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Stress, support and antisocial behaviour traits as determinants of emotional well-being and parenting practices among single mothers

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Stress, support and antisocial behaviour traits as determinants of emotional well-being and parenting practices among single mothers

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... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
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Thanks to improvements in living standards and health behavior as well as medical progress since the second half of the twentieth century, old age has become a life phase in its own right. This phase usually begins by the transition from working life to retirement (Kohli, 2000). Both the chance of reaching retirement and the life expectancy after retirement have increased significantly (Eisenmenger & Emmerling, 2011). The post-work phase spans several decades for many people now. In addition, people who retire are considerably healthier and more independent than their peers of earlier birth cohorts (Crimmins, 2004). The expansion of this phase of life has been accompanied by a differentiation of older people in terms of health and independence: healthy and active people experience this phase, as do people in need of help and care. This fact is considered by distinguishing between old and very old people (Baltes, 2007). Characteristics of old age are absence of non-compensable health restrictions, self-determination of various activities (e.g., traveling, hobbies, voluntary work), and strong social integration. Overall, the demands of old age can be coped well in this phase. Very old age is characterized by an increase in physical and cognitive losses and diseases, and a decrease in the abilities and possibilities of compensating for deficits (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Smith, 2003).
... A caregiver's social support is expected to be associated with the child's school readiness skills. Social support has been associated with more emotionally responsive parenting and more favorable child health and developmental outcomes (Oyserman, Bybee, Mowbray, & MacFarlane, 2002;Sheppard, 2009;Simons, Beaman, Conger, & Chao, 1993). Crockenberg (1981) found that caregiver social support moderated the relation between infant irritability and anxious-resistant attachment at 12 months, which in turn has been shown to predict early school performance (Sroufe, Egeland, Carlson, & Collins, 2005). ...
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This study explored the impact of two rural village libraries in Uganda on preschool children's school readiness skills. Using two rural village libraries in Mpigi and Kabubbu as a backdrop, this study explored the effectiveness of a six-month play-based intervention known as the Storytelling/Story-Acting (STSA) activity. Children ages 3 to 5 at each library were randomly assigned to participate in either the STSA play intervention (n = 63) or a story-reading activity (n = 60) for one hour twice per week for six months. All children were administered school readiness skills measures before and after the six-month intervention. Caregivers were also administered an interview that assessed their educational level, quality of life, reading aloud to target child, social support, and total possessions. Children who participated in the STSA intervention had higher scores on the colors subtest of the emergent literacy measure than children who did not participate in this activity. Preschool children benefit from a story-reading activity with or without the STSA play intervention.
... For example, clinical literature suggests that when immigrant parents are unfamiliar with the culture of their new homeland, they tend to remain isolated and not to reach out for social support (Leon and Dziegielewski, 2000). Lack of social support, in turn, may inhibit supportive and involved parenting (Simons et al., 1993). Lack of parental involvement in the adolescent's life (microsystemic problem) and peer worlds (mesosystemic problem) then increases the likelihood of problem behaviors, including drug use (Prado et al., 2010). ...
Article
Drug and alcohol use disproportionately affect Hispanic youth. Despite these disparities, few empirically supported preventive interventions are available to ameliorate this public health concern among Hispanic youth. This study examined the effects of Familias Unidas, relative to Community Practice, in reducing past 90-day substance use, alcohol and marijuana dependence, and having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Additionally, this study explored whether Familias Unidas' effects varied by environmental context, namely parental stress and social support for parents. A total of 242 delinquent Hispanic youth aged 12-17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at three time points. Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing past 90-day substance use, illicit drug use, and in reducing the proportion of youth with an alcohol dependence diagnosis, relative to Community Practice. Results also showed a reduction in the proportion of youth who reported having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. No differences between conditions were observed in past 90-day alcohol use or marijuana dependence. Intervention effects on illicit drug use and alcohol dependence varied by environmental context. For example, Familias Unidas was most efficacious for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and lower levels of social support. Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing some drug and alcohol related outcomes. The findings also support the concept of targeting family-based interventions, such as Familias Unidas, for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and low levels of social support.
... The original adaptive problem ancestral women had of not being able to raise a child on their own may no longer exists in current day Norway (or at least not to the same extent as in our ancestral environment), however women may still possess an evolved sensitivity to whether or not they are in a commitment with their infants' father. The notion of an evolved sensitivity to being a single parent resulting in refraining from investing parental resources is supported by correlation studies on infanticide and child abuse where such incidents have been found to be unusually common when parents have never been married or when the parents are divorced or separated (Daly et al., 1982;Daly & Wilson, 1988;Simons et al., 1993;Walsh, 1990;1991;Zuravin, 1988). ...
... 42,43 As to family structure, single mothers tend to face child care stress and role overload due to their lack of spousal support. 44,45 As a result, they are more likely to interact negatively with and feel less attached to their children than mothers from two-parent families. 43,46 Mothers with lower income may be preoccupied with their financial hardship, resulting in their being emotionally unavailable to feel attached to their children. ...
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American adolescent mothers have been viewed as less effective parents than adult mothers. The socioeconomic disadvantages of adolescent mothers should be taken into account. The objectives of this study were to compare maternal attachment between adolescent and adult mothers of preschoolers and to examine changes of adolescents' maternal attachment over time. A secondary analysis of data from a larger study of maternal employment and low birth weight infant outcomes were used. Data were collected through home visits using structured questionnaires at two different time points. Forty-three pairs of adolescent and adult mothers who could be matched on family structure, maternal race, and child's gestational status were compared on maternal attachment. The 7-item Attachment subscale of the Parenting Stress Index was used to measure maternal attachment. Results revealed that the adolescent mothers were not less attached to their preschoolers than the adults. This held true when important confounding factors were taken into account using multiple regression.
... A caregiver's social support is expected to be associated with the child's school readiness skills. Social support has been associated with more emotionally responsive parenting and more favorable child health and developmental outcomes (Oyserman, Bybee, Mowbray, & MacFarlane, 2002;Sheppard, 2009;Simons, Beaman, Conger, & Chao, 1993). Crockenberg (1981) found that caregiver social support moderated the relation between infant irritability and anxious-resistant attachment at 12 months, which in turn has been shown to predict early school performance (Sroufe, Egeland, Carlson, & Collins, 2005). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explored the impact of two rural village libraries in Uganda on preschool children's school readiness skills. Using two rural village libraries in Mpigi and Kabubbu as a backdrop, this study explored the effectiveness of a six-month play-based intervention known as the Storytelling/Story-Acting (STSA) activity. Children ages 3 to 5 at each library were randomly assigned to participate in either the STSA play intervention (n = 63) or a story-reading activity (n = 60) for one hour twice per week for six months. All children were administered school readiness skills measures before and after the six-month intervention. Caregivers were also administered an interview that assessed their educational level, quality of life, reading aloud to target child, social support, and total possessions. Children who participated in the STSA intervention had higher scores on the colors subtest of the emergent literacy measure than children who did not participate in this activity. Preschool children benefit from a story-reading activity with or without the STSA play intervention.
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
... Challenges with the navigational process to college enrollment for African American males are also exacerbated by family structure, as 67% of African American children under the age of 18 currently live in single mother families (SMF) (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2015) and face numerous risk factors that contribute to academic underachievement (Avison, 1999;Brown & Moran, 1997;Emery & Kelly, 2003). According to existing literature, risk factors experienced within these family structures include lowquality parent-child interactions, increased likelihood of experiencing economic strain, high instances of familial conflict, an increased risk of displaying negative external behaviors (i.e., fighting and drug use), and higher levels of withdrawal and depression (Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 1999;Lansford, Ceballo, Abbey, & Stewart, 2001;Simmons, Beaman, Conger, & Chao, 1993;Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), all of which "amplify the troubled status" of African American youth (especially pertaining to academic achievement) and become "reinforced in the media, academic journals, and educational practice" (Harper, 2012, p. 1). These risk factors disproportionately affect African American males, as the rate at which they finish high school on time is much lower than African American females (48% vs. 59%, respectively) ( Greene & Winters, 2006). ...
Article
A grounded theory method was used to uncover essential resources in African American males’ (N = 22) social ecologies that increased the likelihood of college enrollment. Specifically, few studies have examined African American males’ perspectives regarding the role that single-mother families play in contributing to their resiliency and helping them eventually enroll in college. This study’s findings indicate how participants’ families’ (mostly their mothers) non-negotiable expectation of college attendance served as the backbone of the resiliency processes that encouraged precollege socialization for participants, including practicing authoritative parenting, providing hands-on assistance during the application process, and setting an example by attending college themselves (if possible). Implications for helping professionals include providing support to African American male students, their families, and their teachers are provided to offset possible systemic racism in K–12 education that had deleterious effects on the academic success of African American males.
... Risk of emotional and behavioural problems, academic failure and social difficulties are more for Children of single mothers (Ontario Health Survey, 1994). Maternal education about child development can lead to improved child competence, academic test performance and intelligence quotients (Crockenberg, 1981;Dunst et al, 1986;Simons et al, 1993;Wahler, 1980;Telleen et al, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
... Risk of emotional and behavioural problems, academic failure and social difficulties are more for Children of single mothers (Ontario Health Survey, 1994). Maternal education about child development can lead to improved child competence, academic test performance and intelligence quotients (Crockenberg, 1981;Dunst et al, 1986;Simons et al, 1993;Wahler, 1980;Telleen et al, 1989). ...
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
Chapter
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There are significant differences in morbidity (incidence of disease) and mortality (death rate) between men and women. By puberty, male adolescents are more likely to have health problems. During puberty, girls suffer from chronic and mental illnesses and male adolescents are more likely to suffer from acute and life-threatening diseases. Boys and men have riskier health behavior. The field of research mainly relates to the binarity of the sexes—men and women. Studies on trans and queer persons are rare in this field. Networks have a gender-specific effect on risk behavior. Women provide more and more time-consuming social support, even in case of illness. After widowhood, networks have both negative and positive effects, which are gender-specific.
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
Chapter
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“Tell me how much your friends earn, and I’ll tell you if you smoke, what diseases you have and how long your life will be!” With this somewhat pointed statement, we wanted to shed light on the empirically well-confirmed connection between social and health inequalities from the perspective of network research at the beginning of this book (see chapter “Social networks and health inequalities: a new perspective for research”). Social networks are understood here as mediating entities at an intermediate or meso-level, whose structure and function mediate between vertical (income, education, occupational status, etc.) as well as horizontal (e.g., age, gender, ethnic origin) inequalities and health inequalities (e.g., life expectancy, morbidity rates). Besides this mediating influence a moderating relationship wherein social networks amplify or diminish vertical and horizontal inequalities seems to be reasonable.
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The influence and significance of social networks in health research are becoming widely discussed. Sociological network research meets the demand for a stronger consideration of “contexts” or the “environment” that influences health and care. Social networks are conceived as a mediating meso-level, which mediates between social macro-structures (e.g., healthcare systems, institutions, and organizations) and individual (not always) rationally acting actors. This perspective offers the possibility to analyze a variety of psychosocial mechanisms. These mechanisms can influence individual health in different ways, including (health) behavior, psyche, or physiology. In this chapter we present some central theoretical concepts, as well as empirical results, on network effects under the headings of “social support,” “social integration,” “social influence,” and “social contagion.”
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
Chapter
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The loss of employment is an event that interferes with the lives of everyone affected, causes stress, and can have a negative impact on their health. Meta-analyses show that unemployed people have a worse state of health and a mortality risk that is at least 1.6 times higher than those who are employed. Unemployment is associated with a lower mental and physical health status and, in some cases, with riskier health behavior (particularly tobacco consumption). There are two important theses on the role of social networks in this context: (1) Unemployment changes social networks so that they no longer fulfill their positive function for health (mediator thesis); (2) Unemployment leaves social networks unchanged and persons with resource-rich networks suffer less from health losses due to unemployment (moderator thesis). This article provides an overview of empirical analyses on the topic of networks and unemployment.
... Whether active renunciation of support or lack of access to support opportunities, individual disadvantage is reinforced by such relationship effects: for single parents with little education, in precarious employment and poverty situations, the support they need most is least available (Brown & Moran, 1997;Harknett, 2006). This lack of support is in turn closely related to mental illness (Simons et al., 1993). ...
Chapter
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“Tell me how much your friends earn and I’ll tell you whether you smoke, what diseases you have and how old you’re going to become!” Part of this statement should be familiar to those who are interested in the connection between social inequality and health. People of comparatively lower socioeconomic status are at higher risk of health problems and are more likely to fall ill and die earlier than those who have a higher income etc. However, the sentence does not ask about your own income, but about the income of your friends. Is this information really meaningful? Does it really make a difference to your own health which friends you have, who you surround yourself with in your everyday life and what social position these people have?
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The present study examined the self-perceptions of 28 Black single mothers enrolled in a four-year college program in the U.S. Participants (M age = 30 yr., SD = 6.1) described their experiences and self-narratives as Black single mothers who are studying and working in addition to their child-raising duties. A structured interview format was utilized to collect the data, which were analyzed qualitatively. The findings indicated that these mothers successfully navigated their various roles. Six themes emerged from the interviews: these mothers focused on family cohesiveness, education, spirituality, support networks (family and government), motivation for a better life in addition to teaching their children to respect others. Implications for practice are offered for enhancing the parenting success of single Black mothers.
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The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.
Article
Divorce is viewed as a stressor in social, economic and psychological areas of life. Research shows women have diminished economic contexts and greater parenting responsibilities after divorce. Many studies examine divorced women's social support and its impact on adjustment. This literature review quantifies perceived (available) and received (enacted) social support and adjustment measures of fifteen published articles. Crosstabs and chi-square are used to analyze ninety-eight social support-adjustment relationships. Social support measures are categorized as instrumental or socioemotional for one analysis. Results show social support significantly helps in only one of four relationships. There is no difference in impact on adjustment if social support is perceived versus received, if studies are cross-sectional versus longitudinal, or if adjustment measures are categorized. However, socioemotional support is significantly more likely (p < .01) to positively impact adjustment than instrumental support.
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Background: Surveillance of neurocognitive late effects has typically focused on the pediatric survivor alone and rarely has focused on the potential family burden. We investigated the impact of child neurocognitive effects on parenting stress and hypothesized that parents of childhood cancer survivors with greater executive difficulties experience higher stress relative to parents of children with less adverse impact. Methods: Parents of 44 children who survived cancer involving central nervous system-directed treatments and who had documented neurocognitive deficits completed standardized questionnaires assessing their perceived level of stress and perception of their child's executive functioning abilities in daily life. Data from performance-based cognitive tests were obtained on the children. Multiple regression models examined socio-demographic, clinical, and child's executive functioning as predictors of parent stress. Differences in parenting stress based on child's level of executive functioning were evaluated. Results: Parent stress was significantly associated with both performance-based and parent report measures of child executive functioning. Child executive functioning significantly predicted parent stress even after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical factors, and the final model accounted for 42% of the variance in parent stress levels. Significant differences in parent stress were found when comparing higher versus lower levels of child executive functioning. The nature of the executive difficulties, however, appears important, as we found increased parenting stress among children with behavioral regulation problems rather than metacognitive difficulties. Conclusions: The associations between parenting stress and neurocognitive problems found in this study suggest the need for further research, along with professional monitoring and appropriate intervention.
Article
We now have evidence that maternal deaths result from a set of social, economic, biological and logistical problems in health services. However, the approach used to address these problems is still essentially medical. In this study we examined some of the social determinants of maternal deaths between 2004 and 2006 in the State of Mexico. To do this we reviewed clinical files and used verbal autopsies. The medical causes of maternal death were similar to those reported in previous studies. 80% were a result of direct causes: the low socio-economic level of the deceased women was the fundamental determinant of mortality, in that it limits access to education, income, adequate nutrition, and medical care. This situation negatively affects a woman's ability to make health related decisions. It is important to consider that when a young woman becomes pregnant, it is the beginning of a long term social and economic responsibility for which they lack appropriate resources. In conjunction with limited work opportunities, this situation perpetuates a vicious circle of poverty.
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