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Indian food Composition Tables

Authors:
  • ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition
  • ICMR-National Institute of nutrition

Abstract

The “Indian Food Composition tables (IFCT 2017)” provides nutritional values for 528 key foods. Each food was compositely sampled from six different regions covering the entire country thus representing the national food supply and consumption pattern. The nutrient mean of six regions represents the national value, and SD represents the national variability. There are 12 tables providing nutrient data on proximate principles and dietary fibre, water soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, mineral and trace elements, starch and individual sugars, complete fatty acid profile, amino acid profile, organic acids, polyphenols, oligosaccharides, phytosterols, saponin, phytate and complete fatty acid profile of edible oils and fats. Number of food entries in each food group are: Cereals and millets (24), grain legumes (25), green leafy vegetables (34), other vegetables (78), fruits (68), roots and tubers (19), condiments and spices (33), nuts and oil seeds (21), sugars (2), Mushrooms (4), Miscellaneous foods (2), milk and milk products (4), egg and egg products (15), poultry (19), animal meat (63), marine fish (92), marine shellfish (8), marine mollusks (7), fresh water fish and shell fish (10). Data on vitamin D2, oligosaccharides, phytosterols, organic acids and individual polyphenols are hall mark contribution of the new IFCT 2017. Pictoral description of foods along with scientific nomenclature and names in 17 Indian official languages are provided. The new IFCT 2017 is expected to bring about paradigm change in nutrition research in the country.
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... The fat content recorded in the present study is more or less similar to other wild leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus caudatus, A. aspera, Boerhavia diffusa, Cassia tora and Oxalis corniculata (Alegbejo, 2014;Chandrashekara, 2015). However, it is higher than other popular leafy vegetables in India amaranth leaves, cabbage leaves, betel leaves and parsley (Longvah et al., 2017). Pradeepkumar et al. (2013) recorded the fat content in the leaves of different Amaranthus spp., and it was in a range of 1.79-2.15%. ...
... Further, ash content of all five samples considered in this study is higher than the commonly consumed leafy vegetables such as S. oleracea (5.57%) and B. oleracea (4.34 ± 0.7%), A. viridis (1.85%) and M. oleifera (5.13%) (Kavitha & Ramadas, 2013;. Crude fiber obtained for A. sessilis, C. prostrata and E. hirta is found to be greater than insoluble fiber in raw, milled rice grain (1.99 ± 0.39%) (Longvah et al., 2017). C. prostrata reported higher crude fiber than the largely consumed dal of Lens culinaris (8.60 ± 0.42%) and Cajanus cajan (6.67 ± 0.23%) (Longvah et al., 2017). ...
... Crude fiber obtained for A. sessilis, C. prostrata and E. hirta is found to be greater than insoluble fiber in raw, milled rice grain (1.99 ± 0.39%) (Longvah et al., 2017). C. prostrata reported higher crude fiber than the largely consumed dal of Lens culinaris (8.60 ± 0.42%) and Cajanus cajan (6.67 ± 0.23%) (Longvah et al., 2017). Fat content in all leaves is better than that of B. oleracea (1.62 ± 0.3%) leaves which is a commonly consumed leafy vegetable (Agarwal et al., 2017) similar to the plants in the current study. ...
Article
Various ethnic communities in India rely on traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) for nutritional requirements. They are an important part of ethnic culinary preparations and form the basis of traditional food systems across communities. The TLVs are often collected from the wild and the culinary preparations change seasonally. The ethnic culinary preparations based on TLVs also form the basis of cultures and represent bicultural diversity of a region. In this backdrop, this study was designed to investigate the importance of TLVs for a family of two adults and 2 children using daily required nutrient intake (DRNI). In this study, we analyzed proximate composition, minerals, and antioxidant components of five TLVs namely Alternanthera brasiliana, A. sessilis, Amaranthus dubius, Cyathula prostrata and Euphorbia hirta which are important part of ethnic culinary preparations for the tribes residing in the foothills of Western Ghats, India. The results of this study reported the highest moisture (8.424%), crude fat (4.43%), vitamin C (59.44 AsA and 30.72 DHA mM/gFW), polyphenol (348.84 mg GAE/g DW) and free radical scavenging activity (lowest IC50 value) in E. hirta. The crude fiber was highest in C. prostrata leaves (10.41%) whereas total crude protein and carbohydrate levels in all samples were found in the range of 13–23% and 43–54%, respectively. Elemental quantification using ICP-OES shows that the leaves of A. brasiliana, A. sessilis, A. dubius and C. prostrata are rich in K, Ca, Mg and Mn. A. dubius recorded the highest flavonoid content (10.48 mg QE/g DW). DRNI estimates of the TLVs show positive dietary contribution to a family with 2 adults and 2 children. Therefore, it is concluded that the TLVs that are a part of ethnic cuisines among the tribal communities are an important source of vitamins, proteins, antioxidant components and micronutrients. Identification of nutrient dense locally available TLVs and their supplementation with the staple foods can help reduce the burden of increasing malnutrition and undernutrition among the poorer and tribal communities of India and other developing countries that are facing issues of food security.
... Not only millet but also other monocotyledonous seeds like wheat, barley, and rice accumulate phytic acid mostly in the aleurone layer, and the level varies between 0.5 and 2.0%, with brown rice at 0.84-0.94%, milled rice at 0.20%, wheat flour at 0.96%, barley at 1.19%, and whole corn at 1.05% (Reddy and Sathe, 2001;Okazaki and Katayama, 2005;Longvah et al., 2017). ...
... All cereal grains contain phytic acid, which is mainly concentrated in the bran layer, except for maize where 80% was found in the germ. It was greatly emphasized that phytic acid can be reduced by milling, cooking, germination, fermentation, etc.-for example, average phytic acid content in brown rice was estimated to be between 541 and 742 mg/100 g, which can be reduced to 37-64% by milling and a further 20% by cooking (Okazaki and Katayama, 2005;Gupta et al., 2015;Longvah et al., 2017). As high as 742 mg/100 g of phytic acid has been reported in brown rice collected all over India. ...
... Mariod et al. (2016) and Osman (2011) also demonstrated increased protein content in sorghum and pearl millet due to microbial fermentation. The moisture content of raw millet was comparable to the reported values of Afify et al. (2012) and Longvah et al. (2017). However, a study conducted by Kulthe et al. (2016) reported a slightly higher moisture content (11.78 g/100 g) in pearl millet. ...
... In South Indian cuisines, the cultivation of curry leaves is principally concomitant and the fresh leaves of the plant are commonly used in Asian cooking mostly for its characteristic aroma and versatile medicinal properties [3] . The principal component liable for the flavour and aroma has been stated as caryophyllene, cadinol, sabinene, cadinene and pinene [4] .The curry leaves are naturally packed with 65.33g of moisture, 7.41g of protein, 4.86 g of ash, 16.83 g of total dietary fiber, 117 µg of folic acid, 21,862 µg of carotene, 7663 µg of β-carotene, 659 mg of calcium, 83 mg of phosphorus and 8.67 mg of iron per 100 g of fresh leaves [5] . It has been found to exhibits antihelmintic, antineoplastic, antibacterial, anti-tumour, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, and antispasmodic activities [6][7][8][9][10][11] . ...
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Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is a marvelous leafy spice having culinary, medicinal and nutritional properties. Present study was aimed to standardize the process of development of idli using various proportions of curry leaves powder (CLP). The control idli was prepared using rice: black gram dhal (2:1) batter. In experimental (Type-I, Type-II and Type-III) idli, rice: black gram dhal (2:1) batter was substituted with 5, 7.5 and 10 per cent of CLP. It was found that idli prepared by supplementing 7.5 per cent of CLP was 'most liked' by the judges followed by Type-I idli. Nutrition evaluation revealed that the protein and fibre ranged from 11.96 to 12.59 g/100g and 0.85 to 1.34 g/100g, respectively in experimental products. Soluble dietary fibre content of experimental idli ranged from 4.25 to 5.25 per cent, whereas, Type-III idli contained highest amount (13.51%) of insoluble dietary fibre. Utilization of curry leaves in daily products should be promoted to get the benefits.
... * FCD, Food Composition Database. Mineral and phytate intakes were calculated based on the Indian food composition database[32]. ...
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