ArticlePDF Available

Impact of cheese Whey Protein on growth performance of broiler: An approach of cheese whey utilization in poultry feed

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Cheese whey is greenish yellow liquid separated during cheese processing. It accounts 80-90% of milk after cheese processing. It is usually wasted by cheese industries, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan that increases BOD and COD of dairy effluent. Various useful components like lactose, proteins, minerals etc. are present in whey. Among proteins, whey proteins are very effective in body muscle anabolism along with other health benefits. Present research utilized whey proteins in the form of protein supplement. Whey protein was precipitated by combination of pH, temperature and salt treatment followed by filtration. Two types of whey protein concentrates (WPCs) were formed. One was creamy textured while the other was in powder form. WPCs were added in broiler feed at the rate of 0.2% in powder form and 2% in the creamy texture form. Growth parameters like feed consumption, body weight and weight gain increased with whey protein supplement while had no effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR). Carcass traits like carcass, breast, thigh, wings, drumstick weight had significantly increased with the incorporation of whey protein while having non-significant effect on liver weight, GIT weight and GIT/carcass ratio. Whey protein supplementation exhibit no significant influence on packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, lymphocytes and polymorphnuclear leukocyte (PMN) while exhibit significant impact on leukocytes and platelets. It is concluded that only 0.2% WPC (powder) exhibit significant impact on carcass growth while 2% WPC (creamy texture) supplementation improved the growth parameters but statistical analysis revealed it non-significant.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1117
IMPACT OF CHEESE WHEY PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER: AN APPROACH OF CHEESE
WHEY UTILIZATION IN POULTRY FEED
Kanza1, Majid Majeed1,Aysha Sameen1*, Muhammad Usman khan2,Mohammad Ali Shariati3, Vesna Karapetkovska - Hristova4
Address(es):
1National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan).
2Department of Energy Systems Engineering, University of Agriculture Faisalabad,38000,Faisalabd,Pakistan.
3Research Department, LLC «Science & Education», Russia and Researcher All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Moscow Region, Russia.
4Department of biotechnology, Faculty of biotechnical sciences Bitola, University "St. KlimentOhridski", Republic of Macedonia.
*Corresponding author: Kanza47@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Keywords: Whey, Whey Protein Concentrates (WPCs), Muscle anabolism, Essential amino acid, Fast protein, Hematology
INTRODUCTION
The dairy industry is divided into various sectors and each sector produces
different kinds of products. Milk, Yoghurt, cheese, butter and ice-cream are
common products of dairy industries. During processing of these products
different effluents are produced. Each effluent has different characteristics
depending upon the process and the product. All these effluents increase
biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water,
when discharged untreated.
Whey is one of the dairy effluents formed during cheese processing. It accounts
80-90% of total milk volume. Apart from being valued as a medicinal agent in
the 17th and 18th centuries, whey has primarily been considered a waste by the
dairy industry. In the late 20th century, regulations prevented the disposal of
untreated whey. At the same time, recognition of the value of whey components
accelerated. Modern science has unraveled the secrets of whey proteins and other
whey components, and established a sound basis for their nutritional and
functional value. Now it is possible to conserve valuable whey components,
including lactose, proteins and minerals that results a variety of products
available in the market (Smither, 2008).
Whey protein is one of the important components of whey. It is one of the two
major proteins of milk that accounts 20% of total milk protein while the rest 80%
is casein. Most of casein protein becomes the part of the cheese during cheese
production while whey proteins left in the whey (the liquid left after cheese
production). Whey protein is a protein complex which contains many kinds of
proteins and enzymes like beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum
albumin (BSA), lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, lactoperoxidase enzymes and
glycomacropeptides. These proteins perform many functions. Whey proteins
provide all essential and branch chain amino acids, improves body composition,
immune modulation and have antimicrobial activity. In addition, whey protein
has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor,
hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial and chelating agent. It also enhances
strength of muscles; prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease
(Bjorkmanet al., 2012).
Whey proteins have strong position in sport nutrition. Active people take
advantage of whey supplements. Whey proteins are considered as “fast pro tein”,
have capability of muscle development during exercise training. Whey protein is
also used in enriching some baking products (Rostamiet al.; 2013). The amino
acid composition of these proteins is similar to that of skeletal muscle so they are
directly involved in muscle anabolism along with growth and repair. Amino acids
provided by whey proteins are efficiently utilized and absorbed. Supplementation
of whey proteins provides a higher lean body mass gain and favorable effect on
protein metabolism as compared to an iso-nitrogenous casein protein (Cribb,
2006).
Whey and whey proteins also found application in poultry feeding. Whey and its
products have been reported to contain unidentified growth factor(s) when added
to the diet of chickens. Different researches reported that supplementation of
liquid whey, up to a certain level, improves broiler growth. Broiler became
lactose intolerant at higher concentration of liquid whey (because of the presence
of lactose in whey). This condition causes osmotic diarrhea that lower broiler
weight (Al-sadiet al., 2008). Shariatmadari and Forbes. (2005) concluded
through various experiments that at least 1.8 parts of whey added to dry food
(wet feeding), or whey offered as drinking liquid by diluted with an equal volume
of water or used undiluted whey at alternative days with water, were all
possibilities for taking advantage of this by-product. Supplementation of
commercial whey protein concentrates at two levels i.e. 8g Kg -1 and 32g Kg-1
increased carcass yield as compared to control group. However, higher level
showed better growth performance (Szczureket al.,2013).
Whey proteins can be concentrated and isolated through various techniques
including ionic selection (including ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration)
and membrane filtration (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, gel permeation),
polarity base separation (high performance liquid chromatography). Many of
these techniques are not applicable in all cases due to the high cost of equipment,
poor yield, less productivity and less selectivity during processing. It cannot be
affordable for small industries (Jimenez et al., 2012). Combination of pH, heat
and chemical treatment is a technique of protein precipitation to avoid the cost of
advance technologies. A number of studies reported that chemicals like NaCl,
CaCl2, heat treatment up to 100°C and pH adjustment usually 4 to7 were used for
Cheese whey is greenish yellow liquid separated during cheese processing. It accounts 80-90% of milk after cheese processing. It is
usually wasted by cheese industries, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan that increases BOD and COD of dairy effluent.
Various useful components like lactose, proteins, minerals etc. are present in whey. Among proteins, whey proteins are very effective in
body muscle anabolism along with other health benefits. Present research utilized whey proteins in the form of protein supplement.
Whey protein was precipitated by combination of pH, temperature and salt treatment followed by filtration. Two types of whey protein
concentrates (WPCs) were formed. One was creamy textured while the other was in powder form. WPCs were added in broiler feed at
the rate of 0.2% in powder form and 2% in the creamy texture form. Growth parameters like feed consumption, body weight and weight
gain increased with whey protein supplement while had no effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR). Carcass traits like carcass, breast,
thigh, wings, drumstick weight had significantly increased with the incorporation of whey protein while having non-significant effect on
liver weight, GIT weight and GIT/carcass ratio. Whey protein supplementation exhibit no significant influence on packed cell volume
(PCV), hemoglobin, lymphocytes and polymorphnuclear leukocyte (PMN) while exhibit significant impact on leukocytes and platelets.
It is concluded that only 0.2% WPC (powder) exhibit significant impact on carcass growth while 2% WPC (creamy texture)
supplementation improved the growth parameters but statistical analysis revealed it non-significant.
doi: 10.15414/jmbfs.2017.6.4.1117-1120
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Kanza et al. 2017 : 6 (4) 1117-1120
1118
the precipitation of whey proteins (Bordenave-Juchereauet al., 2005;
O’Kennedy and Mounsey, 2009; Stanciucet al., 2012).
The present research was designed to utilize futile whey by forming whey protein
concentrates (WPCs) through a combination of pH, heat and chemical treatment.
Keeping in view the lactose intolerance of broiler, implemented method reduce
lactose content in WPCs as compare to whey powder that had higher lactose
content. The amino acid profile of these proteins compelled to study the impact
of these proteins on broiler growth performance by supplementation at minimum
level.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Research was conducted according to the following steps. 1) Preparation of whey
protein concentrates (WPCs) from cheese whey 2) Bird housing and WPC
supplementation in feed 3) Data recording regarding growth performance 4)
Statistical analysis
1. Whey was collected during cheese processing from Technology Transfer
Center (Processing Hall) National Institute of Food Science and
Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Whey was
chemically treated by the addition of 6mM CaCl2 @ 6mL per liter of whey
and pH was adjusted to 7 by 1N NaOH. After chemical addition, it was
heated to 90°C for 20 min proteins were denatured and p recipitated. Muslin
cloth was used for the filtration of precipitates. Most of soluble
components, especially lactose was removed as filtrate and whey proteins
left as retentate. These retentates were WPC (creamy texture), stored in
freezer for supplementation in treatment C. For treatment B, WPC (creamy
texture) was dried at 43°C by spreading on aluminum foil. After drying,
hard crumbles were ground to fine powder. This was WPC (powder); stored
in polythene bag for supplementation in treatment B. Both WPCs were
analyzed for its protein content by using Kjeldhal’s method (AOAC, 2000).
2. Forty five broiler birds (Hubbard strain), day old, of mixed sexes were
purchased from a local hatchery. The chicks were weighed and randomly
divided into three experimental units A, B and C with three replications
each. The birds were placed and reared in deep litter pens each dimension 5
x 3 x 2.5 feet, which were disinfect and white washed before the start of the
experiment. A layer of two inches saw dust was used as litter material in
each pen which was stirred regularly during experiment to keep it in dry
condition. Birds were vaccinated against ND and IBD disease.
Commercially available starter (1-3 week) and finisher (4-5 week) rations
were used. Feed of each experimental unit was manually supplemented with
WPCs on a weekly basis. Birds had free access to feed and water
throughout the experimental period. A treatment plan is elaborated in Table
1.Some growth performance parameters like feed consumption, birds’
weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded on a weekly
basis. Performance of fifth week was recorded after five days instead of
seven. After 35 days, one bird from each pen was slaughtered according to
Islamic Halaal Principles and weights of carcasses and its different cuts
were recorded. Blood samples were collected from wing vein two days
before slaughtering and sent to Rehmat Laboratory, Faisalabad (Pakistan)
for analysis.
3. Weekly data was analyzed LSD under two factor factorial by using Statistic
8.0 software while after slaughter parameters and hematological parameters
were analyzed by using CRD with LSD.
Table 1Treatment plan for supplementation
Treatment
Feed
Water
A
(control group)
Normal feed
No protein supplementation
Fresh clean
water
B
Supplementation of WPC (powder)
0.2%
Fresh clean
water
C
Supplementation of WPC (creamy)
2%
Fresh clean
water
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Protein content in raw whey varied from 0.5-0.9%. Amount of protein in WPC
(creamy texture) increased to 21% after filtration while it was further increased to
40% in WPC (powder). Amount of protein in WPC (creamy) was compared to
ricotta cheese because of its processing and appearance in accordance with ricotta
cheese (El-Sheikh et al., 2010) while WPC (powder) had a wide range having a
protein content i.e.35-80% (Bylund, 1995). Protein content of present finding
was in the prescribed range.
Weekly growth performance parameters live bird weight, weight gain, feed
intake and FCR depicted in Figure 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In figures mean
values sharing different subscript differ significantly. It was observed that
supplementation of WPCs did not exhibit any significant effect on body weight,
weight gain and feed intake from 1-3 week but at 4th and 5th week statistical
analysis showed significant difference. It was evident that treatment A and B
were significantly differing from each other while mean values of treatment C
was in between the mean values of treatment A and B. Amount of protein in
treatment C was less than treatment B that is why mean values of treatment C
were higher than treatment A but less than treatment B. Supplementation of whey
proteins did not exhibit any significant difference on FCR. A little variation had
been observed in different treatment groups, but the overall impact was non-
significant. Findings of the present study showed an agreement with Torki and
Molanapour (2005), Karimi (2006), Omara (2012) and Abroet al. (2012). But
the results of FCR were different from Szczureket al. (2013). who reported that
incorporation of whey protein concentrates at the rate of 32g per Kg had a
significant effect on FCR. It might be due to higher level of WPCs that exhibit
significant impact on FCR.
Parameters regarding different carcass traits were presented in Table 2.
Maximum increase in carcass, breast, and heart, wings, thigh and drumstick
weight were observed in treatment B. Treatment C also showed an increase in
above mentioned parameters than treatment A (controlled group) but less than
treatment B. Non-significant difference had been observed in GIT, GIT/Carcass
ratio, body fat and liver weight. Amino acid profile of whey proteins is similar to
that of skeletal muscles that is why they are directly involved in muscle
anabolism (Cribbet al. 2006). Present research also showed that it was an amino
acid profile of whey protein, which exhibited significant impact on wings, thigh,
and breast and drumstick muscles. Majewskaet al. (2009). conveyed that
supplementation of liquid whey increase carcass and thigh weight. Similar
findings were shown by Salahuddinet al. (2012). where 20% additional protein
increase dressed, leg and breast weight. In the study of Huwaidaet al. (2013).
only 2% difference of protein level in feed resulted an increase in the live bird,
carcass, drumstick, thigh, chest, back and wing weight. Supplement WPC @ 8g
and 32g per kilogram of feed that increase breast meat yield while liver weight
was not affected (Szczureket al., 2013). Abroet al. (2012). stated that
replacement of plant protein with animal protein had no significant effect on
heart weight while Huwaidaet al. (2013). indicated that heart weight increased
with a high proportion of protein.
Blood image is good signal of health status of animals. It helps to identify the
severity of infection and the indirect signal of immune status of the birds. Present
research reported (Table 3) that supplementation did not distress hemoglobin,
polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMN), lymphocytes and pack cell volume (PCV)
while it increased number of white blood cells and platelets. Increase in the
number of platelets is a healthy sign. It was due to bioactive components of whey
proteins but a higher number of white blood cells indicated sign of any disease.
Ahmed et al. (1994), Donkohet al. (1999), Odunsiet al. (1999). reported that
hematological parameters were unchanged in protein treatment. Reason behind
increase in WBC might be temperature fluctuation during storage. WPC is a
sensitive product, especially creamy textured WPC. It was stored in the freezer,
but due to unavoidable load shedding it undergoes temperature fluctuation that
might cause undesirable changes in it and highest number of white blood cells in
treatment B so it is recommended that try to use fresh creamy texture WPC to
avoid any harmful effect on hematology. WPC (powder) was preferred to dry in
constant temperature to avoid any undesirable changes.
Figure 1 Comparison of means of weekly live bird weight of broiler
A= Normal feed (controlled)
B= Feed supplement with 0.2% whey protein (powder)
C= Feed supplement with 2% whey protein concentrate (creamy)
i
h g
f
d
b
i
h g
ef
c
a
i
h g
e
cd
ab
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Weight (g)
Week
A
B
C
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Kanza et al. 2017 : 6 (4) 1117-1120
1119
Figure 2 Comparison of means of weekly weight gain of broiler
A= Normal feed (controlled)
B= Feed supplement with 0.2% whey protein (powder)
C= Feed supplement with 2% whey protein concentrate (creamy)
Figure 3 Comparison of means of weekly feed intake of broiler
A= Normal feed (controlled)
B= Feed supplement with 0.2% whey protein (powder)
C= Feed supplement with 2% whey protein concentrate (creamy)
Figure 4 Comparison of means of weekly FCR of broiler
A= Normal feed (controlled)
B= Feed supplement with 0.2% whey protein (powder)
C= Feed supplement with 2% whey protein concentrate (creamy)
Table 2 Comparison of means ±SD of carcass traits
Parameters
A
B
C
Carcass weight
1018±0.04b
1235±0.029a
1083±0.06 b
GIT weight
89.16±5.20
101.66±2.88
86.6±12.58
Ratio GIT/carcass
0.087±0.006
0.082±0.002
0.08±0.01
Breast weight
320±12.21 b
396±12.219a
348±7.49 b
Heart weight
7.06±0.23 b
9.63±1.2a
7.33±0.73 b
Wings weight
43.60±0.79 b
51.76±0.83 a
45.2±3.04 b
Thigh weight
73.53±3.37 b
923±4.40a
81.33±5.50 b
Drum stick weight
72.78±3.57 b
85.25±3.48a
75.43±8.83 a b
Body fat weight
28.267±4.86
37.03±7.07
33.23±6.54
Liver weight
35±5.96
45±4.86
43±3.18
Table 3 Comparison of means ±SD of hematology
Parameters
A
B
C
Hemoglobin (g/dL)
8.9±1.29
7.9±1.49
10.08±1.19
Polymorphnuclear leukocytes
(PMN)
7±3.27
5.6±2.02
4.17±2.02
White Blood Cells
(thousands/mm3)
8133±2931b
14866±3695a
15833±2010ab
Platelets
9833±1892b
15500±1527a
12400±2291ab
Lymphocytes (%)
91.16±2.84
90.33±0.28
93.33±2.25
Pack Cell Volume (PCV)
28.72±4.73
26.08±3.79
28.72±4.83
CONCLUSION
To date, whey protein concentration (WPC) and its derivatives have not only
considered as a good source of essential amino acids but they are a good source
of protein substitution in many feeing and food products as well. In case of feeing
livestock with a nutrient source like mentioned whey products, it is also effecting
on different parameters like, protein amounts of carcasses. WPC is sensitive
product especially creamy textured WPC. It was stored in freezer but due to
unavoidable load shedding it undergoes temperature fluctuation that might cause
undesirable changes in it and highest number of white blood cells in treatment B
so it is recommended that try to use fresh creamy texture WPC to avoid any
harmful effect on hematology. WPC (powder) was preferred to dry in consistent
temperature to avoid any undesirable changes.
REFERENCES
Abro .,R., Sahito, H. A., Memon, A., Soomro, R.N., Soomro,H. &Ujjan, N.A
2012. Effect of various protein source feed ingredients on the growth
performance of broiler. Int. J. Med. Plant. Res. 1: 38:44.
Ahmed MK, AR Barque, H Nawaz and RH Siddique, 1994.Effect of varying
energy and protein levels on the hematology of Japanese quails.Pak. Vet. J. 14:
200-202.
Al-Sadi, A.N., Al-Kabbi, H.T., Kalf,A.K. &Amjad, A.A.(2008).Effect of
supplemental fresh liquid whey to drinking water on broiler performance.Iraqi. J.
Poult. Sci. 3: 121-127.
AOAC.(2000). Official Method of Analysis: The Association of Official
Analytical Chemists. 17th Ed, Arlington, USA.
Bjorkman, M.P., Finne-Soveri,H. &Tilvis, R.S.(2012). Whey protein
supplementation in nursing home residents A randomized controlled trial.
Eur.Geriatr. Med. 3: 161-166.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurger.2012.03.010 .
Bordenave-Juchereau, S., Almeida, B., Piot,J.M.&Sannier, F.(2005). Effect of
protein concentration, pH, lactose content and pasteurization on thermal gelation
of acid caprine whey protein concentrates. J.Dairy.Resea. 72: 34
38.https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022029904000482 .
Bylund, G.(1995). Whey processing In: Dairy Processing Handbook, Tetra Pak
Processing Systems Lund, Sweden, pp: 331-352.
Cribb, P.J., Williams, M.F, Carey, & Hayes, A.(2006). The effect of whey isolate
and resistance training on strength, body composition and plasma glutamine.Int.
J. Sport.Nutr.Exerc.Metab. 16: 494-509.https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.16.5.494 .
Donkoh, A., Atuahene, C.C., Anang,D.M. &Ofori, S.K.(1999).Chemical
composition of solar-dried blood meal and its effect on performance of broiler
chickens.Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech. 81: 299-307.https://doi.org/10.1016/s0377-
8401(99)00069-3 .
El-Sheikh, M., Farrag,A. &Zaghloul, A.(2010). Ricotta cheese from whey protein
concentrate. J. Am. Sci. 6: 321-325.
Huwaida, E.E.M., Rashid, H.O.S., Yousif,I.A. &Elamin, K.M. (2013). Effect of
dietary protein level and strain on carcass characteristics of heat stressed broiler
f f de b e
b
f f
c a de
a
f f cd b e
ab
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Over all
Weight gain (g)
Week
A
B
C
e d
c ab c
b
e d
c a b
a
e d
c a c
b
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Over all
Feed Intake (g)
Week
A
B
C
ef
a
cd
de
bc a
ef
a
de
def
b
a
f a
de
de
bc
a
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Over all
FCR
Week
A
B
C
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Kanza et al. 2017 : 6 (4) 1117-1120
1120
chicks. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 4: 504-
511.https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2012.649.653 .
Jimenez, X.T., Cuenca, A.A., Jurado, A.T., Corona,A.A. &Urista, C.R.M.(2012).
Traditional Methods for Whey Protein Isolation and Concentration: Effects on
Nutritional Properties and Biological Activity. J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 56: 369-377.
Karimi, A.(2006). The effects of varying fishmeal inclusion levels (%) on
performance of broiler chicks.Int. J.Poult.Sci. 5:
255:258.https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2006.255.258
Majewska, T., Pudyszaki, K., Kozłowski, K., Bohdziewicz,K. &Matusevicius,
P.(2009).Whey and lactic acid in broiler chickens
nutrition.VeterinarijairZootechnika (vet med zoot).47: 56-59.
O’Kennedy,B.T.&Mounsey, J.S.(2009). The dominating effect of ionic strength
on the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of b-lactoglobulin in simulated
milk ultrafiltrate.Int. Dairy. J. 19: 123-
128.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.09.004 .
Odunsi, A.A., Onifade,A.A.&Babatunde, G.M.(1999). Response of broiler chicks
to virginimycin and dietary protein concentrations in the humid
tropics.Archivosdezootunia. 48: 317-325.
Omara, I.I.(2012). Nutritive value of skimmed milk and whey, added as natural
probiotic in broiler diet. Egyptian. J. Anim. Prod. 49: 207:217.
Rostami, O., Shariaty,M. A., MousaviKhaneghah, A. (2013). Comparison the
Effects of, Modified Ultra Filtered Cheese Whey, Whey Concentrate and Milk
powders on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dough and Taftoon Bread.
Global. J. Med. Plant.Resea. 1(1): 106-110.
Salahuddin, M., Uddin,M.& Ahmad, N.(2012). Effects of protein and vitamin on
growth performance and haemato-biochemical profile in broiler. Bangl. J. Vet.
Med. 10: 914.https://doi.org/10.3329/bjvm.v10i1-2.15640
Shariatmadari, F. & Forbes, J.M. (2005).Performance of broiler chickens given
whey in the food and/or drinking water.Br.Poult. Sci. 46: 498-
505.https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660500190900
Smithers, G.W.(2008). Whey and whey proteins—from ‘gutter-to-gold’.Int
.Dairy. J. 18: 695-704.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.03.008
Stanciuc, N., Rapeanu, G.,Bahrim,G.&Aprodu,I.(2012). pH and heat-induced
structural changes of bovine apo-a-lactalbumin. Food Chem. 131: 956
963.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.087
Szczurek, W., Szymczyk, B., Arczewska-Włosek, A., Jozefiak, D. &Alloui,
M.N.(2013). The effects of dietary whey protein concentrate level on
performance, selected intestinal tract and blood parameters and thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances in the liver and breast meat of broiler chickens. J. Anim.
Feed. Sci. 22: 342353.https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/65923/2013
Torki.M. &Molanapour, B.(2005). Effect of dried whey and probiotic
supplementation on growth performance in broilers. In: Proceedings of the 15th
European Symposium on poultry nutrition, Balatonfüred, Hungary pg: 3
... Dried raw whey (RW) is mainly composed of lactose (~70%), followed by protein, ash, and fat, whereas demineralized whey (DW) contains more lactose (~80%) and less ash than RW, but the other components are comparable (Smith, 2008). It has been suggested that various proteins in whey, such as β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, and immunoglobulin, are beneficial to human health by aiding the muscle development, modulating the immune system, and contributing to the antibacterial activity (Kanza et al., 2017;Sánchez-Obando et al., 2020). However, even though whey is partially used as supplementary feed for livestock, its application in the food industry is still limited because it is mainly composed of lactose (which has little sweetness), and the concentration of mineral salts is too high (Siso, 1996). ...
Article
Here, a novel whey‐based vinegar, called lacto‐vinegar, was developed. Rapeseed meal (RM) or wheat bran (WB) was used as a raw material for making koji. Whey solution was first saccharified with the RM/WB‐koji and then transformed into an alcoholic beverage via fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis. The alcoholic product was further brewed into vinegar with Acetobacter pasteurianus. The resulting lacto‐vinegar contained about 4% (v/v) acetic acid. Several analyses revealed that lacto‐vinegar made using RM‐koji was superior to that made using WB‐koji in terms of amino acid composition, antihypertensive activity, and antioxidant capacity, indicating that RM is more beneficial than WB as a raw material for making koji in lacto‐vinegar production. In addition, the lacto‐vinegar had higher nutritional and functional values than those of conventional vinegar available on the market. Thus, the novel lacto‐vinegar brewing method developed in this study would expand the possibilities of whey utilization.
Article
Sugar overconsumption continues to increase worldwide and contributes to multiple health-related issues. Dairy foods represent a large market, grossing more than $125 billion per year worldwide. Consumer demands for healthier products are leading to a large push for sugar reduction in dairy foods. Sugar plays an important role in dairy foods, not only in flavor but also in texture, color, and viscosity. Replacing sugar can have negative effects, making substitution inherently difficult. Natural and artificial nonnutritive sweeteners exist for sugar reduction. Natural nonnutritive sweeteners are popular, particularly for label appeal, but many consumers still prefer the taste of artificial nonnutritive sweeteners. Sweet taste perception can also be affected by texture of the food matrix and the presence of fat. Other sugar reduction techniques include hydrolysis of lactose, ultrafiltration, and direct reduction. This review will address the role of sugar, alternative sweeteners, and sugar reduction in ice cream, yogurt, and flavored milk.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of additional supplementation of protein and vitamin ADE on growth performance and haemato-biochemical profile were studied in "Cobb 500" broiler chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=5). Group A was considered as control, fed only with commercial ration and other groups were supplemented with either 20% protein (group B) or 3 ml vitamin ADE/liter D.W. (group C) or both of them (group D) in addition to commercial ration. Body weight was increased significantly (p 0.05). Serum transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine level decreased insignificantly but urea level significantly (p <0.05) varied among the treated groups. The study revealed that combined supplementation of protein and vitamin ADE result better in body weight and different organs weight gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjvm.v10i1-2.15640
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was carried out to study the effect of heat stress on growth performance of three broiler strains fed two different level of dietary protein. Three hundred and sixty, one day old unsexed broiler chicks (120 for each strain, Ross, Cobb and Hubbard strain), were randomly assigned in factorial arrangement. The total number of chicks for each strain was divided into two groups (A and B), with six replicates (10 chicks per each). Group (A) for each strain was fed on diet contained (23%) Crude Protein (CP) as starter diet for the first four weeks of age and then replaced by a diet contained (21%) CP as finisher diet. Group (B) for each strain was fed a diet contained (21%) CP as starter diet for the first four weeks and then shifted to a diet contained (19%) CP as finisher diet. The minimum and maximum range of ambient temperature during the experimental period was 34-93°C. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded on weekly basis throughout the entire duration of experiment, however feed intake per bird for Ross, Cobb and Hubbard strains were 3127.54, 3074.69 and 2850.17g respectively. The results revealed that birds in group (A) for each strain were significantly higher (p<0.05) in live body weight and growth performance than those in group (B) moreover Ross strain got the highest significant (p<0.05) live body weight gain in comparison with Cobb and Hubbard strains. The interaction between strain and diet was significantly (p<0.05) increased for live body weight.
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of broilers in response to various percentages of animal protein (A.P) and plant protein (P.P) feed ingredients, kept at SAU, Tandojam. One hundred twenty 120 day old mixed chicks (male and female) were purchased for 42 days. Initially weighed and randomly divided in to 4 equal groups i.e. A, B, C, and D, each group having 30 chicks. They were fed different rations containing various percentages of A.P and P.P feed ingredients sources. Group A containing 20% A.P and 80% P.P (control), while group B, C and D were given 30/70, 40/60, and 50/50 percentages of A.P and P.P feed ingredients, respectively. It was noted that the different percentage of (A.P and P.P) animal protein and plant protein sources have significant (P<0.05) effect on the growth and economic parameters of broiler, but non-significant effect on edible and non-edible internal organs. The feed intake of broiler in groups A, B, C and D was 4203.37, 4240.21, 4283.98 and 4396.62 g/b; water intake (P<0.05) of broiler was 9.46, 9.51, 10.06 and 10.45 liter/b, respectively. Average live body weight (P<0.05) of broilers in groups A, g/b; liver weight 36, 38.40, 38.80 and 39 g/b and intestine weight 132.90, 137.20, 138.60 and 143.40 g/b, respectively. With increasing protein ratio of animal protein in broiler ration, there was significant (P<0.05) increase in feed and water consumption of broiler. It was observed that animal protein and plant protein percentages of 50:50% proved to be the most effective to increase broiler live body weight, improve feed conversion ratio, carcass quantity as well as net profit per broiler basis. However, there was no association of animal protein and plant protein source on the mortality rate of experimental broiler. It was concluded that 50:50 percentages of A.P and P.P feed ingredients could be considered as an optimum ratio for better broiler growth and economic profitability.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two levels of whey protein concentrate (WPC, 80.35% protein, 5.86% lactose) added to diets and duration of these treatments on growth and slaughter value, haematological parameters involved in immune processes, oxidative status of liver and breast muscle, and selected indices of gut function of broilers. A total of 560 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated into 7 groups with 10 replicates of 8 chickens per replicate. The experiment lasted 42 days and was divided into 3 successive feeding phases. The control group was fed basal diets consisted of maize, wheat and soyabean meal (C group). The other 6 groups received, for 7, 21 and 42 days basal diets with 8 or 32 g · kg–1 WPC added at the expense of soyabean meal (WL and WH groups, respectively). On day 42 group WH had a higher lymphocyte percentage (P < 0.05) compared to the control. The long-term (42 days) feeding with higher level of WPC significantly decreased the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05 vs C). The number of erythrocytes on day 42 and the whole blood glucose on day 21 were significantly increased in WH birds than in controls. The concentration of serum total protein on both WPC levels was greater (P < 0.05) on day 21 compared with the C group. The reduction (P < 0.05) in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a tendency towards lower TBARS level in breast meat were observed in birds WH when fed for 42 days. Only higher dietary WPC amount provided for 42 days reduced the caecal and small intestinal pH values (P < 0.05 vs C). The ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed with 32 g WPC during the first 21 days of life, compared to the C and WL treatments. The factorial ANOVA showed that on days 7, 21 and 42 the final body weight gain (BGW) and feed conversion ratio in broilers WL and WH were significantly better than in the C ones. Assessment of orthogonal contrasts revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) final BWG in the WH broilers, compared to the WL dietary treatment; such effect was not observed in earlier feeding stages. Generally, carcass yield on both WPC dietary levels, and breast muscle percentage on WH treatment, were higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) compare to the C group. In conclusion, WPC added to a conventional diets for growing chickens exerts a growth-promoting action and at a dose of 32 g · kg–1 may induce desirable changes in bird’s health and the intestinal tract metabolism.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional methods used for concentration of whey pro-teins have various levels of performance and effects on the nutritional properties and biological activities of the products. In this study, we showed that the greatest protein content was obtained using ultrafil-tration and salt treatment methods. The effective concentration was approximately 40-53% (w/w) protein. Using electrophoresis and solu-bility tests, we also found that these methods offer the fundamental advantage of maintaining certain proteins in their native states. The products maintained key ABTS • + radical scavenging activity; how-ever, the antimicrobial activity was adversely affected by these sepa-ration methods. Resumen. Los métodos tradicionales para la concentración de proteí-nas de suero lácteo afectan el rendimiento del proceso, las propiedades nutricionales de los productos y su actividad biológica. En este estudio se muestra que el más alto contenido de proteína verdadera 40-53% (w/w) se encuentra en los productos obtenidos de la ultrafiltración y precipitación por adición de sales. Los resultados de electroforesis y solubilidad de las proteínas revelaron que estos métodos ofrecen la ventaja fundamental de mantener las proteínas en su estado nativo. Los productos mostraron una importante actividad antioxidante pero la actividad antimicrobiana se vio afectada por los métodos de sepa-ración. Palabras clave: Lactosuero, concentración de proteínas, actividad antioxidante, actividad antimicrobiana.
Article
In order to explore the possibility of using dairy ingredients as a functional ingredient in Iranian bread (Taftoon), investigations were made to study the effect of replacement of wheat flour with 5% Non Fat Dry Milk (NFDM), Whey Protein Concentrates (WPC) and Ultra Filtered cheese Whey Powder (UFWP) on extensograph and farinograph parameters of wheat flour, staling rate and sensory evaluation of Taftoon. Dairy ingredients decreased water absorption of dough in almost all cases. Heat treatment of NFDM, WPC and UFWP at 85°c for 1hr increased the mixing time of dough. Heat treatment in slightly alkaline pH counteracted the deleterious effects of adding untreated UFWP and NFDM in Taftoon. Heat-treated UFWP had the best effect on lowering the staling rate in bread and got the best scores in sensory evaluation.
Article
The effects of pH and thermal treatments on conformation and association state of Ca 2+ -depleted bovine a-lactalbumin (apo-a-LA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular modelling. The experimental results demonstrate a third-state model for heat-induced unfolding of apo-a-LA, at pH 2.0, and an all-or-none transition of apo-a-LA, at pH 4.5 and 7.0, respectively. The heat-induced changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of a-LA were outlined after running molecular dynamics simulations at 25 °C and 80 °C, at neutral pH, therefore supporting the experimental observations. Our data provides insight into the mechanism of pH-and heat-dependent structural changes and oligomerization of a-LA, and will be helpful in understanding the ability of this protein to interact with certain compounds of bio-logical interest.
Article
The denaturation/aggregation behaviour of heated (78 °C, 10 min) β-lactoglobulin (1%, w/w) was examined as a function of heating pH (5.0–7.0), in the presence of different salts. Heating β-lactoglobulin in the presence of calcium (5 mm) significantly increased the level of aggregated protein at most heating pH values, compared to heating in water or sodium chloride (100 mm). Heating β-lactoglobulin in the presence of calcium (5 mm) and phosphate (5 mm), resulted in similar denaturation levels in the pH range 5.0–5.8 as in the presence of calcium (5 mm) alone but reduced denaturation in the pH range 6.0–7.0, probably due to the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate. The addition of NaCl (100 mm) counteracted the aggregation promoting properties of the calcium and calcium/phosphate systems. Heating β-lg in a simulated milk ultrafiltrate solution was similar to heating in NaCl alone. This suggested that Ca2+ effects alone may not explain the heat-induced denaturation/aggregation behaviour of β-lactoglobulin in milk whey systems.