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The Coins In the name of Imam Mahdi in Pre-Safavid era and Formation of the Concept of Shiite Ruler

Authors:




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
azarinia@ut.ac.ir

The Coins In the name of Imam Mahdi in Pre-Safavid era
and Formation of the Concept of Shiite Ruler
Hamidreza Azarinia
Mohammad Hosein Afrakhte
Abstract:
Imamite Muslims, who follow twelve Imams from decent of the prophet, believe that the political
ruling is de jure dedicated to the prophet and the twelve Imams. They believe that Imam
Muhammad Al-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam who was born in 9th century AD is still alive and will
come back in the promised day for constructing a heavenly world. For Imamite Muslims, who are
also known as Twelver Shia, the legitimate government and the right of ruling is dedicated to
Imam Mahdi. While Shiite community did not developed as a society, they participated in Sunni
social institutions as a minority. Afterward in medieval period, when Sunni caliphate collapsed in
Baghdad by Mongol invasion, maintaining the social order obliged the Shia to establish
government on their own. In this article, we will explore the formation of a new role for Shia rulers
as the representative of Imam Mahdi. Our investigation is based on the coins of Shiite rulers in the
formative period of Shiite government concept. We find out the Shiite Sultan and Amir suppose
himself a ruler in force majeure circumstances, who shall give up his position to Imam Mahdi in
his reappearance
Keywords: Imam Mahdi, Shiite ruler, Numismatics, Pre-Safavid
Keywords: Imam Mahdi, Shiite ruler, Numismatics, Pre-Safavid
Ph.D Student in Anthropology, University of Tehran, Iran
azarinia@ut.ac.ir
https://tehran.academia.edu/Azarinia
M.A in History, University of Tehran, Iran
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
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
:

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:

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
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
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Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʿīlīs: Their history and doctrines. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
Press
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
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
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The Succession to the Fatimid Imam al-Āmir, the Claims of the Later Fatimids to the Imamate, and the Rise of
Ṭayyibī Ismailism, S. M. Stern, Oriens, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Dec. 31, 1951), pp. 193-255, BRILL
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The Name of the Twelfth Imám on the Coinage of Egypt, Stanley Lane Poole, H. Sauvaire, 1874
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

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





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


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Ibn Battûta, Voyages I. De l’Afrique du Nord à La Mecque, p.359
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
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




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



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




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


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

 
 
 

1. Bacharach, Jere, (2006), Islamic History through Coins: An Analysis and Catalogue of
Tenth-Century Ikhshidid Coinage, The American University in Cairo Press
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the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 295-317
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Cambridge University Press
4. Heidemann, Stefan, (2010), “Numismatics”: The New Cambridge History Of Islam, Vol.1,
pp. 648-663, Edited by Chase F. Robinson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
5. Ibn Battûta, (1997), Voyages I. De l’Afrique du Nord à La Mecque, Traduction: Stéphane
Yerasimos, C. Defremery, B. R. Sanguinetti, Paris: La Découverte/Poche
6. Medd, Charles S., (1865), Value of numismatics in the study of ancient history, Cambridge:
MACMILLAN
7. Stanley Lane Poole, H. Sauvaire, (1874), The Name of the Twelfth Imám on the Coinage
of Egypt, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 7 Issue 1, pp. 140-151
8. Stern, S. M., (1951), The Succession to the Fatimid Imam al-Āmir, the Claims of the Later
Fatimids to the Imamate, and the Rise of Ṭayyibī Ismailism”, Oriens, Vol. 4, No. 2 pp.
193-255, BRILL
9. Vincenza Grassi, (2010), “Notes on Ideology and Religious Beliefs in the Islamic and
Norman Coinages Circulating in Sicily”, in Bruno Callegher e Arianna D'Ottone (a cura
di): "The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins", Trieste, EUT Edizioni
Università di Trieste, pp. 111-126.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Seventeen years ago the lamented M. Soret published a description of a most interesting silver coin struck at Miṣr in the year of the Flight 525 (A.D. 1130–1), bearing a name Abu-l-Ḳásim Muḥammad Al-Muntaẓar-bi-amri-lláh , which does not appear in the list of the Fáṭimí Khalífahs of Egypt, though the place and date of the coin would certainly lead us to suppose that it was struck by a ruler belonging to this dynasty. A remarkable circumstance is that the coin was struck during the reign of Al-Ḥáfiẓ.
Islamic History through Coins: An Analysis and Catalogue of Tenth-Century Ikhshidid Coinage
  • Jere Bacharach
Bacharach, Jere, (2006), Islamic History through Coins: An Analysis and Catalogue of Tenth-Century Ikhshidid Coinage, The American University in Cairo Press
  • Stefan Heidemann
Heidemann, Stefan, (2010), "Numismatics": The New Cambridge History Of Islam, Vol.1, pp. 648-663, Edited by Chase F. Robinson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Notes on Ideology and Religious Beliefs in the Islamic and Norman Coinages Circulating in Sicily
  • Vincenza Grassi
Vincenza Grassi, (2010), "Notes on Ideology and Religious Beliefs in the Islamic and Norman Coinages Circulating in Sicily", in Bruno Callegher e Arianna D'Ottone (a cura di): "The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins", Trieste, EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, pp. 111-126.
Value of numismatics in the study of ancient history
  • Charles S Medd
Medd, Charles S., (1865), Value of numismatics in the study of ancient history, Cambridge: MACMILLAN
Voyages I. De l'Afrique du Nord à La Mecque, Traduction: Stéphane Yerasimos
  • Ibn Battûta
Ibn Battûta, (1997), Voyages I. De l'Afrique du Nord à La Mecque, Traduction: Stéphane Yerasimos, C. Defremery, B. R. Sanguinetti, Paris: La Découverte/Poche