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Hunting of wild animals by Sakalava of the Menabe region: A field report from Kirindy-Mite

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... In the Makira forest of northeastern Madagascar, however, people build bridges with snares (called laly totoko) which connect fruiting trees to forest fragments to trap arboreal frugivores (A7; A10) (Golden, 2009;Schwitzer et al., 2013a). Noose rope traps placed at ground level and baited with fruit ensnare other more ground-dwelling, diurnal lemurs, including common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and white-headed lemurs (Eulemur albifrons) (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Borgerson, 2015). Although sifakas (Propithecus spp.) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) can climb trees, pursuit hunting by use of dogs exhausts them and increases their chance of capture close to the ground by people (A7; A8) (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Gardner and Davies, 2014). ...
... Noose rope traps placed at ground level and baited with fruit ensnare other more ground-dwelling, diurnal lemurs, including common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and white-headed lemurs (Eulemur albifrons) (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Borgerson, 2015). Although sifakas (Propithecus spp.) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) can climb trees, pursuit hunting by use of dogs exhausts them and increases their chance of capture close to the ground by people (A7; A8) (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Gardner and Davies, 2014). ...
... Lemurs comprise an important part of the diets of rural inhabitants throughout Madagascar, where subsistence hunting is increasing to feed this rapidly growing population (C6; C9) (Goodman, 1993;Dunham et al., 2008;Golden, 2009;Jenkins et al., 2011;Razafimanahaka et al., 2012;Sauther et al., 2013;Gardner and Davies, 2014;Borgerson, 2016;Borgerson et al., 2016;Reuter et al., 2016b,c). Because the opportunity or capacity to engage in sustainable agricultural activities (including livestock production) in and near protected areas is limited, people increasingly rely on wild meat resources to supply their dietary needs (C6; C9) (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Golden, 2009;Schwitzer et al., 2013a;Gardner and Davies, 2014). This is exemplified within protected areas of southwest Madagascar, where hunting for wild meat occurs as an indirect result of limited land allocated for farming, reducing the prospects of income-generation from agriculture (C6; C9) (Schwitzer et al., 2013a;Gardner and Davies, 2014). ...
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Globally, non-human primates face mounting threats due to unsustainable harvest by humans. There is a need to better understand the diverse drivers of primate harvest and the complex social-ecological interactions influencing harvest in shared human-primate systems. Here, we take an interdisciplinary, systems approach to assess how complex interactions among primate biological and ecological characteristics and human social factors affect primate harvest. We apply our approach through a review and synthesis of the literature on lemur harvest in Madagascar, a country with one of the highest primate species richness in the world coupled with high rates of threatened primate species and populations in decline. We identify social and ecological factors affecting primate harvest, including the characteristics of lemurs that may make them vulnerable to harvest by humans; factors describing human motivations for (or deterrents to) harvest; and political and governance factors related to power and accessibility. We then discuss social-ecological interactions that emerge from: (1) the prevalence of informal institutions (e.g., cultural taboos), (2) adoption of human predatory strategies, (3) synergies with habitat use and habitat loss, and (4) interactions among regional- and local-scale factors (multi-level interactions). Our results illustrate that social-ecological interactions influencing lemur harvest in Madagascar are complex and context-specific, while influenced by a combination of interactions between species-specific characteristics and human social factors. These context-specific interactions may be also influenced by local-level cultural practices, land use change, and effects from regional-level social complexities such as political upheaval and food insecurity. We conclude by discussing the importance of identifying and explicitly accounting for nuances in underlying social-ecological systems and putting forth ideas for future research on primate harvest in shared human-primate systems, including research on social-ecological feedbacks and the application of Routine Activities Theory.
... L. catta face many of the same threats as all other lemurs and have suffered localized extirpation for bushmeat hunting [Gardner and Davies, 2014], extraction for the pet trade [Andriaholinirina et al., 2014;LaFleur et al., 2015;Reuter and Schaefer, 2016], and continued and rapid habitat loss particularly in the southernmost dry forests of Madagascar [Brinkmann et al., 2014]. These have taken a significant cumulative toll on abundance and distribution of L. catta [Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Sussman et al., 2006;Kelley et al., 2007;Gould and Sauther, 2016;LaFleur et al., 2017LaFleur et al., , 2018; but see Murphy et al., 2017]. ...
... Third, live capture for the pet trade is not the only threat that L. catta are facing. L. catta populations have experienced dramatic declines in the last three decades [Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Sussman et al., 2006;Kelley et al., 2007;Gould and Sauther, 2016;LaFleur et al., 2017LaFleur et al., , 2018; but see Murphy et al., 2017], resulting from habitat degradation and destruction [Brinkmann et al., 2014], bushmeat hunting [e.g., Sussman et al., 2006], and live capture for the pet trade [LaFleur et al., 2015;LaFleur et al., 2017LaFleur et al., , 2018. The combination of small isolated remaining populations along with existing threats L. catta is facing may simply be more than they can persist under, despite being a resilient species. ...
... Wild capture both for income generation and personal ownership poses threats to many lemur species, and particularly L. catta, which are the most frequently reported pet lemur. L. catta have experienced dramatic declines in their range and population numbers and extirpations in the wild [Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Sussman et al., 2006;Kelley et al., 2007;Gould and Sauther, 2016;LaFleur et al., 2017LaFleur et al., , 2018; but see Murphy et al., 2017], animals may suffer low survivorship after capture (although this should be confirmed with future research) [LaFleur et al., 2015], and among those surviving, many have poor-quality lives and may not be suitable for wild release [Reuter and Schaefer, 2016b]. Conservation actions focused on tourist education, enforcement of Malagasy law, and development of alternative economic livelihoods at the individual and business levels are promising directions for reducing the illegal capture and trafficking of lemurs. ...
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Lemur catta is the most reported illegal captive lemur. We document 286 L. catta that were held in illegal captive conditions in Madagascar. Coastal tourist destinations are “hot spots” for sightings. Many of the L. catta reported were in businesses (49%) and were perceived to be held captive for the purpose of generating income (41%). Infant/juvenile L. catta were overwhelmingly observed annually in December (41%) and may suffer high mortality rates given that they are not weaned during this month of the year. Population growth modeling suggests that known capture rates may be sustainable in all but small populations of 500 individuals and when infants/juveniles are targeted. However, of the seven remaining populations of L. cattawith more than 100 individuals, only one is known to contain more than 500 animals, and we present evidence here that infants/juveniles are targeted. Moreover L. catta face significant other threats including habitat loss, bushmeat hunting, and climate change. Several actions could reduce the illegal capture and ownership of L. catta in Madagascar such as tourist behavior change initiatives, enforcement of laws, and alternative livelihoods for local people. These interventions are urgently needed and could be adapted to protect other exploited wildlife in the future.
... Human butchery of wild lemurs neither implies nor precludes an economic dependence on domesticated animals. In some parts of rural Madagascar today where cattle are raised, wild birds and lemurs may be regular food items, while cattle and other larger-bodied domesticated mammals may be sacrificed only on special occasions (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Hunting of wild lemurs occurs widely in Madagascar today, even in ''protected'' areas (Favre, 1996;Smith et al., 1997;Hawkins, 1999;Randriamanalina et al., 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Garcia and Goodman, 2003;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). ...
... In some parts of rural Madagascar today where cattle are raised, wild birds and lemurs may be regular food items, while cattle and other larger-bodied domesticated mammals may be sacrificed only on special occasions (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Hunting of wild lemurs occurs widely in Madagascar today, even in ''protected'' areas (Favre, 1996;Smith et al., 1997;Hawkins, 1999;Randriamanalina et al., 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Garcia and Goodman, 2003;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Arboreal quadrupedal lemurs (such as Eulemur, Lemur) are caught in arboreal traps or killed at short range by hunters bearing slings. ...
... Lemurs that locomote primarily by leaping (e.g., sifakas, or Propithecus) are less easily caught in arboreal traps than are smaller, quadrupedal lemurs. However, dogs may be employed to chase wild sifakas to exhaustion, rendering them easy targets for humans with slings (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). ...
... Past research has clarified some basic elements of Madagascar's wild meat commodity chain. A diversity of taxa are hunted (including protected species), hunting occurs throughout the year including outside established seasons in game animals, and a wide variety of hunting and capture methods are employed [19,20,21]. The sparse data available from Madagascar [19,22] suggest wild meat is transported only short distances from hunting locations (4.40 ± 2.90 km [15]; 15 km [23]), perhaps because-unlike in other sub-Saharan countries [4]-wild meat in Madagascar is usually sold fresh and not smoked. ...
... Similar to previous reports [19,20,35], a wide range of hunting methods were used to capture wild animals. The use of dogs while hunting was reported by a third of respondents, though hunting methods differed by animal group and between urban and rural respondents (Fig 3). ...
... In contrast, rural respondents might be more likely to hunt for subsistence [16] or to protect their agricultural lands and livestock from nuisance animals (wild pigs and carnivores) [15]. However, there are exceptions to these generalizations and rural respondents also do occasionally use more efficient hunting methods [19,20] and also sell their wild meat catches when they have caught surplus animals [16]. ...
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Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought.
... A wide range of wild animals are known to be consumed in Madagascarincluding lemurs, tenrecs, bats, mongoose, civets, fossa, wild cats, and wild pigs (Garcia and Goodman 2003, Goodman and Raselimanana 2003, Golden 2009) -despite national laws limiting or prohibiting hunting of these animals . ...
... Accordingly, this research has focused on the formal trade though there is evidence that diverse taxa are hunted throughout the year using a variety of methods (e.g. Vasey 1996, Goodman andRaselimanana 2003;Randrianandrianina et al. 2010). There is also evidence that -despite legal protection -protected animals are being hunted (Vasey 1996) and game animals are being hunted out of season (Randrianandrianina et al. 2010). ...
... In contrast, rural respondents might be more likely to hunt for subsistence (Golden et al. 2014) or to protect their agricultural lands and livestock from nuisance animals, such as wild pigs and carnivores (Golden 2009). However, there are exceptions to these generalizations and rural respondents also do occasionally use more efficient hunting methods (Vasey 1996, Goodman andRaselimanana 2003) and also sell their wild meat catches when they have caught surplus animals (Golden et al. 2014). ...
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The anthropogenic use of natural resources has become a major cause of biodiversity loss and habitat degradation throughout the world. Deforestation - the conversion of forests to alternative land covers - has led to a decrease in local biodiversity directly through a decrease in habitat, and indirectly through habitat fragmentation. Likewise, defaunation – the loss of animals both directly through hunting and indirectly through deforestation – has led to the empty forest syndrome and subsequent deterioration of forest ecosystems. In many cases, areas where anthropogenic use of natural resources is high overlap with areas of high biodiversity value. Therefore, the present series of studies aims to better understand the impacts that different types of natural resources use and habitat degradation have on biodiversity. This dissertation details the results of five studies, which aimed to: 1) examine the effects of habitat degradation on plant-frugivore networks; 2), understand the live capture and extent of ownership of lemurs in Madagascar; 3) understand the micro- and macro-level drivers of wild meat consumption in Madagascar; 4) describe the capture, movement, and trade of wild meat in Madagascar; and 5) the impacts of habitat changes on the diets and vertical stratification of frugivorous bats. For the first study, our objectives were to understand the effects of habitat degradation on (1) community structure, (2) network structure, and (3) seed dispersal services. We focused on fruit-bearing trees and frugivores (two lemur and five bird species) across a three-point gradient of habitat degradation in a tropical dry forest in Madagascar. Our objectives were to understand the effects of habitat degradation on (1) community structure, (2) network structure, and (3) seed dispersal services. We focused on fruit-bearing trees and frugivores (two lemur and five bird species) across a three- point gradient of habitat degradation in a tropical dry forest in Madagascar. Data on fruit consumption by frugivores were collected over 592 hours of observations at 13 fruiting tree species. We found that as habitat became more degraded: (1) the community structure of both frugivores and fruiting tree communities changed; (2) the mutualistic network structure became less complex and less connected; (3) the interaction strengths of pair-wise interactions changed and the asymmetries of these interactions shifted; and (4) seed dispersal decreased by 91% in the secondary forest, compared to the primary forest. In addition, we show that frugivores: (1) sometimes stopped eating fruit in the degraded forest, even when they had consumed it in other forests; and (2) appeared to avoid some fruiting tree species while showing preference for others. The mutualistic network studied in this paper appeared sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and a novel measure of effectiveness helped quantify these changes. For the second study, our objectives were to provide the first quantitative estimates of the prevalence, spatial extent, correlates and timing of lemur ownership, procurement methods, within-country movements, and numbers and duration of ownership. Using semi-structured interviews of 1,093 households and 61 transporters, across 17 study sites, we found that lemur ownership was widespread and affected a variety of taxa. We estimate that 28,253 lemurs have been affected since 2010. Most lemurs were caught by owners and kept for either short (≤1 week) or long (≥3 years) periods. The live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is not highly organized but may threaten several endangered species. For the third study, we investigated the role of wild meat in food security in Madagascar, a country where wild meat consumption is poorly understood in urban areas and at regional scales. Using semi-structured interviews (n = 1339 heads-of-households, 21 towns), we aimed to: 1) quantify the amount and purpose of; 2) understand the drivers behind; and, 3) examine recent changes in wild meat consumption in Madagascar. Few respondents preferred wild meat (8 ± 3%) but most had eaten it at least once (78 ± 7%), and consumption occurred across ethnic groups, in urban and rural settings. More food insecure areas reported higher rates of recent consumption of wild meat. However, consumption was best explained by individual preferences and taboos. Few respondents (<1 ± <1%) had increased rates of consumption during their lifetimes, and wild meat prices showed no change from 2005-2013. Most consumption involved wild pigs and small-bodied animals, though these animal groups and lemurs were consumed less in recent years. Given these data, wild meat is unlikely to enhance food security for most Malagasy people in urban and well-connected rural areas. For the fourth study, and to improve understanding of the wild meat trade in Madagascar, our objectives were to: (1) quantify the volume of consumption, transport, and sale for different animal groups, compared to domestic meat; (2) describe the methods of capture and hunting for different animal groups; (3) analyze the patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer, compared to domestic meat; and (4) examine how the prices of wild meat change depending on the venue through which the consumer purchases it. Data was collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews of consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meatsellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though their prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat traveled distances of up to 166 km to reach consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting and receiving meat as a gift), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed twice as much wild meat as rural respondents. We conclude that urban and rural respondents differ in how they interact with the wild meat commodity chain. We also believe that the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is likely more formalized that previously thought. Finally, for our fifth study, we used stable isotope analysis to examine how foraging by three fruit bat species in Madagascar, Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, and Rousettus madagascariensis, are impacted by habitat change across a large spatial scale. Our results indicated that the three species had broadly overlapping diets. Differences in diet were nonetheless detectable and consistent between P. rufus and E. dupreanum, and these diets shifted when they co-occurred, suggesting resource partitioning across habitats and vertical strata within the canopy to avoid competition. Changes in diet were also correlated with a decrease in forest cover, though at a larger spatial scale in P. rufus than in E. dupreanum. These results suggest fruit bat species exhibit differing foraging strategies in response to habitat change. They also highlight the key threats that fruit bats face from habitat change, and clarify the spatial scales at which conservation efforts should be implemented to mitigate threats for these bat species in Madagascar.
... Hunting of wildlife for food is a major threat to forest vertebrates in the tropics (Wilkie et al. 1998. Bakarr et al. 2001, Fa et al. 2002, Corlett 2007, but wild meat provides people with There are accounts of lemur hunting from Daraina in the north (Rakotondravony 2006), Parc National (PN) de Kirindy-Mite in the southwest, (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003), PN d'Ankarafantsika in the west (Garcia and Goodman 2003), Makira in the northeast (Golden 2005) and Fort Dauphin in the southeast (Randriamanalina et al. 2000). Lemurs are protected by Malagasy law but many species are hunted using baited traps, blowpipes, shot guns, catapults, dogs or spears. ...
... Other frequently hunted mammals include tenrecs (Tenrecidae, Afrosoricida) and Bush pigs Potamochoerus larvatus (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003, Golden 2005, Rakotondravony 2006), and there is evidence that carnivores are also hunted and consumed in some areas, e.g. Makira (Golden 2005) and PN d'Ankarafantsika (Garcia and Goodman 2003). ...
... Makira (Golden 2005) and PN d'Ankarafantsika (Garcia and Goodman 2003). Reptiles are also eaten and although snakes are reportedly consumed (Rakotondravony 2006), the greatest demand is for tortoises and sea turtles (Garcia and Goodman 2003, Goodman and Raselimanana 2003, O'Brien et al. 2003. Birds are also important bushmeat across the country (Garcia and Goodman 2003, Rakotondravony 2006). ...
Article
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Bats are eaten by people throughout Madagascar and although the larger species like Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, Rousettus madagascariensis and Hipposideros commersoni are preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable hunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threat to bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be an important source of protein for Malagasy people during periods of food shortage but in general there are few data on the socioeconomic and cultural importance of bats. Fruit bats produce a single offspring per year and are therefore susceptible to over - hunting. Nevertheless, large roosts offer the possibility of community managed harvests to secure the colony and provide a source of meat but further research is needed before this can be considered. Roost sites also present the best focus for conservation and greater effort is needed to control hunting using existing legislation and flexible community - based solutions that are sensitive to the local context. The threat of pathogen transfer from bats to people is of growing concern as more bat species are identified as vectors of emergent viral diseases.
... While previous studies have generated information on the species targeted and, in some cases, the rates at which they are exploited (e.g. Garcia and Goodman 2003;Golden 2009;Goodman 2006;Goodman and Raselimanana 2003;Goodman et al. 2004Goodman et al. , 2008Jenkins et al. 2009Jenkins et al. , 2011Rakotondravony 2006;Randriamanalina et al. 2000;Randrianandrianina et al. 2010), we provide novel information regarding who hunts, how, and why they do so, in addition to a detailed description of the range of species hunted and consumed. While a larger sample size of informants would have been desirable, this would have necessitated interviewing villagers with whom a trusting relationship had not already been established. ...
... Bird remains (e.g. bones, feathers) are also less likely to be found around camps and villages for the same reason yet, hitherto, these comprised the only data on the consumption of birds by rural communities (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003;Goodman et al. 2004). ...
... Bushmeat appears to play a role as a 'safety net' for the people of Ranobe; its importance increases during times of scarcity when there is no money to buy domestic meat, but diminishes during times of agricultural labour because hunting carries a high opportunity cost (Fig. 2). This has been noted elsewhere in Madagascar (Favre 1996;Golden et al. 2011;Goodman 2006;Goodman and Raselimanana 2003), but is not always the case as illustrated by Randriamanalina et al. (2000), who found that bushmeat hunting was a commercially-motivated activity in the southeast of the country. Additionally, we know that the majority of species are eaten regardless of size, but that few are particularly favoured and domestic meat is preferred (also see Jenkins et al. 2011;Randrianandrianina et al. 2010), as well as the full range of techniques used to procure bushmeat, most of which are highly selective. ...
Article
Ensuring the sustainability of bushmeat consumption is critical for both biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation in tropical developing countries, yet we know little about the role of hunting and bushmeat consumption in the daily lives of rural communities.We provide the first detailed, qualitative examination of bushmeat hunting activities conducted by a rural community within one of Madagascar’s new, multiple-use protected areas, in order to inform appropriate management strategies. Results suggest that most species are eaten, but that few are favoured above domestic meat. Hunting is generally a secondary pursuit, carried out opportunistically during the course of other activities, although its importance does increase in times of food stress. Management focused on increasing domestic meat availability and directing hunting effort away from sensitive species may improve the sustainability of hunting, but development interventions to reduce forest dependence may be required to promote conservation and poverty alleviation simultaneously.
... Human butchery of wild lemurs neither implies nor precludes an economic dependence on domesticated animals. In some parts of rural Madagascar today where cattle are raised, wild birds and lemurs may be regular food items, while cattle and other larger-bodied domesticated mammals may be sacrificed only on special occasions (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Hunting of wild lemurs occurs widely in Madagascar today, even in ''protected'' areas (Favre, 1996;Smith et al., 1997;Hawkins, 1999;Randriamanalina et al., 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Garcia and Goodman, 2003;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). ...
... In some parts of rural Madagascar today where cattle are raised, wild birds and lemurs may be regular food items, while cattle and other larger-bodied domesticated mammals may be sacrificed only on special occasions (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Hunting of wild lemurs occurs widely in Madagascar today, even in ''protected'' areas (Favre, 1996;Smith et al., 1997;Hawkins, 1999;Randriamanalina et al., 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Garcia and Goodman, 2003;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). Arboreal quadrupedal lemurs (such as Eulemur, Lemur) are caught in arboreal traps or killed at short range by hunters bearing slings. ...
... Lemurs that locomote primarily by leaping (e.g., sifakas, or Propithecus) are less easily caught in arboreal traps than are smaller, quadrupedal lemurs. However, dogs may be employed to chase wild sifakas to exhaustion, rendering them easy targets for humans with slings (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). ...
Article
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We report here definitive evidence of butchery, most probably associated with hunting, of giant extinct lemurs by early human settlers in Madagascar. Specimens of Palaeopropithecus ingens and Pachylemur insignis from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Taolambiby and Tsirave, show classic signs of butchering. We compared these to the bones (also from Taolambiby) of butchered Propithecus verreauxi, a lemur still living in the region. The characteristics of the tool-induced extinct-lemur bone alterations (sharp cuts and chop marks near joints, oblique cuts along the shafts, spiral fractures, and percussion striae) suggest skinning, disarticulation, and filleting. Conclusive evidence of megafaunal modification by humans in Madagascar was limited previously to a few hippo and elephant bird bones and one extinct aye-aye tooth. New evidence comes not from archaeological sites, but from specimens collected in the early 1900s, without stratigraphic records, at "subfossil" sites (i.e., sites renowned for their late Pleistocene or Holocene fossils, often lacking human artifacts). Whereas these are hardly the most ideal samples for analysis of this kind, careful scrutiny of the characteristics of the cut marks has allowed us to document butchery beyond any reasonable doubt. One bone with definitive cut marks has been dated to the very earliest part of the human period in Madagascar. Continued, careful research on the bones in subfossil collections is warranted.
... Our implicit assumptions were that a large proportion of the remaining wild ring-tailed lemurs were found within these sites, and that the ring-tailed lemur habitat is becoming increasingly fragmented. We also argued that many populations of L. catta throughout this species' geographic range are in rapid decline or have become locally extirpated due to habitat destruction (decline of lemurs [Sussman et al., 2003;Kelley et al., 2007], habitat decline [Brinkmann et al., 2014]), hunting [Goodman, 2003;Moniac and Heitmann, 2007;Siers, 2007;Gardner and Davies, 2014], and live capture [LaFleur et al., 2015;Reuter and Schaefer, 2016;LaFleur et al., in prep.]. Murphy et al. [2017] presented several serious accusations in claiming that we have inadequately sampled ring-tailed lemur populations and habitats, and misused the literature. ...
... [2014] noted a strong decline in forest cover in a region of Madagascar's southwest (within the population distribution of L. catta) between 2001 and 2006, and a threefold increase in savannization and severe fragmentation in the southwest between 1973 and 2013. In some instances, such as that with Kirindy Mitea, we have relied on some of the older scientific literature [e.g., Goodman, 2003] in conjunction with knowledge of local people and researchers, and our own well-documented observations, to build a case for the likely status of ring-tailed lemurs within certain regions. To illustrate, ring-tailed lemurs historically ranged in the region of Kirindy Mitea [Goodman et al., 2006], although in 2003 Goodman reported certain areas were remarkably devoid of diurnal lemurs due to persistent hunting pressure. ...
Article
As with many other species in the primate order, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are threatened with extinction. Our articles documented declines in wild ring-tailed lemur populations and noted that fewer than 2,500 wild ring-tailed lemurs are known to persist in 32 [Gould and Sauther: Primate Conservation 2016; 30: 89-101] and 34 [LaFleur et al.: Folia Primatologica 2017; 87: 320-330] sites. A criticism of our articles [Murphy et al.: International Journal of Primatology 2017; 38: 623-628] suggested that we have inadequately sampled ring-tailed lemur populations and habitats, and misused the literature. We disagree, and provide both a detailed rebuttal and responses to specific critique points herein. Moreover, we restate our case outlining a dramatic decline of ring-tailed lemurs resulting from anthropogenic pressures (deforestation, severe habitat fragmentation, extraction for the pet and bushmeat trades). We pose several thought-provoking questions as to when is the appropriate time for researchers to "sound the alarm" about a species' decline, and remain committed to understanding the drivers of unsustainable exploitation of this emblematic lemur, and preventing their extinction in the wild.
... Ring-tailed lemurs represent 28% of individuals kept as in-country illegal pets , and are sometimes killed and consumed by their human owners [Reuter and Schaefer, in press]. This species also faces direct hunting pressure [e.g., Goodman 2003], significant habitat loss [Brinkmann et al., 2014], and population declines resulting from the effects of climate change [Brown and Yoder, 2015]. As a result, L. catta is now restricted to isolated fragments [Sussman et al., 2003] with relatively low population densities [Kelley 2013;Andriaholinirina et al., 2014;Gould and Andrianomena, 2015], and its survival in the wild at most locations remains perilous [but see Dimilahy et al., 2015]. ...
... To assess the status of populations of L. catta at these 32 sites, we used a mixture of methods: in-person site visits (M.L. and T.A.C.), personal communication with other researchers, and information gleaned from the published literature ( Table 1 ). We could not visit all 32 field sites due to time and budget limitations; for in-person site surveys, we prioritized locations where previous researchers suggested that populations of L. catta were under significant extraction pressure [e.g., Kirindy Mitea Sud hunting pressure, Goodman, 2003;Andohahela hunting pressure, Siers, 2007]. ...
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Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous an-thropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta , collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L. catta in at least 12 of the 32 sites examined, and that significantly more extinctions occurred in areas without some form of protection. This decrease in extant populations could represent a decrease of more than 95% of all ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar since the year 2000. While these results should be considered preliminary, we stress the rapid decline of the species and note that habitat loss, bush-meat hunting and the illegal pet trade are driving populations to local extinction. Based on the data presented here, urgent and immediate funding and conservation action are crucial to ensure the viability of the remaining wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs.
... Many wild animals are consumed in Madagascar (Goodman & Raselimanana 2003;Golden 2009), despite national laws limiting hunting of these animals . Consumption occurs for subsistence, following humanwildlife conflict or for luxury reasons; the reasons for consumption varies by species and region (Goodman & Raselimanana 2003;Golden 2009;Jenkins et al. 2011). ...
... Many wild animals are consumed in Madagascar (Goodman & Raselimanana 2003;Golden 2009), despite national laws limiting hunting of these animals . Consumption occurs for subsistence, following humanwildlife conflict or for luxury reasons; the reasons for consumption varies by species and region (Goodman & Raselimanana 2003;Golden 2009;Jenkins et al. 2011). However, the relative importance of these drivers has not been examined, especially in the urban context. ...
Article
The role of wild meat for subsistence or as a luxury good is debated. We investigated the role of wild meat in food security in Madagascar, where consumption is poorly understood in urban areas and at regional scales. Using semi-structured interviews (n = 1339 heads-of- households, 21 towns), we aimed to: (1) quantify the amount and purpose of, (2) understand the drivers of, and (3) examine changes in wild meat consumption. Few respondents preferred wild meat (8 ± 3%) but most had eaten it at least once in their lifetime (78 ± 7%). Consumption occurred across ethnic groups, in urban and rural settings. More food insecure areas reported higher rates of wild meat consumption in the 6–8 months prior to interviews. Consumption was best explained by individual preferences and taboos. Less than 1% of respondents had increased consumption during their lifetimes. Wild meat prices showed no change from 2005–2013. Most consumption involved wild pigs and smaller-sized animals, though they were consumed less in the years following the 2009 coup. These data illustrate the differences between urban and rural communities, the occasions in which wild meat is used a source of food security, and provide evidence that some taxa are not hunted sustainably in Madagascar.
... Il fait partie des régions prioritaires en matière de conservation de la biodiversité (Myers et al. 2000 (Goodman et Benstead 2005). Cependant, la chasse aux espèces de la faune sauvage est répandue sur l'ensemble de l'île (Goodman et Raselimanana 2003, Goodman et al. 2004, Rakotondravony 2006. Des études portant sur des ossements de lémuriens subfossiles ont montré que la chasse était déjà pratiquée il y a 2000 ans (Perez et al. 2005). ...
... De nos jours, la viande de brousse prend une place plus ou moins importante dans l'alimentation des populations rurales malgaches (Rakotondravony 2006). Les vertébrés concernés par la chasse sont les cétacés, les siréniens, les lémuriens, les tenrecs, les sangliers, les carnivores, les chauves -souris, les oiseaux, les reptiles et les amphibiens (Randriamanalina et al. 2000, Garcìa et Goodman 2003, Goodman et Raselimanana 2003, Nicoll 2003, Goodman et al. 2004, Rakotondravony 2006, Jenkins et Racey 2008, Kiszka et al. 2008, Golden 2009, Jenkins et al. 2009, Randrianandrianina et al. 2010. Alors que les volumes concernés par la chasse n'avaient été guère abordés dans l'histoire, la question a récemment reçu bien plus d'attention. ...
Article
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Les lois et règlements déterminant les niveaux de protection des espèces de la faune et de la flore sauvages sont des indicateurs importants de l’importance qu’accorde un pays à la conservation de sa biodiversité. Dans cette revue, nous évaluons la cohérence entre les lois et règlements portant sur la gestion de la faune sauvage à Madagascar, en considérant la législation nationale, les conventions internationales ratifiées et la Liste Rouge de l’UICN pour les confronter aux réalités locales. Suite à nos analyses, nous pouvons conclure que Madagascar dispose d’un cadre juridique adéquat pour réglementer la protection et l’exploitation des animaux sauvages. Cependant, des révisions et mises à jour sont nécessaires, particulièrement en ce qui concerne la liste des espèces dans les différentes catégories et la facilitation de la mise en application de la loi. In many countries wildlife species are threatened by hunting for meat or collection for the pet trade. Wildlife laws which control where these activities can occur, limit the timing of exploitation, or provide strict protection for some species are therefore an important component of the conservation strategy. However it is important that these wildlife laws reflect the ecology and threat status of the species concerned, and that they are aligned with any relevant international conventions. In this article we discuss the legal framework for exploiting and protecting tetrapod species in Madagascar. We review the 2006 update to wildlife legislation with respect to international treaties, other national legislation and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We also present a summary of the different categories of hunting (sport, commercial, scientific, and subsistence) and the control of hunting in protected areas. Madagascar has a sound legal framework for the use and protection of wildlife and the classification of species into protected, pest and legally hunted is clear and mostly fits well with the species’ classification according to the IUCN Red List and CITES. A revision of the protected species list managed is needed however to (i) include marine mammals that are protected by fisheries law and the Convention on Migratory Species and to (ii) better reflect the rights of people whose livelihoods rely heavily on the income or protein derived from hunting animals. Renewed effort to communicate and enforce wildlife legislation is needed, especially regarding the illegal hunting and export of protected species. This would also support the ongoing initiative to expand the protected area system and could be integrated into a revised National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that Madagascar should produce for 2011 - 2020 as part of its commitment to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity.
... This non-sexually dimorphic mongoose-like species has a propensity to live in forest blocks greater than 1000 ha, with relatively intact vegetation and closed understory. A number of factors have been associated with the apparent reduction of regionally endemic species, including Mungotictis, in the Menabe region including agro-industrial development, slash-and-burn cultivation, local and commercial extraction of timber, charcoal production and hunting (Smith, Horning & Moore, 1997;Tidd, Pinder & Ferguson, 2001;Sommer et al., 2002;Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003;Woolaver et al., 2006). Mungotictis is classified by the IUCN (2008 update) as Vulnerable B1ab (ii, iii, v). ...
... Significant portions of the current Parc National de Kirindy Mite experienced selective logging before 1990. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized pressure in the Menabe region is subsistence hunting by local people on forest-dwelling vertebrates, including carnivorans, such as Cryptoprocta ferox and M. decemlineata, as well as lemurs (Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003). This has resulted in several areas in the Menabe with relatively intact forest, including within and at the edge of the Parc National de Kirindy Mite, of notably reduced populations of certain vertebrates. ...
Article
The boky‐boky, Mungotictis decemlineata, is an endemic and presumed forest‐dependent carnivoran species restricted to lowland central western Madagascar. It inhabits dry deciduous forests, which have been severely reduced in surface area with ∼60% destroyed or degraded by humans during the past 60 years. M. decemlineata is limited to the remnant forests of the central and southern Menabe, and using samples collected from sites across this zone, a phylogeographic study was conducted based on two mitochondrial (1140 base pairs [bp] of cytochrome b and 563 bp of the control region) and one nuclear fragment (591 bp of the seventh intron of the fibrinogen gene). Forty‐seven individuals were included from the central Menabe from four principal localities and two animals from the southern Menabe from a single locality. Low sequence divergence (1.65% for the combined fragment, 4.26% for the control region and 0.78% for cytochrome b) characterized specimens across a zone of 130 km delimited by the Tsiribihina River to the north and the Mangoky River to the south; this area includes most of the geographical range of M. decemlineata. Phylogenetic trees, haplotype networks and exact test of population differentiation did not reveal any meaningful geographic partitioning of genetic variation. However, shallow yet significant genetic structure was revealed by ΦST calculations for the combined as well as separate DNA fragments, which we ascribe to isolation‐by‐distance. We proposed two different scenarios to explain the lack of meaningful phylogeographical structure in Mungotictis: (1) for this forest‐dependent species, dispersal during periods of more continuous forest cover gave rise to a genetic meta‐population or (2) that it is able to cross non‐forested zones and broadly disperses, leading to high levels of genetic homogeneity. Current inferences favour the first hypothesis. The short‐ and medium‐term future of this taxon is in jeopardy associated with habitat destruction across its geographical range.
... Deforestation occurs mainly as the result of slash-and-burn agriculture, known locally as tavy, and selective logging by local people. Hunting of lemurs is prevalent, including in protected areas (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Lehman and Wright, 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001), resulting in considerable efforts to determine conservation priorities for lemurs (ANGAP, 2003;Ganzhorn et al., 1996Ganzhorn et al., /1997Ganzhorn et al., , 1997Ganzhorn et al., , 2001G.E.F., 1996a, b). Hannah et al. (1998) and Ganzhorn et al. (1997) described results of a multidisciplinary conference to assess Madagascar's scientific and conservation priorities. ...
... We also documented a strong positive correlation between intensities of selective logging and lemur hunting (Table III). Loggers typically hunt lemurs via blow guns, slingshots, and snare traps, as they do in many regions of Madagascar (Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Lehman and Wright, 2000;Müller et al., 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001). Although we did not document any correlation between lemur diversity and hunting pressures, it is important to note that correlations organize sampling entities along a gradient or continuum. ...
Article
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The Fandriana-Marolambo forest corridor is one of the largest (ca. 250,000 ha) and least explored tracts of unprotected forest in southeast Madagascar. Although published range maps show continuous distribu-tions for many lemurs throughout the region, there are few data on lemur community structure in the corridor. We aimed to determine lemur commu-nity structure, with its ecological correlates (altitude, agriculture, selective logging, and hunting), in the Fandriana-Marolambo forest corridor. We surveyed 7 sites and sighted 4 nocturnal taxa (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Lepilemur mustelinus, and Microcebus rufus) and 6 diurnal taxa (Eulemur rubriventer, E. fulvus rufus, E. f. fulvus, Propithecus diadema edwardsi, Hapalemur griseus griseus, and Varecia variegata variegata). Composition of the lemur community was broadly similar to that of nearby protected areas (Ranomafana and Mantadia National Parks). However, we sighted no Hapalemur aureus, H. simus, or Indri indri, and observed Propithecus diadema edwardsi and Varecia variegata variegata at only 1 site each. We sighted an apparent hybrid form of Eulemur fulvus fulvus and E. f. rufus that may represent a new hybrid zone for lemurs. After testing for spatial autocorrelation, lemur diversity correlates negatively with altitude and agricultural intensity. Though the Government of Madagascar is assessing the corridor as a new national park, we suggest conservation
... Il fait partie des régions prioritaires en matière de conservation de la biodiversité (Myers et al. 2000 (Goodman et Benstead 2005). Cependant, la chasse aux espèces de la faune sauvage est répandue sur l'ensemble de l'île (Goodman et Raselimanana 2003, Goodman et al. 2004, Rakotondravony 2006. Des études portant sur des ossements de lémuriens subfossiles ont montré que la chasse était déjà pratiquée il y a 2000 ans (Perez et al. 2005). ...
... De nos jours, la viande de brousse prend une place plus ou moins importante dans l'alimentation des populations rurales malgaches (Rakotondravony 2006). Les vertébrés concernés par la chasse sont les cétacés, les siréniens, les lémuriens, les tenrecs, les sangliers, les carnivores, les chauves -souris, les oiseaux, les reptiles et les amphibiens (Randriamanalina et al. 2000, Garcìa et Goodman 2003, Goodman et Raselimanana 2003, Nicoll 2003, Goodman et al. 2004, Rakotondravony 2006, Jenkins et Racey 2008, Kiszka et al. 2008, Golden 2009, Jenkins et al. 2009, Randrianandrianina et al. 2010. Alors que les volumes concernés par la chasse n'avaient été guère abordés dans l'histoire, la question a récemment reçu bien plus d'attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
In many countries wildlife species are threatened by hunting for meat or collection for the pet trade. Wildlife laws which control where these activities can occur, limit the timing of exploitation, or provide strict protection for some species are therefore an important component of the conservation strategy. However it is important that these wildlife laws reflect the ecology and threat status of the species concerned, and that they are aligned with any relevant international conventions. In this article we discuss the legal framework for exploiting and protecting tetrapod species in Madagascar. We review the 2006 update to wildlife legislation with respect to international treaties, other national legislation and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We also present a summary of the different categories of hunting (sport, commercial, scientific, and subsistence) and the control of hunting in protected areas. Madagascar has a sound legal framework for the use and protection of wildlife and the classification of species into protected, pest and legally hunted is clear and mostly fits well with the species’ classification according to the IUCN Red List and CITES. A revision of the protected species list managed is needed however to (i) include marine mammals that are protected by fisheries law and the Convention on Migratory Species and to (ii) better reflect the rights of people whose livelihoods rely heavily on the income or protein derived from hunting animals. Renewed effort to communicate and enforce wildlife legislation is needed, especially regarding the illegal hunting and export of protected species. This would also support the ongoing initiative to expand the protected area system and could be integrated into a revised National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that Madagascar should produce for 2011-2020 as part of its commitment to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity.
... The only substantial populations remain in the larger western fragments. A report that M. decemlineata is being hunted for food in southern Menabe (Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003) could indicate that the rate of decline will increase. ...
... Together they represent 7.7% of the estimated area of occurrence of M. decemlineata. Unfortunately, Andranomena consists entirely of secondary and degraded forest and Kirindy-Mite has been significantly affected by hunting (Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003). A protected area needs to be established that encompasses Kirindy/CFPF, the remaining corridor of forest east of Beroboka, and the forest of Ambadira north of Beroboka. ...
Article
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The narrow-striped mongoose Mungotictis decemlineata is a small, endemic carnivore currently known to occur only in the dry deciduous forests of the central and southern Menabe regions of western Madagascar. It is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by rapid habitat loss from deforestation. From live-trapping and village surveys we found M. decemlineata to be distributed throughout the largest area of connected forest in central Menabe and most of the larger forest fragments in southern Menabe. We estimated there are a minimum of 2,000–3,400 adults in central Menabe and 6,400–8,650 adults in southern Menabe. Although this represents the total known population, the southern limits of the species' range are still unclear. Fifty-four individuals were live-trapped in central Menabe. M. decemlineata abundance was not correlated with forest structure or invertebrate abundance and diversity at the sampled sites. The building of access roads for logging may have a long-lasting effect by increasing the level of human disturbance, predation by domestic dogs, and illegal cutting within the surrounding area. Conservation management efforts to save M. decemlineata need immediate implementation, with emphasis on cooperative efforts with local villages to reduce the rate of slash-and-burn agriculture and logging of the remaining dry deciduous forest of the region. Research to determine population trends and status of M. decemlineata south of the Morondava and Mangoky rivers is required.
... One group experiencing the greatest impact from this biodiversity loss are lemurs, a diverse assembly of over 100 primate species found no where else in the world (Green and Sussman, 1990;Du Puy and Moat, 1998;Mittermeier et al., 2006). In addition to disappearing habitat, lemurs are also under continuous pressure from illegal poaching as a food source (Lehman and Wright, 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003), especially the larger species such as sifakas and ruffed lemurs (Mittermeier et al., 2006). This hunting pressure ultimately led to the local extinction of the endangered Diademed sifaka (DS, Propithecus diadema) and the critically endangered black and white ruffed lemur (BWRL, Varecia variegata editorum;IUCN, 2009;Mittermeier et al., 2008) from Analamazaotra Special Reserve (ASR) in 1973 and1976, respectively (pers. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... Although hunting of lemurs is taboo in some areas of southern Madagascar (Loudon et al. 2006), hunting of ring-tailed lemurs may have led to localized extirpation in several forested areas north of Toliara (see Gardner and Davies 2014;LaFleur et al. 2015). Moreover, there are several additional areas where hunting of ringtailed lemurs occurs (see Goodman 2003;Moniac and Heitmann 2007;Seirs 2007), and consequently where there are now very few or no animals remaining (LaFleur et al. 2016). Hunters often use dogs to track, chase and kill entire social groups of ring-tailed lemurs (see Gardner and Davies 2014), which does not appear to be sustainable. ...
... A une période actuelle, l'assèchement n'a pas été suffisant pour permettre la disparition des formations forestières derrière la barrière de dunes dans le centre-ouest malgache (Rossi, 1984). A proximité de Belo sur mer, il existe de nombreux endroits où se sont formés des bassins d'eau douce et des mares permanents, grâce à la pression artésienne du sol (Goodman et Raselimanana, 2003). Ces conditions ont permis l'établissement des baobabs de la classe d'âge A, ce qui peut expliquer leur densité élevée dans ce site. ...
Thesis
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Baobab trees are long-lived trees for which reproduction and biology have led various research questions. This thesis aims understanding the biological processes involved in seed dispersal of two species of Malagasy baobabs (A. rubrostipa and A. grandidieri) and the effect on population spatial pattern. Experiments were conducted to clarify the role of vertebrate dispersers on seed dissemination and seed germination. Analysis of the spatial distribution was discussed at the population level. The spatial referencing of adult baobabs has been achieved on the basis of a census and crown delimitation using imagery with very high spatial resolution. This work demonstrated the mutualistic relationships within ecosystems for seed dispersals and the baobab recruitment. In particular, our results showed that (i) the disappeared Malagasy megafauna as giant tortoises can provide dispersal of intact baobabs seeds, (ii) the large livestock can replace the role of the Malagasy megafauna ; pulp removal and dormancy breaking are facilitated by the passage of seeds in the digestive tract of these animals (iii) the big size of the fruits is compatible with the involvement of current frugivores such as lemurs and (iv) dispersal by floating seeds can prove to be an equally effective mechanism in the absence of main animals dispersers. This study also demonstrated that the capacity of seed dispersal and the access to the nearest water point due to arid conditions of their habitats are main determinants of spatial patterns of baobabs. These conditions can play the role of environmental filter selecting individuals that are far from water point.
... Ring-tailed lemurs are vulnerable strepsirrhine primates endemic to Madagascar. From a conservation perspective, they are a prime example of a population in peril, owing primarily to habitat loss, through deforestation and human encroachment, and secondarily to hunting (Green and Sussman 1990;Du Puy and Moat 1998;Lehman and Wright 2000;Goodman and Raselimanana 2003;Lehman 2006). From an ecological perspective, they represent a fragmented population that could become increasingly vulnerable through loss of genetic diversity and decreased gene flow (Frankham 1995(Frankham , 2003. ...
Article
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The consequences of inbreeding have been well studied in a variety of taxa, revealing that inbreeding has major negative impacts in numerous species, both in captivity and in the wild; however, as trans-generational health data are difficult to obtain for long-lived, free-ranging species, similar analyses are generally lacking for nonhu-man primates. Here, we examined the long-term effects of inbreeding on numerous health estimates in a captive colony of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed under semi-natural conditions. This vulnerable strepsirrhine primate is endemic to Madagascar, a threatened hotspot of biodiversity; consequently, this captive population represents an important surrogate. Despite significant attention to maintaining the genetic diversity of captive animals, breeding colonies invariably suffer from various degrees of inbreeding. We used neutral heterozygosity as an estimate of inbreeding and showed that our results reflect genome-wide inbreeding, rather than local genetic effects. In particular , we found that genetic diversity affects several fitness correlates, including the prevalence and burden of Cuterebra parasites and a third (N = 6) of the blood parameters analyzed, some of which reflect immunocom-petence. As a final validation of inbreeding depression in this captive colony, we showed that, compared to outbred individuals, inbred lemurs were more likely to die earlier from diseases. Through these analyses, we highlight the importance of monitoring genetic variation in captive animals—a key objective for conservation geneticists—and provide insight into the potential negative consequences faced by small or isolated populations in the wild.
... Their range extends west from Fort Dauphin, near the southern tip of the island, as far north as the Marofihitse Forest/Kirindy-Mitea, ca. 60 km south of Morondava on the central western coast (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003;Sussman et al. 2003;Zinner et al. 2001). An additional population occurs on the Andringitra Massif on the southeastern plateau (Goodman and Langrand 1996). ...
... One group experiencing the greatest impact from this biodiversity loss are lemurs, a diverse assembly of over 100 primate species found no where else in the world (Green and Sussman, 1990;Du Puy and Moat, 1998;Mittermeier et al., 2006). In addition to disappearing habitat, lemurs are also under continuous pressure from illegal poaching as a food source (Lehman and Wright, 2000;Mutschler et al., 2001;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003), especially the larger species such as sifakas and ruffed lemurs (Mittermeier et al., 2006). This hunting pressure ultimately led to the local extinction of the endangered Diademed sifaka (DS, Propithecus diadema) and the critically endangered black and white ruffed lemur (BWRL, Varecia variegata editorum;IUCN, 2009;Mittermeier et al., 2008) from Analamazaotra Special Reserve (ASR) in 1973 and1976, respectively (pers. ...
Article
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Deforestation, mainly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture (tavy) and selective logging, has occurred continuously since the arrival of humans to Madagascar over 2000 years ago (Jolly, 1989; Harcourt and Thorn-back, 1990). This has resulted in rising pressure on native wildlife as the island has lost 80-90% of its original forest habitat (Mittermeier et al., 2005). One group experiencing the greatest impact from this biodiversity loss are lemurs, a diverse assembly of over 100 primate species found no where else in the world (Green and Sussman, 1990; Du Puy and Moat, 1998; Mittermeier et al., 2006). In addition to disappearing habitat, lemurs are also under continuous pressure from illegal poaching as a food source (Lehman and Wright, 2000; Mut-schler et al., 2001; Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003), especially the larger species such as sifakas and ruffed lemurs (Mittermeier et al., 2006). This hunting pressure ultimately led to the local extinction of the endangered Diademed sifaka (DS, Propithecus diadema) and the critically endangered black and white ruffed lemur (BWRL, Varecia variegata editorum; IUCN, 2009; Mit-termeier et al., 2008) from Analamazaotra Special Reserve (ASR) in 1973 and 1976, respectively (pers. comm., B. M. Ratsisakanana, P. Rabearisoa, Joseph). Analamazaotra Special Reserve (810 ha), also referred to as Andasibe after the neighboring local village or as Perinet by European tourists, was initially part of a continuous forest with Mantadia National Park (15,500 ha) to the north, Maromizaha Classified Forest (1,600 ha) to the southeast, and Anosibe an'ala (1,500 ha) to the south (ANGAP, 2005). Although all four are now relatively isolated forest fragments, Andasibe-Mantadia National Park and ASR remain one of the most popular tourist destinations in Madagascar due to the opportunity to view the indri (Indri indri), Madagascar's largest remaining extant lemur. These four rain forest habitats are home to vast biodiversity encompassing many endemic rare and endangered plants and animals, including 13 lemur species. Although hunted to extinction in ASR, P. diadema and V. v. editorum continued to exist in the forests of Mantadia, Maromizaha, and Anosibe an'ala. Beginning in January 2006, after more than four years of planning, the Madagascar Biodiversity and Biogeography Project of Henry Doorly Zoo (MBP-HDZ), in collaboration with Madagascar National Parks (MNP; formerly known as Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protégées, or ANGAP) and the Ministère de l'Environnement, des Forêts et de Tourisme (MEFT), initiated the first ever attempt to recover a species' former distribution in Madagascar. Following the recommendations of the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group: Guidelines for Nonhuman Primate Re-introductions (2002), the MBP-HDZ initiated the Analamazaotra Re-introduction/Translocation (ART) Project. This paper provides a summary to date of the project's efforts to re-establish the Diademed sifaka and the black and white ruffed lemur back into their historical habitat range within Analamazaotra Special Reserve.
... Deforestation is mainly due to slash-and-burn agriculture and selective logging by local people. Many lemurs are hunted, including in protected areas (Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003). Thus, it is important to provide conservation authorities with up-to-date data on the distribution of lemurs. ...
Article
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This paper describes the results of field surveys for two Endangered lemurs, Milne-Edward's sifaka Propithecus diadema edwardsi and the black and white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata variegata, in the unprotected Fandriana-Marolambo forest corridor in south-east Madagascar. Published range maps show P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata present in the corridor, although few surveys have been conducted in this area. A total of 292.9 km of surveys were conducted at eight sites in the corridor but P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata were each located at only one site. Absence of these species at other sites may be the combined result of altitu-dinal and anthropogenic effects. Conservation plans for P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata are complicated because gaps in forest cover prevent dispersal of conspecifics from nearby protected areas. Conservation authorities should be cautious in using range maps based on the presumed distribution of lemur species.
... Population declines in these species likely resulted from a combination of continued hunting pressure, habitat reduction and transformation, and climatic desiccation. Unfortunately the very same anthropogenic effects that are thought to have led to the demise of the extinct taxa continue their assault across the island today (Favre, 1996;Richard and O'Conner, 1997;Stiles, 1998;Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003;Godfrey and Irwin, 2007;Golden, 2009). The paucity of lemurs in the Central Highlands attests to the vulnerability of extant lemur populations. ...
Article
The vertebrate community of Madagascar is one of the most unique and diverse on Earth, yet faunal diversity today is just a fraction of that present in the Pleistocene and Early Holocene. An understanding of the chronology of extinction relative to climate change and anthropogenic factors is essential to test hypotheses for extinction. Here, I combine over 200 new radiocarbon dates with published 14C dates from extinct and extant subfossil vertebrates. These new data provide evidence for the prolonged existence of both extant and extinct endemic terrestrial vertebrate species well before human arrival, with habitation of some localities extending back before the Last Glacial Maximum. I analyze the data for patterns among body sizes and ecoregions in relation to four major historical events: human arrival (ca 2500 years ago), establishment of human settlements (ca 1500 years ago), Late Holocene aridification (peaking ca 1000 years ago), and European arrival (ca 500 years ago). Patterns in endemic species abundance after human arrival differ depending on body size and geographic location. Within the first 500 years after human arrival, there were population declines in (1) very large species (>150 kg) and large species (10–150 kg) in the Dry Deciduous Forest, (2) large species in the Central Highlands, and (3) very large species in the Spiny Thicket. This first pulse of declines was likely triggered by human predation. Large species continued to be well represented in the Spiny Thicket and Succulent Woodland until ca 1000 years ago, when their populations plummeted. This second pulse of declines may have been solely triggered by continued human predation, or it may have resulted from a combination of increasing Late Holocene aridity and human impacts in the form of hunting and habitat modification. The abundance of endemic animals weighing <10 kg increased dramatically in the aftermath of the decline in large-bodied species.
... Deforestation is mainly due to slash-and-burn agriculture and selective logging by local people. Many lemurs are hunted, including in protected areas (Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003). Thus, it is important to provide conservation authorities with up-to-date data on the distribution of lemurs. ...
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This paper describes the results of field surveys for two Endangered lemurs, Milne-Edward's sifaka Propithecus diadema edwardsi and the black and white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata variegata, in the unprotected Fandriana-Marolambo forest corridor in south-east Madagascar. Published range maps show P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata present in the corridor, although few surveys have been conducted in this area. A total of 292.9 km of surveys were conducted at eight sites in the corridor but P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata were each located at only one site. Absence of these species at other sites may be the combined result of altitu- dinal and anthropogenic effects. Conservation plans for P. d. edwardsi and V. v. variegata are complicated because gaps in forest cover prevent dispersal of conspecifics from nearby protected areas. Conservation authorities should be cautious in using range maps based on the presumed distribution of lemur species.
... Hunting displays great geographic and cultural variability, but appears capable of locally decimating lemur populations ( Irwin et al., 2000;Goodman & Raselimanana, 2003). Two types of hunting are known: projectile hunting (spears, slings, blowguns and, rarely, firearms) and trapping. ...
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The unique primates of south-eastern Madagascar face threats from growing human popula-tions. The country's extant primates already represent only a subset of the taxonomic and ecological diversity existing a few thousand years ago. To prevent further losses remaining taxa must be subjected to effective monitoring programmes that directly inform conserva-tion efforts. We offer a necessary first step: revision of geographic ranges and quantification of habitat area and population size for diurnal and cathemeral (active during both day and night) lemurs. Recent satellite images are used to develop a forest cover geographical information system, and censuses are used to establish range boundaries and develop estimates of population density and size. These assessments are used to identify regions and taxa at risk, and will be a useful baseline for future monitoring of habitat and populations. Precise estimates are impossible for patchily-distributed taxa (especially Hapalemur aureus, H. simus and Varecia variegata variegata); these taxa require more sophisticated modelling.
... Ring-tailed lemurs are vulnerable strepsirrhine primates endemic to Madagascar. From a conservation perspective, they are a prime example of a population in peril, owing primarily to habitat loss, through deforestation and human encroachment, and secondarily to hunting (Green and Sussman 1990;Du Puy and Moat 1998;Lehman and Wright 2000;Goodman and Raselimanana 2003;Lehman 2006). From an ecological perspective, they represent a fragmented population that could become increasingly vulnerable through loss of genetic diversity and decreased gene flow (Frankham 1995(Frankham , 2003. ...
Article
The consequences of inbreeding have been well studied in a variety of taxa, revealing that inbreeding has major negative impacts in numerous species, both in captivity and in the wild; however, as trans-generational health data are difficult to obtain for long-lived, free-ranging species, similar analyses are generally lacking for nonhuman primates. Here, we examined the long-term effects of inbreeding on numerous health estimates in a captive colony of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed under semi-natural conditions. This vulnerable strepsirrhine primate is endemic to Madagascar, a threatened hotspot of biodiversity; consequently, this captive population represents an important surrogate. Despite significant attention to maintaining the genetic diversity of captive animals, breeding colonies invariably suffer from various degrees of inbreeding. We used neutral heterozygosity as an estimate of inbreeding and showed that our results reflect genome-wide inbreeding, rather than local genetic effects. In particular, we found that genetic diversity affects several fitness correlates, including the prevalence and burden of Cuterebra parasites and a third (N=6) of the blood parameters analyzed, some of which reflect immunocompetence. As a final validation of inbreeding depression in this captive colony, we showed that, compared to outbred individuals, inbred lemurs were more likely to die earlier from diseases. Through these analyses, we highlight the importance of monitoring genetic variation in captive animals—a key objective for conservation geneticists—and provide insight into the potential negative consequences faced by small or isolated populations in the wild.
... Forest-dwelling primates are increasingly threatened by logging, agriculture, and hunting (Cowlishaw and Dunbar, 2000; Chapman and Peres, 2001 ). Numerous studies have provided insights into how primates respond to habitat disturbances and hunting pressures (Johns and Skorupa, 1987; Mittermeier et al., 1994; Ganzhorn et al., 1996 Ganzhorn, 1997; Chiarello, 1999; Peres, 1999; Lehman and Wright, 2000; Onderdonk and Chapman, 2000; Peres, 2000; Peres and Dolman, 2000; Radispiel and Raveloson, 2001; Laurance et al., 2002; Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003; Marsh, 2003; Sussman et al., 2003; Paciulli, 2004; Johnson et al., 2005; this volume). For example, frugivorous lemurs may be particularly susceptible to habitat disturbance because there are few fruiting trees in Madagascar (Ganzhorn et al., 1999). ...
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In this paper, we present an introduction to primate biogeography at a continental level and then review the literature as it pertains to primate studies. Primate species diversity is highest in the Neotropics and Asia. Most primates range into rain/humid forests in Africa, Asia, and the Neotropics. Asia contains the highest total number of primate species (N = 38) that are considered to require conservation attention, followed closely by the Neotropics (N = 33 species). These biogeographic patterns reflect complex phylogenetic, geologic, and ecological processes. The various biogeographic theories and models used to explain these patterns can be organized into several broad categories (1) descriptive studies, (2) comparative-quantitative approaches, (3) refugia theory, (4) phylogenetic approaches, (5) community ecology, and (6) conservation biology. Descriptive models have been derived from distribution data obtained during collecting expeditions. These models focused on geographic variations in species characteristics and barriers to dispersal (e.g., Gloger’s Rule, Bergmann’s Rule, Allen’s Rule, river barrier hypothesis). With the advent of digitized statistical procedures, these barriers became testable biogeographic hypotheses using comparative-quantitative models. Thus, many researchers have noted the importance of rivers as geographical subdivisions of populations of a species. Comparative-quantitative models have also involved studies of species-area and distribution-abundance relationships. Generally, larger areas are more species rich and widely distributed primates tend to exist at higher densities. Many researchers have also investigated various ecological correlates (e.g., rainfall, latitude) to patterns of primate species richness. There has been considerable debate regarding the importance of Pleistocene Refugia for understanding the historical biogeography of primates. Phylogenetic or cladistic biogeography focuses on shared derived characters, which can be used to reconstruct biogeographical history. The presence or absence of species within a geographic area has been investigated extensively through studies of community ecology. Similarities between primate communities are most likely if they share a common biogeographic history. Composition of primate communities can also reflect evolutionary niche dynamics. Finally, researchers studying primate conservation biology have synthesized methods from various biogeographic models to understand and predict primate rarity and extinction events. Much of the renewed interest in primate biogeography tends to focus on the spatial and temporal patterns that influence species origins and diversity.
... Their range extends west from Fort Dauphin, near the southern tip of the island, as far north as the Marofihitse Forest/Kirindy-Mitea, ca. 60 km south of Morondava on the central western coast (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003; Sussman et al. 2003; Zinner et al. 2001). An additional population occurs on the Andringitra Massif on the southeastern plateau (Goodman and Langrand 1996). ...
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A basic understanding of the taxonomy, diversity, and distributions of primates is essential for their conservation. This review of the status of the taxonomy of lemurs is based on a 5-d workshop entitled “Primate Taxonomy for the New Millennium,” held at the Disney Institute, Orlando, Florida, in February 2000. The aim is not to present a taxonomic revision, but to review our current understanding of the diversity and current and past ranges of lemurs and indicate where there is controversy, discrepancy, or lack of knowledge. Our goal therefore is to provide a baseline for future taxonomic investigation, as well as a clearer focus for research and conservation priorities. We here focus on the lemurs of Madagascar and recognize 5 families, 15 genera, and 99 species and subspecies. We list 39 species of lemurs described since 2000: 2 dwarf lemurs, Cheirogaleus; 11 mouse lemurs, Microcebus; a giant mouse lemur, Mirza; a bamboo lemur, Hapalemur; 17 sportive lemurs, Lepilemur; and 7 woolly lemurs, Avahi. Taxonomic revisions have resulted in the resurrection of a further 9 taxa. However, the figures do not represent the total diversity of Malagasy lemurs because more new species are being identified via new field studies and accompanying genetic research, and should be described in the near future.
... In addition, people in and around the Kirindy Mitea region hunt Verreaux's sifaka. Hunting is especially prominent during the dry season, when there is a lack of food (Goodman, 2003). ...
Article
Kirindy Mitea National Park contains one of the largest continuous tracts of dry forest left in Madagascar. Most of the dry, deciduous forest of western Madagascar is degraded and fragmented after years of deforestation from slash and burn agriculture and logging. Kirindy Mitea is a new research site, so little is known about the park as a whole and the species living there. This focal species of this project is the park’s largest lemur, Verreaux’s sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi). The goals of this project were to determine the average home range size and group size of the species in Kirindy Mitea, and then compare those numbers to two other sites in southwestern Madagascar, Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and Kirindy Forest/CFPF. In addition, GIS analyses were performed to look at the land cover changes that took place in Kirindy Mitea during a 16 year period. The results of that analysis were used to perform a GIS based threat analysis of the forest in the park, in order to determine what areas are at the highest risk of deforestation in the future. I found that the average home range size of Verreaux’s sifaka in Kirindy Mitea is larger than the average home range sizes in Beza Mahafaly and Kirindy CFPF (p=0.010). In addition, the home ranges have less overlap with neighboring groups in Kirindy Mitea, most likely due to a difference in habitat and a lack of tamarind trees. The land cover change analysis revealed that during 1990-2006, there has actually been a gain of over 4,000 ha of forest. However, during the most recent time period, 2000-2006, there was an overall loss of almost 2,000 ha of forest, and these areas of forest loss were concentrated around the park boundary and the savanna. The threat analysis determined that the factors that will most likely lead to deforestation in the future in Kirindy Mitea are proximity to the park boundary, the roads in the park, and the savanna. Using the results of the threat analysis, I was able to determine that about 10,500 ha of viable lemur habitat in the park is at high risk of deforestation in the future. Currently, the forest in Kirindy Mitea is quite continuous, and there is an adequate amount left to support large lemur species like Verreaux’s sifaka. It will be important for park managers to continue protecting the forest so that it does not become fragmented like most of the dry forest left in Madagascar. I recommend creating a buffer area around the park boundary and investing in additional security and park staff to monitor the remaining forest around the park boundary and near roads and savanna. Kirindy Mitea is a rare park in that it actually contains a large amount of continuous forest, so conserving those remaining large tracts of forest should be a top priority for park managers.
... There are considerable variations in the actual levels of protection for lemurs and forests in most protected areas in Madagascar (Mittermeier et al., 1992Mittermeier et al., , 1994). Local people often hunt lemurs in protected areas (e.g., Lehman and Wright, 2000 ; Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003 ). For example, Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri) is one of the most critically endangered primates in the world (Konstant et al., 2002). ...
Article
The phylogenetic diversity of extant lemurs represents one of the most important but least studied aspects of the conservation biology of primates. The phylogenetic diversity of a species is inversely proportional to the relative number and closeness of its phylogenetic relatives. Phylogenetic diversity can then be used to determine conservation priorities for specific biogeographic regions. Although Malagasy strepsirhines represent the highest phylogenetic diversity among primates at the global level, there are few phylogenetic data on species-specific and regional conservation plans for lemurs in Madagascar. Therefore, in this paper the following questions are addressed for extant lemurs: 1) how does the measure of taxonomic uniqueness used by Mittermeier et al. (1992 Lemurs of Madagascar; Gland, Switzerland: IUCN) equate with an index of phylogenetic diversity, 2) what are the regional conservation priorities based on analyses of phylogenetic diversity in extant lemurs, and 3) what conservation recommendations can be made based on analyses of phylogenetic diversity in lemurs? Taxonomic endemicity standardized weight (TESW) indices of phylogenetic diversity were used to determine the evolutionary component of biodiversity and to prioritize regions for conserving lemur taxa. TESW refers to the standardization of phylogenetic diversity indices for widespread taxa and endemicity of species. The phylogenetic data came from recent genetic studies of Malagasy strepsirhines at the species level. Lemur species were assigned as being either present or absent in six biogeographic regions. TESW indices were combined with data on lemur complementarity and protected areas to assign conservation priorities at the regional level. Although there were no overall differences between taxonomic ranks and phylogenetic rankings, there were significant differences for the top-ranked taxa. The phylogenetic component of lemur diversity is greatest for Daubentonia madagascariensis, Allocebus trichotis, Lepilemur septentrionalis, Indri indri, and Mirza coquereli. Regional conservation priorities are highest for lemurs that range into northeast humid forests and western dry forests. Expansion of existing protected areas in these regions may provide the most rapid method for preserving lemurs. In the long term, new protected areas must be created because there are lemur species that: 1) are not found in existing protected areas, 2) exist only in one or two protected areas, and 3) are still being discovered outside the current network of protected areas. Data on the population dynamics and feeding ecology of phylogenetically important species are needed to ensure that protected areas adequately conserve lemur populations in Madagascar.
Article
Archaeoprimatology intertwines archaeology and primatology to understand the ancient liminal relationships between humans and nonhuman primates. During the last decade, novel studies have boosted this discipline. This edited volume is the first compendium of archaeoprimatological studies ever produced. Written by a culturally diverse group of scholars, with multiple theoretical views and methodological perspectives, it includes new zooarchaeological examinations and material culture evaluations, as well as innovative uses of oral and written sources. Themes discussed comprise the survey of past primates as pets, symbolic mediators, prey, iconographic references, or living commodities. The book covers different regions of the world, from the Americas to Asia, along with studies from Africa and Europe. Temporally, the chapters explore the human-nonhuman primate interface from deep in time to more recent historical times, covering both extinct and extant primate taxa. This anthology of archaeoprimatological studies will be of interest to archaeologists, primatologists, anthropologists, art historians, paleontologists, conservationists, zoologists, historical ecologists, philologists, and ethnobiologists.
Chapter
Archaeoprimatology intertwines archaeology and primatology to understand the ancient liminal relationships between humans and nonhuman primates. During the last decade, novel studies have boosted this discipline. This edited volume is the first compendium of archaeoprimatological studies ever produced. Written by a culturally diverse group of scholars, with multiple theoretical views and methodological perspectives, it includes new zooarchaeological examinations and material culture evaluations, as well as innovative uses of oral and written sources. Themes discussed comprise the survey of past primates as pets, symbolic mediators, prey, iconographic references, or living commodities. The book covers different regions of the world, from the Americas to Asia, along with studies from Africa and Europe. Temporally, the chapters explore the human-nonhuman primate interface from deep in time to more recent historical times, covering both extinct and extant primate taxa. This anthology of archaeoprimatological studies will be of interest to archaeologists, primatologists, anthropologists, art historians, paleontologists, conservationists, zoologists, historical ecologists, philologists, and ethnobiologists.
Chapter
Why do people eat endangered lemurs during some times of year and not others? This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating ethnoprimatological research into the design of conservation policy and its implementation. One year of daily focal hunter shadowing, extensive household interviews, and daily 24 hour recall surveys of household food consumption revealed distinct seasonal patterns in the trapping of endangered lemurs and uncovered the seasonally-restricted incentives that drive patterns in trapping. In order to use conservation time and money effectively, lemur conservationists should take into account the season when lemurs are trapped and consider why lemurs are targeted seasonally. Current conservation strategies seek to reduce trapping of threatened lemurs on the Masoala peninsula of Madagascar by enforcing existing laws, increasing environmental education, and using the production of domestic poultry to offset the nutritional and economic value of lemur meat to local people and to reduce the incentives to trap lemurs. My research on seasonality helps anticipate some of the challenges these policies may face before they are applied, so that policies may be altered to improve the efficacy of conservation action.
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Habitat loss and poaching are among the most serious threats to the fragile and unique biodiversity of Madagascar. In the past, traditional taboos (fady), commonly associated with folk stories, have had a buffering effect on several lemur species. Here, we examine the status of hunting taboos with reference to the conservation of the critically endangered Perrier´s sifaka (Propithecus perrieri). We also provide an update on P. perrieri’s presence in the protected area of Andrafiamena in the face of ongoing habitat fragmentation and poaching. The Andrafiamena forest represents one of the key refuges for this species, which has a very limited and fragmented range in northern Madagascar. We report the results of a 2016 presence/absence survey in Andrafiamena and from interviews on Perrier’s sifaka taboo adherence, conducted in 2012 across the whole species range. Published in: Madagascar Conservation and Development, 13,1.
Article
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions. We report clear evidence of actuarial senescence (i.e. the decline of annual survival with increasing age) in both sexes and for both species of ruffed lemurs. RRL had a lower baseline mortality and senesced faster than BWRL, resulting in similar distributions of longevities for both species. No between-sex difference was observed in any species. Lastly, a higher reproductive effort and a later age of first reproduction were positively associated with an increase of survival late in life, and thereby an increased longevity. These findings indicate that individual quality rather than trade-off drives the association between reproductive success and survival pattern among individual lemurs of both species in the protected environment provided by zoos. Lemurs are among the world’s highest conservation priorities and better understanding factors influencing their longevity and actuarial senescence patterns should improve their conservation.
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The extinction of top predators, such as mammalian carnivores can lead to dramatic changes in foodweb structure and ecosystem dynamics. Since all native Malagasy terrestrial mammalian carnivores are endemic, their extinction implies a significant loss of biodiversity in Madagascar. Here we review the literature on Madagascar’s mammalian carnivores, aiming to determine which species are most likely to become extinct in the near future in view of the factors threatening their survival. We scored each factor according to its impact on the species. According to our results, the giant–striped mongoose, Galidictis grandidieri, is the most likely species to next become extinct. This is no surprise because this species is considered one of the rarest carnivores in the world, inhabiting only a small, threatened forest ecosystem. Our results emphasize the need for robust data about each species to help and support decision–makers implement conservation measures.
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Studying seasonal hunting patterns can be critical for developing sound actions for conservation and public health. As availability of funds to implement conservation policy is limited, it is essential to focus efforts during the most critical times of year. During July 2011–June 2012 I recorded direct observations of hunting of forest mammals, and conducted daily 24-hour recall surveys (2 weeks per month over 11 months: August 2011–June 2012), and interviews of all households in a focal village on the Masoala Peninsula of Madagascar to investigate (1) what drives seasonal hunting patterns and (2) how seasonal variation in consumption of wildlife and domestic meat affects native species and people. There is marked seasonal variation in hunting of forest mammals and in the consumption of fish and domesticated livestock on the Masoala Peninsula. Hunters target bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus and tenrec and lemur species during the austral winter (March–August), whereas more native and introduced carnivorans, fish and domesticated livestock are consumed during the austral summer (September–February). The results suggest that seasonal variation in hunting patterns is driven by the physical and behavioural characteristics of prey rather than seasonal scarcity of alternative meat. Seasonal hunting and meat consumption on the Masoala Peninsula may amplify the negative impact of hunting on native carnivorans and tenrecs (which are hunted when they are pregnant and lactating), and the positive impact of consumption of lemurs, bushpigs and tenrecs on human health. This study highlights an important aspect of hunting on the Masoala: the decision whether or not to hunt is made independently of decisions regarding when to hunt particular species.
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Madagascar’s current population of approximately 20.6 million people, and an estimated annual growth rate of 3 % (UNICEF, 2009; U.S. Department of State, 2009), poses a tremendous threat to the country’s endemic fauna and flora. Lemurs, a diverse group of over 100 primate species found only in Madagascar (Green and Sussman, 1990; Du Puy and Moat, 1998; Mittermeier et al., 2006), are under continuous anthropomorphic pressure from deforestation and illegal poaching (Jolly, 1989; Harcourt and Thornback, 1990; Lehman and Wright, 2000; Mutschler et al., 2001; Goodman and Raselimanana, 2003). According to district guides and forest agents, hunting in the mid-1970’s led to the local extinction (B.M. Ratsisakanana, P. Rabearisoa, Joseph, pers. comm.) of the endangered Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) and the critically endangered black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata editorum; IUCN, 2009; Mittermeier et al., 2008) from Analamazaotra Special Reserve (ASR). Both of these species inhabit Madagascar’s eastern rain forests and are two of the largest, most colorful of all lemurs (Mittermeier et al., 2006). Due to the enormous amounts of leaves and fruits required in their diet (Ratsimbazafy et al., 2002; Vasey and Tattersall, 2002; Mittermeier et al., 2006), and the associated territory size necessary to provide it, both animals are considered indicator species as to the health of the forest and its related biota (Vasey, 2005). Black and white ruffed lemurs also play an important role as pollinators and seed dispersers (Wright, 1998). In addition, with their athletic leaping abilities, raucous vocalizations and gregarious nature, both P. diadema and V. variegata are charismatic, appealing animals for the ecotourism industry. Tourism currently accounts for approximately 6.3 % of Madagascar’s GDP, representing more than $400 million annually (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2007; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008). In January 2006, at the request of Madagascar National Parks (MNP; formerly known as Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protégées, or ANGAP) and the Ministère de l’Environnement, des Forêts et de Tourisme (MEFT), the Madagascar Biodiversity and Biogeography Project of Henry Doorly Zoo (MBP-HDZ) initiated the Analamazaotra Re-introduction/Translocation (ART) Project. The goal of this project was to re-establish P. diadema and V. v. editorum back into their historical habitat range within ASR. A total of 27 Diademed sifakas and 7 black and white ruffed lemurs were translocated between January 2006 and July 2007 from four forests experiencing significant, ongoing habitat deterioration due to mining or agricultural activities (Day, 2009). All animals were free ranging juveniles or adults and were moved with their entire social or family group. Currently, the MBP-HDZ has successfully evaluated the biomedical, genetic, habitat, nutritional, and reproductive parameters of these animals while monitoring their daily activity via radiocollar tracking. While the ART Project has been successful by every measurable standard, it has not been without its minor setbacks. Shortly after the initial black and white lemur release in March and April 2006, the animals moved to the northern portion of the reserve. Following a weekend in May 2006 when the animals were not monitored, two juvenile offspring disappeared from radio contact. No remains or radiocollars were found and given ASR’s history, reports of hunting in the region, and the fact that the animals were still too young to have willingly left their parents, MNP officials and the MBP-HDZ team suspected both animals had been poached. Originally MNP personnel wanted to begin an investigation in the two nearby communities with the intention of finding any responsible parties and criminally prosecuting them. Instead, after lengthy discussion and at MBP-HDZ’s suggestion, it was determined that a more tactful and focused approach might be more effective long-term than heavy handed enforcement.
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In the 2003 Durban Vision the Malagasy government committed to tripling the amount of protected areas in Madagascar by 2009. This extensive expansion needs to involve an assessment of the potential impacts on the people who rely on forest resources for subsistence. Wildlife for human consumption (bushmeat) is one such resource that has received great attention on mainland Africa but has largely been ignored in Madagascar until recently. In terms of biomass, hunting in Madagascar appears to be on a lesser scale compared to areas of mainland Africa. However, because of the life-history characteristics associated with hunted primate and carnivore species in Madagascar even small-scale hunting is a major threat to long-term conservation. In this study I used semi-structured interviews to quantify annual rates of bushmeat harvest in 14 villages adjacent to the Makira Forest in north-eastern Madagascar. Interviews revealed that 23 mammal species were hunted for consumption, providing a new insight into the scale and frequency of bushmeat use. Harvest data and life-history information were sufficient to allow quantitative assessments of sustainability for four species of lemur (black and white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata, indri Indri indri, eastern bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus and white-fronted brown lemur Eulemur albifrons) and a species of the carnivore family Eupleridae (fossa Cryptoprocta ferox). Model results suggest hunting of these species is probably unsustainable. This research presents clear evidence that hunting is a major conservation and livelihoods issue in Madagascar and needs to be considered in the planning stages of protected area development to address better the needs of local people.
Article
In February 2005 clear evidence was found of extensive hunting by local people of microchiropteran bats in south-western Madagascar. Hipposideros commersoni (Family Hipposideridae) accumulates heavy fat deposits during this period, weighing on average about 50 g, and is the targeted species. The capture of other smaller species of microchiropterans appears to be incidental. The exploitation of bats for bushmeat in this region takes place during a period of food shortage, and because the level of collection surpasses the breeding potential of these animals it may over time result in extirpation of local populations.
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We assessed the consumption and hunting of wild animals by people in urban areas of western Madagascar using structured questionnaires in households and direct observations. Six wild mammal and five wild bird species were reported, or observed, to be sources of bushmeat although fish and domestic animals were the preferred and cheapest sources of animal protein. Bushmeat accounted for 10% of the meat consumed the day before our questionnaires were completed. Common tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus and bush pig Potamochoerus larvatus were the preferred wild meat and the former was also the most expensive type of meat. Taboos and strong dislikes limited the consumption of domestic pigs, bush pigs, goats, lemurs and fruit bats. Game species were hunted according to their availability, which coincided with the legal hunting season for fruit bats but only partly so for the other game species. Illegal hunting of Verreauxi’s sifaka Propithecus verreauxi is cause for concern and assessments of primate consumption may have been underestimated because of reluctance of interviewees to admit illegal activities.
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Bats are eaten by people throughout Madagascar and althoughthe larger species like Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum,Rousettus madagascariensis and Hipposideros commersoni arepreferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The nationalhunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitablehunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threatto bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be animportant source of protein for Malagasy people during periodsof food shortage but in general there are few data on the socioeconomic and cultural importance of bats. Fruit bats producea single offspring per year and are therefore susceptible toover - hunting. Nevertheless, large roosts offer the possibility ofcommunity managed harvests to secure the colony and providea source of meat but further research is needed before this canbe considered. Roost sites also present the best focus for conservation and greater effort is needed to control hunting usingexisting legislation and flexible community - based solutions thatare sensitive to the local context. The threat of pathogen transferfrom bats to people is of growing concern as more bat speciesare identified as vectors of emergent viral diseases.
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