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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CANINE PARVOVIRUS INFECTION OF DOG IN BANGLADESH AND INDIA

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A comparative study on Canine Parvovirus (CPV) infection among the hospitalized dogs at Central Veterinary Hospital (CVH) in Bangladesh and Veterinary College and Research Institute-Madras Veterinary College (VCRI-MVC) in India was conducted during a period of January and July 2015. A total of 270 (80 at CVH and 190 at VCRI-MVC) hospitalized dogs of different breeds were clinically examined. The key clinical signs observed among the CPV infected dogs were bloody diarrhoea (90.4%), vomition (94.5%) and dehydration (severe 85.7%, moderate 10.0% and mild 7.6%). The overall prevalence of CPV infection was higher in VCRI-MVC (42.7%) than CVH (31.2%). The prevalence of CPV was varied significantly (P<0.05) among different age groups, vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs. Highest prevalence was found 1-3 months (48.7%) old dogs, in compare with 4-6 months (17.2%) and over 6 months (8.3%) old dogs. Highest prevalence was also found in non-vaccinated than vaccinated dogs at CVH, Bangladesh. In VCRI-MVC, India rate of infection also varied significantly (P<0.05) in different age groups (57.4%, 28.9%, 10.0% among 1-3 months, 4-6 months and> 6 months respectively) and 13.2% in vaccinated and 64.4% in non-vaccinated groups. Significant (P<0.05) variation in prevalence of CPV also observed in different breeds- indigenous (50.0%), Spitz (28.2%), Lhasa (18.1%), Doberman (40.0%) and German Shepherd (46.6%).
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Bangl. J. Vet. Med. (2016). 14 (2): 237-241 ISSN: 1729-7893 (Print), 2308-0922 (Online)
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CANINE PARVOVIRUS INFECTION OF DOG IN
BANGLADESH AND INDIA
M. M. Hasan1, M. S. Jalal1*, M. Bayzid1, M. A. M. Sharif2 and M. Masuduzzaman3
1Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, 2Department of Animal Science and Nutrition,
3Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal
Sciences University, Khulshi, Chittagong, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT
A comparative study on Canine Parvovirus (CPV) infection among the hospitalized dogs at Central Veterinary Hospital
(CVH) in Bangladesh and Veterinary College and Research Institute-Madras Veterinary College (VCRI-MVC) in India was
conducted during a period of January and July 2015. A total of 270 (80 at CVH and 190 at VCRI-MVC) hospitalized dogs of
different breeds were clinically examined. The key clinical signs observed among the CPV infected dogs were bloody
diarrhoea (90.4%), vomition (94.5%) and dehydration (severe 85.7%, moderate 10.0% and mild 7.6%). The overall prevalence
of CPV infection was higher in VCRI-MVC (42.7%) than CVH (31.2%). The prevalence of CPV was varied significantly
(P<0.05) among different age groups, vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs. Highest prevalence was found 1-3 months (48.7%)
old dogs, in compare with 4-6 months (17.2%) and over 6 months (8.3%) old dogs. Highest prevalence was also found in non-
vaccinated than vaccinated dogs at CVH, Bangladesh. In VCRI-MVC, India rate of infection also varied significantly
(P<0.05) in different age groups (57.4%, 28.9%, 10.0% among 1-3 months, 4-6 months and> 6 months respectively) and
13.2% in vaccinated and 64.4% in non-vaccinated groups. Significant (P<0.05) variation in prevalence of CPV also observed
in different breeds- indigenous (50.0%), Spitz (28.2%), Lhasa (18.1%), Doberman (40.0%) and German Shepherd (46.6%).
Key words: CPV, CVH, VCRI-MVC, Prevalence.
INTRODUCTION
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is an infectious and contagious viral disease of canine especially dogs.
Parvovirus comes from Latin word “Parvus” which means small and probably due to this reason this virus is
known as parvovirus. It is a non-enveloped having a single stranded DNA genome belonging to the family
Parvoviridae (Aappel et al., 1978) CPV is genetically and antigenically unrelated to Canine Minute Virus
(CnMV), formerly known as canine parvovirus type 1 (CPV-1), which is responsible for neonatal death in dogs
(Tattersall et al., 2005). Dogs of all age groups may be infected but puppies of 3 month of age are highly
susceptible than adults (Behera et al., 2015). This virus causes high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up
to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups (Aappel et al., 1978). Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged in the late 1970s,
probably from feline panleukopenia virus via genetic mutations and evolution (Tattersall et al., 2005).
CPV infection is characterized by vomition, diarrhea and dehydration, brownish or bloody foul smelling
diarrhoea and in severe cases fever (Pollock and Coyne, 1993). The clinical manifestations of CPV infection
depends on the age and immune status of the dogs, virulence of the virus, dose of the virus and pre-existing or
concurrent parasitic, bacterial or virus infections (McAdaragh et al., 1982) Factors that predispose parvovirus
infection in puppies are lack of protective immunity, intestinal parasites, overcrowded, unsanitary, and stressful
environmental conditions (Hoskins, 1997). It has been stated that Doberman, Rottweiler and German shepherd
(GS) dogs seem to be more susceptible to Parvovirus infection than other breed (Ling et al., 2012) Unvaccinated
puppies aged between six weeks and six months are at greatest risk of developing CPV related disease (Godsall
et al., 2010)
The prevalence of canine parvovirus infection was reported as 77-80.4% in Thailand, 82.9% in Korea and 6%
in Lithuania (Grigonis et al., 2002). The outbreak of CPV disease in dogs was also reported in Belgium and
France (1977), Thailand, USA(1978), Portugal, Pakistan, Italy, Spain, Germany (Lamm and Rezabek, 2008). In
India 1st outbreak of CPV infection was reported in Madras (1981) and in Bombay (1985) (Haque and Arfa,
2012). Though diarrhea is one of common clinical features faced by the pet practitioners, but in Bangladesh,
there is no published literature on canine parvovirus infection of dogs (Islam et al., 2014).
*Corresponding e-mail address: shah.jalal.baty@gmail.com
Copyright © 2016 Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Medicine All rights reserved 0381/2016
238
M.M. Hasan and others
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Location, duration of study and study population
The study was conducted at Central veterinary hospital (CVH), Bangladesh and clinics of Veterinary College
and Research Institute (VCRI) and clinics of Madras Veterinary College (MVC), India; during the period of
January to march 2015. The hospitalized dogs were considered as study population. Total 270 (80 at CVH and
190 at VCRI-MVC) dogs of different breeds (Indigenous and Exotic breed i.e. Spitz, Lhasa, Doberman, and GS)
were clinically examined during the study period. The data related to age, sex, breed, vaccination, clinical history
etc were collect from owner using a standard case report sheet. Then rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration
rate was measured. Skin fold test was performed to estimate the degree of dehydration. Diagnosis is based on
clinical signs. For example, in enteritis forms, signs appear within 5 to 7 days after exposure including
depression, loss of appetite, high fever (above 104˚F), vomition, bloody diarrhea are often seen, feces are
generally light grey or yellow gray and may be streaked with blood and in myocarditis form which is usually
seen in younger puppies less than 8 week of age. Dyspnea, Crying and retching finally death occur within 24
hours. Sometimes sudden death can occur without showing any cardinal signs due to Cardiac failure.
Statistical Analysis
All the data were included into microsoft office excel-2010. Then the data was cleaned, coded and finally
analyzed using statistical software STATA version-13/C. Prevalence was calculated accordingly and expressed
in percentage. To measure the association between categorical variables with the outcomes, chi-square test was
performed with 95% level of confidence and 5% level of significance.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In CVH among the 80 clinically sick dogs, 25 were found positive for CPV infection. Prevalence of different
risk factors (Age, Sex, Breed, Vaccination Status, Dehydration and Diarrhea) associated with CPV disease is
summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Prevalence of CPV Infection according to different risk factors at CVH
Variables Category level No of observation
(N=80)
Positive Case Prevalence
(%)
P value
1-3 month 39 20 48.7
4-6 Month 29 5 17.2
Age
>6 month 12 1 8.3
0.004
Male 44 16 36.3
Sex Female 36 9 25.0
0.275
Indigenous 10 3 30.0
Spitz 34 14 41.1
Lhasa 14 2 22.2
Doberman 14 3 21.4
Breed
GS 8 3 37.5
0.079
Yes 45 4 8.8
Vaccination
No 35 21 60.0
0.001
The study revealed that, the overall prevalence of CPV infection during the study period at CVH in
Bangladesh was 31.2%.The prevalence of CPV infection in different age group differed significantly (P<0.05)
and these were 48.7% for 1-3months, 17.2% for 4-6 months and 8.3% for above 6 months of ages. Between two
different sexes the prevalence was insignificantly (P>0.05) higher in male (36.3%) than female (25.0%).
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A comparative study on canine parvovirus infection of dog
Table 2. Prevalence of CPV Infection according to different risk factors in VCRI-MVC.
Variables Category level No of Observation
(N=190)
Positive case Prevalence (%) P value
1-3 month 101 58 57.4
4-6 month 69 20 28.9
Age
>6 month 20 2 10.0
0.001
Male 95 33 33.7
Sex
Female 95 47 49.4
0.040
Indigenous 84 42 50.0
Spitz 39 12 30.7
Lhasa 22 5 22.7
Doberman 30 12 40.0
Breed
GS 15 9 46.6
0.001
Yes 83 11 13.2
Vaccination
No 107 69 64.4
0.001
Among the breeds the rate of infections were encountered as 30.0%in indigenous,41.1%in Spitz,22.2% in
Lhasa, 21.4 % in Doberman, 37.5% in GS in which were differed insignificantly (P>0.05). While considering
vaccination status against CPV there observed a substantial difference (P<0.01) in occurrence of CPV infection
which were 8.33% in vaccinated dogs and 60.0% in non-vaccinated dogs. At VCRI-MVC, in India-190dogs
were studied, of which 80 were found positive. The risk factors (Age, Sex, Breed and Vaccination Status) which
influence the prevalence of CPV infection are summarized in Table 2. The estimated prevalence of CPV disease
at VCRI-MVC in India was 42.1%.In compared with age wise distribution, prevalence was significant (P<0.05),
it was 57.4% for 1-3 months, 28.9% for 4-6 months, and 10.0% for above 6 months. Between male and female
prevalence was statistically significant (P<0.05) in where male 33.7%, and female 49.4%. Among the breeds of
dog, prevalence were significant (P<0.05) in where 50.0% for Indigenous, 30.7%for Spitz, 28.2% for Lhasa,
40.0% for Doberman and 46.6% for GS. Moreover, Vaccinated 13.2%and Non-vaccinated 64.4% were
significantly (P<0.05) affected with CPV infection. Table 3 represents the data of comparative study of CPV
associated risk factors. It was revealed that the prevalence of different risk factors associated with CPV infections
was insignificant (P> 0.05) between CVH and VCRI-MVC.
Table 3. Comparison on prevalence of CPV Infection between CVH, Bangladesh and VCRI-MVC, India.
Variables Category Prevalence (%)(Bangladesh) Prevalence (%) ( India ) P value
1-3 month 48.7 57.4 0.288
4-6 month 17.2 28.3 0.188
Age
>6 month 8.3 10.0 0.756
Male 36.3 33.7 0.149
Sex
Female 25.0 49.4 0.756
Indigenous 30.0 50.0 0.685
Spitz 43.3 30.7 0.820
Lhasa 22.2 22.7 0.897
Doberman 21.4 40,0 0.999
Breed
GS 37.5 46.6 0.472
Vaccinated 8.8 13.2 0.464
Vaccination
Non-vaccinated 60.0 64.4 0.633
240
M.M. Hasan and others
Table 4. Different clinical signs observed among the CPV Infection in dogs.
Variables Category No of Observation (N) Positive case (N) %
Yes 105 100 90.4 Bloody
Diarrhea No 165 5 3.0
Yes 110 104 94.5 Vomition
No 160 1 .6
Severe 105 90 85.7
Moderate 100 10 10
Dehydration
Mild 65 5 7.6
Study revealed that in 90.4% bloody diarrhea, 94.5% vomition and 85.71% Severe, 10.0% moderate, 7.6%
mild dehydration present in CPV infection (positive) in dogs.
The study revealed an overall prevalence of CPV infection in suspected dogs in CVH was 31.2%. The result is
an agreement with other reports that prevalence of canine parvovirus infection in street Dogs, at Mymensingh
metropolitan City, in Bangladesh was 30.0% (Islam et al., 2014).Overall prevalence of CPV infection in
suspected dogs in VCRI-MVC, India was 42.1%. Similar findings were reported previously where prevalence
was 40.8% (Behera et al., 2015). Prevalence of CPV infection is higher in India than Bangladesh .This might be
occur due to presence of endemic infection in the population under study at VCRI-MVC in India. Prevalence of
CPV infection was higher among 1-3 month of age group than other age groups which support the study
conducted by Vivek (2011). Again younger puppies ( 3 months) is mostly affected which might be due to the
affinity of the virus being multiplying rapidly at intestinal crypt cells at the weaning age along with higher
mitotic index. Prevalence of CPV infection below 3 month of age puppies was insignificantly higher in VCRI,
MVC than CVH. Once again in CVH, prevalence of CPV infection was slightly higher in male (36.3%)
compared with female (25.0%). The study was in agreed with Islam et al. (2014). Oppositely female dogs were
higher in susceptible (49.4%) than the male (33.7%) in VCRI-MVC, supported by finding of Umar et al. (2015).
The susceptibility of Female was higher in CPV infection (India) however in Bangladesh male was higher in
susceptible, it was due to most of the Indian people kept female for breeding purpose than Bangladeshi people.
Breed wise distribution shown that prevalence of CPV disease was more in exotic breed than local indigenous in
CVH. Among the exotic breeds Spitz, GS, Doberman were more susceptible. Among the breeds in VCRI-MVC,
The occurrence of CPV infection is significantly higher in Local indigenous than the exotic breeds which is
supported by research findings of Shukla et al. (2009). This study also exposed that among the exotic breeds GS,
Doberman were higher in susceptibility than the others breed due to inherited immunodeficiency. It was
supported by Singh et al. (2013), where CPV infection was highest in German shepherd (70%), followed by
Doberman (55%). In CVH, Spitz was more susceptible due to its small size & most preferable breed in
Bangladeshi people. In MVC-VCRI Local indigenous dogs were higher susceptible due to higher population
density of this breed, poor vaccination and lack of awareness. Among exotic breed GS, Doberman were highly
susceptible. In non-vaccinated dogs the prevalence was higher in compared with vaccinated one. The finding was
agreed with finding of Godsall et al. (2010) where unvaccinated puppies aged between six weeks and six months
are at greatest risk of developing CPV infection. The higher prevalence of CPV infection in Non-vaccinated dogs
in due to Lack of protective immunity. In vaccinated dogs there was also presence of CPV infection this might be
occurred due to, incomplete or ineffective primary vaccination course, or failure of vaccination. The study was
performed on the basis of tentative diagnosis by observing clinical signs and symptoms. The main clinical signs
of CPV disease are Bloody diarrhea, Vomition, Dehydration. The study findings were an agreement with
findings of Prittie (2004) and Thomson & Gagnon (1987). In 90.4% and 94.5%CPV positive dogs, there were
presence of bloody diarrhea and vomition (Table 5). Similar finding was also reported by Thomson and Gagnon
(1978). About 85.7% CPV positive dogs were severe dehydrated that was reported in previous study, as an
important sign of CPV infection (Laforcade et al., 2003).
In conclusion, canine Parvovirus is an infectious and highly contagious viral disease of dogs. Dogs of all age
groups are infected but puppies age less than 3 month are highly susceptible than adults. Both male and female
can be infected with CPV. Both indigenous and exotic breed(German shepherd, Doberman, Spitz, Lhasa), are
susceptible to CPV infection. The rate of infection is high in non-vaccinated than vaccinated dogs. The
prevalence of this disease is higher in India than Bangladesh.
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A comparative study on canine parvovirus infection of dog
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... (Islam et al., 2014). Similar prevalence was previously reported at Central Veterinary Hospital, Dhaka, where the prevalence of Canine Parvovirus was 31.2% (Hasan et al., 2016). A higher prevalence was investigated at Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU) in Bangladesh, where the overall prevalence of CPV infection was 42% (Hasan et. ...
... The highest prevalence was noticed in 1-3 months (50%) followed by 4-6 months age group (40%), 7-9 months age group (23.1%) and 9 months age group as 10% (Table 1). The study agreed with previous research that revealed 48.7% prevalence in 1-3 months age group although prevalence in 4-6 months age group was low (17.2%) in CVH, Dhaka (Hasan et al., 2016). The prevalence of CPV infection in different age group were 52.94% for 1-3 months, 36.67% for 4-6 months and 33.33% for above 6 months of ages in CVASU, Chattogram (Hasan et. ...
... The study revealed 38.7% CPV positive male dogs and 21.1% CPV positive female dogs (Table 1). The study was in accord with the findings of Hasan and his colleagues (Hasan et al., 2016), who reported higher prevalence in male (36.3%) than female dog (25.0%). The prevalence of CPV in Mymensingh was higher in male dogs (37.5%) than females (21.4%) dogs (Islam et al., 2014). ...
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A study on Canine Parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs at Dhaka city of Bangladesh was conducted to determine its prevalence and therapeutic responses. A total of 50 (fifty) dogs of different breeds were clinically examined. A total 50 (fifty) fecal samples were collected from sick dogs and screened for the detection of Canine Parvovirus antigen using rapid CPV Ag detection kit. Screening of 50 (fifty) fecal samples revealed 16 CPV positive samples with a prevalence of 32%. The main clinical signs observed among the CPV infected dogs were bloody diarrhea (75%), vomition (97.4%) and severe dehydration (81.2%). The highest prevalence was found among 1-3 months (50%) old dogs followed by 4-6 months (40%), 7-9 months (23.1%) old dogs and over 9 months (10%). Higher prevalence was found among non-vaccinated (55.55%) than vaccinated (4.34%) dogs. Male dogs (38.7%) were more susceptible than females (21.1%). Higher prevalence was observed in Dhaka North City Corporation (37.5%) area than Dhaka South City Corporation (26.9%) area. Variation in prevalence of CPV was also observed in different breeds estimating as indigenous (40%), German shepherd (33.3%), Spitz (33.3%), Lhasa (28.5%), Doberman (25%), Labrador (25%) and Rottweiler (20%). Affected dogs were treated with Ceftriaxone (25-50 mg/kg body weight I/M SID for 7 days), I/V saline, Ondansetron (0.2mg/kg body weight orally q8h for 7 days). Among 16 positive cases 14 dogs (87.5%) were recovered after full course of treatment and 2 dogs (12.5%) died. Further studies should be conducted with large sample size and coverage to investigate the CPV detection rate in vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs.
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... Similar to the rest of the word, parvoviral diarrhea was reported in the domestic dog population in Bangladesh [12,14], however prior to this study, there were no epidemiologi-cal data that included sequence analysis or variant identification. A recent report claimed molecular detection of CPV-2a, 2b, and 2c strains from rectal swabs of suspected dogs using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR [13], however these data were not supported by genomic sequencing or downstream genomic analyses. ...
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... Among these, 04 (22.22%) puppies of German shepherd and 1(2.86%) puppy of Labrador were found positive to CPV. In case of breed, the chi-square statistic was 5.2173 and the p-value was 022364 which was significant at (p <0.05) and there is strong relationship between breed and CPV infection ( Of the 70 pet dogs examined for CPV infection, of which 27 were up to 06 months of age, 14 were > 6 to 12 months, 22 were one year to two years, 07 were above 2 years of age where 04 dogs (14.81%) were found positive in puppies aged up to 06 months and 01(7.14%) dog positive in age group between > 06 months to 1 year of age. ...
... 7 Significantly higher prevalence of CPE has been reported in puppies aged between 1 to 3 months (48.7%) in compare with 4 to 6 months (17.2%) and over six months (8.3%) old dogs. 22 However, puppies ( 6 months) have a significantly higher risk of parvovirus enteritis. 13 Puppies are very susceptible to CPV infection due to presence of low level of MDA, however, vaccinations administered too early can interfere with MDA and result in a puppy being more susceptible to infection. ...
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Background: There are approximately 1.6 million dogs in Bangladesh and almost 83% of these dogs live on the street and accordingly 17.0% dog population are kept as pet mostly in the metropolitan cities with major population in Dhaka, Chottogram and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Some promiscuous research findings on Canine parvovirus enteritis (PVE) and Canine influenza virus (CIV) have been reported in inland literature. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of canine parvovirus and canine influenza virus infections in dogs supported with brief review for future direction of research and prevention Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on total of 173 pet dogs for the prevalence of CIV and 70 dogs for CPV infections of different breed, age and gender by collecting nasal swab samples for CIV and rectal swabs for CPV infection. Each of the collected nasal swabs was tested by RapiGen Canine influenza Ag test kit and rectal swab samples with RapiGen Canine parvovirus Ag test kit (RapiGen INC., South Korea, 2012). Chi-square test was used detect the significance of risk factors of the infections in dogs. Results: All the 173 nasal swabs of pet dogs collected from different thanas of the Dhaka district showed negative with RapiGen CIV Ag test kit test. Out of four published reports on the prevalence of CIV infection in dogs, of which two reports showed 10.71 to 13.33% prevalence rate of CIV whereas two reports (including this one) showed negative result with the same test. An overall 7.14% prevalence of CPV infection in pet dogs was recorded in this study. The prevalence of CPV in relation to breed was found 22.22% in German shepherd and 2.86% in Labrador whereas local, Bull mastiff and Samoyed breeds found negative for CPV infection. The higher prevalence of CPV infection was recorded in puppies up to six months of age (14.81%) than in growing dogs aged between >6 to 12 months (7.14%) whereas adult (>1 to 2 years) and older (> 2 years) dogs found negative to this infection. Comparatively higher prevalence of CPV infection was detected in male (8.33%) than in female (5.88%) dogs. No CPV infection was recorded in vaccinated dogs, whereas 19.23% unvaccinated dogs affected with this infection. All the rectal swab samples of apparently healthy dogs (no sign of diarrhea) showed negative to CPV infection, whereas 25.0% dogs with diarrhea sign found positive to CPV infection. Review of inland literature reveals that out of nine articles published on CPV infection of which RapiGen CPV Ag test kit has been used in four, PCR in one and clinical method of diagnosis in four articles, whereas only RapiGen CIV Ag test kit has been used for the diagnosis of CIV infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of CPE associated with diarrhea in 7.14% pet dogs has been recognized in this investigation with supports of earlier reports whereas the prevalence of CIV in pet dogs varied widely from negative to 13.33% prevalence in dogs. Age and vaccination of dogs have been recognized as primary risk factors which should be considered in planning a control program whereas others factors like breeds, season, geographical areas can be considered as secondary risk factors varied widely in different reports and countries. Comparative evaluation of different diagnostic tests to find out the ‘gold standard’ and vaccination against CPI in puppies may be suggested to control this disease in dogs. Keywords: Prevalence, Risk factors, CIV, CPV, Dogs, Breeds, Dhaka district, RapiGen Ag test kit, Brief review
... Among these, 04 (22.22%) puppies of German shepherd and 1(2.86%) puppy of Labrador were found positive to CPV. In case of breed, the chi-square statistic was 5.2173 and the p-value was 022364 which was significant at (p <0.05) and there is strong relationship between breed and CPV infection ( Of the 70 pet dogs examined for CPV infection, of which 27 were up to 06 months of age, 14 were > 6 to 12 months, 22 were one year to two years, 07 were above 2 years of age where 04 dogs (14.81%) were found positive in puppies aged up to 06 months and 01(7.14%) dog positive in age group between > 06 months to 1 year of age. ...
... 7 Significantly higher prevalence of CPE has been reported in puppies aged between 1 to 3 months (48.7%) in compare with 4 to 6 months (17.2%) and over six months (8.3%) old dogs. 22 However, puppies ( 6 months) have a significantly higher risk of parvovirus enteritis. 13 Puppies are very susceptible to CPV infection due to presence of low level of MDA, however, vaccinations administered too early can interfere with MDA and result in a puppy being more susceptible to infection. ...
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Background: There are approximately 1.6 million dogs in Bangladesh and almost 83% of these dogs live on the street and accordingly 17.0% dog population are kept as pet mostly in the metropolitan cities with major population in Dhaka, Chottogram and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Some promiscuous research findings on Canine parvovirus enteritis (PVE) and Canine influenza virus (CIV) have been reported in inland literature. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of canine parvovirus and canine influenza virus infections in dogs supported with brief review for future direction of research and prevention Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on total of 173 pet dogs for the prevalence of CIV and 70 dogs for CPV infections of different breed, age and gender by collecting nasal swab samples for CIV and rectal swabs for CPV infection. Each of the collected nasal swabs was tested by RapiGen  Canine influenza Ag test kit and rectal swab samples with RapiGen  Canine parvovirus Ag test kit (RapiGen INC., South Korea, 2012). Chi-square test was used detect the significance of risk factors of the infections in dogs. Results: All the 173 nasal swabs of pet dogs collected from different thanas of the Dhaka district showed negative with RapiGen  CIV Ag test kit test. Out of four published reports on the prevalence of CIV infection in dogs, of which two reports showed 10.71 to 13.33% prevalence rate of CIV whereas two reports (including this one) showed negative result with the same test. An overall 7.14% prevalence of CPV infection in pet dogs was recorded in this study. The prevalence of CPV in relation to breed was found 22.22% in German shepherd and 2.86% in Labrador whereas local, Bull mastiff and Samoyed breeds found negative for CPV infection. The higher prevalence of CPV infection was recorded in puppies up to six months of age (14.81%) than in growing dogs aged between >6 to 12 months (7.14%) whereas adult (>1 to 2 years) and older (> 2 years) dogs found negative to this infection. Comparatively higher prevalence of CPV infection was detected in male (8.33%) than in female (5.88%) dogs. No CPV infection was recorded in vaccinated dogs, whereas 19.23% unvaccinated dogs affected with this infection. All the rectal swab samples of apparently healthy dogs (no sign of diarrhea) showed negative to CPV infection, whereas 25.0% dogs with diarrhea sign found positive to CPV infection. Review of inland literature reveals that out of nine articles published on CPV infection of which RapiGen  CPV Ag test kit has been used in four, PCR in one and clinical method of diagnosis in four articles, whereas only RapiGen  CIV Ag test kit has been used for the diagnosis of CIV infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of CPE associated with diarrhea in 7.14% pet dogs has been recognized in this investigation with supports of earlier reports whereas the prevalence of CIV in pet dogs varied widely from negative to 13.33% prevalence in dogs. Age and vaccination of dogs have been recognized as primary risk factors which should be considered in planning a control program whereas others factors like breeds, season, geographical areas can be considered as secondary risk factors varied widely in different reports and countries. Comparative evaluation of different diagnostic tests to find out the 'gold standard' and vaccination against CPI in puppies may be suggested to control this disease in dogs.
... We did not observe significant relationships of sex, age, weight, and month of disease occurrence with CPV infection. Some reports indicate that males are at a higher risk of infection [3,[17][18][19]32], and yet another study reports that females are at a higher risk [17]. In some studies, it was observed that juvenile animals were at a higher risk, possibly due to lower levels of maternal antibody and lack of vaccination [2,3]. ...
... Vaccination is considered to have a significant impact on CPV. Vaccinated animals were probably less infected, as reported in a previous study [32]. However, a considerable number of cases were found where dogs were infected by CPV, despite a history of vaccination [5,27]. ...
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Background and aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important cause of mortality in dogs in many parts of the world. Clinical cases exhibit characteristic signs, including foul-smelling bloody diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This study assessed field and vaccine variants of parvovirus in the Chattogram metropolitan area, Bangladesh. The investigation also aimed to identify risk factors for this disease. This research is the first to identify the presence of CPV in Bangladesh through molecular examination. Materials and methods: From October to December 2019, a total of 100 dogs were included in the study. Rectal swabs were taken from all dogs. Twenty dogs showed clinical signs of parvovirus. All clinically affected animals along with 20 randomly selected healthy dogs were tested using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify variants from the samples. Logistic regression model analysis was performed to determine the possible risk factors for CPV. Results: ARMS-PCR showed the presence of all three variants, CPV2a, CPV2b, and CPV2c, in clinically ill dogs, and vaccines available in the study area showed either CPV2a or CPV2b strain. The CPV2c variants showed a higher incidence than the other variants. All apparently healthy animals tested were molecularly negative. Multivariable logistic regression model (generalized linear mixed model) indicated that exotic breeds were 3.83 times more likely to be infected by CPV than local breeds. Furthermore, dogs reared in semi-intensive and extensive management systems were 3.64 and 3.79 times more likely to be infected, respectively, than those reared in an intensive management system. Conclusion: These findings provide practitioners and pet owners information on the occurrence of different variants and help design effective prevention strategies for CPV infection.
... Doberman, Rottweiler, and German shepherd (GS) dogs have been reported to be more susceptible to CPVE than other breeds [42]. Due to inherited immunodeficiency, the exotic breeds, German Sphered and Doberman, are more susceptible than the other breeds [43]. German shepherd has the highest CPV infection rate (70%) followed by the Doberman (55%) [44]. ...
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Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious and key enteropathogen affecting the canine population around the globe by causing canine parvoviral enteritis (CPVE) and vomition. CPVE is one of the the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in puppies and young dogs. Over the years, five distinct antigenic variants of CPV-2, namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b, new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and CPV-2c, have emerged throughout the world. CPV-2 infects a diverse range of wild animals, and the newer variants of CPV-2 have expanded their host range to include felines. Despite the availability of highly specific diagnostics and efficacious vaccines, CPV-2 outbreaks have been reported globally due to the emergence of newer antigenic variants, expansion of the viral host range, and vaccination failures. The present chapter describes the latest information pertaining to virus properties and replication, disease manifestations in animals, and an additional recent updates on diagnostic, prevention and control strategies of CPV-2.
... Several studies based on clinical signs and antigen detection have been conducted to evaluate the status of CPV infection in Bangladesh [21,22], but only one antigen-based investigation has been performed to investigate the presence of FPV in Bangladesh [23], no molecular-biology-based analysis has been done. The goal of this study was to identify FPV in the Bangladeshi cat population using molecular techniques. ...
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Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious infectious pathogen of cats globally. However, there is no information on the molecular identification and characterization of FPV in Bangladesh. Here, 8.16% (8/98) and 18.37% (18/98) of diarrheic cats tested positive for FPV by an immunochromatography (IC) test and PCR, respectively. The IC test showed 44.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison with PCR. Our newly sequenced Bangladeshi FPV strain (MN826076) showed the highest (99.71%) sequence identity to strains from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Strain MN826076 contained two characteristic amino acid variations in VP2 identifying it as an FPV strain: valine at position 103 and aspartic acid at position 323. Phylogenetically, the VP2 of strain MN826076 was found to be closely related to 19 FPV strains, sharing the same clade.
... While in India, molecular characterization of 78 CPV isolates lead to the identification of 27 CPV-2a, 39 CPV-2b, 12 CPV-2c subtypes (Stuetzer & Hartman, 2014). In addition, the occurrence of FPV infection in cats was further confirmed using molecular identification in India (Parthiban et al., 2014;Hasan et al., 2017 ...
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Background: There is a lack of epidemiological data on parvovirus infections in cats and dogs in the Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objective: To conduct retrospective longitudinal study on parvovirus infections in cats and dogs treated at the Claws and Paws Veterinary Clinic in Al Ain, UAE. Methods: Data on clinical examination and laboratory tests were extracted in March 2020 retrospectively from case records of cats and dogs treated at Paws & Claws Veterinary Clinic in Al Ain between February 2019 to March 2020. Results: Of the total 2247 cases of small animals treated at Claws and Paws clinic for different health problems between February 2019 and March 2020, 68 were parvovirus infection cases constituting 3% (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.3%, 3.8%) of the total small animal cases treated at the Clinic during the indicated time. Seventy-two percent of the parvovirus cases were feline parvovirus (FPV) cases (feline panleukopenia) while the remaining 28% of the cases were canine parvovirus (CPV) cases. The difference in the proportions of CPV and FPV was significant (c2 = 26.14; p<0.001). Overall, the number of cases was low during most months of the year; but increased in November and December 2019 reaching its peak in January 2020 after which it declined. Significant (Cochran’s Q test=141.54; p<0.001) difference was observed in the proportions of animals exhibited different clinical signs. Conclusion: This study indicated the endemicity of CPV and FPV infections in Al Ain. Additionally, increase in number of cases was observed between November January, suggesting seasonality of the epidemics requiring for vaccination prior to the epidemic period.
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Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major cause of hemorrhagic diarrhea and mortality in puppies worldwide. There are 2 types of Parvovirus which affects canines: Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and Canine parvovirus 1 (CPV-1) or the Minute Virus of Canine (MVC). CPV-2 originated from Feline panleukopenia virus and has undergone genetic variation to give rise to its three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c). Amino acid substitutions in VP2 capsid protein have led virus to adapt new host range. The original CPV-2 was known to be dominant in Japan, Belgium, Australia as well as USA and later circulated throughout the world. Clinically, CPV-2 infection is characterized by anorexia, lethargy, depression, vomiting, leukopenia and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea. Several diagnostic tests have been developed to detect parvoviral infections which are categorized into immunological tests (latex agglutination test, SIT-SAT and ELISA etc.) and molecular based tests (PCR, mPCR and RT-PCR etc.). To control and manage the disease several treatments like fluid therapies, antibiotics, and adjunctive treatments are available and some are in various stages of development. Apart from this, many vaccines are also commercially available and some are in developmental stages. The present review contains detailed information regarding structural biology, occurrence, pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, treatments and prevention in order to understand the need and the growing importance of CPV-2.
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Since its emergence, Canine Parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has been considered as a deadly pathogen in dogs with high mortality in puppies for its clinical gastroenteritis and severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Although several studies on CPV-2 were conducted in Bangladesh, molecular investigation is poorly understood. The aim of the study was molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of CPV in diarrhoeic pet dogs. During Jan-July 2019, anal swabs were collected from 96 unvaccinated pet dogs with suspected CPV infection from Sylhet region of Bangladesh. The CPV infection was initially screened through rapid Immunochromatographic (IC) strip test, and then CPV-2 (VP2 gene) were detected by conventional PCR assay. Then the nucleotide sequence of amplified VP2 gene was compared with other CPV strains from GeneBank. Of the total samples, 17.7% (17/96) found positive in IC strip test, and 15.62% (15/96) were found positive in PCR assay by using primer pair P2 that detect original CPV-2 type. The IC test showed 100% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity with PCR. In sequence analysis, our isolates showed the highest 90.40% homology with the isolates of China and the USA. Our strains had also an evolutionary relationship with the other strains of CPV from China and India. This study demonstrates the presence of CPV-2 in Bangladesh and futher sequence analysis of more VP2 gene will help in details insight of the molecular and genetic evolution of CPV in Bangladesh.
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Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious infectious disease of dog characterized by severe gastroenteritis but so far there is no first-hand data on CPV reported in Bangladesh. Therefore, this cross-sectional survey was carried out for the antigenic detection of CPV in thirty randomly selected street dogs captured throughout Mymensingh municipality of Bangladesh over the period from January to July 2010. Rectal swab samples were collected from all dogs and tested by CPV rapid Ag test. Overall prevalence of canine parvovirus disease was recorded as 30 %. Prevalence of CPV was higher in young age group than that of older age groups. Male dogs were found to be higher susceptible to canine parvovirus infection in comparison with female. Significantly higher prevalence of CPV was recorded in diarrheic dogs compared with those having no diarrhea. Dogs with poor health condition were more vulnerable to canine parvovirus infection compared to those with normal health status. This is the first published report on CPV in street dogs in Bangladesh.
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Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka) . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala). But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.
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The early detection of the Canine Parvo Virus (CBV) is of paramount importance. The present study was aimed to know the molecular epidemiology of Canine parvo virus. Canine faecal samples from 100 dogs showing the clinical signs of gastroenteritis in and around Mathura, Uttar Bradesh, India were collected and DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method. CBV vaccine strain was used as a positive control. Bolymerase Chain Reaction (BCR) was carried out to amplify VBI/VB2 gene using a set of 20-mer primers [pCBV-RT (Forward): 5'-CAT TGG GCT TAC CAC CAT TT-3'; (Reverse): 5'-CCA ACC TCA GCT GGT CTC AT-3')] from position 3136-3155 to 3276-3295 of VF1/VB2 gene. A BCR product of approximately 160 bp was generated with positive faecal samples and CBV vaccine strain. After screening, 63 dogs were found positive for CBV but no sex variation was noticed amongst the CBV positive cases. Dogs, of the age group of <6 months were more susceptible in comparison to of >6 months and highest occurrence was noted in unvaccinated dogs and dogs in co-habitation with other dogs. Breed wise distribution of CBV in dogs revealed that the prevalence of CBV was the highest in Doberman (77.78%), followed by Spitz (78.57%), German shepherd (70.00%), Labrador (68.75%), Bomeranian (45.45%). It is concluded that CBV is prevalent in the Mathura and nearby area and it is more common in pups of age less than 6 months old and more prevalent in German shepherd, Labrador and Bomeranian breeds of dog
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Objective: To review and summarize current information regarding epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology associated with canine parvoviral infection, and to outline diagnostic and treatment modalities for this disease. Preventative and vaccination strategies will also be discussed, as serologic documentation of immunocompetence and adoption of safe and effective vaccination protocols are crucial in limiting infection and spread of canine parvoviral enteritis.Etiology: Parvoviruses (Parvoviridae) are small, nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in rapidly dividing cells. Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in this species.Diagnosis: Classic presentation of CPV infection includes acute-onset enteritis, fever, and leukopenia. Definitive diagnostic tests include detection of CPV in the feces of affected dogs, serology, and necropsy with histopathology.Therapy: Standard therapeutic practices for both mildly and severely affected puppies will be discussed. The ability of this virus to incite not only local gastrointestinal injury, but also a significant systemic inflammatory response has recently been reviewed in the literature, and novel innovative experimental and clinical therapeutic strategies, such as antagonism of proinflammatory cytokines and immunostimulation, are introduced in this article.Prognosis: CPV remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen. In experimentally affected dogs, mortality without treatment has been reported as high as 91%. However, with prompt recognition of dogs infected with CPV-2, and aggressive in-hospital supportive therapy of severely affected puppies, survival rates may approach 80–95%.
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Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs worldwide despite the availability of safe and efficacious vaccines. Although a number of studies have focussed on identifying risk factors in disease development, risk factors associated with death from CPV are largely unknown. In this study we analysed a total of 1451 CPV cases reported from an Australian surveillance system - using univariate and multivariate techniques - to determine significant risk factors associated with death and euthanasia. A crude case fatality rate of 42.3% was estimated - higher than has been reported previously. We found that 3.3% of CPV cases had a history of vaccination in the previous 12 months, despite having completed the primary puppy vaccination course. The majority (89.5%) of these cases occurred in dogs <12 months of age, indicating failure of the primary vaccination course to provide protective immunity (most likely due to interference of the vaccine antigen with maternal antibodies but other reasons are discussed). Extending the age at which the final puppy vaccination is administered might be one of several strategies to consider. The final multivariate model showed that in non-litter CPV cases, risk of death was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer) and pedigree type (hounds and non-sporting dogs). Euthanasia in non-litter CPV cases was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer), state of residence (Northern Territory/South Australia/Tasmania combined), age (<six months) and vaccination status (unvaccinated and unknown). No significant risk factors associated with death were identified in cases in which there was more than one puppy in a litter infected. The risk factors identified in this study can be used as prognostic indicators for veterinarians faced with CPV cases. The possible explanations for the associations identified and their clinical relevance to CPV case outcome are discussed.