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People are dependent on the ocean and coasts and their resources for their survival and well-being. Coastal ecosystems of the Nordic countries, such as kelp forests, blue mussel beds, eelgrass meadows and shallow bays and inlets, provide a number of supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services to both the local communities as well as the wider population who benefit from them. The study has focused on examining these coastal values through selected examples, and recommend possible applications and relevance for the management of the Nordic coastal areas and their resources. The project has also identified key gaps in the knowledge and suggests where further work should be emphasized.
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... foundation) species of the systems in question (Thomson et al., 2015). Kelp forests constitute the most wide-spread and important coastal ecosystem type in the Nordic Seas (Gundersen et al., 2016). Kelps are large, slow-growing, but highly productive (per unit area and time) brown algae that function as "foundation" species in most cold-temperate and Arctic coastal areas where they provide habitat and food for many ecologically and commercially important species . ...
... The demise of the centralnorthern Norwegian kelp forests was not triggered by increasing SST and/or a higher frequency of MHWs, but rather by overfishing and removal of large apex predators such like coastal cod, wolf-fish and edible crab, which are among the main predators on sea urchins in this area (Norderhaug & Christie, 2009). Increasing SST combined with MHW events seem nevertheless to have had a positive impact on these coastal systems because the recruitment of green sea urchin has been negatively affected by higher temperatures in the southernmost part of the impacted area (Fagerli et al., 2013, Gundersen et al., 2016. The southern range distribution of green sea urchins is therefore moving north, which has reduced the grazing pressure in the more southernly parts of the coast substantially. ...
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Marine Heatwaves in northern Seas (Scandinavia) - Occurrence, effects, and expected frequencies.
... Seaweed and kelp forests are vital to local econ-omy and tourist activities including animal viewing, fishing, kayaking, snorkeling, and scuba diving. Divers, for example, enjoy the beautiful underwater beauty provided by kelp forests around the beaches and their richness [127,128]. Furthermore, marine ecotourism is a relatively new and increasing phenomena, with the environmental educational component as well as the minimal environmental effect of these recreational activities at the forefront [129]. Furthermore, in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia there is the development of seaweed traditional aquaculture service based on tourist recreation of the ancient cultivation techniques [124,[130][131][132]. ...
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The ecosystem services can be divided using two major classification systems, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) and the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES). In the MEA system, the ecosystem services are divided into four major service clusters: supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural. On the other hand, the CICES system regards the "MEA supporting services" as organism natural function (and not an ecosystem service). Thus, this function is the basis for all the three CICES ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, and cultural) provided by one organism. These ecosystem services can be analyzed for the type of habitat, fauna or flora. Seaweeds, or marine macroalgae, are one of the key organisms in estuarine and seawater habitats ecosystems, which currently is of extreme importance due to the climate changes and the blue-green economy. Seaweeds and humankind have been interlinked from the beginning, mainly as a food source, fibers, biochemicals, natural medicine, ornamental resources, art inspiration, and esthetic values in several coastal communities. Moreover, currently they are being studied as green carbon, carbon sequestration, and as a possible source for the biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. This review is a concise review of all ecological services provided by seaweeds and their impact in the human life and maintenance of the ecosystem status quo. The future of seaweeds use is also approached, regarding the promotion of seaweed ecological services and its dangers in the future.
... Macroalgae are widely distributed and can grow intensively on reef surfaces in marine intertidal zones and form intertidal seaweed beds vital for nearshore marine ecosystems. Intertidal macroalgal communities have crucial ecosystem functions in maintaining biodiversity, water quality, and as sites of primary productivity [1][2][3]. ...
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The spatial heterogeneity of macroalgae in intertidal zones affects the stability of marine ecosystem communities, contributes to the maintenance of coastal biodiversity, and has an essential role in ecosystem and habitat maintenance. We explored the feasibility of applying the power law model to analyze the spatial distribution of macroalgae on Lvhua Island (Zhejiang Province, China) and characterized the intertidal spatial heterogeneity of the macroalgae present. The results showed a strong association between the spatial distribution of macroalgae in the intertidal zone and the power law model (R2 = 0.98). There was a positive association between species occurrence frequency and the spatial heterogeneity index of macroalgae species. The model also indicated there was macroalgal habitat structure at the site as the spatial heterogeneity within the community was greater than that of random distribution. The power law model reported here provides a new method for macroalgae community ecology research and could be broadly utilized to analyze the spatial pattern of macroalgae in intertidal zones.
... Coastal ecosystems are diverse, highly productive, ecologically important at the global scale, and highly valuable for the wide range of services they supply to human beings (de Groot et al., 2012;IPCC, 2013). These include provisioning services, such as the supply of food via fishery production, fuelwood, energy resources and natural products; regulating & maintenance services, such as shoreline stabilization, nutrient regulation, carbon sequestration, detoxification of polluted waters and waste disposal; and cultural services, such as tourism, recreation, aesthetics, spiritual experience, and religious and traditional knowledge (TEEB, 2010;Gundersen, et al., 2016). These ecosystem services (ES) and their associated values are of inestimable importance to life and human wellbeing, both to communities living in coastal zones and to national economies and global trade. ...
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Uncertainties about the future extent of sea-level rise (SLR) and socioeconomic development will determine the future of coastal ecosystem services and values. This study analyzes the joint impact of flooding and socioeconomic development on the future ecosystem services and values in the Atlantic coastal zone by 2100. To this end, flood probability maps (using the Uncertainty Bathtub Model; uBTM) and local ecosystem service value (ESV) estimates (using meta-analytic based global ecosystem service value functions for Provisioning, Regulating & maintenance, and Cultural ecosystem services across 12 biomes) are derived for a wide combination of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) scenarios to obtain future values of coastal ecosystem services (ES). Results show that the higher potential of ESV at risk is associated with RCP 8.5 and SSP5, i.e. the scenario associated with a narrative related to fossil-fueled development. For this scenario, by 2100, the coastal zone with the highest probable losses in Provisioning ESV is Europe (∼5.9 € billion/year), for Regulating & maintenance ESV this is North America (∼6.0 € billion/year) and for Cultural ESV this is South America (∼21.3 € billion/year). Countries facing highest relative risk of losing Provisioning ESV are the Netherlands (10.6 %), United States (7.4 %), and Mauritania (5.8 %). For Regulating & maintenance ESV, the top 3 countries impacted are Mauritania (17.6 %), the Netherlands (10.0 %) and Argentina (8.0 %). For Cultural ESV, the countries are Mexico (19.0 %), Denmark (18.1 %) and Sweden (15.6 %). Changes in ESV are exponentially related to flood risk and economic growth, such that small changes in flood or income lead to large changes in ESV. Unlike previous studies, the ESV functions used are dependent on time and local factors, such as population and income. Although population and income growth result in an increase in ESV, it also emphasizes the ecosystem service values at risk. Thus, sea-level rise and socioeconomic changes impact ecosystem services and values – directly affecting the well-being of the world population. The unequal distribution of coastal ecosystem service value losses across continents and countries highlighted in this work is important to identify what values are at risk and for whom. Adaptation measures and strategies can, in turn, be defined.
... [7][8][9]). The ecosystem service types include (1) Provisioning services, such as supply of food, fuel wood, energy resources and natural products; (2) Regulating & maintenance services, such as shoreline stabilization, nutrient regulation, carbon sequestration, detoxification of polluted waters and waste disposal; and (3) Cultural services, such as tourism, recreation, aesthetics, spiritual experience, and religious and traditional knowledge [6,10]. These ES and associated values are of inestimable importance to life and human wellbeing, both to communities living in coastal zones as well as to national economies and global trade. ...
Article
The mapping and assessment of ecosystem services supplied by Atlantic coastal zone biomes provide a highly valuable source of information for understanding their current and potential benefits to society. The main objective of this research is to map and assess the values provided by Provisioning, Regulating & maintenance and Cultural ecosystem services on the Atlantic coastal zone over the period 2005–2015. Global ecosystem service value (ESV) functions were applied to a 100 km coastal zone of countries on the Atlantic coastal zone, using land use and socio-economic data for 2005, 2010 and 2015. Results show that total Cultural ecosystem service values (ESVCult) are largest along the Atlantic coastal zone (50 % of ESVTotal), that Tropical Forest is the biome that provides the largest total ecosystem service value (33 % of ESVTotal) and that Latin America & Caribbean is the Atlantic coastal zone with highest ecosystem service values (55 % of ESVTotal). Results also show a decrease in natural areas, mainly due to the increase in urban areas along the Atlantic coastal zone. Despite this process, there is an increase in unit ecosystem service values over time (+21 %) due to an increase in income (+13 %) and population (+15 %) over the period 2005–2015. These trends in ESV over the years deserve careful attention by policy makers. A decrease in the supply of (due to land use conversion) and the increase in demand for (due to income and population growth) ecosystem services could, potentially, lead to jeopardizing ecosystem.
... The distribution maps and areal estimates presented in this study provide a baseline to assess large-scale changes in kelp forest distribution in the Nordic region. Moreover, areal estimates are essential to understand the global extent and significance of kelp forests and their associated ecosystem services, including potential for carbon storage and sequestration (Gundersen et al., 2016;Duarte, 2017. Macreadie et al., 2019. ...
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Kelp forests are productive coastal ecosystems that provide a range of ecosystem services. Mapping the distribution and area occupied by kelp forests is a critical step to identify their ecosystem functions and services, including their role in the carbon cycle, and to detect changes in their distribution. We compiled quantitative data of the dominant genera Laminaria and Saccharina across the Nordic region, allowing us to separate kelp forests (areas with dense or moderately dense kelp coverage) from occurrences of single or few individuals. By fitting boosted regression trees to the compiled data, we modelled and predicted the distribution of kelp forests across the Nordic region. Despite the large scale of the analyses, the models captured well the kelps’ environmental affinities and predicted the presence of kelp forests with high accuracy. Dense kelp forests are found along the rocky shores of all the Nordic countries, except in the brackish Baltic Sea, with largest areas in Norway, Greenland and Iceland. The results of this study set the scene for future studies on the importance of kelp forests in the Nordic region, including their contribution to the marine carbon budget.
... Particularly, mussel beds could be useful indicators of hotspots with great biodiversity [47]. As mussels are important economic resources, policy regarding their management should also take into account their relevant ecological functions [16,66]. Some studies have raised awareness of climate change and its consequences for the large biodiversity harboured by mussels [e.g., 34, 67]. ...
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Biodiversity loss is considered one of the main threats to marine ecosystems. In this framework of biodiversity decline, organisms that provide biogenic habitat play a relevant role by their capacity to structure assemblages and influence ecological processes. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is considered an ecosystem engineer because it alters local environmental conditions maintaining habitat suitability for other organisms, and enhancing local biodiversity. Although it is widely recognized that mussel beds increase diversity, the drivers shaping these assemblages are poorly explored. We investigate whether mussel size homogenisation shapes the abundance, richness and structure of macrobenthic assemblages associated with mussel beds in two shores of the Galician coast (NW Spain). At each shore, two sites, 10 m apart, were selected and at each site, faunal assemblages were compared between mussel clumps showing shells of various sizes (control), and mussel clumps with closely similar-sized mussels, considered as homogenised. Homogenised clumps showed, in general, higher values in total number of individuals and species than control clumps. Regarding the effect of mussel size homogenisation on the multivariate structure of the assemblages, significant differences between control and homogenised clumps were found in three out of the four sites. Most relevant associated species usually reached higher abundances in homogenised clumps than control ones. Therefore, mussel size homogenisation influenced the structure of the macrofaunal assemblages associated with mussel beds but, its effect was context dependent (i.e., varied with sites). Information about the species contribution to dissimilarities among homogenised and control clumps was provided and the potential influence of sediment and algae on mussel clumps was discussed.
... The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is an intertidal filterfeeding bivalve, widely distributed on the Atlantic rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula, and is one of the most abundant species at intertidal Portuguese rocky shores [11,12]. Furthermore, this species also plays an important role in intertidal food chains [13] and offers valuable ecosystem services, such as food, coastal protection or elimination of pollutants [14][15][16]. Moreover, M. galloprovincialis has a high commercial value because it is a popular shellfish in the human diet that is extensively explored in several European countries [17]. ...
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Nowadays, coastal urbanization is one of the most serious and prevalent pressures on marine ecosystems, impacting their biodiversity. The objective of this study was to explore differences in attributes and biodiversity associated with an intertidal ecosystem engineer, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 between urban and non-urban shores. For this, mussel attributes and their associated macrofauna were compared between urban and non-urban rocky shores in the north of Portugal. Results showed that the largest sized mussels were more frequent on urban shores, whereas the smallest size class was only present in non-urban shores. Regarding macrofauna associated with mussels, the number of taxa was significantly higher on non-urban shores. Moreover, the structure of the macrobenhic assemblages was significantly different between urban and non-urban shores. Most important taxa responsible for differences were more abundant on non-urban shores except for Nucella lapillus, Idotea pelagica and Oligochaeta that were more abundant on urban shores. Therefore, our results showed that the mussel size frequency and the structure of the associated macrobenthic assemblages changed in urban shores. Considering the relevance of mussel beds for biodiversity and human well-being, our results indicate the need of adopting proper management plans to minimize these effects on urban intertidal ecosystems.
... Location of the different kelp species forests around the world adapted from[19]. ...
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Globally, 7.4 million hectares of arable land is planted with grapevine with a farm gate value of $68.3 billion. The production of grapes faces growing pressure associated with challenges such as climate change, diminishing resources as well as the overuse of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, which have an impact on sustainability. Consequently, viticulture has over the years embraced and implemented various practices such integrated pest management, organic and biodynamic farming to curb the high chemical inputs typically used in conventional farming. Biostimulants and biofertilizers are considered environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to synthetic fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Seaweed is of particular interest because of its availability globally. It was reported that brown seaweed (Ascophyllum spp.) improves plant growth and agricultural productivity, hormonal signalling, and an improved secondary plant metabolism.It also provides an alternative to soil supplementation, avoiding some of the negative effects of fertilizers through the leaching of nutrients into groundwater sources. This review aims to provide a summary of the use of seaweed extracts in grape production and their influence on grapevine physiology and stress adaptation mechanisms.
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The UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration is a response to the urgent need to substantially accelerate and upscale ecological restoration to secure Earth’s sustainable future. Globally, restoration commitments have focused overwhelmingly on terrestrial forests. In contrast, despite a strong value proposition, efforts to restore seaweed forests lag far behind other major ecosystems and continue to be dominated by small‐scale, short‐term academic experiments. However, seaweed forest restoration can match the scale of damage and threat if moved from academia into the hands of community groups, industry and restoration practitioners. Connecting two rapidly growing sectors in the Blue Economy ‐ seaweed cultivation and the restoration industry ‐ can transform marine forest restoration into a commercial‐scale enterprise that can make a significant contribution to global restoration efforts.
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Ongoing changes along the northeastern Atlantic coastline provide an opportunity to explore the influence of climate change and multitrophic interactions on the recovery of kelp. Here, vast areas of sea urchin‐dominated barren grounds have shifted back to kelp forests, in parallel with changes in sea temperature and predator abundances. We have compiled data from studies covering more than 1,500‐km coastline in northern Norway. The dataset has been used to identify regional patterns in kelp recovery and sea urchin recruitment, and to relate these to abiotic and biotic factors, including structurally complex substrates functioning as refuge for sea urchins. The study area covers a latitudinal gradient of temperature and different levels of predator pressure from the edible crab (Cancer pagurus) and the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus). The population development of these two sea urchin predators and a possible predator on crabs, the coastal cod (Gadus morhua), were analyzed. In the southernmost and warmest region, kelp forests recovery and sea urchin recruitment are mainly low, although sea urchins might also be locally abundant. Further north, sea urchin barrens still dominate, and juvenile sea urchin densities are high. In the northernmost and cold region, kelp forests are recovering, despite high recruitment and densities of sea urchins. Here, sea urchins were found only in refuge habitats, whereas kelp recovery occurred mainly on open bedrock. The ocean warming, the increase in the abundance of edible crab in the south, and the increase in invasive red king crab in the north may explain the observed changes in kelp recovery and sea urchin distribution. The expansion of both crab species coincided with a population decline in the top‐predator coastal cod. The role of key species (sea urchins, kelp, cod, and crabs) and processes involved in structuring the community are hypothesized in a conceptual model, and the knowledge behind the suggested links and interactions is explored. Ongoing changes along the northeastern Atlantic coastline provide an opportunity to explore the influence of climate change and multitrophic interactions on the recovery of kelp. Here, vast areas of sea urchin‐dominated barren grounds have shifted back to kelp forests, in parallel with changes in sea temperature and predator abundances. The role of key species (sea urchins, kelp, cod, and crabs) and processes involved in structuring the community are hypothesized in a conceptual model, and the knowledge behind the suggested links and interactions is explored.
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The larger aquatic plants growing in wetlands are usually called macrophytes. These include aquatic vascular plants, aquatic mosses and some larger algae. The presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes is one of the characteristics used to define wetlands, and as such macrophytes are an indispensable component of these ecosystems. As the most important removal processes in constructed treatment wetlands are based on physical and microbial processes, the role of the macrophytes in these has been questioned. This paper summarizes how macrophytes influence the treatment processes in wetlands. The most important functions of the macrophytes in relation to the treatment of wastewater are the physical effects the presence of the plants gives rise to. The macrophytes stabilise the surface of the beds, provide good conditions for physical filtration, prevent vertical flow systems from clogging, insulate the surface against frost during winter, and provide a huge surface area for attached microbial growth. Contrary to earlier belief, the growth of macrophytes does not increase the hydraulic conductivity of the substrate in soil-based subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The metabolism of the macrophytes affects the treatment processes to different extents depending on the type of the constructed wetland. Plant uptake of nutrients is only of quantitative importance in low-loaded systems (surface flow systems). Macrophyte mediated transfer of oxygen to the rhizosphere by leakage from roots increases aerobic degradation of organic matter and nitrification. The macrophytes have additional site-specific values by providing habitat for wildlife and making wastewater treatment systems aesthetically pleasing.
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The calculations of the Baltic Sea freshwater contentin Winsor et al. (2001) were erroneous due to afault in the hypsographic data used. This implied an erroneousestimate of the Baltic Sea mean salinity. (Theestimate using the correct data is shown in Fig. 1 of thisCorrigendum.) Rodhe and Winsor (2002) used theirresult in a calculation of the sensitivity of the BalticSea salinity to changes in the freshwater supply, andcorrections have to be made to that paper.The correct result indicates a somewhat lower sensitivityof the Baltic Sea salinity to changes in the freshwatersupply than was suggested in Rodhe and Winsor(2002) (hereafter RW). The new result is shownin Fig. 3 of this Corrigendum. An implication of thelower sensitivity is that the discussion about at whichfreshwater supply the Baltic Sea will turn into a lakeshould be omitted, since the new calculations indicatethat this will happen far outside the range in freshwaterinput, in which the diagnosis was made. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0870.2003.00037.x