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# Compressed Orbits and E = mc²

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## Abstract

On the astronomical scale, the potential energy in a closed orbit is due to the gravitational force of attraction. These are uncompressed orbits. The gravitational force is opposed by a centrifugal force acting internally from within the system. This article will now consider the nature of the potential energy in a system of multiple orbits that are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate. Centrifugal potential energy will be shown to lie at the root of the famous equation E = mc².
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Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc²
Frederick David Tombe, 25th January 2017, sirius184@hotmail.com
Abstract: On the astronomical scale, the potential energy in a closed orbit
is due to the gravitational force of attraction. These are uncompressed orbits. The gravitational
force is opposed by a centrifugal force acting internally from within the system. This article will
now consider the nature of the potential energy in a system of multiple orbits that are pressing
against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate. Centrifugal potential energy will
be shown to lie at the root of the famous equation E = mc².
Uncompressed Orbits
I. Planetary orbits are uncompressed orbits because they are closed by virtue of
an internal pull force. The eccentric orbit of a comet serves as an excellent
illustration.
At aphelion the Sun’s gravity pulls the comet downwards, and in doing so,
kinetic energy is induced. The significant aspect of kinetic energy in the context
is its transverse component. The derivative of the transverse component with
respect to radial distance indicates the presence of a centrifugal force. As well
as opposing gravity, this centrifugal force follows an inverse cube law in radial
distance, and as such, it increases at a greater rate than gravity which obeys an
inverse square law. The two different inverse power laws create a reversal
threshold and ultimately the comet rebounds at a point of closest approach
known as perihelion. The situation then reverses and the cycle repeats. The total
energy in an uncompressed orbit is the sum of the kinetic energy and the
potential energy. Gravitational potential energy is a measure of the ability of the
gravitational force to generate kinetic energy, and so the total energy is
conserved.
Compressed Orbits
II. Centrifugal force is induced between any two bodies in mutual transverse
motion. When this principle is extrapolated between any pair of bodies in a
multi-body system, then we can have a situation in which orbits are forcibly
closed, not by an internal attractive force, but rather by the external centrifugal
pressure generated by neighbouring orbits that are striving to dilate [1]. This is a
compressed orbit. In a compressed orbit the potential energy then becomes the
centrifugal potential energy due to the external orbits that are hemming the
compressed orbit in. Since centrifugal potential energy is the same thing as
transverse kinetic energy, then the total energy of a body in a compressed orbit
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is twice its kinetic energy. See Section IV of “The Double Helix Theory of the
Magnetic Field” [2].
Physical Interpretation
III. It is proposed that space is densely packed with tiny aethereal vortices that
are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate [3],
[4]. Each of these tiny vortices contains both a sink (an electron) and a source (a
positron) [2], [5]. It is further proposed that the atoms and molecules of
ponderable matter constitute more complex vortices. When a body linearly
accelerates, the shear interaction between the constituent molecules and the
background electron-positron sea (The Electric Sea) leads to angular
acceleration of the constituent molecules and the electron-positron dipoles, and
this has the effect of screwing pure pressurized aether out of the positive
particles. Kinetic energy is therefore a pressure which is induced either by
acceleration or when a fine-grained angular acceleration wave emitted from one
body delivers kinetic energy into another body during a collision [6]. When this
happens, the other body then linearly accelerates.
It is proposed that gravity is tensile aether on the large scale, flowing into
the sinks in all matter, and that in doing so it superimposes on the local flow
around and within the tiny aether vortices that fill all of space. Due to their
dipolarity, these tiny vortices are caused to precess hence inducing centrifugal
pressure to act at right angles to the gravitational field lines. The sea of tiny
aether vortices also absorbs any vorticity in the gravitational field, hence
ensuring that gravitational fields are predominantly irrotational. In an
uncompressed orbit, the sea of tiny vortices is entrained within each
gravitational field. The tension that exists at the interface between two
gravitational fields, so as to cause attraction, is undermined by centrifugal
pressure coming from the tiny vortices. The greater the shear velocity between
the two gravitational fields, the greater will be the centrifugal pressure that
tends to push the two bodies apart.
Centrifugal pressure is the basis of all intrinsic energy in atomic and
molecular matter and also in the electron-positron sea. It is the rest mass energy
mc² where c is the circumferential speed of the molecular orbit. In the case of
the electron-positron sea, it is proposed that c will be the speed of light, and
hence each dipole will have a stored centrifugal potential energy of 1.02MeV.
When a gamma photon, itself constituting propagated centrifugal pressure,
supplies an additional 1.02MeV on top of this, the electron and positron in the
dipole can then overcome the external centrifugal pressure and break out of
their lattice bonds, leading to electron-positron pair production [7].
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Kinetic energy in atomic and molecular matter is an additional ½mv² on top
of the rest mass energy, where v is the translational speed of the body. The total
energy is therefore equal to mc²(1 + /2c²), assuming mass to be constant.
Using the binomial expansion, and only providing that v²/c² is small, this is
approximately equivalent to saying that the total energy equals E/√(1 − v²/c²),
where E is the rest mass energy. There is no basis in general though to assume
that c is equal to the speed of light, as this likely only occurs in the special case
of the electron-positron sea itself [8]. The fact that these relationships
superficially resemble equations associated with Einstein’s special theory of
relativity is only because in both cases the equations are similar to the equations
of the Doppler shift.
Resistance to Motion
IV. The fact that the background electric sea constitutes a sea of tiny vortices
means that the velocity induced resistive force that would be encountered by
bodies in motion will be deflected at right angles to the direction of motion.
This can be observed in the case of the electromagnetic force F = qv×B and also
in the case of the inertial forces. With the latter, a Coriolis force causes a right
angle deflection on a radial motion, while a centrifugal force causes a right
angle deflection on a transverse motion. These forces are simply the fine-
grained centrifugal pressure emanating from the tiny background vortices acting
differentially on either side of a moving body, transverse to its motion. The
asymmetry can be explained on the principle that when a particle moves
between two orbits that are both rotating in the same direction, the mutual
transverse speed between that particle and the particles in the orbits will be
different on either side of the motion, and hence the induced centrifugal force
on either side of the motion will be different. The particle will therefore be
deflected at right angles to its direction of motion.
References
[1] Tombe, F.D., “Centrifugal Force Between Two Orbital Systems” (2017)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
[2] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 24, Number 2, p.34, (March/April 2013)
[3] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages 100-102,
(1910)
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“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing an
immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears to possess,
and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the presence of these
whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually striving to dilate, and so
presses against the neighbouring whirlpools.”
[4] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical Magazine, Volume XXI, Fourth
Series, London, (1861)
http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf
[5] Tombe, F.D., “The Electron-Positron Sea (2014)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
[6] Tombe, F.D., “Newton’s Cradle Disproves Einstein’s Theories of Relativity” (2014)
[7] Simhony, M., The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause of Relativity and Quantum Effects”,
Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1990)
http://web.archive.org/web/20040606235138/www.word1.co.il/physics/mass.htm
[8] Tombe, F.D., “The 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment” (2015)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause of Relativity and Quantum Effects
• M Simhony
Simhony, M., "The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause of Relativity and Quantum Effects", Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1990) http://web.archive.org/web/20040606235138/www.word1.co.il/physics/mass.htm