young women and the elderly. But perhaps the most alarming feature about the trend is how quickly the suicide rate has accelerated, from fewer than 10 suicide deaths per 100,000 people in 1990 to 31.2 per 100,000 in 2010. Suicide leapt from the 10th most frequent cause of death in South Korea to fourth; it is now the leading killer of those aged 10 to 39. There are hints that rapid socioeconomic changes, a burgeoning elderly population, and cultural influences all play roles in the surge in suicide in Korea, both in South Korea and elsewhere in the region.
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This paper delved into the nature of face as a socio-psycho-linguistic concept through the examination of its varying conceptualizations and components in three different cultures: Chinese, Japanese, and U. S. American. The points of investigation are as follows: (1) semantic fields of the terms which signify `face' in the Chinese, Japanese, and English languages, (2) cultures, social behaviors, and social systems of the three peoples, (3) differences between face and other similar concepts, such as prestige and honor, (4) comparative weights of attributes comprising face, such as formal position, personal reputation, conformity, and integrity of social being, which may vary significantly according to culture.
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given that real data often fail to satisfy the underlying scaling and normality assumptions, there has been growing interest in determining the robustness of structural equation modeling techniques to violations of scaling the normality assumptions and in developing alternative remedial strategies when these assumptions are seriously violated / these topics are the focus of the present chapter overview of normal theory estimation / effects and detection of nonnormality / remedies for multivariate nonnormality (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2002, an estimated 877,000 lives were lost world-wide through suicide. In Korea, suicidal deaths have increased very rapidly since the economic crisis in 1997, and suicide is regarded as one of the most seri-ous public health and social issues in Korea. This study examines the current situation and trends of the recent-ly increasing rates of suicidal deaths, ideas, and attempts in Korea. This study reanalyzed the 20-year statistics of suici-dal deaths recently published by the National Statistical Office and the data of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 1995 and 1998. The suicidal mortality rate in Korea is quite high compared to those in other OECD countries and the rate of increase is the highest. The rate of suicidal idea is high among males, those in their late teens and those in their seventies. The suicidal attempt rate is higher among females and those in their late teens. Suicide, one of the important causes of death in the younger age group, has a greater socioeconomic impact than other common causes of death in the older age group. Therefore, we are in urgent need of a public men-tal health network to prevent suicide and to detect and treat early mental health problems leading to suicide.
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
Alcohol misuse increases risk of suicidal behavior in older adults. The Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) and its relation to suicide attempt history was examined to see if it differed for older adults as a function of their alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used in a sample (N=1,061) of older adult outpatients to examine the scale's measurement invariance and population heterogeneity and its relation to suicide attempt history. Analyses supported the equivalence of the DSI-SS in risky and nonrisky drinkers. The DSI-SS significantly predicted past suicide attempts. Findings support the viability of the DSI-SS as suicide screening tool for older adults.
Article
The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness-both proximal causes of desire for suicide. Results support that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are distinct but related constructs and that they can be reliably measured. Further, multiple-group analyses were consistent with invariance for young versus older adults and nonclinical versus clinical populations, thereby supporting the relevance of these constructs to diverse populations. Finally, both constructs demonstrated convergent associations with related interpersonal constructs-including loneliness and social support for belongingness and social worth and death ideation for burdensomeness--as well as prospective associations with suicidal ideation.
Article
This was the first Korean national study to evaluate prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior, and to compare multiple and single attempts. A total of 6510 adults completed face-to-face interviews (response rate, 81.7%) through randomly chosen one-person-per-households. Lifetime prevalence and correlates were evaluated with the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI), and a questionnaire to inquire about suicidal behaviors. The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt in South Korea was 15.2%, 3.3%, and 3.2% (single 2.1% and multiple 1.1%), respectively. Younger age was associated with attempts and more strongly associated with multiple attempts. Attempts were the most strongly associated with mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder, which was more strongly associated with multiple attempts. In conclusion, suicidal behaviors are highly prevalent in Korea, especially in young adults. Bipolar disorder was the most strongly associated disorder with suicide attempts, more with multiple attempts.
Article
Multiple studies have reported a link between high levels of impulsivity and suicidal behavior. Joiner's (2005) explanation for this link is that impulsive individuals have a greater tendency to experience painful and provocative events that habituate them to fear and pain, which leads to an acquired capability for engaging in suicidal behavior. Study 1 tested Joiner's (2005) hypothesis in a sample of 182 undergraduate students who completed self-report questionnaires on impulsivity, frequency of painful and provocative events, and acquired capability for suicide. In addition to self-report, pain tolerance (an aspect of acquired capability for suicide) was measured with a pressure algometer. Study 2 sought to replicate our findings from Study 1 in a sample of 516 clinical outpatients using a multi-faceted measure of impulsivity. Consistent with prediction, product of coefficients tests for mediation (MacKinnon et al., 2002) revealed that impulsivity has an indirect relationship with acquired capability for suicidal behavior, and that this relationship is mediated by painful and provocative events. Data from our studies are cross-sectional in nature, which does not allow for conclusions about the temporal ordering of our variables. In addition, self-report was used to measure most variables. Future research may benefit from a longitudinal design and the inclusion of other modes of assessment (e.g., behavioral measures of impulsivity). Our findings suggest that the link between impulsivity and suicidal behavior occurs because impulsive people tend to have a greater capability for suicidal behavior, which they have acquired through experiencing painful and provocative events.
Article
Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that the most dangerous form of suicidal desire is caused by the simultaneous presence of two interpersonal constructs-thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (and hopelessness about these states)-and further that the capability to engage in suicidal behavior is separate from the desire to engage in suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the capability for suicidal behavior emerges, via habituation and opponent processes, in response to repeated exposure to physically painful and/or fear-inducing experiences. In the current article, the theory's hypotheses are more precisely delineated than in previous presentations (Joiner, 2005), with the aim of inviting scientific inquiry and potential falsification of the theory's hypotheses.
Article
The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005) holds that an individual will die by suicide if he or she has both the desire for suicide and capability to act on that desire. According to the theory, suicidal desire results from the convergence of two interpersonal states: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. However, desire alone is not sufficient to result in death by suicide--a third component must be present: the acquired capability for suicide, which develops from repeated exposure and habituation to painful and provocative events. The purpose of this article is to discuss four viable and timely directions for future research, given the current status of the theory.
Article
It is a common practice to export instruments developed in one culture to another. Little is known about the consequences of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Several studies were conducted to fill in this gap. Study 1 examined the impact of lacking factor loading invariance on regression slope comparisons. When factor loadings of a predictor are higher in the reference group (e.g., United States), for which the scale was developed, than in the focal group (e.g., China), into which the scale was imported, the predictive relationship (e.g., self-esteem predicting life satisfaction) is artificially stronger in the reference group but weaker in the focal group, creating a bogus interaction effect of predictor by group (e.g., self-esteem by culture); the opposite pattern is found when the reference group has higher loadings in an outcome variable. Studies 2 and 3 examined the impact of lacking loading and intercept (i.e., point of origin) invariance on factor means, respectively. When the reference group has higher loadings or intercepts, the mean is overestimated in that group but underestimated in the focal group, resulting in a pseudo group difference.
Article
Despite numerous technical treatments in many venues, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) remains a widely misused approach to dealing with substantive group differences on potential covariates, particularly in psychopathology research. Published articles reach unfounded conclusions, and some statistics texts neglect the issue. The problem with ANCOVA in such cases is reviewed. In many cases, there is no means of achieving the superficially appealing goal of "correcting" or "controlling for" real group differences on a potential covariate. In hopes of curtailing misuse of ANCOVA and promoting appropriate use, a nontechnical discussion is provided, emphasizing a substantive confound rarely articulated in textbooks and other general presentations, to complement the mathematical critiques already available. Some alternatives are discussed for contexts in which ANCOVA is inappropriate or questionable.
Article
Using data from a nationwide project on young people in Australia aimed at assessing suicidality in general health settings, we present a brief screening tool for suicidality (the depressive symptom index suicidality subscale). Two thousand eight hundred and fifty-one (15-24 year old) patients presenting to 247 Australian general practitioners between 1996 and 1998 were assessed. In addition to the suicide screen, patients completed the general health questionnaire-12 and the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Patients' chief complaints were taken from the summary sheets completed by their general practitioners. Using inter-item correlational and factor-analytic techniques, as well as a general approach to construct validity, we show that the measure has favorable reliability and validity characteristics. We also provide results on cut-points that may facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. Because the screen is brief, easy to use, reliable, and valid, we encourage its use to combat the vexing international health problem of suicide.
Article
Several measurement strategies to assess the tripartite model of emotion in child and adolescent samples have been developed. However, no studies have comparatively examined the most suitable strategies in clinical samples of children and adolescents. This study involved the evaluation of 2 distinct measures of tripartite constructs relative to anxiety and depression criterion variables in a clinical sample of 226 children in Grades 1 through 12. Results indicated that the measures performed similarly overall, but some differences were pronounced enough to suggest that the measures indexed slightly different aspects of the same constructs. These differences appear consistent with the scale design of each instrument. Implications for measurement of these constructs in future research are highlighted.
Article
Internet psychology services are rapidly increasing and that implies online assessment. To guarantee the results of these new online evaluation procedures, it is necessary to have reliable and valid assessment tools. In this work we analyzed the online versions of two popular psychopathology screening questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Symptoms Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). A total of 185 psychology students were recruited from two universities in Madrid, Spain. All of them had Internet access at home. A test-retest situation and factorial analysis were used to generate reliability and validity data. Both paper-and-pencil questionnaires (test) and their online versions (retest) were completed by 100 participants (median gap = 17 days). Results suggest that both online questionnaires were fairly equivalent to their paper-and-pencil versions, with higher reliability values for the SCL-90-R. Factorial analysis tended to reproduce the structure shown in former investigations of both questionnaires, replicating the four-factor structure of the GHQ-28 but failing to do so with the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Instead, a large unrotated factor appeared. Further research should be carried out to confirm these data, but our work supports the online use of both assessment tools. The psychometric properties of the online version of GHQ-28 is similar to the paper-and-pencil and we can recommend its utilization in a Web environment. In contrast, SCL-90-R can only be recommended as a global index for psychological distress, using the Global Severity Index (GSI), not necessarily its subscales; and it should be considered that the online scores were lower than the ones with the paper-and-pencil version.