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Abstract Objective:Mental health refers as the individual’s adjustment with a maximum of effectiveness, satisfaction, happiness and socially considerate behaviour and the ability to face and accept the reality of life. Excess use of drugs largely affects individual’s mental health. The present research paper explored the impact of drug addiction on mental health. Method:The present study consists of 60 subjects randomly selected among which 30 were adolescents (15 males and 15 females) and 30 adult’s (15 males and 15 females). The P.G.I Health Questionnaire N-I constructed by Varma, Wing and Pershad was used to measure the mental health of drug addicts. The effect of two experimental variables (age and gender) was study on one criterion variable (mental health). For data analysis mean and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied. Results: The results revealed that age and gender have significant effect on mental health of drug addicts. Also adults and female addicts show better mental health than adolescents and male addicts. The obtained F ratio was found significant at 0.01 level of significance. Conclusions: On the basis of our findings it is concluded that age and gender are the influential factors in mental health.
Research Article Open Access
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 1000110
J Ment Disord Treat
ISSN: 2471-271X JMT an open access journal
Open Access
Research Article
Journal of Mental Disorders
and Treatment
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ISSN: 2471-271X
Wani and Sankar, J Ment Disord Treat 2016, 2:1
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2471-271X.1000110
*Corresponding author: Wani MA, Ph.D Research Scholar of Psychology, Annamalai
University, Tamil Nadu, India, Tel: 04144 238 282; Email: mypsyresearch@outlook.com
Received June 19, 2016; Accepted June 23, 2016; Published June 28, 2016
Citation: Wani MA, Sankar R (2016) Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental Health. J
Ment Disord Treat 2: 110. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000110
Copyright: © 2016 Wani MA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
mental illness with suspicions, intemperate fears, mood disorders and
depression. Narcotics and liquor damage the liver, stomach, brain and
nerves which results memory loss, restlessness and so forth. Essentially
cannabis items likewise prompt emotional instability or a general
loss of enthusiasm among clients. Drug dependence is curse which
inuences the client as well as cause physical and enthusiastic trouble
in the family.
In present days no part of the world seems to be free from the
scourge of drug tracking and drug addiction. Millions of drug
addicts, everywhere throughout the world, are driving hopeless lives,
amongst life and death. Drug abuse in India is as old as somewhere
else. From the earliest starting point, cannabis drugs have been being
used than soma rasa, dev booty, opium got to be well known, in India
during Shivaratri and Holi, everybody, male and female, drinks a
beverage made from cannabis leaves and dry fruits. Indeed, even wine
is common in our parties, marriage and so forth. Recently a report in
Times of India shows children as young as nine years are succumbing
to substance misuse [6]. It is exceptionally stunning that Indian
students were found using like nail polish, whitener uids, shoes polish
as drug. e dishonorable thing is they additionally use dirty water of
their socks as drug. Use of drugs in India is rapidly growing people with
dierent age group use various types of drugs which is a serious cause
that is why the Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself called on the
youth of India to make India drug free.
Rich source of literature is available that highlights the impact
of drug addiction on mental health few of them are mentioned here
Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental Health
Wani MA* and Sankar R
Department of Psychology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Objective: Mental health refers as the individual’s adjustment with a maximum of effectiveness, satisfaction,
happiness and socially considerate behaviour and the ability to face and accept the reality of life. Excess use of
drugs largely affects individual’s mental health. The present research paper explored the impact of drug addiction
on mental health.
Method: The present study consists of 60 subjects randomly selected among which 30 were adolescents (15
males and 15 females) and 30 adult’s (15 males and 15 females). The P.G.I Health Questionnaire N-I constructed by
Varma, Wing and Pershad was used to measure the mental health of drug addicts. The effect of two experimental
variables (age and gender) was study on one criterion variable (mental health). For data analysis mean and two way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied.
Results: The results revealed that age and gender have signicant effect on mental health of drug addicts. Also
adults and female addicts show better mental health than adolescents and male addicts. The obtained F ratio was
found signicant at 0.01 level of signicance.
Conclusions: On the basis of our ndings it is concluded that age and gender are the inuential factors in mental
health.
Keywords: Mental health; Age; Gender
Introduction
Health is the level of utilitarian or metabolic eectiveness of a living
being. In humans, it is the general state of a man's brain, body and
soul, normally intending to be free from sickness, harm or agony. It is
a condition of complete physical, mental, social wee being and not just
the nonattendance of malady or illness [1].
e term mental health alludes to cognitive or enthusiastic
prosperity of a person. It is about how individuals think, feel and act.
Mental health is a condition of prosperity in which each individual
understands his or her own particular potential, can adapt to the
typical hassles of life and can make a commitment to his or her
community (WHO). Mental health is "enthusiastic, behavioral, and
social development or ordinariness; the nonappearance of a mental
or behavioral issue; a condition of mental prosperity in which one has
accomplished a palatable mix of one's instinctual drives satisfactory to
both oneself and one's social milieu; a proper equalization of aection,
work, and recreation interests" (Med vocabulary's therapeutic lexicon).
A drug alludes to any substance that could achieve an adjustment
in the biological function through its synthetic activities [2]. Drug is
a substance that alters observations, cognition, mood, behaviour and
generally behaviour and general body capacities) [3].
Addiction is one of the socio-psychological issues of the current
global community [4]. Addiction is an interminable state in which a
man expends sedates over and over which prompts steady changes
in his behavior, feelings, and thinking in which the individual loses
his/her control and damages him/her or others [5]. Drug addiction
alludes to physiological compulsion and psychological dependency. It
is incessant and ongoing utilization of any medication or compound
substance without medical prescription that alters the physical and
mental states.
Drug addiction causes dierent physiological, organic and also
psychological problems, distinctive sort of drugs and their items
cause diverse issues like stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs produce
Citation: Wani MA, Sankar R (2016) Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental Health. J Ment Disord Treat 2: 110. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000110
Page 2 of 3
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 1000110
J Ment Disord Treat
ISSN: 2471-271X JMT an open access journal
Khushehmehri et al. [7] investigated that addiction to drugs is common
among dierent age groups. ey also found that the young are more
disposed to drugs. Nagy [8] in his study discovered that adolescents
have indicated dierential react to episodic drinking. Results revealed
that alcohol consumption signicantly damaged the brain of both the
adults and the adolescents. Lasser et al. [9] investigated that 44% of
the cigarettes smoked have psychiatric or substance abuse disorder.
Solowij [10] researched the long term eects of cannabis on the
central nervous system. Results uncovered that long term cannabis
use (daily or near daily use for 10 years or more) was associated
with impairment of selective attention. Fergusson et al. [11] assessed
the short term consequences of early cannabis use. ey found that
youngsters who reported early cannabis use showed early tendencies
to delinquency, poor mental health and educational achievement,
they are more aliations with reprobate or substance-using peers
and more family dysfunction. Warner et al. [12] uncovered that drug
abuse and dependence are more common among men than among
women; the sex ratio for drug abuse is closer to equal than that for
alcoholism. Mensch and Kandel [13] in their study dropping out of
high school and drug involvement found that high school graduates
reported signicantly more use of cannabis during adolescence than
college graduates. Weller et al. [14] led a study on marijuana use and
psychiatric illness. ey discovered cannabis utilize also co morbid
with conduct disorder in children and adolescents and with antisocial
personality disorder in adults. Dube and Handa [15] revealed that
mental illness among alcohol users is signicantly low than those who
take other drugs. Results showed that psychotic use more drugs than
neurotic and normal people [16-18].
Methodology and Design
Problem
To study the impact of drug addiction on mental health
Objectives
1. To nd the eect of age on mental health of drug addicts
2. To nd the eect of gender on mental health of drug addicts
3. To nd the interaction eect between age and gender on mental
health of drug addicts
Hypotheses
1. ere would be no signicant dierence found between the
mean scores of mental health of adolescent and adult drug
addicts.
2. ere would be no signicant dierence found between the
mean scores of mental health of male and female drug addicts.
3. ere would be no signicant interaction found between age
and gender of drug addicts
Variables: In the present study the eect of two experimental
variables (age and gender) was found on one criterion variable (mental
health).
Samples: e present study consist sample of 60 drug addicts
selected through randomly sampling method. ese 60 samples were
equally divided into two groups (adolescent and adult). Further these
two groups were divided into two more groups (male and female).
Measuring tool: P.G.I Health Questionnaire N-I constructed by
S.K Varma, N.N. Wing and D. Pershad was used by the investigator
for the measurement of mental health of addicts. e questionnaire
consists of 38 Items (16 items in Area-A) and (22 items in Area-B).
e reliability of the test was measured by test-retest and split half
methods and was found signicantly high (0.88 and 0.86 respectively).
e Area-A and Area-B was scored as 1 and the number of cross from
both Area-A and Area-B was scored as 0.
Results
e current study mainly strived to investigate the eect of age and
gender on mental health of drug addicts. e data was analyzed to see
the signicance of the main as well as interaction eects. e obtained
raw data of two main variables therefore age and gender were designed
as A and B respectively. e two levels of eect of age on mental health
were designed as adolescents (A1) and adults (A2) and the two levels
of eect of gender on mental health were designed as male (B1) and
female (B2) respectively. All obtained scores were arranged in tabular
form. Mean and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to
saw the main as well as interaction eects. Results are given in tables
(Tables 1-3, Graphs 1 and 2).
Discussion
e results of present study demonstrated that both the independent
variables aect the mental health of drug addicts. e signicant
dierences were found between the mean scores of adolescents and
adults. e mean score of adolescents (A1) were found 20.13 and adults
(A2) 24.67 respectively. On the basis of our results we can say that adult
Age of drug
addicts N Total scores Mean (X)
Adolescents 30 604 20.13
Adults 30 740 24.67
Table 1: Showing mean scores of age of drug addicts.
Gender of drug addicts N Total scores Mean ( )
Male 30 560 18.67
Female 30 784 26.13
Table 2: Showing mean scores of gender of drug addicts.
Table 3: Summary table of analysis of variance.
Sources of
Variation
Sum of
Scores
Degree of
freedom Mean Score F. Ratio P
(A) Age of
Addicts 308.26 1 308.26 8.76 >0.01
(B) Gender
of addicts 836.26 1 836.26 23.77 >0.01
Interaction
effect (AB) 144.09 1 144.09 4.09 >0.05
Within group
error 1969.79 56 35.17 0
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender of drug addicts
18.67
26.13
Male Female
20.13
24.67
0
10
20
30
Adolescents Adults
Mean Scores
Graph 1: Showing graphical representation of mean
scores of age of drug addicts.
Citation: Wani MA, Sankar R (2016) Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental Health. J Ment Disord Treat 2: 110. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000110
Page 3 of 3
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 1000110
J Ment Disord Treat
ISSN: 2471-271X JMT an open access journal
References
1. World Health Organization (1986) Constitution of the World Health Organization.
Geneva: WHO.
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in R.U.N.
3. Balogun SK (2006) Chronic intake of separate and combined alcohol and
nicotine on body maintenance among albino rats. Journal of Human Ecology
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4. Flora K, Stalikas A (2012) Factors affecting substance abuse treatment in
Greece and their course during therapy. Addictive Behaviors 37: 1358-1364.
5. Crews FT, Zou J, Qin L (2011) Induction of innate immune genes in brain
creates the neurobiology of addiction. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25: 4-12.
6. Pandit A (2015) Shocking nds, even 9-year-olds are taking drugs: report. The
Times of India (Delhi).
7. Khushehmehri G, Taheri E, Tehrani H, Fatin S (2010) Knowledge of and attitude
toward ecstasy among the university students of Tehran scientic applied
higher education. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 8: 124-133.
8. Nagy J (2008) Alcohol related changes in regulation of NMDA receptor
functions. Current neuropharmacol 6: 39-54.
9. Lasser K, Wesley BJ, Woolhandler S, Himmestein DU, McCormick D, et al.
(2000) Smoking and mental illness: A population-based prevalence study.
Journal of the American Medical Association 284: 2606-2610.
10. Solowij N (1998) Long-term effects of cannabis on the central nervous system.
11. Fergusson DM, Lynskey MT, Horwood LJ (1996) The short term consequences
of early cannabis use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 24: 499-512.
12. Warner LA, Kessler RC, Hughes M, Anthony JC, Nelson CB (1995) Prevalence
and correlates of drug use and dependence in the U.S. Arch Gen Psychiatry
52: 219-229.
13. Mensch BS, Kandel DB (1988) Dropping out of high school and drug
involvement. Sociology of Education 61: 95-113.
14. Weller RA, Halikas JA (1985) Marijuana use and psychiatric illness: A follow-up
study. American Journal of Psychiatry 142: 848-850.
15. Dube KB, Handa SK (1971) Drug use in health and mental illness in an Indian
population. Br J Psychiatry 118: 345-348.
16. Liechti MEA, Gamma, Vollenweider FX (2001) Gender differences in the
subjective effects of MDMA. Psychopharmacology 154: 161-168.
17. Okonkw, Okoye RO, The Nigerian Adolescent in Perspective. A Publication of
the Nigerian Society for Education.
18. Tedstone DD, Moran R, Kartalova OY (2008) Psychological distress, mental
health problems and use of health services in Ireland. Dublin: Health Research
Board, Health Research Board 73 Lower Baggot Street Dublin 2 Ireland.
addicts have good mental health than adolescent’s addicts. Signicant
dierences were also found between the mean scores of male and
female drug addicts. e mean scores of male subjects (B1) were found
18.67 and female subjects (B2) were found 26.13. is ndings show
that female addicts have good mental health than male addicts.
A close look at the ANOVA table indicates that the value of “F”
ratio of the rst independent variable age is 8.76, df 1/56 exceeds high
than the critic value given in the table at 0.01 level of signicance.
is leads us to conclude that age is an inuential variable is respect
of mental health of drug addicts. erefore our rst hypothesis “there
would be no signicant dierence found between the mean scores of
mental health of adolescent and adult drug addicts” is rejected. Our
ndings bear some similarities with those of previous studies like
Khushehmehri et al. [7] and Nagy [8]. While taking about the second
independent variable i.e. gender the obtained “F” ratio 23.77, df 1/56
also exceeds high from the critical value at 0.01 level of signicance,
it means gender is also an infantile variable in respect of mental
health of drug addicts therefore our 2nd hypothesis “there would be no
signicant dierence found between the mean scores of mental health
of male and female drug addicts” is also rejected. Warner et al. [12]
revealed that drug abuse and dependence are more common among
men than among women. us on the basis of our ndings we can say
that both age and gender have a great impact on the mental health of
drug addicts.
Interaction eect
e table of ANOVA indicates that the “F” ratio for the interaction
eect (AB) age and gender of drug addicts was found 4.09; df 1/56 is
signicant at 0.05 level of condence. is leads us to conclude that
both age and gender of addicts slightly aect the mental health of the
drug addicts. erefore the hypothesis “there would be no signicant
interaction found between age and gender of drug addicts is rejected
hence we can say that there is signicant interaction between the age
and gender of addicts.
Conclusion
To sum up, taking into account the results of the current study, we
might conclude that age and gender of drug addicts is the signicant
factors in mental health.
18.67
26.13
0
10
20
30
Male Female
Mean Scores
Graph 2: Showing graphical representation of mean scores of gender
of drug addicts.
Citation: Wani MA, Sankar R (2016) Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental
Health. J Ment Disord Treat 2: 110. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000110
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