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Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc²

Frederick David Tombe, 25th January 2017, sirius184@hotmail.com

Abstract: On the astronomical scale, the potential energy in a closed orbit

is due to the gravitational force of attraction. These are uncompressed orbits. The gravitational

force is opposed by a centrifugal force acting internally from within the system. This article will

now consider the nature of the potential energy in a system of multiple orbits that are pressing

against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate. Centrifugal potential energy will

be shown to lie at the root of the famous equation E = mc².

Uncompressed Orbits

I. Planetary orbits are uncompressed orbits because they are closed by virtue of

an internal pull force. The eccentric orbit of a comet serves as an excellent

illustration.

At aphelion the Sun’s gravity pulls the comet downwards, and in doing so,

kinetic energy is induced. The significant aspect of kinetic energy in the context

is its transverse component. The derivative of the transverse component with

respect to radial distance indicates the presence of a centrifugal force. As well

as opposing gravity, this centrifugal force follows an inverse cube law in radial

distance, and as such, it increases at a greater rate than gravity which obeys an

inverse square law. The two different inverse power laws create a reversal

threshold and ultimately the comet rebounds at a point of closest approach

known as perihelion. The situation then reverses and the cycle repeats. The total

energy in an uncompressed orbit is the sum of the kinetic energy and the

potential energy. Gravitational potential energy is a measure of the ability of the

gravitational force to generate kinetic energy, and so the total energy is

conserved.

Compressed Orbits

II. Centrifugal force is induced between any two bodies in mutual transverse

motion. When this principle is extrapolated between any pair of bodies in a

multi-body system, then we can have a situation in which orbits are forcibly

closed, not by an internal attractive force, but rather by the external centrifugal

pressure generated by neighbouring orbits that are striving to dilate [1]. This is a

compressed orbit. In a compressed orbit the potential energy then becomes the

centrifugal potential energy due to the external orbits that are hemming the

compressed orbit in. Since centrifugal potential energy is the same thing as

transverse kinetic energy, then the total energy of a body in a compressed orbit

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is twice its kinetic energy. See Section IV of “The Double Helix Theory of the

Magnetic Field” [2].

Physical Interpretation

III. It is proposed that space is densely packed with tiny aethereal vortices that

are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate [3],

[4]. Each of these tiny vortices contains both a sink (an electron) and a source (a

positron) [2], [5]. It is further proposed that the atoms and molecules of

ponderable matter constitute more complex vortices. When a body linearly

accelerates, the shear interaction between the constituent molecules and the

background electron-positron sea (The Electric Sea) leads to angular

acceleration of the constituent molecules and the electron-positron dipoles, and

this has the effect of screwing pure pressurized aether out of the positive

particles. Kinetic energy is therefore a pressure which is induced either by

acceleration or when a fine-grained angular acceleration wave emitted from one

body delivers kinetic energy into another body during a collision [6]. When this

happens, the other body then linearly accelerates.

It is proposed that gravity is tensile aether on the large scale, flowing into

the sinks in all matter, and that in doing so it superimposes on the local flow

around and within the tiny aether vortices that fill all of space. Due to their

dipolarity, these tiny vortices are caused to precess hence inducing centrifugal

pressure to act at right angles to the gravitational field lines. The sea of tiny

aether vortices also absorbs any vorticity in the gravitational field, hence

ensuring that gravitational fields are predominantly irrotational. In an

uncompressed orbit, the sea of tiny vortices is entrained within each

gravitational field. The tension that exists at the interface between two

gravitational fields, so as to cause attraction, is undermined by centrifugal

pressure coming from the tiny vortices. The greater the shear velocity between

the two gravitational fields, the greater will be the centrifugal pressure that

tends to push the two bodies apart.

Centrifugal pressure is the basis of all intrinsic energy in atomic and

molecular matter and also in the electron-positron sea. It is the rest mass energy

mc² where c is the circumferential speed of the molecular orbit. In the case of

the electron-positron sea, it is proposed that c will be the speed of light, and

hence each dipole will have a stored centrifugal potential energy of 1.02MeV.

When a gamma photon, itself constituting propagated centrifugal pressure,

supplies an additional 1.02MeV on top of this, the electron and positron in the

dipole can then overcome the external centrifugal pressure and break out of

their lattice bonds, leading to electron-positron pair production [7].

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Kinetic energy in atomic and molecular matter is an additional ½mv² on top

of the rest mass energy, where v is the translational speed of the body. The total

energy is therefore equal to mc²(1 + v²/2c²), assuming mass to be constant.

Using the binomial expansion, and only providing that v²/c² is small, this is

approximately equivalent to saying that the total energy equals E/√(1 − v²/c²),

where E is the rest mass energy. There is no basis in general though to assume

that c is equal to the speed of light, as this likely only occurs in the special case

of the electron-positron sea itself [8]. The fact that these relationships

superficially resemble equations associated with Einstein’s special theory of

relativity is only because in both cases the equations are similar to the equations

of the Doppler shift.

Resistance to Motion

IV. The fact that the background electric sea constitutes a sea of tiny vortices

means that the velocity induced resistive force that would be encountered by

bodies in motion will be deflected at right angles to the direction of motion.

This can be observed in the case of the electromagnetic force F = qv×B and also

in the case of the inertial forces. With the latter, a Coriolis force causes a right

angle deflection on a radial motion, while a centrifugal force causes a right

angle deflection on a transverse motion. These forces are simply the fine-

grained centrifugal pressure emanating from the tiny background vortices acting

differentially on either side of a moving body, transverse to its motion. The

asymmetry can be explained on the principle that when a particle moves

between two orbits that are both rotating in the same direction, the mutual

transverse speed between that particle and the particles in the orbits will be

different on either side of the motion, and hence the induced centrifugal force

on either side of the motion will be different. The particle will therefore be

deflected at right angles to its direction of motion.

References

[1] Tombe, F.D., “Centrifugal Force Between Two Orbital Systems” (2017)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/247

[2] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)

Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 24, Number 2, p.34, (March/April 2013)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6371

[3] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages 100-102,

(1910)

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“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing an

immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears to possess,

and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the presence of these

whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually striving to dilate, and so

presses against the neighbouring whirlpools.”

[4] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical Magazine, Volume XXI, Fourth

Series, London, (1861)

http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf

[5] Tombe, F.D., “The Electron-Positron Sea” (2014)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Quantum%20Theory%20/%20Particle%20Physics/Download/5507

[6] Tombe, F.D., “Newton’s Cradle Disproves Einstein’s Theories of Relativity” (2014)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/5737

[7] Simhony, M., “The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause of Relativity and Quantum Effects”,

Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1990)

http://web.archive.org/web/20040606235138/www.word1.co.il/physics/mass.htm

[8] Tombe, F.D., “The 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment” (2015)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6314