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The ten-twenty electrode system of the International Federation

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... The common practice in most fNIRS studies is to configure the optode headgear relying on standardized positioning systems (e.g., international 10-20 system) that assume a consistent relationship between external anatomical landmarks and the underlying cortical structures. The international 10-20 system is a long-established approach that was originally developed for electrode placement in EEG studies (Jasper et al., 1958). In this system, four fiducial points (i.e., nasion, inion, left and right preauricular points) are used as reference to define the 10-20 standard positions of scalp sensors. ...
... 11 Sensor (i.e., optode or electrode) positioning defined by the international 10-20 system(Jasper, 1958) based on external anatomical landmarks (Figure adapted from www.BCI2000.org). ...
Thesis
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Language acquisition is mediated by maturational and experiential mechanisms. It is a remarkably complex process, yet infants show incredible language learning capacities. In a bilingual context this process is even more challenging, since bilingual infants benefit from less day-to-day experience with each language. In addition, they need to perform specific computations such as separating their languages or storing the information of two linguistic inputs. Learning two languages, however, does not negatively affect language acquisition: bilingual infants follow a similar pace to their monolingual peers when main developmental milestones are considered. It has been suggested that bilingualism might elicit cognitive adaptations that allow infants to cope with the increased complexity of their linguistic environment. Distinctive attention allocation skills or an increased perceptual sensitivity are examples of the proposed adaptations. Whether bilingual infants’ success is also supported by modulations in the underlying functional systems in charge of these linguistic processes is the question this thesis aims to unravel. This question is addressed using a functional brain imaging technique especially suitable for infant populations: functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). This neuroimaging technique offers the potential to study neural activity non- invasively based on cerebral hemodynamics. Because fNIRS is a relatively novel technique to measure infants functional brain activity, the thesis also contains a major methodological component. Particular focus is dedicated to data quality assessment and signal processing. A series of fNIRS experiments are presented to investigate whether bilingualism might be one factor eliciting experience-induced neural adaptations in 4-month-old infants. First, the brain’s functional organization is examined through resting-state functional connectivity. This approach represents a viable strategy to link brain function and cognition, and it offers the potential to simultaneously examine various functional systems. Likewise, functional network activity can be modulated by different prenatal and postnatal conditions. Studying functional connectivity with fNIRS arises some methodological challenges that are inherent to this imaging technique. In particular, whether the fNIRS data preprocessing pipeline should include a step to deal with signal autocorrelation. The second study of this thesis addresses the influence of this step for functional connectivity analyses from a theoretical and empirical point of view. A third study investigates functional differences that might emerge during spoken language processing. Monolingual and bilingual infants’ brain responses to speech stimuli are measured to examine the brain areas in support of this cognitive process. The results of these experiments are presented. Investigating the impact of bilingual exposure on how the brain works, prior to infants even beginning to babble, has remarkable theoretical implications for the field of language acquisition, which had long suspected that brain reorganization for linguistic exposure may begin in-utero, but certainly in the first months of life. This thesis also provides several methodological advancements confirming the suitability of fNIRS imaging for accurately and reliably assessing brain function in developmental populations. The importance of the theoretical and methodological implications of the findings of this thesis are discussed, as is the relevance of transparent and replicable research methodologies for future works in developmental cognitive neuroscience.
... An Emotiv Epoc headset was used for EEG recording with a sampling rate of 128 Hz. The device collects EEG data from 14 electrodes placed on the scalp according to the 10-20 international electrode placement system [84]. Figure 3 depicts the recorded sites, namely AF3, AF4, F3, F4, F7, F8, FC5, FC6, P7, P8, T7, T8, O1 and O2. ...
... was used for EEG recording with a sampling rate of 128 Hz. The device collects EEG data from 14 electrodes placed on the scalp according to the 10-20 international electrode placement system [84]. Figure 3 depicts the recorded sites, namely AF3, AF4, F3, F4, F7, F8, FC5, FC6, P7, P8, T7, T8, O1 and O2. ...
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This paper presents an experimental study that analyzes learners’ visual behaviour and brain activity in clinical reasoning. An acquisition protocol was defined to record eye tracking and EEG data from 15 participants as they interact with a computer-based learning environment called Amnesia, a medical simulation system that assesses the analytical skills of novice medicine students while they solve patient cases. We use gaze data to assess learners’ visual focus and present our methodology to track learners’ reasoning process through scanpath pattern analysis. We also describe our methodology for examining learners’ cognitive states using mental engagement and workload neural indexes. Finally, we discuss the relationship between gaze path information and EEG and how our analyses can lead to new forms of clinical diagnostic reasoning assessment.
... The array was positioned over the participants' temporal and occipital lobes, in order to cover auditory and visual cortical areas (see Fig. 1C). This placement was guided by the International 10-20 system (Jasper 1958) and careful measurement of distance from nasion to inion and transverse distance from left preauricular point to right preauricular point, to maintain consistency between test sessions and participants. Specifically, the first sources at the left and right extremities of the bottom row of sources and detectors were aligned with the left and right pre-auricular points, respectively (T7 and T8 relative in terms of 10-20 reference points) and the source at the midpoint of the array row when positioned over the occipital lobe was aligned to Oz (Jasper 1958). ...
... This placement was guided by the International 10-20 system (Jasper 1958) and careful measurement of distance from nasion to inion and transverse distance from left preauricular point to right preauricular point, to maintain consistency between test sessions and participants. Specifically, the first sources at the left and right extremities of the bottom row of sources and detectors were aligned with the left and right pre-auricular points, respectively (T7 and T8 relative in terms of 10-20 reference points) and the source at the midpoint of the array row when positioned over the occipital lobe was aligned to Oz (Jasper 1958). ...
Article
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Sensory deprivation can lead to cross-modal cortical changes, whereby sensory brain regions deprived of input may be recruited to perform atypical function. Enhanced cross-modal responses to visual stimuli observed in auditory cortex of postlingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users are hypothesized to reflect increased activation of cortical language regions, but it is unclear if this cross-modal activity is “adaptive” or “mal-adaptive” for speech understanding. To determine if increased activation of language regions is correlated with better speech understanding in CI users, we assessed task-related activation and functional connectivity of auditory and visual cortices to auditory and visual speech and non-speech stimuli in CI users (n = 14) and normal-hearing listeners (n = 17) and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure hemodynamic responses. We used visually presented speech and non-speech to investigate neural processes related to linguistic content and observed that CI users show beneficial cross-modal effects. Specifically, an increase in connectivity between the left auditory and visual cortices—presumed primary sites of cortical language processing—was positively correlated with CI users’ abilities to understand speech in background noise. Cross-modal activity in auditory cortex of postlingually deaf CI users may reflect adaptive activity of a distributed, multimodal speech network, recruited to enhance speech understanding.
... The stress test is conducted to gather changes in electric potential on the scalp. For the electrode positions, the international 10-20 system is used [36,37], as Figure 2 shows. We recruited 26 Class A table tennis players (there are 12 male players) at the National Taiwan University of Sport as participants, and we considered only those without brain neural diseases. ...
... The stress test is conducted to gather changes in electric potential on the scalp. For the electrode positions, the international 10-20 system is used [36,37], as Figure 2 shows. The stress test is a test designed with reference made to Reference [21] and includes the SCWT and MA. ...
Article
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Electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the research of stress detection in recent years; yet, how to analyze an EEG is an important issue for upgrading the accuracy of stress detection. This study aims to collect the EEG of table tennis players by a stress test and analyze it with machine learning to identify the models with optimal accuracy. The research methods are collecting the EEG of table tennis players using the Stroop color and word test and mental arithmetic, extracting features by data preprocessing and then making comparisons using the algorithms of logistic regression, support vector machine, decision tree C4.5, classification and regression tree, random forest, and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). The research findings indicated that, in three-level stress classification, XGBoost had an 86.49% accuracy in the case of the generalized model. This study outperformed other studies by up to 11.27% in three-level classification. The conclusion of this study is that a stress detection model that was built with the data on the brain waves of table tennis players could distinguish high stress, medium stress, and low stress, as this study provided the best classifying results based on the past research in three-level stress classification with an EEG.
... All skull points evaluated were selected under the International System as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Neurophysiology. 25 This instrument had its connections fixed so that its grounding would avoid any kind of electrical interference during data collection. 18 Here, the interest is the Alpha Band assessment in the frontal lobe and the SMR rhythm verification in the sensory-motor area. ...
... This is due to the relation among the Alpha Band and Cognition, attached to structures of the frontal lobe, which is mainly recorded by C3 and C4 electrode following the International System 10-20 by Jasper. 25 The mainly interest related to the SMR rhythm is the function of this specific area. ...
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The objective was to verify the effects of intervention with physical and mental exercises (PMED) and noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) on cognition and dementia of frail elderly people with mild cognitive deficits. Sixty elderly people (aged 65–80 years) were divided into three groups, an experimental group (GAE) that received intervention with PMED plus NIBS, a control group for physical exercises (GCA), which received only the PMED, and the third also control non‐invasive brain stimulation group (GCF) that practiced only the NIBS intervention. The three types of intervention lasted 10 weeks, with 60 min per session The GAE received 20 min of NIBS, 5 min for warm‐up, 30 min for physical and mental training and 5 min for a cooling down rest. The other two groups had the same period per section, being that the GCA, in place of the real NIBS, had 20 min of white noise and the GCF, instead of practicing the real plan of physical exercises as did the other groups, experienced 30 min of relaxing exercises for body relaxation. Inhibitory control, working memory, dementia symptoms, and the brainwaves alpha‐band rhythm and resting‐state sensorimotor rhythm [SMR]) were the variables evaluated before and after the interventions. Individuals in the GAE group showed improvement in working memory (p < 0.0001), but those in the GCF (p > 0.05) and the GCA (p > 0.05) groups did not. All groups experienced an improvement in inhibitory control, alpha‐band rhythm and in the SMR rhythms. All groups also obtained a reduction in the dementia symptoms, but no difference between groups was observed. So, the interventions improved cognition, reduced dementia symptoms, and had a modulating effect on alpha wave activity and SMR in elderly people with mild cognitive deficits and frailty, but only the combined intervention (PMED plus NIBS) improved working memory.
... Current guidelines recommend that electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring should be initiated within 1 h when nonconvulsive seizures or status epilepticus is suspected (1). However, many hospitals lack the capacity to offer conventional EEG monitoring within this timeframe using the International 10-20 system, which has been the gold standard for recording and displaying EEG data since 1958 (2)(3)(4)(5). EEG systems with a reduced number of electrodes have been explored as potential alternatives, however the low sensitivity of hairline and subhairline montages observed in prior studies has led to concerns regarding their utility (6)(7)(8). ...
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ObjectiveA recent multicenter prospective study (DECIDE trial) examined the use of Ceribell Rapid Response EEG (Rapid-EEG) in the emergent evaluation and management of critically ill patients suspected to have non-convulsive seizures. We present a detailed, patient-level examination of seizures detected either on initial Rapid-EEG or subsequent conventional EEG within 24 h to investigate whether seizures were missed on Rapid-EEG due to the exclusion of midline/parasagittal coverage.Methods We identified from 164 patients studied in the DECIDE trial those who had seizures detected on Rapid-EEG but not conventional EEG (n = 6), conventional EEG but not Rapid-EEG (n = 4), or both Rapid-EEG and conventional EEG (n = 9). We examined the electrographic characteristics of ictal and interictal findings on both devices, especially their detection in lateral or midline/parasagittal chains, and patient clinical histories to identify contributors toward discordant seizure detection.ResultsSeizures detected on both EEG systems had similar electrographic appearance and laterality. Seizures detected only on conventional EEG (within 24 h following Rapid-EEG) were visible in the temporal chains, and external clinical factors (e.g., treatment with anti-seizure medications, sedation, and duration of recordings) explained the delayed presentation of seizures. Patients with seizures detected only by Rapid-EEG were treated with anti-seizure medications, and subsequent conventional EEG detected interictal highly epileptiform patterns with similar laterality.Conclusions Our case series demonstrates that electrographic data obtained from initial Rapid-EEG and subsequent conventional EEG monitoring are largely concordant relative to morphology and laterality. These findings are valuable to inform future investigation of abbreviated EEG systems to optimize management of suspected non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus. Future, larger studies could further investigate the value of Rapid-EEG findings for forecasting and predicting seizures in long-term EEG recordings.
... EEG was recorded with a 32 active channel system (ActiveTwo, BioSemi, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958). Two additional electrodes, active Common Mode Sense and Driven Right Leg were used as reference and ground electrodes and fixed next to Cz. ...
Article
The application of machine learning techniques provides a data-driven approach for a deeper understanding of the development and expressions of expertise. In extension to the common procedure of comparing expertś and noviceś performances in expertise-domain-related tasks we applied conventional classification algorithms. We distinguished between tasks for each participant and between groups, i.e., expert or novice, based on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity patterns and force output variables during four different force modulation tasks. The tasks under investigation involved sinusoidal and steady force tracking tasks, which were performed with the left and right hand. Classification of tasks based on EEG patterns as well as force output was possible with high accuracy in novices and experts, whereas classification of group membership, i.e., experts or novices, was at chance level. In follow-up analyses, we found a high degree of individuality in the EEG patterns of the experts, implying the long-term development of specialized central processing during fine motor tasks in fine motor experts. Taken together, the results suggest that continuous practice in the work context leads to the development of a highly individual and task-specific central control pattern.
... Direct current stimulation was delivered via two scalp electrodes. The active electrode was saturated with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) and positioned 1.8 cm anterior to Cz (measured based on the International 10-20 system for electroencephalography), which was determined by mapping the centroid of the SMA based on Talairach space onto standardized head coordinates (Jasper, 1958;Talairach & Tournoux, 1988). This site has been previously used for SMA stimulation using tDCS (Carlsen et al., 2015;Hayduk-Costa et al., 2013) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; Müri et al., 1994). ...
Article
The majority of human activities show a trade‐off between movement speed and accuracy. Here we tested 16 participants in a quick pointing action after 20 minutes (2mA) of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered at the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) in a single‐blind crossover design study for testing the feedforward components in the control of action. tDCS stimuli were delivered in three randomized sessions of stimulations as anodal, cathodal and sham as a control. The task performed Pre and Post tDCS stimulation, was to point as fast and as precise as possible with the big toe to targets having different sizes (2 and 8 cm; Width) and positioned at different Distances (20 and 60 cm; Distance). An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to collect the kinematics of movement. Result indicates that individuals after receiving anodal stimulation decreased their movement time and increased their movement speed while the opposite happened after receiving a cathodal stimulation. The scarcity of studies in this area invites us to plan a research that aims at the trade‐off especially in the clinical settings.
... Journal of Sensors cap, the SynAmps amplifier, and Curry 7.0 software. The 64 Ag/AgCl electrodes were placed in accordance with the international 10-20 system [25], and the ground electrode was placed on the FZ electrode. The reference electrodes, M1 and M2, were located in the Bilateral mastoid for measurement of myoelectricity, and the additional electrodes HEO and VEO at the outer left and right canthus and up and down the left eye, respectively, for the recording of the movement of the eye. ...
Article
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Working memory (WM) is considered the mental workplace that retains and manipulates information. This study investigates the internal mechanism in WM states from an electroencephalography (EEG) network perspective. Firstly, we devised a novel letter-sequence version of the n -back experiment to collect EEG data, analyzed the neural oscillations in the theta and gamma bands, and then constructed Phase Lock Value (PLV) grounded brain networks to examine the synchronizations among dissimilar brain regions. The complex topology properties (e.g., global efficiency, local efficiency, and small-worldness) were scrutinized as well. Additionally, we presented an original algorithm, the Weighted K -Order Propagation Number (WKPN) algorithm, to extract the important brain regions associated with WM processes. The simulation revealed that the frontal and posterior regions were activated in two WM states, i.e., update and readout states. Throughout the readout, brain networks performed better in efficiency and resistance to interference. Furthermore, the right prefrontal and parietooccipital regions became more prominent in the completion of extra difficult WM tasks. In summary, these EEG-based results can be taken as promising evidence to understand and improve WM.
... EEG Recording: Electrodes were individually positioned at midline sites ofthe 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958): midline frontal (FZ); central (CZ); parietal (PZ), and were held in place by an elastic bandage wrapped around the head (see Picture 5). ...
Thesis
p>This thesis consists of two papers: the first is a literature review providing a summary of the existing research documenting neuropsychological outcome in infants and children with congenital heart defects; the second paper presents the findings from an empirical study of infants with acyanotic congenital heart defects, and represents the first attempt to study novelty processing using electrophysiological methods in this population.</p
... Impedances of references and head electrodes were held below 5 k and electrooculogram (EOG) electrodes below 10 k . Used electrodes placed according to the 10-20 system (Jasper, 1957) were F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, CPz, P3, Pz, P4, O1, and O2, as well as three EOG electrodes, reference electrodes placed left and right mastoid and a ground electrode. Cz was used to give feedback as SMR primarily shows over the sensorimotor areas. ...
Article
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Electroencephalography-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) has become a valuable tool in the field of psychology, e.g., to improve cognitive function. Nevertheless, a large percentage of NF users seem to be unable to control their own brain activation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether a different kind of visual feedback could positively influence NF performance after one training session. Virtual reality (VR) seems to have beneficial training effects and has already been reported to increase motivational training aspects. In the present study, we tested 61 young healthy adults (mean age: 23.48 years; 28 female) to investigate, whether 3D VR-based NF training has a more beneficial effect on the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12–15 Hz) power increase than a mere 2D conventional NF paradigm. In the 3D group, participants had to roll a ball along a predefined path in an immersive virtual environment, whereas the 2D group had to increase the height of a bar. Both paradigms were presented using VR goggles. Participants completed one baseline and six feedback runs with 3 min each, in which they should try to increase SMR power over Cz. Half of the participants received real feedback whereas the other half received sham feedback. Participants receiving 3D VR-based feedback showed a linear increase in SMR power over the feedback runs within one training session. This was the case for the real as well as for the sham 3D feedback group and might be related to more general VR-related effects. The 2D group receiving the conventional bar feedback showed no changes in SMR power over the feedback runs. The present study underlines that the visual feedback modality has differential effects on the NF training performance and that 3D VR-based feedback has advantages over conventional 2D feedback.
... AEPs were picked up by silver-silver chloride electrodes placed on the subject's scalp (disposable electrodes were used for Experiment 4). Placements are referred to using the ten twenty electrode system of the International Federation (Jasper, 1958). For the study of MLS MLR by Bell (2001), the electrode placement was : active (+ve) electrode at Cz (vertex of the head), reference electrode (-ve) at A1 (mastoid) and the ground electrode at Fz (forehead). ...
Thesis
p>Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) represent the response of the brain to an auditory stimulus and they are recorded using electrodes placed on the scalp. They have a number of clinical applications including estimating hearing threshold, detection of pathology in the auditory pathway and possibly indicating depth of anaesthesia during surgical procedures. The aim of this study was investigate new methods to improve the acquisition of AEPs for clinical monitoring purposes. The approach adopted has been primarily to optimise the stimulation used to elicit AEPs, rather than focusing on signal processing to improve extraction of the signal from background noise. New stimulation methods to acquire AEPs have been investigated using normative experiments. Two such experiments investigated three possible methods to improve acquisition of the AEP known as the Middle Latency Response (MLR). These methods were a) varying conventional stimulation rate b) using high maximum length sequence (MLS) stimulation rates (a form of pseudorandom binary sequence) and c) using chirp stimuli (rising frequency sweeps) designed to compensate for frequency dispersion on the basilar membrane. The use of chirp stimuli presented to high MLS stimulation rates appears to reduce the acquisition time of the MLR significantly compared to conventional stimulation methods. The use of band-limited chirp (rising frequency sweeps across a limited frequency range) stimuli to obtain the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) was also investigated. The use of such stimuli appear to produce better objective estimates of low frequency thresholds than have been reported for other transient stimuli such as tone bursts. This is consistent with the chirp stimuli improving the neural synchrony of low frequency responses, although it may be a consequence of the spread of excitation to high frequencies. As the stimuli have significant spectral spread, their clinical application to assess frequency specific thresholds may be limited.</p
... Electroencephalography was carried out non-invasively on the scalp surface; the participants wore an EEG cap. The signal was acquired at positions C3 and C4 in the primary gustatory cortex (17,22) as defined by the international 10-20 electrode disposal system (32). This electrode position was chosen on the basis of the study by Kabayakawa et al. (22), who showed magnetic fields recorded from the brain (i.e., MEG) in response to two tastants: 1 M NaCl and 3 mM saccharin, one of which was more activated in the central area of the head at positions C3 and C4. ...
Article
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Sweetener type can influence sensory properties and consumer’s acceptance and preference for low-calorie products. An ideal sweetener does not exist, and each sweetener must be used in situations to which it is best suited. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. Despite the interest in artificial sweeteners, little is known about how artificial sweeteners are processed in the human brain. Here, we applied the convolutional neural network (CNN) to evaluate brain signals of 11 healthy subjects when they tasted passion fruit juice equivalently sweetened with sucrose (9.4 g/100 g), sucralose (0.01593 g/100 g), or aspartame (0.05477 g/100 g). Electroencephalograms were recorded for two sites in the gustatory cortex (i.e., C3 and C4). Data with artifacts were disregarded, and the artifact-free data were used to feed a Deep Neural Network with tree branches that applied a Convolutions and pooling for different feature filtering and selection. The CNN received raw signal as input for multiclass classification and with supervised training was able to extract underling features and patterns from the signal with better performance than handcrafted filters like FFT. Our results indicated that CNN is an useful tool for electroencephalography (EEG) analyses and classification of perceptually similar tastes.
... For these reasons, we chose Fp1 (left frontal lobe) as the measurement site, as defined by the international 10-20 method. Methods to standardize electrode placement were studied by H.H. Jasper, resulting in the definition of the 10-20 electrode system (Jasper, 1958). Karlık and Hayta (2014) point out that EEG signals are generated because of neural activity and can be distinguished by their frequency range. ...
Technical Report
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This study aimed to determine the effects of glucose (Ramune candy) ingest ion on cognitive function during esports mediation and concentration during gameplay. The participants were 20 healthy male students who did not play games usually (mean age ± 19.85, standard deviation = 0.96). The experimental design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. The results showed that the ingestion of Ramune candy significantly improved cognitive test scores before and after gameplay. During the esports gameplay, the power percentage of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 10-11.75 Hz) waves was significantly higher in the Ramune candy condition than in the placebo condition at 25 to approximately 28 min after the ingestion. These results indicate that the ingestion of Ramune candy effectively maintains a relaxed yet concentrate d state during cognitively loaded esports gameplay.
... Although the conventional method of electrode fixation is successful in macaque monkeys and chimpanzees, it is not readily applicable to the small marmoset heads. The circumferential length of the marmoset head measured from the nasion to the inion via the vertex is approximately 60-70 mm, so that the electrode distance between Fz and Cz is as short as 12-14 mm according to the International 10-20 system for electrode positioning (Jasper, 1958), while a typical EEG electrode has a diameter of 10 mm. For comparison, macaques, chimpanzees, and humans have the nasion-to-inion lengths of approximately 150 mm, 200 mm, and 300 mm, respectively; hence, the corresponding Fz-Cz distances are 30 mm, 40 mm, and 60 mm, respectively, for these species. ...
Article
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Noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG) in unanesthetized nonhuman primates is useful for basic science and biomedical applications but presents several technical challenges. In particular, multiple EEG electrode application to the scalp of small-sized monkeys, such as common marmosets, has been difficult, if not impossible. Here, we describe a novel approach, using the “dip-in electrode” method, which enables multichannel noninvasive EEG recording in a marmoset through short and small silicone tubes, with an internal diameter of 4 mm. First, the cut face of the tube was glued to the shaved scalp. Then, the tube was filled with the electrode gel, and a small electrode (4 mm in diameter) was dipped into the gel to contact the skin electrically while being electrically isolated from the neighboring channels. The minimum inter-electrode distance was 6 mm, which was limited by the outer diameter of the tubes. A proof of concept was provided through successful 32-channel recording of scalp EEG and topographic mapping of the cortical auditory evoked potentials in an unanesthetized marmoset. This had not been possible with the existing methods using gauze or tape for electrode fixation. Our method provides a feasible means for noninvasive scalp recording of EEG and evoked potentials in marmoset monkeys and possibly other nonhuman primates and non-primate mammals.
... Informed consent was obtained from the participant for the publication of this case report (including all data and images). We have placed the electrodes (recording, reference and ground electrodes) in particular areas of the head in accordance with the "Ten percent electrode system for recording EEG activity" (Chatrian et al., 1985) which is based on the "Ten-twenty electrode system" which was proposed by Jasper (1958). The placement of the electrodes and the time of Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback employed is shown on Figure 1. ...
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A 38-year-old army officer started therapy in 2020 with a four-year history of auditory hallucinations and delusions of reference, persecution and grandeur, symptoms that were resistant to traditional antipsychotic medications. He follows an integrative psychotherapy program that aims to reduce his anxiety, continues his antipsychotic medications, and has Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback. After his initial assessment he had a 40 min session of Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback before any other kind of intervention. Before and immediately after the session he completed the SCL-90 scale and the Visual Analog Scale covering 20 aspects of his psychological and physical state as well as his schizophrenic symptoms. This first Neurofeedback session had dramatic effects on his psychotic symptoms, levels of anxiety and psychosomatic condition, before his first psychotherapy session and/or any changes in his antipsychotic medication. The above results have great importance due to the severity and chronicity of schizophrenia. Informed consent was obtained from the participant for the publication of this case report (including all data and images).
... Resting EEG (rEEG) indexes brain activity without stimulus presentation, typically via 64 electrodes distributed with the 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958). REEG frequency bands characterize the signal in delta to gamma domains (Niedermeyer, 1999). ...
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Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive method to identify markers of treatment response in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review, existing literature was assessed to determine how EEG markers change with different modalities of MDD treatments, and to synthesize the breadth of EEG markers used in conjunction with MDD treatments. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from 2000 to 2021 for studies reporting resting EEG (rEEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with EEG (TMS-EEG) measures in patients undergoing MDD treatments. The search yielded 966 articles, 204 underwent full-text screening, and 51 studies were included for a narrative synthesis of findings along with confidence in the evidence. In rEEG studies, non-linear quantitative algorithms such as theta cordance and theta current density show higher predictive value than traditional linear metrics. Although less abundant, TMS-EEG measures show promise for predictive markers of brain stimulation treatment response. Future focus on TMS-EEG measures may prove fruitful, given its ability to target cortical regions of interest related to MDD.
... Electrode skin impedance was less than 8 kΩ. The electrodes were placed according to the International 10/20 system (Jaspers, 1958). An electrode at Fpz served as the ground electrode. ...
Article
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Objective: In this study, we evaluated brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in healthy participants during the performance of paired and individual mindfulness meditation (MM). We hypothesized that EEG activity is differentially affected by meditation in pairs compared to individual meditation. Methods: A total of 20 healthy female university students (mean age 19.54 years, SD =1.53) with no prior experience in MM participated in this study. All participants had to perform a 5-minute MM task together and individually while the other participant was in rest or performing a concentration task (control condition). To exclude social interaction as main factor, participants were separated from their research partner by an opaque screen while instructions were given through headphones. Brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from each individual student was measured during all conditions. Results: The main findings indicate that left-frontal alpha and theta spectral EEG power was significantly higher during the paired MM condition compared to individual MM and control condition. Conclusions: This controlled MM study demonstrates differences in brain activity between practicing mindfulness in pairs compared to practicing it individually. We conclude that the increased alpha and theta EEG power during paired MM may be associated with social facilitation or the activation of "theory of mind." The results invite further reflection on interpersonal communication and mindfulness.
... To maximize optical coupling, optodes were fastened via a cloth headband to the region of interest. The center of the headband was placed on AFz in the international 10-20 system [26]. Distances between points on the optode grid were kept equal. ...
Article
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Successful aging depends upon maintaining executive functions, which enable flexible response coordination. Although flexible responses are required for both hands and feet, as in driving, few studies have examined executive functions and brain activity in older adults, in terms of foot responses. In this study, younger (mean age = 20.8) and older participants (mean age = 68.7) performed a newly developed bimanual/bipedal response-position selection compatibility task while we measured their brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Participants had to press either a left or right button using either their left or right foot (or hand), as directed by a two-dimensional cue signal. They executed either a straight or diagonal press response that mimicked stepping on the accelerator or brake pedal in a car. Foot responses produced more errors, longer reaction times, and greater brain activation than hand responses. Greater brain activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) was observed in incongruent (i.e., diagonal) than in congruent (straight) trials for foot responses, but not for hand responses, suggesting that participants had difficulty executing a diagonal foot response (as braking in a car), but not a diagonal hand response. Older participants exhibited greater brain activation across the PFC than younger participants, indicating that older adults activate additional brain circuits to compensate for declining executive functions. We discuss potential relationships between declining executive functions of older adults and the frequent automobile accidents (i.e., missteps) in which they are involved.
... Electrode placement refers to the 10-20 International system (Jasper, 1958). The conventional locations of the electrodes in recording the ABR are a noninverting electrode on the high forehead (close to Fz) and an inverting electrode on the mastoid. ...
Thesis
p> Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) measure the responses from the auditory nervous system structures following presentation of an acoustic stimulus (clicks or tone-burst). The aim of this work is to investigate new methods to objectively detect the responses. A novel bootstrap technique was proposed, allowing the statistical significance (p-value) to be estimated for a wide range of different signal parameters, and detect the response in an easy and very flexible manner. The bootstrap method is based on randomly resampling (with replacement) the original data and gives an estimate of the probability that the response obtained is due to random variation in the data rather than a physiological response. Furthermore, the bootstrap technique provides a simple way to compare different methods for response detection using p-values. A modified bootstrap method with three artefact rejection schemes was then proposed and they can efficiently eliminate the effect of stimulus and/or movement artefacts. This modification makes the bootstrap procedures more effective to deal with ‘real data’ from patients, where artefacts are often present. The performance of the bootstrap method was evaluated on simulated signals by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and compared with other methods. On data recorded from normal-hearing volunteers, the techniques provided similar hearing thresholds to those obtained by visual inspection of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The flexibility of this approach allows the method to be used with a range of parameters, numbers of sweeps, and with user-defined false positive rates. </p
... A 32-channel amplifier (SynAmps system) and acquisition software (Neuroscan 4.2) were used to collect EEG data during task execution. An ElectroCap with Ag/AgCl electrodes was used to record EEG from active scalp sites referred to earlobes (10/20 International system of electrode placement) (Jasper, 1958). The EEG montage included the following 15 electrodes: Fp1, Fp2, AFF5h, Fz, AFF6h, T7, C3, Cz, C4, T8, P3, Pz, P4, O1, and O2. ...
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So far, little is known about how conscious attention to internal body signals, that is, interoception, affects the synchronization with another person, a necessary or required social process that promotes affiliations and cooperation during daily joint social interactions. The effect of explicit interoceptive attentiveness (IA) modulation, conceived as the focus on the breath for a given time interval, on electrophysiological (EEG) correlates during an interpersonal motor task compared with a cognitive synchronization task was investigated in this study. A total of 28 healthy participants performed a motor and a cognitive synchronization task during the focus and no-focus breath conditions. During the tasks, frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) from the frontal, temporo-central, and parieto-occipital regions of interest (ROIs) were acquired. According to the results, significantly higher delta and theta power were found in the focus condition in the frontal ROI during the execution of the motor than the cognitive synchronization task. Moreover, in the same experimental condition, delta and beta band power increased in the temporo-central ROI. The current study suggested two main patterns of frequency band modulation during the execution of a motor compared with the cognitive synchronization task while a person is focusing the attention on one's breath. This study can be considered as the first attempt to classify the different effects of interoceptive manipulation on motor and cognitive synchronization tasks using neurophysiological measures.
... EEG was recorded with a plate electrode placed at Cz according to the 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958) and referenced to the earlobes. Bipolar recordings of the electro-ocular activity (EOG) were made with electrodes placed at the outer canthus and supraorbitally to the left eye. ...
Article
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Eighty-three subjects (47 women and 36 men) were submitted to Plutchik-van Praag's (PVP) depression inventory, Zuckerman's sensation seeking scales and Zuckerman-Kuhlman's personality inventory, and underwent auditory evoked potential studies using clicks at 4 different intensities of 70, 80, 90 and 100 dB. The clicks were delivered at an interstimulus interval varying randomly around 0.5 s, which can elicit an obligatory subcomponent of N1. The P2 latency was significantly prolonged at the highest intensity. The intensity dependence of peak-to-peak N1-P2 and of baseline-to-peak N1 and P2 components was pronounced and the majority of subjects were augmenters. The N1 latency elicited at 70 dB was positively correlated with the thrill and adventure seeking, which then correlated the activity. The correlation suggests that a lower level of arousal, as indicated by prolonged N1 latency, would lead one to seek higher stimulation, such as the augmented response, the increased desire of physical thrill and adventure and elevated activity. This study, therefore, supports Zuckerman's theory that a sensation seeking personality is related to cortical arousal level.
... The song was released in 2001 on his Album Stillmatic on Columbia Records. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded with a sample rate of 500 Hz from 32 electrodes, positioned following the 10-20 method of placement (Jasper, 1958). In this experiment, we are focused on the temporal dynamics of synchronization related to the time span of the musical form and therefore do not take advantage of methods for the inverse modeling of EEG data (Schoffelen and Gross, 2009;Palva and Palva, 2012). ...
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We analyze the influence of music in a network of FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with empirical structural connectivity measured in healthy human subjects. We report an increase of coherence between the global dynamics in our network and the input signal induced by a specific music song. We show that the level of coherence depends crucially on the frequency band. We compare our results with experimental data, which also describe global neural synchronization between different brain regions in the gamma-band range in a time-dependent manner correlated with musical large-scale form, showing increased synchronization just before transitions between different parts in a musical piece (musical high-level events). The results also suggest a separation in musical form-related brain synchronization between high brain frequencies, associated with neocortical activity, and low frequencies in the range of dance movements, associated with interactivity between cortical and subcortical regions.
... and 102 Hz and digitized at a sampling rate of 512 Hz. EEG signals were recorded from 64 locations on the scalp through active Ag-AgCl electrodes (BioSemi, Netherlands), following the extended 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958). Two additional electrodes were placed at the an electrical recording reference (CMS active electrode) and ground (DRL passive electrode). ...
Thesis
Experience is one of the most important constructs in tourism and leisure and as such has received much attention in the scientific tourism and leisure literature. However, at the same time, in the same literature, there is remarkably little conceptual clarity about what exactly constitutes an experience. Recent accounts have tried to change this status quo and have suggested various constituent processes of experience that have already been pick up by various tourism and leisure researchers.This dissertation focuses on emotions as one of the crucial building blocks of experience, as emotions have been argued to be a determining factor for making leisure experiences memorable. Only when experiences are memorable, they can lead to downstream experience outcomes, such as evaluations and behavior. In particular, this dissertation focuses on the temporal dynamics of emotions over the course of tourism and leisure experiences, as it is these temporal dynamics in specific that are of relevance for an experience's memorability and thus its evaluation. The aim of the dissertation was thus to study the relationship between the temporal dynamics of emotions in a tourism and leisure experience and how this experience was evaluated. To this end, a variety of tourism and leisure experiences were examined at different timescales across four empirical studies: from an experience in its entire length (VR movie and musical theatre show) and the individual episodes within an experience (musical theatre show) to the individual events that are the ignitors of an emotional response to begin with (attending to artworks). Several research methods were used in tandem to get a more comprehensive picture of the emotional dynamics at play: from a newly developed self-report-based Experience Reconstruction Method (ERM) to fine-grained physiological measures that can measure emotions with sub-second precision from both body (skin conductance) and brain (EEG). Findings show that the temporal dynamics of emotions in tourism and leisure experiences are strongly related to evaluations of those same experiences. However, this relationship is not straightforward. First, not all episodes within an experience are equally strongly related to its overall evaluations: some are positively related to overall experience evaluations, some are negatively related and some are not related at all. In capturing the temporal dynamics of emotion throughout an entire experience, average emotion measures seem a better representation than peak-and-end related measures of emotion. However, for individual episodes within that experience, peak measures of emotion provide a better representation than average measures of emotion. In capturing these measures of emotion, both established physiological measures of emotion (i.e., skin conductance and EEG) and the newly developed ERM have their merits. ERM-based measures prevail over skin conductance measures for evaluating structured experience designs and design interventions, yet skin conductance prevails over ERM-based measures when predicting overall evaluations from the temporal dynamics of the emotions throughout an experience. Finally, approaching experience as a temporal phenomenon that can be cut into experiential episodes allows for better predicting how an experience will be evaluated than approaching experience as a single. In further enhancing our understanding of experience, it is thus wise to keep an eye on the aspect of time.
... EEG data were collected from 19 monopolar channels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. The electrodes' positions were set according to the International 10-20 system [55]. The ground electrode was attached at Fpz, and the reference electrode at a left mastoid. ...
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The research described in this paper aimed to determine whether people respond differently to short and long stimuli and whether stress stimuli repeated over time evoke a habituation effect. To meet this goal, we performed a cognitive experiment with eight subjects. During this experiment, the subjects were presented with two trays of stress-inducing stimuli (different in length) interlaced with the main tasks. The mean beta power calculated from the EEG signal recorded from the two prefrontal electrodes (Fp1 and Fp2) was used as a stress index. The main results are as follows: (i) we confirmed the previous finding that beta power assessed from the EEG signal recorded from prefrontal electrodes is significantly higher for the STRESS condition compared to NON-STRESS condition; (ii) we found a significant difference in beta power between STRESS conditions that differed in length—the beta power was four times higher for short, compared to long, stress-inducing stimuli; (iii) we did not find enough evidence to confirm (or reject) the hypothesis that stress stimuli repeated over time evoke the habituation effect; although the general trends aggregated over subjects and stressors were negative, their slopes were not statistically significant; moreover, there was no agreement among subjects with respect to the slope of individual trends.
... Electroencephalography was recorded at 15 electrode sites (Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, T7, Cz, T8, P7, Pz, P8, O1, O2), which were positioned according to the international 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958). CPz served as a reference during recording. ...
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Increasing numbers of students around the world are suffering from mathematics anxiety. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender, grade, career choices, and academic achievement in Grade 10, 11, and 12 students. This study used the Revised Version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to survey 1,548 high school students (570 males and 978 females) from high schools in Vietnam. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. The results show that there are significant differences in the influence of grade, academic achievement, and students’ career choices on mathematics anxiety. Academic coping strategies, gender, grade, and career choices are significant predictors of mathematics anxiety. Grade 12 students have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. Students with high average mathematics scores (9.0–10.0) have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than students with lower scores. Besides, students choosing finance and economics or industrial engineering to pursue into higher education also experienced higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. This study contributes to the general discussion about the nature of mathematics anxiety and the relationship between mathematics anxiety and academic achievement.
... The P300 latency was recorded from 15 electrode sites (FP1, FPz, FP2, F3, Fz, F4, F7, F8, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, Oz) according to the 10-20 International System [47] using Ag-AgCl electrodes. All channels were referenced to linked mastoids, and the ground electrode was located at the nasion. ...
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According to DSM 5, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry about various topics that occupies the majority of the subject’s time for a period of at least six months. The aforementioned state causes distress and/or functional impairments. This paper presents the outcomes of a pilot study that evaluated the implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and CBT with an SSRIs intervention program. The participants comprised 16 children and adolescents with GAD (8 males and 8 females) matched with 16 typically developing peers (8 males and 8 females) aged from 10 to 16 years old (M = 12.56 SD = 2.18). Baseline assessment consisted of event related potentials (ERPs), which indicated that participants with GAD presented cognitive deficits in attention and memory, as they exhibited longer P300 latencies. Following treatment with the CBT program and/or medication, children and adolescents with GAD did not present statistically significantly longer P300 latencies and reaction times in comparison to the control group. Lastly, children and adolescents who followed the CBT program or the CBT program with psychopharmacological assistance did not reveal statistically significant differences in 13 out of 15 topographic brain areas and in reaction time.
... Electroencephalography (EEG) EEG data were acquired using a 32-channel cap (EASEYCAP GmbH) with Ag/AgCI electrodes placed according to the international 10-20 system (Jasper, 1958). Electrodes included 24 scalp, two electrocardiogram (ECG), two electromyogram (EMG), two electrooculogram (EOG), 1 ground, and 1 on-line common reference channel. ...
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Aging is accompanied by deterioration in both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM), yet whether these changes are related is not understood. Sleep plays a role in the formation of LTM in young adults, but the findings in older adults are not as clear. The types of memories we store also shift with age as young adults preserve a higher proportion of negative experiences when compared to older adults. The reason for this age-related change in emotional memory bias is also not clear; however, some studies have suggested that WM changes across aging may be an important factor. In the current study, we examined performance in WM and emotional LTM in younger and older adults. We added a daytime nap in half the subjects to examine a possible role of sleep on emotional LTM. In the morning, 93 younger (18–39) and 121 older (60–85) adults completed a WM task. Subjects also encoded neutral or negative word pairs and provided valence and arousal ratings for each pair. After half the subjects took a daytime nap, LTM was examined, and valence and arousal ratings were reassessed. Results indicate that older adults showed worse recognition for negative word pairs compared with neutral, as well as decreased negative valence ratings in the afternoon. This decrease in emotional reactivity was correlated with better LTM performance. In contrast, younger adults performed better on the negative compared to neutral word pairs, with no change in emotional reactivity and no association between emotional reactivity and LTM. In addition, WM was positively related to LTM in younger, but not in older adults. Lastly, no differences were shown across sleep, regardless of age. Our findings suggest that the emotional memory bias may be associated with the emotional saliency of the information in older adults, and with WM capacity in younger adults.
... A head cap with 64 Ag/AgCl recording electrodes was placed on the scalp of every participant. The electrode positions were placed across the scalp according to the international standard 10-20 system (59). All recordings were made in a double-walled soundproof booth that is equipped with a Faraday cage to avoid signal interference as much as possible. ...
Article
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Humans rely on the temporal processing ability of the auditory system to perceive speech during everyday communication. The temporal envelope of speech is essential for speech perception, particularly envelope modulations below 20 Hz. In the literature, the neural representation of this speech envelope is usually investigated by recording neural phase-locked responses to speech stimuli. However, these phase-locked responses are not only associated with envelope modulation processing, but also with processing of linguistic information at a higher-order level when speech is comprehended. It is thus difficult to disentangle the responses into components from the acoustic envelope itself and the linguistic structures in speech (such as words, phrases and sentences). Another way to investigate neural modulation processing is to use sinusoidal amplitude-modulated stimuli at different modulation frequencies to obtain the temporal modulation transfer function. However, these transfer functions are considerably variable across modulation frequencies and individual listeners. To tackle the issues of both speech and sinusoidal amplitude-modulated stimuli, the recently introduced Temporal Speech Envelope Tracking (TEMPEST) framework proposed the use of stimuli with a distribution of envelope modulations. The framework aims to assess the brain's capability to process temporal envelopes in different frequency bands using stimuli with speech-like envelope modulations. In this study, we provide a proof-of-concept of the framework using stimuli with modulation frequency bands around the syllable and phoneme rate in natural speech. We evaluated whether the evoked phase-locked neural activity correlates with the speech-weighted modulation transfer function measured using sinusoidal amplitude-modulated stimuli in normal-hearing listeners. Since many studies on modulation processing employ different metrics and comparing their results is difficult, we included different power- and phase-based metrics and investigate how these metrics relate to each other. Results reveal a strong correspondence across listeners between the neural activity evoked by the speech-like stimuli and the activity evoked by the sinusoidal amplitude-modulated stimuli. Furthermore, strong correspondence was also apparent between each metric, facilitating comparisons between studies using different metrics. These findings indicate the potential of the TEMPEST framework to efficiently assess the neural capability to process temporal envelope modulations within a frequency band that is important for speech perception.
... Group A received cathodal stimulation on Broca's area and the reference electrode was positioned on the temporal area, while group B had the same montage with opposite polarities. Areas for bicephalic unilateral montage were identified through the EEG 10-20 system (Jasper H.H., 1958). All participants also participated in a sham (control) session. ...
... For the EEG recording, we used 64 Ag/AgCl capmounted electrodes, plus two placed at the mastoids and four around the eyes, positioned on an extended 10-20 system [25]. The EEG was recorded with the BioSemi EEG-System (BioSemi B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands). ...
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Background Neurotypical individuals categorize items even during ultra-rapid presentations (20 ms; see Thorpe et al. Nature 381: 520, 1996). In cognitively able autistic adults, these semantic categorization processes may be impaired and/or may require additional time, specifically for the categorization of atypical compared to typical items. Here, we investigated how typicality structures influence ultra-rapid categorization in cognitively able autistic and neurotypical male adults. Methods Images representing typical or atypical exemplars of two different categories (food/animals) were presented for 23.5 vs. 82.3 ms (short/long). We analyzed detection rates, reaction times, and the event-related potential components dN150, N1, P2, N2, and P3 for each group. Results Behavioral results suggest slower and less correct responses to atypical compared to typical images. This typicality effect was larger for the category with less distinct boundaries (food) and observed in both groups. However, electrophysiological data indicate a different time course of typicality effects, suggesting that neurotypical adults categorize atypical images based on simple features (P2), whereas cognitively able autistic adults categorize later, based on arbitrary features of atypical images (P3). Conclusions We found evidence that all three factors under investigation — category, typicality, and presentation time — modulated specific aspects of semantic categorization. Additionally, we observed a qualitatively different pattern in the autistic adults, which suggests that they relied on different cognitive processes to complete the task.
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Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently misdiagnosed as normal aging, it has always been difficult to detect early on. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be identified, but there is little that can be done at that time because no medicine can reverse the effect of MCI; instead, it can only slow down the progression. Alzheimer's disease is difficult to diagnose medically, especially in its early stages. As a response, a method for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is urgently needed even now. We described a strategy for detecting Alzheimer's disease in its early stage using non-invasive BCI technology in this research. Electroencephalography (EEG) brain wave patterns were used for three groups (Alzheimer's disease - AD, mild cognitive impairment - MCI, and healthy subjects - HS) of test subjects in this research. The proposed framework was evaluated with 46 test subjects, with an accuracy of 86.47% and a precision of 0.801. Alzheimer's disease was identified with an accuracy of 86.95%, whereas MCI was found with an accuracy of 82.60 %.
Article
Several lines of evidence demonstrated the deleterious effect of methamphetamine (MA) on neurological and psychological functions. However, recent evidence on the neurological dysfunctions related to cognitive performance and psychosis in MA abusers needs to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neurological functions using EEG measurement during cognitive tests in MA abusers with (MWP) or without (MWOP) psychosis compared to age-matched normal participants. The quantitative EEG (qEEG) was used to reveal the absolute power in 4 brain-wave frequencies including delta, theta, alpha, and beta waves. The results demonstrated poor attention in both groups of MA abusers. The deficit in mental flexibility was observed in MWP. The deficit in inhibition control and working memory were observed in MWOP. The greater delta, alpha and beta brain waves in multiple brain areas were observed in MWP during the resting (eyes-open) state. The greater alpha wave in multiple brain areas of MWP correlated with poor attention. The greater delta wave and lesser beta wave in the frontal brain correlated with poor inhibition and working memory in MWOP respectively. These findings demonstrated the applicability of EEG to determine neurological dysfunction related to cognitive impairments in MA abusers.
Article
Both anhedonia and craving are common among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD), and are associated with vulnerability to relapse. Although these constructs are theoretically linked relatively few studies have examined them together. In the current study, recently withdrawn patients (N = 71) in residential treatment for prescription OUD underwent a cue reactivity paradigm while being monitored with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Patients also self-reported symptoms of anhedonia via the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), while smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) were used to measure craving levels. On average, lower right prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in response to positive social stimuli was associated with higher craving (β = -2.87; S.E. = 1.23; p = 0.02). Self-reported anhedonia moderated the association between PFC activity and craving (β = -1.02; S.E. = 0.48; p = 0.04), such that patients with two or more anhedonic symptoms had a significant and stronger negative association between PFC activation to hedonically positive images and craving, compared to patients with fewer than two anhedonic symptoms, among whom the association was not significant. This finding provides evidence that higher levels of anhedonia among patients in residential treatment for OUD are associated with a stronger link between lower PFC response to positive social experiences and higher levels of craving, potentially increasing overall vulnerability to relapse.
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Functional near infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography are non-invasive techniques that rely on sensors placed over the scalp. The spatial localization of the measured brain activity requires the precise individuation of sensor positions and, when individual anatomical information is not available, the accurate registration of these sensor positions to a head atlas. Both these issues could be successfully addressed using a photogrammetry-based method. In this study we demonstrate that sensor positions can be accurately detected from a video recorded with a smartphone, with a median localization error of 0.7 mm, comparable if not lower, to that of conventional approaches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the additional information of the shape of the participant’s head can be further exploited to improve the registration of the sensor’s positions to a head atlas, reducing the median sensor localization error of 31% compared to the standard registration approach.
Article
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key brain region involved in cognitive control and decision making, is suggested to mediate effort- and value-based decision making, but the specific role of ACC in this process remains debated. Here we used frontal midline theta (FMT) and the reward positivity (RewP) to examine ACC function in a value-based decision making task requiring physical effort. We investigated whether (1) FMT power is sensitive to the difficulty of the decision or to selecting effortful actions, and (2) RewP is sensitive to the subjective value of reward outcomes as a function of effort investment. On each trial, participants chose to execute a low-effort or a high-effort behavior (that required squeezing a hand-dynamometer) to obtain smaller or larger rewards, respectively, while their brainwaves were recorded. We replicated prior findings that tonic FMT increased over the course of the hour-long task, which suggests increased application of control in the face of growing fatigue. RewP amplitude also increased following execution of high-effort compared to low-effort behavior, consistent with increased valuation of reward outcomes by ACC. Although neither phasic nor tonic FMT were associated with decision difficulty or effort selection per se, an exploratory analysis revealed that the interaction of phasic FMT and expected value of choice predicted effort choice. This interaction suggests that phasic FMT increases specifically under situations of decision difficulty when participants ultimately select a high-effort choice. These results point to a unique role for ACC in motivating and persisting at effortful behavior when decision conflict is high.
Article
Purpose The evaluation of epilepsy features and factors with impact to diagnosis delay in children with CLN2. Method The study included children with CLN2 treated from 2000 to 2020. Diagnosis was confirmed by: TPP1 deficiency and/or TPP1 gene mutation or pathognomonic electron microscopy findings. The seizure features were evaluated: the age of onset, provocation, semiology and EEG. The disease severity was assessed by CLN2 Clinical Rating Scale (CLN2-CRS). Statistical analysis included T test, chi-square test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, using SPSS statistics 25. Result The study included 22 children with CLN2. Seizures were experienced by all cases at the early stage of disease, preceded by language delay in 18, and behavior problems in 14 pts. The first seizure was provoked in 9 children at mean age of 33.8 ± 4.6 months, and unprovoked in 13 at mean age of 34.6 ± 2.7 months. In patients with provoked first seizure, the average period from the first seizure to diagnosis was longer (35.1 months), with lower CLN2-CRS, then in those with unprovoked (23.8 months) first seizures (p < 0.008). Initial seizures were generalized tonic-clonic (Pampiglione and Harden, 1973 Feb) [8], atonic (Pampiglione and Harden, 1973 Feb) [8], and focal (Beltrán et al., 2018 Aug) [4], with recurrence within two months. With progression, the patients experienced multiple seizure types, and 1/3 suffered status epilepticus. Conclusions Provoked seizures at the onset of CLN2 have impact to diagnosis delay. The red flags are: preceding language delay and behavior problems, later FS onset comparing to the typical age, atonic, focal and long-lasting seizure, and recurrence of seizures within two months.
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High-density Electroencephalography (HD-EEG) has proven to be the EEG montage that estimates the neural activity inside the brain with highest accuracy. Multiple studies have reported the effect of electrode number on source localization for specific sources and specific electrode configurations. The electrodes for these configurations are often manually selected to uniformly cover the entire head, going from 32 to 128 electrodes, but electrode configurations are not often selected according to their contribution to estimation accuracy. In this work, an optimization-based study is proposed to determine the minimum number of electrodes that can be used and to identify the optimal combinations of electrodes that can retain the localization accuracy of HD-EEG reconstructions. This optimization approach incorporates scalp landmark positions of widely used EEG montages. In this way, a systematic search for the minimum electrode subset is performed for single- and multiple-source localization problems. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) combined with source reconstruction methods is used to formulate a multi-objective optimization problem that concurrently minimizes (1) the localization error for each source and (2) the number of required EEG electrodes. The method can be used for evaluating the source localization quality of low-density EEG systems (e.g. consumer-grade wearable EEG). We performed an evaluation over synthetic and real EEG datasets with known ground-truth. The experimental results show that optimal subsets with 6 electrodes can attain an equal or better accuracy than HD-EEG (with more than 200 channels) for a single source case. This happened when reconstructing a particular brain activity in more than 88% of the cases in synthetic signals and 63% in real signals, and in more than 88% and 73% of cases when considering optimal combinations with 8 channels. For a multiple-source case of three sources (only with synthetic signals), it was found that optimized combinations of 8, 12 and 16 electrodes attained an equal or better accuracy than HD-EEG with 231 electrodes in at least 58%, 76%, and 82% of cases respectively. Additionally, for such electrode numbers, lower mean errors and standard deviations than with 231 electrodes were obtained.
Conference Paper
Since bone conduction (BC) has the advantage that it does not cover the ear canal and can be easily heard even when earplugs are worn, it has been applied to various communication devices. Conventional BC is mainly applied to the mastoid process of the temporal bone (the osseous bulge behind the ear), however, some of recent BC devices, such as smart glasses, present stimuli to faces. The face has very complex structures in the human body; therefore, it is highly likely that the hearing and propagation characteristics of sound will change depending on the part to which sound is presented. However, the characteristics of BC presented to the face has not yet been studied in detail. In this study, we measured hearing threshold and ear canal sound pressure (ECSP) when BC stimuli were presented to various parts of the facial cranium (nasal, infraorbital region, zygomatic, jaw angle, and chin), and compared them with conventional placements of BC stimulus (the mastoid process, condyle process, and forehead). The facial parts such as the infraorbital region, zygomatic, and jaw angle had similar hearing thresholds and ECSPs to those of the mastoid process. The results suggested that these facial parts can be used as stimulus placements of BC devices.
Article
The classic rubber hand illusion (RHI), based on visual, proprioceptive, and tactile feedback, can affect actions. However, it is not known whether these effects still occur if the paradigm is administered without visual feedback. In this study, we used the somatic RHI to test in thirty-two healthy individuals whether the incorporation of the rubber hand based on proprioceptive and tactile information only is sufficient to generate changes in actions. We measured maximum grip aperture (GA) changes towards a target and associated brain activations within the dorsal stream before and after the somatic RHI. Behavioural and neuroimaging data do not support an effect on maximum GA when the RHI is based on proprioceptive and tactile information only.
Chapter
Agriculture has a significant role in cultural life, and Agriculture has a significant role in the economies of many countries. To come up with the best possible conclusion from this study. It's essential to pay attention to critical factors, including energy, water availability, labour, and a correct watering plan for crops. Researchers in this study were interested in building a smartphone application that would allow farmers to operate an IoT-based automated irrigation system remotely. Paddy field photos were used to create a deep learning model called Paddy Field Radial Basis Function Networks (PF-RBFNs). The model tells the farmer how much water will be needed in a certain field area for irrigation. A real-time picture dataset and a raspberry pi-based hardware model were used to test this approach. The model was compared to three different deep learning models: LSTMs, RNNs, and GANs. It was found that this proposed PF-RBFNs model has a 93% accuracy rate.
Article
Objective To investigate the potential therapeutic benefits and tolerability of inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the remediation of visual hallucinations in Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS). Design Randomized, double-masked(blind), placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants Sixteen individuals diagnosed with CBS secondary to visual impairment caused by eye disease experiencing recurrent visual hallucinations. Intervention All participants received four consecutive days of active and placebo cathodal stimulation (current density: 0.29mA/cm²) to the visual cortex (Oz) over two defined treatment weeks, separated by a four-week wash-out period. Main Outcome Measures Ratings of visual hallucination frequency and duration following active and placebo stimulation, accounting for treatment order, using a 2x2 repeated measures model. Secondary outcomes included impact ratings of visual hallucinations and electrophysiological measures. Results When compared to placebo treatment, active inhibitory stimulation of visual cortex resulted in a significant reduction in the frequency of visual hallucinations measured by the North East Visual Hallucinations Interview, with a moderate-to-large effect size. Impact measures of visual hallucinations improved in both placebo and active conditions suggesting support and education for CBS may have therapeutic benefits. Participants who demonstrated greater occipital excitability on electroencephalography assessment at the start of treatment were more likely to report a positive treatment response. Stimulation was found to be tolerable in all participants with no significant adverse effects reported, including no deterioration in pre-existing visual impairment. Conclusions Findings indicate that inhibitory tDCS of visual cortex may reduce the frequency of visual hallucinations in people with CBS, particularly individuals who demonstrate greater occipital excitability prior to stimulation. tDCS may offer a feasible, novel intervention option for CBS with no significant side effects, warranting larger scale clinical trials to further characterize its efficacy.
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Event-related potentials (ERP) are among the most widely measured indices for studying human cognition. While their timing and magnitude provide valuable insights, their usefulness is limited by our understanding of their neural generators at the circuit level. Inverse source localization offers insights into such generators, but their solutions are not unique. To address this problem, scientists have assumed the source space generating such signals comprises a set of discrete equivalent current dipoles, representing the activity of small cortical regions. Based on this notion, theoretical studies have employed forward modeling of scalp potentials to understand how changes in circuit-level dynamics translate into macroscopic ERPs. However, experimental validation is lacking because it requires in vivo measurements of intracranial brain sources. Laminar local field potentials (LFP) offer a mechanism for estimating intracranial current sources. Yet, a theoretical link between LFPs and intracranial brain sources is missing. Here, we present a forward modeling approach for estimating mesoscopic intracranial brain sources from LFPs and predict their contribution to macroscopic ERPs. We evaluate the accuracy of this LFP-based representation of brain sources utilizing synthetic laminar neurophysiological measurements and then demonstrate the power of the approach in vivo to clarify the source of a representative cognitive ERP component. To that end, LFP was measured across the cortical layers of visual area V4 in macaque monkeys performing an attention demanding task. We show that area V4 generates dipoles through layer-specific transsynaptic currents that biophysically recapitulate the ERP component through the detailed forward modeling. The constraints imposed on EEG production by this method also revealed an important dissociation between computational and biophysical contributors. As such, this approach represents an important bridge between laminar microcircuitry, through the mesoscopic activity of cortical columns to the patterns of EEG we measure at the scalp.
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Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is undeniably effective in increasing survival rates but many breast cancer survivors (BCS) exhibit side effects including nausea, fatigue, stress, and neurocognitive deficits, known as “chemobrain.” Objectives This pilot study explored how neurotherapy, or EEG biofeedback, a non-pharmacological approach, improved neurocognitive, behavioral, and neurophysiological deficits associated with BCS who underwent chemotherapy. Methods Subjects underwent 18 sessions of EEG biofeedback training, in which audio and visual feedback occurred with successful shifting of EEG patterns. Results Quantitative EEG and assessment tests demonstrated neurophysiological, cognitive, and behavioral deficits in all nine subjects prior to training. EEG biofeedback resulted in significant improvements in neurophysiological, neurocognitive, and psychological functions in all nine subjects after training. Conclusions We propose that this intervention and related forms of EEG biofeedback have the potential to significantly alleviate common side effects of chemotherapy in BCS and therefore merits additional research attention.
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Machine learning (ML) techniques are used as predictive models for many applications including those in the field of biomedicine. These techniques have shown impressive results across a variety of domains in biomedical engineering research. Biology and medicine are data-rich disciplines, but the data are complex and often not properly understood. Most biomedical data are categorized into structured, semi-structured, and unstructured types with very high volume. The volume and complexity of these data present new opportunities, but also pose new challenges. Automated algorithms that extract meaningful patterns could lead to actionable knowledge and change how we develop treatments, categorize patients, or study diseases, all within privacy-critical environments. This book addresses the issues described to predict and model biomedical data mining and analysis. The book has been organized into 15 chapters.
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Objectives This study investigated the acute effects of yoga and aerobic exercise on response inhibition and the underlying neural mechanisms in individuals with nicotine dependence, along with changes in craving and affect.Materials and methodsStudy participants included 30 yoga-naïve adult smokers with moderate-to-high nicotine dependence. Based on a within-subjects design, all participants participated in three experimental sessions: baseline, 30-min yoga, and 30-min aerobic exercise; one session was conducted per day. The pre- and post-exercise Questionnaire of Smoking Urges and the Visual Analogue Scale were used to measure cigarette craving, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was used to assess affective change. For cognitive measurement of inhibition, participants performed a Go/Nogo task consisting of Smoking-Go, Smoking-Nogo, Neutral-Go, and Neutral-Nogo stimulus conditions. Neuroelectric data were collected and the event-related potential (ERP) N2 and P3 amplitudes and latencies were analyzed.ResultsBoth yoga and aerobic exercise significantly reduced negative affect, whereas a reduction in craving was only observed after yoga. ERP results indicated that the P3 amplitudes after yoga were lower than those after aerobic exercise, suggesting increased neural efficiency after yoga, with reduced neural activity while maintaining the same level of cognitive performance as aerobic exercise.Conclusion As yoga and aerobic exercise were equally effective in attenuating negative affect, smokers may expect greater benefits from yoga in craving reduction and inhibitory control with less physical and cognitive effort. We also believe that video-based yoga practice may provide additional benefits to these effects, reaching a large number of smokers in a non-face-to-face manner.
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It has been proposed that the subliminal presentation of emotional body expressions can elicit a rapid, non-conscious emotional reaction and affect emotional judgment of a subsequent stimulus in the onlooker. To test this, a behavioural paradigm was developed, tested and optimised in four steps and implemented in a final experiment. Subjects were shown masked (33 ms) and unmasked (80 ms) whole-body pictures of avatars or actors expressing different emotions (neutral, happy, angry, fearful and sad). On each trial, these subliminal and supraliminal primes were followed by a 500 ms fixation period intended for neuronal measurements. Next, one of various artificially created target-avatar was presented and the participants gave a rapid rating of the emotional expression. The target consisted of a picture randomly chosen out of 7 or 5 morphs from emotional scales (happy to sad, happy to angry and happy to fearful). Additionally, participants were pre-screened for emotional and motivational predispositions using the 'Positive and Negative Affect Schedule' (PANAS) and 'Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale' (BIS/BAS). No clear behavioural priming effect was found. Fearful, female stimuli were perceived most negatively. There was a trend that this effect was strongest when these targets were preceded by angry primes.
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