The Oriental stick insect genus Trachythorax Redtenbacher, 1908 is diagnosed, compared to closely related taxa, and reviewed based on examination of type material, collection material and photographic records, including citizen science sourced data. Each species is discussed and two new species are described from Vietnam: T. albomaculatus sp. nov. from Kon Chu Rang National Park in Central Vietnam and T. auranticollis sp. nov. from Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve in Southern Vietnam. Trachythorax yunnanensis Gao & Liang, 2021 stat. nov. is elevated to valid species, from status of subspecies of T. maculicollis (Westwood, 1848). Trachythorax illaesa (Redtenbacher, 1908) stat. rev. comb. nov. is reinstated as a valid species from previous status of junior synonym of T. maculicollis. As a result the genus Trachythorax now contains 15 species. New distribution records are provided for several species including new country records: Thailand and Myanmar for T. gohi Brock, 1999, Sri Lanka for T. illaesa Redtenbacher, 1908, Cambodia for T. maculicollis, India for T. sparaxes (Westwood, 1859) as well as Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam for T. yunnanensis. Distribution maps are provided for T. albomaculatus sp. nov., T. auranticollis sp. nov., T. gohi, T. maculicollis and T. yunnanensis. Egg morphology and egg deposition are described, discussed and illustrated for T. maculicollis, T. albomaculatus, T. yunnanensis and T. illaesa, the three latter species for the first time. Morphological adaptations of eggs are compared to those observed in other closely related genera such as Asceles Redtenbacher, 1908, Calvisia Stål, 1875, Korinnis Günther, 1932, Loxopsis Westwood, 1859, Marmessoidea Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893, Sipyloidea Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 and Tagesoidea Redtenbacher, 1908, and egg parasitism is hypothesized as a potential evolutionary driver. Egg parasitism by Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea is documented for the first time in nature for T. maculicollis and T. illaesa; it is hypothesised that several morphological characters are counteradaptations to the egg parasitism.