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Put in harm's way: The neglected health consequences of sex trafficking in the United States

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... Their economic collapses during globalization have contributed to their large supply of trafficking victims. "Countries as diverse as Vietnam, Cuba, and those in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union-all beset by acute financial crises while becoming market economies in varying degrees-are witnessing a tremendous increase in trafficking and prostitution" (Hynes, 2002;199). Moreover, neoliberal economic policies under globalization disadvantage developing nations as evidenced by the effect of IMF and World Bank policies on Thailand's economy and environment. ...
... 11 Macroeconomic policies or structural adjustment policies, such as those promoted by the World Bank and the IMF, "have helped push certain countries to export women for labor (the Philippines), making them vulnerable to trafficking; or to develop economies based on tourism (Thailand), with a huge dependence on sex tourism. Male demand, female inequality, and economies in crisis-among other factors-lie at the nexus of sex trafficking" (Hynes, 2002;197). ...
... "Neocolonialist" policies imposed on developing nations have created debt and contributed to the feminization of poverty associated with global sex trafficking. U.S. media "accounts have generally lacked an analysis of the structures that account for women being trafficked into prostitution, namely, the global sex industry, the subordination of women, the gendered labor market, and the multiple economic crises and inequalities that underlie women's lives" (Hynes, 2002;200). Further, increased immigration controls in a global economy that demands migration will contribute to a reliance on "traffickers to cross the border," thereby increasing women's chances of becoming sexual slaves (Saunders, 2004;99). ...
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Sex trafficking has various causes, and this article discusses some of its complexities and analyzes policies in relation to the sex trade. Globalization's neoliberal market economy, transnational movement, consumerist agenda, and feminization of poverty have created a breeding ground for sex trafficking. I posit that globalization's effects on (particularly "developing") economies, such as Thailand, and the environment has created a supply and easy movement of trafficked women and children; that Western-dominated and patriarchal approaches contribute to a feminization of poverty and gendered division of labor, which includes sexual services; and that the commodification of the female (and child) body through the mass media has increased a demand for sex trafficking. Finally, I argue that Sweden's approach represents the best practice toward ameliorating sex trafficking by targeting the demand. An increasingly profitable human rights violation, sex trafficking involves a variety of policy issues, such as violence against women, HIV/AIDS, immigration, and economic development. Sex trafficking victims suffer physical, psychological, and economic abuse in this modern-day slavery; traffickers use violence, threats, coercion, and murder to instill fear in victims. Why have an increasing number of women and children (mostly girls) fallen victims to sex trafficking? This article analyzes sex trafficking and its connections with globalization, and then considers what policy approach best serves to deter this gender-based crime. Most policies to curb the international sex trade fail to address the demand for the sex industry. Consequently, such policies are not structurally plausible to stop trafficking for the sex industry. Noting that most international debates on prostitution focus on the women, Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Margareta Winberg states, "[W]e can see where the true problem lies—it lies with the buyers, the customers, the men" (Torrey, 2004; 74). In short, inclusion of controls on demand for the sex trade is the keystone to drafting improved legislation to combat sex trafficking.
... O Brasil é um dos países globalmente reconhecidos como origem de fluxos de pessoas para os chamados países centrais, de que se destacam Portugal e Espanha (Fernandes;Nunan, 2008;Masanet;Padilla, 2010 Pelúcio (2010Pelúcio ( , 2011Pelúcio ( , 2012, Piscitelli (2006Piscitelli ( , 2007Piscitelli ( , 2009 e Piscitelli, Assis e Olivar (2011). A intensificação das políticas de combate ao tráfico de pessoas, tanto no Brasil como nos países receptores de fluxos de pessoas provenientes de países periféricos, tem chamado a atenção dos meios de comunicação, que apontam os deslocamentos transnacionais para fins sexuais como perigosos e criminalizados, gerando várias polêmicas sobre tal processo (Grupo Davida, 2005;Hynes;Raymond, 2002;Kempadoo;Sanghera;Pattanaik, 2005;Schauer;Wheaton, 2006). ...
... O Brasil é um dos países globalmente reconhecidos como origem de fluxos de pessoas para os chamados países centrais, de que se destacam Portugal e Espanha (Fernandes;Nunan, 2008;Masanet;Padilla, 2010 Pelúcio (2010Pelúcio ( , 2011Pelúcio ( , 2012, Piscitelli (2006Piscitelli ( , 2007Piscitelli ( , 2009 e Piscitelli, Assis e Olivar (2011). A intensificação das políticas de combate ao tráfico de pessoas, tanto no Brasil como nos países receptores de fluxos de pessoas provenientes de países periféricos, tem chamado a atenção dos meios de comunicação, que apontam os deslocamentos transnacionais para fins sexuais como perigosos e criminalizados, gerando várias polêmicas sobre tal processo (Grupo Davida, 2005;Hynes;Raymond, 2002;Kempadoo;Sanghera;Pattanaik, 2005;Schauer;Wheaton, 2006). ...
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O objetivo do artigo é compreender como a corporeidade e sexualidade das brasileiras é produzida sob o olhar hegemônico eurocêntrico, bem como a capacidade subversiva das prostitutas, no processo de mobilidade espacial, em desenvolver estratégias capazes de tirar vantagens de uma estrutura de forte exclusão e vulnerabilidade, contemplando uma perspectiva interseccional entre classe, gênero e raça. Para atingir tal objetivo foram realizadas quatorze entrevistas em profundidade com mulheres brasileiras profissionais do sexo, moradoras da Espanha, com idade entre vinte e três e trinta anos e seis entrevistas com homens espanhóis com idade entre trinta e cinco e sessenta e dois anos, assíduos frequentadores de locais em que se desenvolvem atividades de comércio sexual.
... In addition, this study will avoid an expansion of polar arguments based on diametrically opposed philosophical positions on sex trafficking and prostitution (Weitzer, 2005). One major spokes-group espouses prostitution and related sex activity as legitimate "sex work" (Kempadoo & Doezema, 1998), whereas another views all prostitution and sex trafficking as illegitimate violence against women and girls driven by male sexual demand (Hynes & Raymond, 2002;Raymond & Hughes, 2001). Each of these conclusions is supported by a sizeable body of literature and lengthy, value-laden logic; thus, thorough treatment of this debate lies beyond the scope of the present study. ...
... Just as legally a person cannot consent to slavery, neither can a victim consent to trafficking. Hynes and Raymond (2002) further explain: consent places the burden of proof on the victim and offers a loophole for traffickers to use the alleged consent of the victim in their own defense. (pp. ...
Article
This study is an investigation of the literature relating to the trafficking of women and children into the United States for sexual exploitation. The intent is to discover the extent and complexity of the problem, the cost in both human and economic terms, and research directions toward the development of probable political, legal, economic, and social solutions. A subject rife with research possibilities and probable solutions, trafficking is poorly defined, differentially and intermittently quantified, and handicapped by obsolete legal codes and a sexist prostitution enforcement paradigm. Recommended are state statute creation, police training and paradigm change, and increased/broadened victims’ services.
... The trafficking ring was investigated, and the operators were eventually sentenced for trafficking children, coercion and enticement, transportation for illegal sexual activity, and conspiracy. There is a pressing need to recognize human trafficking as a health issue (Beyrer, 2004;Gushulak & MacPherson, 2000;Hynes, 2002; and to apply a public health approach to address its consequences (Todres, 2011 and Hynes and Raymond (2002) argued that the health risks and consequences trafficking poses for women and girls are comparable to those resulting from forced migration, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, torture, or exploitive labor. There are serious psychological and physical health consequences for women and girls involved in trafficking. ...
... In the past two decades, a number of authors have documented or analyzed the sexual and physical violence that is the normative experience for women in prostitution, including Baldwin (1993Baldwin ( , 1999; Barry (1979Barry ( , 1995; Boyer, Chapman, and Marshall (1993); Dworkin (1981Dworkin ( , 1997Dworkin ( , 2000; Farley, Baral, Kiremire, and Sezgin (1998); Giobbe (1991Giobbe ( , 1993; Hoigard and Finstad (1986); Hughes (1999); Hunter (1994); Hynes and Raymond (2002); Jeffreys (1997); Karim, Karim, Soldan, and Zondi (1995); Leidholdt (1993);MacKinnon (1993MacKinnon ( , 1997MacKinnon ( , 2001; McKeganey and Barnard (1996);Miller (1995); Pines (1982a, 1982b); Silbert, Pines, and Lynch (1982); Valera, Sawyer, and Schiraldi (2001); Vanwesenbeeck (1994); and Weisberg (1985). ...
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With examples from a 2003 New Zealand prostitution law, this article discusses the logical inconsistencies in laws sponsoring prostitution and includes evidence for the physical, emotional, and social harms of prostitution. These harms are not decreased by legalization or decriminalization. The article addresses the confusion caused by organizations that oppose trafficking but at the same time promote prostitution as a justifiable form of labor for poor women. The failure of condom distribution/harm reduction programs to protect women in prostitution from rape, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and HIV is discussed. The success of such programs in obtaining funding and in promoting prostitution as sex work is also discussed.
... A prostituição é incondicionalmente e, sem exceções, definida como uma violência contra a mulher e um abuso dos direitos humanos, "independentemente de ela ser forçada ou voluntária" (Sutherland, 2004:141). O feminismo abolicionista é conhecido por ter introduzido a noção de "tráfico sexual"; por conspirar com estranhos aliados políticos como a direita cristã; por apoiar missões de resgate de mulheres e crianças no comércio sexual; e também advogar por políticas carcerais que incluem a criminalização pela demanda de trabalho sexual (ver, por exemplo, Hynes;Raymond, 2002;Agustin, 2007, Bernstein, 2010. ...
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In Canada today the issue of human trafficking is high on the public agenda. A variety of activities are included under the rubric, including “homegrown” or domestic prostitution, where crossing either national or internal borders is not a requisite for state definitions of trafficking. Canada does not stand alone in this attention for an expansive definition of human trafficking. Globally, sex work/prostitution, “sex trafficking,” child labour, undocumented migrant labour, and “modern slavery” are integral to hegemonic discourses on “the horrors” of human trafficking. In this paper I look more closely at three prominent campaigns that sustain this discourse and discuss some of the work that these campaigns do. I argue that a closer examination makes visible a twenty first century version of the “white man’s burden” supported by contemporary western, corporate, neoliberal interests, through which the unfettered exploitation and abuse of working people’s lives and labour continues. So, rather than getting to “the bottom of things,” I argue here that dominant discourses on human trafficking tend to obfuscate structural problems and revitalize imperialism in new ways.
... As an acute human rights issue, human trafficking deprives millions of men, women, and children of their fundamental rights to human dignity and personal freedoms (Gallagher, 2010;Kelly, 2005). As a global economic and health risk, trafficking in persons contributes to the transmission of disease, creating overwhelming health costs to local communities and ultimately sustains poverty by hindering economic and social development (Acharya, 2010;Agrusa, 2003;Hynes & Raymond, 2002;Leung, 2003;Silverman et al., 2006Silverman et al., , 2007. In some underdeveloped countries, sex trafficking of children contributes so substantially to the gross national product that the lives of child victims are sacrificed for immediate, short-term economic benefits (Farr, 2005;Leth, 2005). ...
Article
The status of research on human trafficking has been characterized as methodologically inadequate and lacking sufficient theoretical framework necessary for solution development. This review of sex trafficking in North America examined prior research regarding victim vulnerabilities through the theoretical lens of life course theory endeavoring to uncover life course dynamics resulting in exploitation in sex trafficking distinguishable by victim type. Shared and distinct life course dynamics emerged based on victim origin and route, gender, and age of onset that corresponded to the key components of Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control. Indicators of harmful informal social control processes during childhood and adolescence were common across internationally and domestically trafficked boys and girls, with a desire for acceptance and love commonly exacerbating initial entrapment. Limited social capital typified victims experiencing initial exploitation during young adulthood, with internationally trafficked victims uniquely isolated due to citizenship status and language or cultural barriers. Through the application of life course theory, a more complete understanding of the dynamics affecting vulnerability to exploitation in sex trafficking can be gained, providing enhanced information regarding plausible strategies for prevention and intervention.
... Adapted from Homeland Security Investigations (2016). Used with permission from V.B. Williams, SAC, ICE.The health consequences of sex trafficking in the United States were explored byHynes and Raymond (2002), theorizing that "Macroeconomic policies promoted by international lending organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have helped push certain countries to export women for labor, making them vulnerable to trafficking" (p. 197). ...
Research
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The research was on one aspect of human trafficking. What is the experience of a victim advocate who is in direct communication with, and providing assistance to victims and survivors of human trafficking, specifically people, adults and children, who have been sexually exploited by traffickers. The victim advocates reported seeing evil and trafficking whenever they were out in a community. They experienced burn out, compassion fatigue, and found ways to work through those feelings and experiences.
Chapter
Although the link between human mobility and infectious disease spread is well established (Wilson, 1995), scholarly interest in the possible correlation between tourism and HIV/AIDS dissemination is fairly recent (Apostolopoulos &Sönmez, 2001a, 2001b, 2002; Apostolopoulos, Sönmez, &Yu 2002; Clift &Grabowski, 1997; Mulhall, 1996; Sönmez, Apostolopoulos, Yu, Yang, Matilla, &Yu, 2006; Wright, 2003). Sexual interactions that carry STI/HIV risks occur between travellers and locals or other travellers; however, "sex tourism" in particular is an important vector for STI/HIV transmission and has potentially explosive ramifications for public health (Wright, 2003). Sex tourism is specifically motivated by persons interested in finding sexual adventure at destinations where the social norms and restrictions of their home environments are suspended. By virtue of their behavioral interactions with sex workers (a "core group" of efficient transmitters of STIs/HIV) and sex partners back in their home environments, sex tourists have a high risk of both acquiring and transmitting STIs/HIV. Consequently, sex tourists themselves become an STI/HIV core group, along with sex workers, seafarers, and truckers-a concept based on the observation that an infection is endemic among a small sub-population of highly sexually active individuals, from whom it spreads in mini-epidemics to the population at large (Mulhall, 1996). The combination of sex tourists' financial resources, the inherently risky nature of their behaviors, and acute poverty at sex tourism destinations is alarming-particularly when viewed in light of the increasing globalization of both sectors of tourism and sex. This chapter will examine sex tourism in terms of social and economic factors that fuel the activity, discuss types of locations around the world where sex tourism flourishes, and provide case studies of sex tourism destinations where STIs/HIV have become problematic.
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Research, programs, and legislation related to sex trafficking are often premised on the invisibility of the male buyer and the failure to address men’s role in buying and abusing women in prostitution. Governments, UN agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and others act as if the male demand for sexual exploitation is insignificant, or that prostitution is so entrenched because, after all, “men will be men.” Little research on trafficking has focused on the so-called customer as a root cause of trafficking and sexual exploitation. And even less legislation has penalized the male customer whose right to buy women and children for prostitution activities remains unquestioned. This article looks at the demand—its meaning, the myths that rationalize why men buy women in prostitution, qualitative information on the buyers in two studies conducted by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)—as well as best practices that address the gender of demand.
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Goals and objectives To understand what trafficking in human beings entails, the scope of the problem and how victims are trafficked To learn how to screen a potentially trafficked patient and interview a trafficked patient To learn how to appropriately medically manage and refer a trafficked patient Human trafficking A 13-year-old Guatemalan native presents to an emergency department, pregnant and in premature labor. Her medical issues are managed routinely but what the emergency attending and staff do not recognize is that this patient is a victim of human trafficking. As a result, she is not rescued until several months later. This girl was sold by her parents for sex and domestic servitude. One of her brutal beatings by her trafficker stimulated her premature labor. This is the true story of one of thousands of trafficking victims living in the United States. Trafficking in human beings is a form of modern slavery, which expressly forces, defrauds, or coerces people for the purpose of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation. There is no nation immune to the threat of having residents trafficked or harboring trafficked workers. Human trafficking is the world’s fastest growing criminal enterprise, with profits rivaling that of the drugs and arms trades. Because of the lucrative nature of human trafficking and low risk to the traffickers, the problem continues despite the growing awareness of this issue. While true numbers are obscured by the clandestine and illegal nature of trafficking, commonly cited sources include the following: The ILO (International Labour Organization) estimates that 12.3 million people are enslaved in forced labor of which at least 2.4 million are victims of trafficking operations. […].
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