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Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence

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Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence

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... Heteronormativity describes the tendency to view people as heterosexual by default (Warner, 1991). Heteronormativity elevates sexual relationships between women and men, with everything outside of that rendered unnatural, undesirable, or atypical (Rich, 1980). Heteronormative frameworks prescribe complementary roles for men and women in relationships, such that women are assigned mother and carer, and men provider and protector (Rich, 1980). ...
... Heteronormativity elevates sexual relationships between women and men, with everything outside of that rendered unnatural, undesirable, or atypical (Rich, 1980). Heteronormative frameworks prescribe complementary roles for men and women in relationships, such that women are assigned mother and carer, and men provider and protector (Rich, 1980). ...
... The term "heteronormativity" is typically used in reference to the oppression of sexual minority groups based on the presumption that heterosexuality is preferred, natural, normative, and even universal (e.g., see Rich, 1980;Rubin, 1984;Warner, 1991). In the heteronormativity theory of low desire in women partnered with men, heteronormativity is used to discuss gender inequities in heterosexual relationships (for a full discussion, see van Anders et al., 2021). ...
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Low sexual desire in women is usually studied as a problem, one that is located within women. However, other possibilities exist, including known gender inequities related to heteronormative gender roles. In this study, we provide the first test of the theory that heteronormativity is related to low sexual desire in women partnered with men, focusing specifically on inequities in the division of household labor. In two studies with women who were partnered with men and had children (Study 1, N = 677; Study 2, N = 396), performing a large proportion of household labor was associated with significantly lower sexual desire for a partner. Together, the results suggest that this association was mediated by both perceiving the partner as a dependent and perceiving the division of labor as unfair. These results support the heteronormativity theory of low sexual desire in women partnered with men, and show that gender inequities are important, though understudied, contributors to low desire in women partnered with men.
... Moreover, although most models position realization of same-sex attraction as integral to queer identity formation, our findings point to the importance of realizing non-attraction to asexual identification. Put differently, models of sexual identity formation should account both for overcoming compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980) and compulsory sexuality (Gupta, 2015;Przybylo, 2019) to better include asexual experiences. The phenomenon of bisexuality and pansexuality as identity pathways to asexual identification further supports this idea, with individuals first overcoming compulsory heterosexuality (to identify as bi/pan) and later overcoming compulsory sexuality in identifying as asexual. ...
... Also noteworthy is that our quantitative analysis shows that a large percentage of asexual-spectrum respondents (65%) reported identifying as heterosexual at some point in time. Again, this points to the fact that asexual individuals must contend with both the pressures of compulsory sexuality (Gupta, 2015;Przybylo, 2019) and compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980). The pressures of compulsory heterosexuality position heterosexuality as a default label, even for individuals who later come to discard that label and claim a minoritized sexual identity. ...
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Identity formation for asexual people can be complicated by limited societal awareness of asexualities. Consequently, people who eventually identify on the asexuality spectrum often adopt other sexual identities in their early lives. In this paper, we extend sexual identity development theory by analyzing the identity trajectories of asexual-spectrum people who once identified as bisexual or pansexual. Quantitative data suggests that about half of asexual-spectrum respondents once identified as bisexual or pansexual and a third closely associate with bisexual or pansexual terminology. Qualitative data supports these findings, revealing that bisexuality, pansexuality, and asexuality are not always seen as mutually exclusive categories by asexual individuals. We argue that the intelligibility of bi-/pansexuality positions them as identity pathways for many asexual-spectrum individuals who experience equal (albeit little to no) attraction toward people of any gender.
... Pues no se trata tanto de atender a una reivindicación de derechos para unas identidades otras (no heterosexuales), que también, sino de poner el foco en cómo se producen y articulan las identidades y los cuerpos y como dicho proceso, lejos de ser esencialista y unitario, es abierto y está en continuo proceso de (re)articulación. En este sentido, una de las grandes aportaciones de las teorías queer, ha sido entender las 47 Rich, A. (1986), "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence" en Blood, Bread andPoetry. Selected Prose 1979-1985. ...
... Informe provincia de Buenos Aires +las oportunidades educativas (1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010). Buenos Aires: Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia Van Gennep, A. (1909[1986). Los ritos de paso. ...
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El ciclo de conferencias 2018 titulado “Tarea crítica de la Educación Inclusiva: contingencias epistémicas, emergencias metodológicas y discusiones para el presente”, organizadas por el Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos de Educación Inclusiva (CELEI) de Chile, alberga en esta versión, un total de once conferencias internacionales, a cargo de destacados investigadores, cada uno de los cuales abordará nuevas formas de teorización crítica que se cruzan e interseccionan en la creación y funcionamiento de la Educación Inclusiva. El ciclo de conferencias, se propone de esta manera, trabajar en la identificación delas tareas críticas, específicamente, en términos epistemológicos, políticos y éticos, que enfrenta la inclusión, en tanto, mecanismo de transformación de la educación para el siglo XXI. Su interés fundacional consiste en el develamiento de nuevas formas intelectuales y metodológicas que interroguen los modos de pensar, experimentar y practicar la Educación Inclusiva, desde la cristalización de nuevas espacialidades educativas, estrategias que contribuyan a movilizar nuevas racionalidades para problematizar la escolarización, el desarrollo ciudadano y político, así como, interrogar acerca de las posibilidades que proporcionan los marcos y vocabularios existentes, ante la heterotopicalidad de tensiones analítico-metodológicas que atraviesan su campo de producción. El Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos de Educación Inclusiva (CELEI) de Chile, articula su tarea desde una perspectiva ‘inter’ y ‘post’-disciplinar, teórica y analítico-metodológica desde una perspectiva crítica, sus investigadores y afiliados se posicionan en las intersecciones de las disciplinas que confluyen, crean y garantizan el conocimiento auténtico de la Educación Inclusiva, avanzando en la creación de nuevos saberes y metodologías de investigación emergentes. Por esta razón, el ciclo de conferencias, asume la necesidad deconstruir y consolidar una instancia de reflexión crítica contemporánea permanente, que eviten revisitar tópicos y discusiones permanentes desarrolladas por múltiples campos del conocimiento y que son instalados como temas del presente a través de las agendas de investigación de Educación Inclusiva, limitando a la proliferación de nuevas discusiones que oportunamente, permitan reducir y erradicar las problemáticas que organizan el campo de lucha de la inclusión. En suma, el ciclo de conferencias 2018, rechaza las dependencias epistémicas e intelectuales arraigadas en los marcos disciplinarios herrados, interesándose por aperturar nuevos focos analíticos, capaces de construir un saber para el presente. La plataforma “Tarea crítica de la Educación Inclusiva”, asume el reto de interrogar a través de una multiplicidad de perspectivas, en qué medida las discusiones, los marcos intelectuales y metodológicos y los vocabularios, asumen las tensiones contemporáneas sobre las que urge trabajar en materia de Educación Inclusiva, de no ser así, se propone ofrecer respuestas oportunas para ello.
... As a result, we are unable to understand potential differences and similarities between bisexual and pansexual women's victimization. Thus, while it is clear that violations of the "heterosexual assumption" (Herek 2007: 907; see also Rich 1980) can create a heightened risk for victimization among bisexual women (Bedera & Nordmeyer 2020;Bender & Lauritsen 2021;Coulter et al. 2018;Meyer 2003;Worthen 2020), more research is needed to understand pansexual women's victimization experiences. In fact, no studies to date have specifically explored violence and harassment among pansexual women. ...
... Overall, both bisexual and pansexual women's victimization may be related to the ways society responds to their violations of heteronormativity and their status as women, especially because both bisexual and pansexual identities challenge traditional monosexual norms which are heavily enforced among women (Coston 2021;Rich 1980). There may also be differences in bisexual and pansexual women's experiences with violence and harassment, however. ...
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Recent research suggests that bisexual women may be at high risk for victimization due to their non-monosexual identities, yet it is unclear whether pansexual women, who also have non-monosexual identities, may be at high risk for victimization as well. In the current study, data from a sample of adults in the United States, between the ages of eighteen and sixty-four and stratified by census categories of age, gender, race/ethnicity and census region collected from lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) online panelists (n = 1559), were utilized to investigate bisexual (n = 358) and pansexual (n = 45) women’s victimization through a test of Norm-Centered Stigma Theory with a theoretical focus on heteronormativity and intersecting experiences with social power (gender and sexuality) (Worthen 2020). Three notable findings emerged. First, pansexual women experienced higher levels of harassment when compared to bisexual women. Second, both being pansexual and being a pansexual woman significantly increased the odds of enduring violence and harassment. Third, being a bisexual woman decreased the odds of experiencing violence and was not statistically significantly related to harassment. Overall, results suggest that pansexual women may have especially unique experiences that put them at risk for victimization and demonstrate the importance of specifically examining pansexual women’s experiences as separate from others. A discussion of the contributions and limitations of quantitative analyses in critical criminology, in general, and queer criminology, in particular, is also provided. Because this study is the first to highlight the intersecting experiences of pansexual women and their elevated risk of violence and harassment, the findings provide a much-needed first step into working toward developing a deeper understanding of pansexual people’s victimization. In addition, the results demonstrate the need for future research across multiple methods of investigation, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods approaches to best understand these relationships.
... The degree to which women are responsible for unpaid labour, and its associated economic and social penalties, has been extensively documented. Feminists since the second wave have argued that women's responsibility for childcare 'has led to an entire social organisation of gender inequality, and men as well as women must become primary carers for children if that inequality is to change' (Chodorow, 1999, in Rich, 2003. In global terms, women spend between two and ten times as much time on unpaid care work compared to men (Ferranti et al., 2014). ...
... Furthermore, scholars have theorised the connections between capitalism, its reliance upon women's unpaid and un(der)valued reproductive labour, and 'transnational business masculinity' (Connell and Wood, 2005), as constitutive components of the gender binary via the heterosexual matrix (Rich, 2003;Butler, 1999). Through this lens, the ideal worker is inextricably linked to men and (hegemonic) masculinity, and is the diametric opposite of women's caring femininity in a binary framework of power. ...
Thesis
Fathers’ use of parental leave is a crucial policy issue in relation to gender equality and at the root of gendered caring norms and unequal divisions of labour throughout the life course. Using comparative mixed methods and a framework that conceptualises parenting as gendered and performative (Butler, 1999), this research contributes knowledge of the influence on fathers’ parental leave decisions of three dimensions of norms: policy, discourse and cultural norms; workplace cultures; and peer and family group norms. I compare the effect of social norms on the decisions made by fathers working for the same multinational firm in three countries: the UK, Sweden and Portugal. I argue that a Butlerian understanding can help answer the question frequently posed in the literature: why, when we know couples have egalitarian intentions prior to the birth of a first child, do couples slip back into conservative gender roles once the child has arrived (Fox, 2019; Grunow and Veltkamp, 2016; Miller, 2011)? I provide a comparative backdrop to the three focus countries, to contextualise the path dependencies underpinning the enabling parental leave policy and culture in Sweden and the contradictory and ambiguous parental leave policies and cultures in the UK and Portugal. I use data from the 2017 wave of the European Values Study to demonstrate the differences in attitudes towards gender roles between the three countries. I find that overall, Sweden holds the most egalitarian values, followed by the UK, and then Portugal, where the data reflects ‘normative ambiguity’ (Wall, 2015). I then theorise the extent to which each of the three domains of norms shaped fathers’ use of leave in the three countries, through analysis of qualitative data collected in 45 interviews with fathers. I argue that the widespread normative support for gender equality embedded in Swedish culture, alongside the enabling policy framework first introduced in 1974, contributed to the existence of a robust ‘citation’ (Butler, 1993) for fathers’ use of parental leave entitlements, which cannot fully exist in Portugal and the UK under the current discursive and material conditions. My argument, via a Butlerian critique of regulation that posits parental leave policy frameworks as both regulated by and regulating gender, thus contributes to the body of work foregrounding the centrality of non-transferable leave entitlements to fathers’ use of leave. At work, despite conducting interviews with fathers at the same firm in each country, organisational culture was highly divergent between the nations. Bringing organisational culture studies together with Butler’s performative ontology of gender, I thus theorise organisational culture as gender regulation and conceptualise the ‘performative breadwinner’, articulating the inability of many of the fathers to cease reproducing the masculine ‘ideal worker’ norm. The micro-level insights documented demonstrate how fathers’ everyday experiences are shaped by cultural backdrop, peer behaviour and forms of social constraint that form the choice architecture that shapes individual decisions. The research offers an original, granular account of the iterative process through which ‘father-friendly’ leave entitlements, combined with discursive changes, contribute to wider uptake of leave entitlements, and how shifts in norms over time are made possible – or not – through citationality.
... This study uses the concept of patriarchy to make sense of existing gender hierarchies in the form of male domination and female subordination (Johnson 2015;Walby 1989). The patriarchal value-relationship of 'gain and loss' regarding sexuality is said to manifest in unequal gender power relations (Federici 1975;He 1994;Wang 2020) and the repression and oppression of women's sexuality (He 1994;Rich 1980;Rubin 1993). Gain and loss logic as it applies to heteronormative monogamous marital exchange presumes that men always gain (through domination and assumptions regarding masculine privilege) and women always lose in terms of sex (He 1994, 11-12). ...
... Findings suggest that the sex lives of tongqi are dictated by the normative power structures of patriarchy and heteronormativity that constitute social norms in China (He 1994;Wang 2019). In this study, women adhered to an idealised view of femininity characterised by 'innocence' and ignorance about sex (especially before marriage), and limited exploration of their bodies and sexuality (He 1994;Rich 1980;Walby 1989). The constraints of patriarchy and heteronormativity restricted women from recognising evidence of their husbands' same-sex attractions, practices and desires. ...
Article
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The term tongqi refers to cisgender, heterosexual women who unwittingly marry non-straight men. In mainland China, their adverse social position and health have been the subject of concern. This study aims to broaden and diversify perceptions of the lived experiences of tongqi by focusing on sex and sexualities in mixed-orientation marriages. Four themes (lack of sexuality-related exploration before marriage, the unsatisfactory nature of marital sex life, the exercise of sexual agency, and increased self-awakening) were developed from observations of a tongqi online support group and 12 semi-structured interviews with members. Using inductive thematic analysis, findings reveal how heteronormativity oppresses and punishes both tongqi and their non-straight husbands. In most cases, husbands not 'doing heterosexuality' as expected were still found to be 'doing gender' in patriarchal ways, with wives' subordinate status thereby being reinforced, making them more vulnerable. However, despite women's sexual autonomy and agency being constrained by normative forces, some were able to navigate their conjugal relationships by practising sexual autonomy and agency within and outside their marriage.
... Feminist theory has long been concerned with sexuality and sexual behavior (e.g., MacKinnon, 1987;Rich, 1980). Many feminist theorists have argued that attention to sexuality is necessary to understand gender inequality (Stein, 2008). ...
... Feminist identity captures a way of life. Feminists have produced counter-hegemonic ideas that emphasize women's pleasure and criticize patriarchal phallocentrism for decades (e.g., Ahmed, 2017;Rich, 1980;Rubin, 1984). To many, adopting a feminist identity links one's understanding of the social inequalities that affect women as a group with one's personal understanding of the self vis-à-vis interpersonal interactions, as captured in the feminist mantra, "the personal is political" (Hanisch, 1969). ...
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Feminism is understood to be not only about equality for women as a group, but also about personal choices in a gender-unequal world. In this paper, I examined whether feminist identity was associated with solo and partnered sexual behavior. Using an original, representative survey of adult Canadian women (N = 1126), I employed ordinal logistic and logistic regression analyses to assess the relationship between feminist identity and sexual behavior. I found that those who called themselves feminists reported having more recently masturbated than non-feminist women. In addition, I found that in partnered sexual encounters, feminists were more likely to participate in anal play, as well as engage in more kissing, cuddling, and massage than non-feminists. I also found that feminist women were more likely to receive oral sex than non-feminists. These findings contribute to our understanding of feminist identity as tied to women’s personal lives, extending this association to the realm of sexual activity. In this case, the political is not only personal, it is intimate as well. Claiming a feminist identity is aligned with an approach to sexuality that includes a wider array of intimate and sexual behaviors that center women’s sexual and emotional needs in partnered encounters.
... My conceptualization of compulsory vivation builds on McRuer's (2002) crip theory term "compulsory ablebodiedness" (and its predecessor, "compulsory heterosexuality" [Rich, 1993[Rich, /1993). Thinking with compulsory ableness 2 offers opportunities to resist able-normativities and imagine alternatives in which a crip world that embraces disabled lives and knowledges is not only possible, but desirable. ...
... My conceptualization of compulsory vivation builds on McRuer's (2002) crip theory term "compulsory ablebodiedness" (and its predecessor, "compulsory heterosexuality" [Rich, 1993[Rich, /1993). Thinking with compulsory ableness 2 offers opportunities to resist able-normativities and imagine alternatives in which a crip world that embraces disabled lives and knowledges is not only possible, but desirable. ...
Article
Based on heightened suicide rates of LGBTQ+ people, in this essay I reclaim the desire to die as a queer desire in itself. This framework aims to demedicalize-and thus re-politicize-the desire to die as a "normal" response to living in societies of domination and violence against queer lives. Through this, I frame suicidal people as agentic beings who play crucial roles in systems of community healing in the face of compulsory vivation. Building on a strengths-over-deficits framing, I engage the disability justice concepts of access intimacy and care webs to explore queer relationality and worldmaking practices that offer alternative modes of living with the desire to die.
... Aspects of the feminist movement (e.g., cultural feminism) portrayed the plight of women as universal. According to this viewpoint, women in every culture were seen as occupying the same subordinate position due to patriarchy (Rich, 1980). The feminist movement was therefore framed as liberating women globally. ...
... In the context of patriarchy (Lerner, 1986) and compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980), a binary opposition between culture/nature, male/female, masculinity/femininity, and heterosexuality/homosexuality serves to privilege heterosexuality and masculinity because men's and women's bodies appear complementary to one another and feminine/women's subordination appears natural. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we juxtapose a queer theory formulation of gender with theories and research in the psychology and sociology of gender. Our discussion focuses on ideas from Judith Butler’s foundational book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. We discuss three key ideas found in Butler’s early work. The first key idea is Butler’s rejection of a distinction between sex as “natural” and gender as “cultural” which connects to their development of a performativity theory of gender. The second key idea is Butler’s formulation of the heterosexual matrix and its inherent instability, in which heterosexuality is dependent for its identity on the rejection of homosexuality. The third idea we discuss is Butler’s insight that a reconfiguration and proliferation of gender identities can be effectively used to dismantle gender and sexual binaries. We draw connections between each of these postulations and empirical research: on the relationship between biology and genders, on the internalization of gender schemas, and on the development of masculine heterosexual identity. We conclude with a review of psychological research on gender nonbinary and agender identities, and gender fluidity.
... Feminist theories of gender have been fruitful in understanding the relationship between structural inequality and IPV. Queer theory and postmodern feminists, however, have underscored the importance of moving beyond the gender dichotomy Panfil & Miller, 2014), and have argued that structural inequality is rooted in institutionalized heterosexuality-an organized structure that normalizes, promotes, and governs heterosexism while dictating social interactions or practices related to interpersonal relationships (Ingraham, 1994;Jackson, 2006;Rich, 1980). Societies abide by principles that link normal behavior to compulsory heterosexuality and male-female dichotomies (see Rich, 1980). ...
... Queer theory and postmodern feminists, however, have underscored the importance of moving beyond the gender dichotomy Panfil & Miller, 2014), and have argued that structural inequality is rooted in institutionalized heterosexuality-an organized structure that normalizes, promotes, and governs heterosexism while dictating social interactions or practices related to interpersonal relationships (Ingraham, 1994;Jackson, 2006;Rich, 1980). Societies abide by principles that link normal behavior to compulsory heterosexuality and male-female dichotomies (see Rich, 1980). These assumptions are enabled by the heterosexual imaginary-a belief system that conceals the functioning of heterosexual ideology by glorifying and legitimizing standards for romance, sexuality, beauty, and privilege (Ingraham, 1994). ...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has garnered the attention of scholars, policymakers, and social justice actors for several decades. Shortcomings in police response to IPV may be related to police attributions of victim culpability. A dearth of research has assessed police officers’ assignment of blame, responsibility, and causality directed toward IPV victims, particularly those who identify as LGBTQ+. Using a randomly assigned, experimental vignette design, the current study employed surveys from a sample of 305 police officers commissioned at a sizeable police department in one of the most populous and diverse U.S. cities to (1) assess culpability attributions directed toward same-sex IPV (SSIPV) victims, (2) determine whether culpability attributions differed between male and female SSIPV victims, (3) examine officer demographic, occupational, attitudinal, and experimental predictors of IPV culpability attributions directed toward SSIPV victims, and (4) assess differences in predictors of culpability between male and female SSIPV victims. Results from the current study suggest police officers attributed average levels of culpability toward SSIPV victims and levels were not significantly different between male and female SSIPV victims. Adherence to heteronormative IPV myths and trauma misperceptions increased police officers’ attributions of culpability directed toward same-sex victims. Presence of physical evidence decreased culpability attributions among police officers. Educational programming developed for police officers should focus on the dynamics of IPV and cultural competency. Future research should continue to explore police officers’ perceptions of and responses to SSIPV incidents.
... In contemporary China, the compulsory heterosexual marriage, the combination between "compulsory heterosexuality" (Rich 1980) and compulsory marriage (see Kam 2013;Engebretsen 2014), is one of the most salient forms of heteronormativity, not only for non-heterosexual people but for all members in society within the age range that is commonly believed as "proper" for getting married-especially for young women in their twenties (Fincher 2014;Gaetano 2014;Kam 2015;. The shaping of women-loving women's life choices is largely influenced by the pressure of compulsory marriage, from their original families (especially from their parents), their everyday social networks, the public opinions spread and reinforced through various media, and even an internalised moral sense (Chen 2009;Engebresten 2009Engebresten , 2014Kam 2007Kam , 2013Wang 2012). ...
... In contemporary China, young people can barely receive any sex-positive sex education with gender sensitivity and awareness of sexual diversity in classrooms, families and the mass media (Wang & Wang 2012). Thus, being silenced by the taboo of talking about sex on campus and at home, being exposed to "compulsory heterosexuality (Rich 1980)", and being doubly excluded-as unmarried women and lesbian women-from "legitimate and autonomous" sexual subjects (Kam 2013), young lala couples like Scarlet and her girlfriend may easily appropriate a heteronormative attitude towards sex when they start to explore sex. Nevertheless, in the later parts of the interview excerpt, Scarlet described how she lived in peace without so-called "orgasm" and enjoyed the pleasurable feelings derived from kissing and cuddling until falling asleep together with her girlfriend, which were often regarded as "foreplay" before sex and comfort after sex in the standard hetero sex script. ...
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With anthropological tools and feminist ethics, Yiran Wang in her doctoral project studies the everyday realities, imaginations and aspirations of same-sex attracted women living in the second decade of the 21st Century in mainland China. Wang’s analysis of these women’s “becoming” journeys weaves the data collected from ethnographic fieldwork in Shanghai and Yunnan Province, China, together with her own personal life experiences, cases discussed in other scholars’ works, and discourses and materials circulated in mass media. Inspired by Rosi Braidotti’s theory of “nomadic subjectivity”, Wang maps out how “subjectivity/zhutixing”, a concept more etic than emic in Chinese everyday language and context, can be understood, observed, narrated and embodied in non-heteronormative female experiences. Wang specifically discusses five interrelated themes: globalisation; heteronormativity; sexual identity and gender expression; love and sex; coming out of the closet. Although these are not new topics in the existing scholarly literature of Chinese gender and sexuality, Wang’s revisits to them constitute a series of critical and creative explorations of “self” and “other”, researcher and the researched subjects, desire and body, translating and transnational, past and present, home and hope, in the latest Chinese sociocultural context and the highly globalised world. Thus, Wang’s personal journey and the production of her PhD thesis have also been embodied in each other’s becoming process. (URL: https://dare.uva.nl/search?identifier=e1b1dc6f-6c0f-46bc-915b-7780123495bb)
... The oppression of sexualities that do not align with the normative expectations set up by the state, medico-psychiatric institutions, and popular media operated throughout the 20 th centuries up until today. The fact that a lesbian is oppressed on the basis of her gender and sexuality (e.g., Rich 1980) indicates for Rubin (1984: 34) that "sexuality is political" with its unique inequalities and oppressive structures. ...
Thesis
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This study is broadly an exploration of how people who suffer from sexual orientation OCD (SO-OCD) and gender identity OCD (GI-OCD) use language to construct their identity, and how that process is framed by (hetero)normative idealogies. Instead of writing the abstract of the study (which you can find on page 4), I will highlight the different chapters that might be the most interesting for different readers: PSYCHOLOGISTS WORKING ON OCD should especially read: - CHAPTER 1 where I review the literature on OCD, and especially section 1.4 where I identify the gap my project fills. - CHAPTER 3 where I operationalize the concept of the feared self not as a fixed cognitive construct, but one that is discursively negotiated through language. - CHAPTERS 6-9 a detailed analysis of OCD sufferers' language use and how they construct their identity by distancing themselves from their feared self. - CHAPTER 10 is really where my argument comes together. I interpret the linguistic findings from chapters 6-7 through queer theory and Foucauldian self-governmentality. I especially argue that by distancing from a feared self, OCD sufferers run towards what I call an "idealized pure self" that is always and only the identity they wish to embody. This idealized self is constituted by a strong adherence to heteronormative understandings of gender and sexuality. The idea of a "pure self" is inscribed withing a sociocultural frame that has constructed sexuality as the locus of the "true self". In addition, I challenge the assumption that homophobia is the sociocultural factors causing SO-OCD. I demonstrate that this assumption doesn't account for LGBTQA+ OCD sufferers who obsess about being not LGBTQA+. As such, I suggest to conceptualize OCD not as a fear of "becoming" something that is socially taboo, but rather as a fear of "losing" something that is socially cherished. This fear of becoming or losing are two sides of the same coin that are shaped by (hetero)normative Discourses. Thus, the sociocultural factor shaping SO-/GI-OCD fears is argued to be tied to the notion of normativity. - CHAPTER 11: summarizes the whole study and section 11.3 explicitly states the contributions to the research on OCD SOCIOLINGUISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE, GENDER, SEXUALITY & CORPUS LINGUISTICS should read: - Chapter 2 reviews Foucault's work on self-governmentality, queer theory and how all of this can be operationalized through linguistics - One of the major contributions of my thesis to sociolinguistics is a methodological one. In fact, I triangulated corpus-assisted discourse analysis with ethnographic approaches. Chapter 4 describes how I constructed a forum and conducted a 18 month long ethnography (or netnography), and CHAPTER 5 describes the methodic steps in my analysis. - CHAPTERS 6-9 are a detailed accounts of my participants' language use. - CHAPTER 10 interprets the findings through queer theory (see above), and section 10.5 suggests an additional way to conceptualize normativity in the field of language, gender and sexuality. - CHAPTER 11 gives a summary of everything, and sections 11.4 and 11.5 explicitly highlight the contributions to sociolinguistics and avenues for future research.
... More recognizable and/or intelligible within this mixed-sex group would have been favoritism that involved male and female. The pervasive discourse of compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980) rendered nonnormative coupling arrangements unthinkable. While Aisha could have engaged with this conundrum, potentially inciting conversations around homosexuality, a thorny issue in Uganda (Namatende-Sakwa, 2018c; Chew, 2013), she quickly turned to passage comprehension. ...
Article
Undergirding the dominant research focus on gender representation in textbooks is the assumption that making texts progressive in their construction of gender is a panacea for equality in the classroom. As this study demonstrates, however, textbooks containing traditional representations of gender can be used to challenge biases, while textbooks with progressive representations can be undermined. This suggests that “fixing” gender in textbooks to make them progressive does not guarantee how teachers enact them in the classroom. Indeed, the predominant focus on texts, rather than teachers’ gender knowledge base, has had little impact on classroom practice. This justifies the shift to “teacher talk around the text,” which, as scholars argue, should be the focus of research.
... Further, in line with a radical feminist discourse, McInnes (2008) contends that even compulsory heterosexuality (see Rich, 1983) and the politics of difference (for example, see Brownmiller, 1976) result in acts of sexual and intimate violence in an effort to maintain the gender divide (pp. 72-77). ...
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The existing literature and research on fathers in movements demonstrate differing approaches to understanding fatherhood, men’s engagement in the family pre/post separation, family law, and fatherhood/fathers’ rights activism. However, these approaches often fail to address the experiences of fathers, as well as fatherhood activists and movements, that exist outside the narrative created by the fathers’ rights-based approaches and pro-feminist responses that currently dominate the dialogue surrounding the issues of fatherhood movements/groups and the rights of fathers. Based on this problematization of the existing frameworks for and examinations of fatherhood movements, this two-part study examined the social engagement and experiences of fathers who belong to fatherhood groups across Canada, with a strong focus on British Columbia (BC). Phase one was an investigation of the parallel fathers’ rights movement (FRM) and involved fatherhood movement (IFM) Canada-wide. I conducted a qualitative content analysis of these two discourses through their online presence and activism, such as blogs, websites, and online resources. Phase two dovetailed off this analysis through in-depth interviews with fathers engaged in the FRM and IFM in BC, including a few fathers who reside outside of BC but were active in national groups engaged in this province. Together, the two phases provide an examination of fatherhood and fatherhood movements within a critical masculinities framework. This analysis highlights the privilege inherent within fatherhood groups and the exclusionary politics within these movements that resulted in the absence of the voices of Black, Indigenous, and people of colour (BIPOC) and marginalized fathers (e.g., fathers of low-socioeconomic status). Further, this research reflects on these fathers’ beliefs that they face disadvantage in family law proceedings, and problematizes and challenges their claims of bias, discrimination, and oppression. The concluding analysis also demonstrates the privilege, power, oppression, and inclusion/exclusion within fatherhood groups, movements, and discourses overall. Ultimately, this study captured men’s nuanced experiences with fatherhood and parenting pre/post separation, within the current socio-legal and familial contexts.
... This logic is a core feature of heteropatriarchal violence (D.-A. Davis, 2006;Deer, 2015;Lorde, 1984;Rich, 1980;Richie, 1996Richie, , 2012Roberts, 1999): violence that is practiced, cultivated, or condoned across gender in service of patriarchal systems of power (hooks, 2015). Of all the logics and attendant conducts I might have encountered when I approached the state for permission to conduct ethnographic research in its juvenile prison schools, I was not anticipating this would be the first. ...
Article
Background/Context This article emerges from several scholarly traditions, chief among them feminist and critical ethnography; school–prison nexus; and critical feminist and race theories. Focus of Study The larger study that informs this article was an 18-month ethnographic inquiry into youth prison schooling in one state. This study explored both the specifics of schooling inside the system and attended to the ways in which it mimicked, mirrored, or resonated with schooling on the outside—offering a qualitative map of power and discipline in schooling writ large. The story that undergirds this article is drawn from that larger study. Here, I attend carefully to one ethnographic moment to conceptualize broad questions of punishment, gender, race, and sexual identity. Setting The research took place inside multiple institutions across one state's juvenile detention and prison system. The article organizes its inquiries around an ethnographic vignette from Inside one state's largest juvenile detention facility. Research Design The research that informs this article is both a long-term critical ethnographic study and rigorous theoretical research across several areas. Conclusions I both begin and conclude this article by offering an initial conceptualization of one form of punishment: vanishment. Vanishment is a punishment that works in concert with imprisonment, banishment, and treatment to organize the disciplinary practices of U.S. school and society. In considering vanishment, the article offers an initial development of the construct and reflects on inquiries that might begin to excavate its seemingly hidden mechanisms. I invite consideration of this punishment across multiple sites and through a variety of approaches.
... Heteronormativity is a concept derived from the definition of "compulsory heterosexuality" coined by Adrienne Rich [4]: in its original meaning, it referred to the societal expectation that heterosexuality is the only desirable choice and to the social roles that are moulded on such expectation. Queer studies expanded the notion to "compulsory heteronormativity" [5] to indicate the pervasive norm that endlessly reproduces a linear correspondence between sex, gender, and sexual orientation. ...
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This work analyses experiences of LGBTQ+ people accessing healthcare in Portugal. A total of 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with queer adults (18–59 years old). The thematic analysis and thematic networks brought to light how structural cis-heteronorms are compliant with the maintenance of invisibility regarding sexual and gender diversity. As a consequence, experiences of direct and indirect discrimination show us how crucial it is to have well prepared healthcare providers, capable of embracing diversity and creating safe spaces that allow us to shorten the path between Portugal’s progressive legal frame and the people lived experiences.
... Women in turn are socialized to identify with men and subscribe to social, political, and intellectual allegiances with them. 3 This assumption has the potential to dehumanize people who may be perceived as outside the "norms" (homosexual, asexual, or transexual). Rich said: ...
... In a critique of heterosexual marriage, Ingraham (1994:212) further argues that heterosexual marriage has come to mean that one is appropriately gendered, or as Butler (1988; would argue, is performing one's gender correctly. Many gender role theorists, including Butler (1988Butler ( ,1990, as well as others such as Adrienne Rich (1980), Wittig (1981Wittig ( ,1982Wittig ( ,1992 and Eve Sedgwick (1990), to name only a few, have therefore exhaustively criticised heterosexuality and heterosexual marriage, and resort to theorising a homosexual subject that is ideally free of the oppression supposedly inherent in heterosexual relationships. ...
Thesis
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Since 2010, there has been a notable shift in feminist thought and in representations of women and femininity in all realms of popular visual culture. With women’s increasing use of digital platforms and social media as a vehicle for feminist activism and the ongoing critique of the continuous sexualisation of women in the media, some feminist scholars are starting to consider the possibility that we might be witnessing the advent of a new wave of feminism (see Rivers (2017), Looft (2017), Cochrane (2013), Baumgardner & Richards (2010), Evans & Chamberlain (2015), Chamberlain (2016), Munro (2013), Benn (2013)). At the same time, notable changes in the representation of action/science-fiction (sci-fi) heroines in video games, television series, and film, has started taking place, shifting from what Stephanie Genz (2009) terms the postfeminist Supergirl to a new archetype of female heroism. Interestingly, contemporary heroines (that appeared in the past decade) seem to emulate female heroism embodied by sci-fi heroines from the late 1970s to mid-1990s, who Gladys Knight (2010:186) identifies as the “second wave power women”. These include the likes of Ellen Ripley from the Alien quadrilogy (Scott 1979, Cameron 1986, Fincher 1991, Jeunet 1997), Sarah Connor from The Terminator franchise (Cameron 1984,1991) and Kathryn Janeway from Star Trek: Voyager (1995-2001). My primary aim in this study is therefore to identify the emerging heroine archetype for women in action/sci-fi video games, television and film, and to situate this new heroine archetype that started to appear since around 2010 within current feminist discourse. In order to do so, I first trace different types of female heroism as it manifested at the height of feminism’s second wave, in the transition from second wave to postfeminism, and in terms of cyborgs and cyberfeminism. I specifically examine the video game heroine, Lara Croft, as emblematic of Genz’s (2009) postfeminist Supergirl, and consider what Croft’s transformation in 2013 reveals about the current state of feminism and women’s representation. I further look at how notions of embodiment and disembodiment have recently changed in an analysis of two Ghost in the Shell films (Oshii 1995, Sanders 2017) and what this shift further illuminates about contemporary feminism. In an analysis of two Star Trek series released within the past five years, namely Star Trek: Discovery (2017-present) and Star Trek: Picard (2020-present), I explore the final facet of contemporary feminism – intersectionality. Throughout the discussion, I also consider the various characteristics that these new heroines have in common with the ‘second wave power women’ identified in 1970s-1990s sci-fi. These characteristics include, amongst others, androgyny, an emphasis on mother-daughter (or mother-child) relationships, desexualisation, and the simultaneous embodiment of traditional notions of both masculinity and femininity. As contemporary heroines arguably depart from postfeminist conceptions of femininity, which entails hypermasculinisation and sexualisation, and return in many ways to second wave visions of female heroism, I consider the possibility that they might exemplify the ideals of a new wave of feminism – what has been identified in recent literature as the fourth wave.
... Así Judith Butler (2007), explica como el sexo no es anterior a la ley y como este se construye social y culturalmente, y la importancia de comprender el mecanismo por el que el sexo se convierte en género, el cual es, además de construido, contingente. Y Adrianne Rich (1986), teoriza acerca de la heterosexualidad obligatoria, explicando cómo múltiples coacciones hacia las mujeres hacen que el matrimonio y la orientación sexual hacia los hombres se impongan como componentes inevitables de sus vidas, dando lugar a que las relaciones heterosexuales devengan en institución política. 30 Judith Butler (2002, pp.17-18), siguiendo la teoría focaultiana, argumenta que "el 'sexo' no sólo funciona como norma, sino que además es parte de una práctica reguladora que produce los cuerpos que gobierna, es decir, cuya fuerza reguladora se manifiesta como una especie de poder productivo, el poder de producirdemarcar, circunscribir, diferenciar-los cuerpos que controla, de modo tal que el 'sexo' es un ideal regulatorio cuya materialización se impone y se logra (o no) mediante ciertas prácticas sumamente reguladas". ...
... Dichas decisiones van visibilizando la orientación sexual, conformando la identidad de género y la conducta sexual, donde dicha conducta puede ser plena y satisfactoria si es acorde a lo establecido socialmente y, tortuosa, poco desarrollada e incluso llegar a un patrón de comportamiento riesgoso; En el cual destacan los inicios precoces de las prácticas sexuales, el uso inadecuado de anti-conceptivos y la tenencia de múltiples parejas sexuales (Gökengin et al. 2003: citado en Yubero, M., Larrañaga y Yubero, S., 2013) por aquellos que poseen algún tipo de discapacidad, en donde se entenderá la discapacidad como un rasgo del individuo, basado en la interacción de la persona y su contexto, tal como lo hace la Clasificación Internacional del Funcionamiento de la Discapacidad y de la Salud (OMS & OPS, 2001). Que para efectos de esta revisión sistemática se tomará en cuenta a niños, niñas adolescentes y jóvenes (NNAJ) lesbianas, gay, bisexuales, trans (LGBT) que pudiesen sufrir de discapacidad bajo la construcción social heteronormativa y patriarcal; Cuando hablamos de ''heteronormatividad'' estamos alterando la percepción de la heterosexualidad como lo natural, en donde se promueven y valían las relaciones que se caracterizan por una desigualdad entre géneros (Rich, 1980). En donde se observa la estructura social construida desde los cimientos en un sistema binario, reconociendo solo a hombres y mujeres, y en el cual se aprecia un orden jerárquico, cuyo dominio está ligado al sexo masculino (Galaz, & Troncoso, 2016). ...
... Apesar dos equívocos em relação a sua orientação sexual, produzidos pelo pressuposto da heterossexualidade compulsória (Rich, 1980) O incômodo que Marcelo relata ter sentido com seu corpo, especialmente a partir da puberdade, admite diversas leituras, entre elas a racionalidade biomédica que reconhece nesse desconforto uma marcada disforia em relação a suas características fenotípicas. Essa chave de leitura, contudo, pode não ser potente para nos aproximar do sentimento aflitivo que domina as vivências corporais de Marcelo. ...
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Resumo Na era contemporânea, a conjugalidade pode ser experimentada sob múltiplas e variadas formas, em meio a diversos tipos de contratos de vínculos afetivos possíveis, todavia, as produções acadêmicas que se dedicam a compreender a dinâmica das relações amorosas em pessoas trans ainda são escassas. Considerando essa lacuna, este estudo tem por objetivo investigar a dinâmica de relacionamento conjugal em um casal constituído por um homem trans e uma mulher cisgênero. Tendo como delineamento metodológico o estudo de caso, os dados foram recolhidos por meio de entrevista narrativa episódica. O material foi audiogravado e transcrito na íntegra, e a análise foi pautada pela perspectiva queer. Dada a falta de amparo institucional e a omissão de políticas públicas desenhadas especificamente para apoiar casais e famílias trans, os cônjuges reportaram um processo contínuo e dinâmico de renegociar corpos e desejos. Nos casos analisados, o apoio familiar e o suporte oferecido por amigos e parentes emergiram como elementos decisivos para a consolidação da subsistência material do casal.
... The birth of the lesbian, gay and feminist movements in the United States first, and then in Europe (cf. Rubin 1975, Rich 1980, Butler 1990, Wittig 1992, sparked reflections which challenged the hegemony of heterosexuality, undermined the belief that homosexuality was "abnormal", and denounced the prevailing androcentric perspective, based on the dichotomic distinction between "man-culture" and "woman-nature" which reproduced woman's subordinate position and man's control over reproductive capacities within the heterosexual order and its main supporting structures, marriage and the family (Mathieu 1985). ...
... Heteronormativity refers to the assumption that heterosexuality and the categorisation of people in male or female are "normal" and are the norm for social relations, cultural concepts and institutional regulations. This legitimises stigmatisation of other expressions (Rich, 1980;Warner, 1991;Rubin, 1993). Because heteronormativity does not only limit the choices of individual DESPOGI, but strongly influences the entire school culture (Kjaran, 2017), GALE and Edu-Diverse focus on organisational change of schools and of the educational sector as a whole. ...
Chapter
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The State Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão (IEMA) is a public institution that aims to offer high level professional, scientific and technological education. Its institutional model stimulates a critically oriented pedagogical action, changing conventional teaching-learning practices. In this sense, this study sought to demonstrate the importance of this model as a tool for transforming education, based on the achievements obtained and the perception of the school community. IEMA’s institutional development reports and official website were reviewed to survey all the institute’s achievements from its founding to the present year. Also, the perception of the school community about the Model’s contributions to the institution’s success was diagnosed through questionnaires. The Institutional Model is identified by the school community as a determinant for the educational indicators and results achieved at the institute. The replication of the Model in the education networks of Maranhão and other Brazilian states is encouraged. In this way, the concept of transformative education, still little explored in Brazil, expands, proving that it is possible to make a public school of excellence.
... However, the boundaries of who can be included as a "good citizen" have shifted in recent decades. In relation to the LGBTQ community in the UK, some now argue that there has been an erosion of 'compulsory heterosexuality' 6 (Rich, 1980), as a significant number of legislative reforms have been achieved for LGBTQ people, including employment, family, reproductive and civil partnership legislation, with the most recent being The Marriage (Same-Sex Couples) Act passed in 2013 (Wilkinson, 2013;Heaphy et al., 2013). Many have argued this new equalities legislation does not broaden inclusion for the sexual citizen, but continues to endorse a certain family form and way of living, centred on coupledom and marriage while discouraging other forms of more complex (family) relationships (Bell and Binnie, 2000;Richardson, 2005;Taylor 2011;Wilkinson, 2013). ...
Thesis
Despite the increasing literature on LGBTQ families, there continues to be limited research on the children within these families. The social, legal and political context for LGBTQ people has transformed drastically over the twentieth and twenty-first century. However, we know little about how these changes will have shaped the life courses of people raised by LGBTQ parents. The data within this thesis comes from 20 biographical interviews with adult-children raised by lesbian, bisexual, trans and queer (LBTQ) parents in England and Scotland. This thesis explores how people with LBTQ parents narrate their life stories, particularly addressing the intersections of family, identity, social norms and historical context. I use a combination of life course and queer theory to discuss the complex and messy everyday spatialities and relationalities found in participant life stories. The study examines the interplay between notions of normative families, genders and sexualities, and alternative everyday practices in families with LBTQ parents. This analysis is combined with a geographical and temporal lens, discussing how family practices, emotions and relationships can shift through time and space. I firstly discuss this in relation to genetic normativity, noting that although people with LBTQ parents often live in families that seem to resist dominant notions of biological relatedness, genetic discourses remain significant to those raised by LBTQ parents. This suggests that children raised in LBTQ households must navigate between the non-traditional aspects of their families and ongoing normative genetic discourses. Secondly, I examine queer origin stories, highlighting the ways that adult-children with LBTQ parents emphasise the importance of knowing their queer family histories, rather than only their genetic relations. This demonstrates the ways that adult-children can re-create, re-shape and re-tell their queer origin stories in adulthood. Third, I look into how participants narrated their experiences within the various spaces they moved between. I focus on the idea of ‘coming out’ or disclosure, to discuss how the power within specific contexts prompt different practices, displays, and feelings from people with LBTQ parents. Finally, I explore how participants related to ideas of normality and normativity more broadly, noting adult-children’s pursuit of intelligibility and legitimacy; how adult-children engage in quiet forms of everyday activism; and complicate traditional notions of the idealised life course. These findings contribute to the geographies of family and intimacy and sociological understandings of LGBTQ and queer kinship, adding to the limited body of work on children raised by non-heterosexual or gender confirming parents.
... Es la ideología sexual dominante que aprueba y prescribe la heterosexualidad, haciéndola pasar por una asignación natural que se supone, procede de la diferencia biológica y se asocia a la reproducción de la especie, de tal modo que se impone como parte central en la normatividad de los afectos y la búsqueda del placer entre hombres y mujeres (según Granados 2002). Este concepto se asocia con el de heterosexualidad obligatoria propuesto por Rich (1980) para dar cuenta de la forma como la crítica feminista del momento se hacía desde la mirada de mujeres heterosexuales, que desconocían la experiencia lesbiana en el patriarcado. La heteronormatividad permite explicar los mecanismos culturales y políticos por medio de los cuales se busca hacer que todas las vidas sean finalmente, heterosexuales. ...
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Diccionario Disidente es una herramienta formativa del Programa Antioquia Región Arcoíris, que presenta conceptos asociados con la diversidad sexual, las identidades de género, las disidencias sexo-genéricas y todas aquellas manifestaciones de la identidad y la sexualidad que se escapan de la norma cis-heterosexual.
... D. Garbett & A. Ovens (Eds.), Pushing boundaries and crossing borders: Self-study as a means for researching pedagogy, Herstmonceux, UK: S-STEP, ISBN: 978-0-473-44471-6 and they often restrained how we perceived ourselves, our students, and our colleagues (Butler, 1990;Rich, 1993). ...
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As critical friends, we participated in a longitudinal collaborative self-study to explore and challenge our assumptions and beliefs for purposes of improving our understanding and practice (Bullough & Pinnegar, 2001). During this process, we became critical friends as co-authors-- that is, dynamic meaning-makers whose critical friendship surpassed our expectation to act as “a sounding board” (Schuck & Russell, 2005 p. 107), challenge one another, support the reframing of events, and join in the professional learning experience (Loughran & Northfield, 1996). As co-authors, we pushed the boundaries of what we expected of a critical friend through dialogue and collaborative meaning-making. Valuing our whole selves in pursuit of our self-study, we crossed the borders of professional practices to include the silent and unspoken stories from our complex individual identities (Hostetler, Mills, & Hawley, 2014) beyond that of teacher educator researchers. We also invited the knowledge, experience, tensions, and life narratives stemming from our identities as mothers, wives, women of faith, and as minorities in our institutions. In this paper, we describe the process of being and becoming critical friends as co-authors by answering the following questions: How do these recursive processes--meaning-making transactions/ dialogic interactions-- generate our critical friendship? How do these processes evoke and/or sustain critical friends as co-authors? Our discoveries make visible how self-study guided us to: (1) disarm the boundaries of our individual selves by disrupting our existing understanding of self in relationship to our past lived experiences; (2) cross into a collaborative space where we are able to co-author our narrative lives through a collaborative conference protocol; and (3) push the boundaries of our present work as teacher educator researchers by transforming our professional inquiries through co-authoring.
... Compulsory heterosexuality is a theory that posits that heterosexuality is assumed and enforced by a patriarchal and heteronormative society (Rich, 1980). Closely discussed with and related to compulsory heterosexuality is heteronormativity. ...
Thesis
The apartheid state was not only founded on the oppression and violation of Black people, but it also sought to maintain an ideology of white heteronormativity. As such, the administration also negatively impacted the lives of those with non-normative gender and sexual identities. Using a narrative approach, this study explored the lives of older LGBT+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) people in South Africa who lived during and after apartheid. Their life-histories and life-stories were analysed with a particular focus on their racial, gendered, and sexual identities. The study investigated how these identities were constructed and shifted across their life course. Furthermore, their identities and experiences were examined alongside the timeline and significant events of apartheid as well as the unfolding of LGBT+ rights in South Africa. Finally, the study illuminated narratives and experiences of celebration amongst older LGBT+ people. Data were collected in eight individual interviews using open-ended questions. The data comprised of one Black participant and seven white participants – each identifying as gay, lesbian, or fluid in their attractions. The data were then organised and analysed thematically across three broad temporal zones (childhood and adolescence; early adulthood and “the in-betweens”; and middle to later adulthood). The study ultimately found that participant identities and experiences were shaped by the country’s legislative and social conditions in pre- and post-democratic South Africa. The study also found that participants grew in conscientisation as their lives progressed. Starting from having no insight of the injustice to becoming fully aware of it and the roles they played. The negotiation and navigation of identity, particularly gender and sexual identity, were lifelong occurrences. For example, coming out was not constructed as a ‘once off’ episode, rather, it was a multi-layered event that happened continually at different stages in their lives. Community and a sense of belonging remained a key factor in the formation of identity as well as in the support/survival of participants throughout their lives. Finally, the study showed that even though participants experienced moments of discrimination and ostracisation in their lives, they also experienced many moments of celebration, contentment, and joy. These were particularly present in late adulthood when participants found fulfilment in themselves, their identities, their accomplishments, their loved ones, and the LGBT+ community as a whole.
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In this chapter on sexuality, we examine three foundational postulations from queer theory. The first postulation is that the historical construction of sexuality, and same-sex desire in particular, tends to be based on binary thinking that positions same-sex desire as either universal (a “universalizing” view of same-sex sexuality) or as a disposition common to a minority of the population (a “minoritizing” view of same-sex sexuality). In contrast, queer theory moves away from a binary view of sexuality to conceptualize it as fluid. The second postulation is that people’s sexuality is shaped by interlocking forms of oppression such as colonialism, racism, sexism, and class oppression. The intersections of interlocking forms of oppression configure sexual identities and desires in unique ways. The third postulation is the rejection of a hierarchy of sexual practices and a focus on the proliferation of sexual categories to disrupt that hierarchy. We juxtapose these three key ideas with a review of critical psychology research, showing how psychological studies moved from a universalizing to a minoritizing view of same-sex desire, with a recent turn back towards the universalizing approach. We describe psychological contributions on the manner in which LGBTQ identities are different among people of color compared to white people as well as research that examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on sexual agency. We explore recent psychological studies related to BDSM and kink, polyamory, and asexuality. Assessing the convergence and divergence between psychology and queer thought leads us to critique the notion that a proliferation of sexual identities is necessarily libratory; instead, we argue for a more intersectional approach to sexual identities.
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U.S. “child marriage”—marriage including at least one person under the age of 18—is legal and practiced in 44 states. In this article, I map the existing literature on child marriage and offer insights on how child marriage can expand our sociological understandings of marriage, gender inequality, and youth sexualities. Social scientists have almost exclusively focused on child marriage in the Global South at the expense of understanding child marriage in the Global North, which I argue reinforces racist and xenophobic narratives that cast child marriage as a non‐Western social problem. The research on U.S. child marriage that does exist focuses on the consequences, rather than the causes, of child marriage, which may shift focus away from a structural understanding of how intersecting inequalities shape girls' likelihood of getting married as minors. I position a sociology of U.S. child marriage at the intersection of sociological understandings of marriage and gender inequality and critical research on youth sexualities. I conclude by calling for intersectional research on U.S. child marriage that builds on these literatures, examining how girls' sexualities are racialized, gendered, and classed within the institution of marriage.
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Este artículo tiene por objetivo indagar en torno a las trayectorias de personas migrantes trans en Chile, como también alrededor de sus estrategias de resistencia. Aborda las experiencias de personas trans migrantes/refugiadas en Chile y visibiliza los efectos de la conjunción entre las discriminaciones xenofóbica, cisnormativa y socieconómica. Asimismo, destaca los escenarios transfóbicos como factor de expulsión de los países. En las conclusiones, el análisis permite visualizar las tensiones en las trayectorias de vida de las personas migrantes transgénero, como las referidas a los avances en torno a la actual violencia institucional y transfóbica cotidiana, a nivel latinoamericano.
Article
Objetivou-se cartografar as produções cinematográficas brasileiras que apresentam em seu enredo fílmico personagens homossexuais, identificando-os, de modo a compreender como as em sexualidades não hegemônicas foram representadas no cinema brasileiro no período de 1923-2017. Sob perspectiva foucaultiana, utilizou-se da cartografia de documentos, identificando-se 208 produções que apresentam em seu enredo personagens homossexuais ou que representem as sexualidades não hegemônicas. Ao adentrar o domínio das sexualidades não hegemônicas emerge-se um cenário balizado por um construto social multifacetado, dissidente e fronteiriço que atua não somente como forma de legitimação, mas constitui-se enquanto resistência. Ressalta-se que, o perspectiva da biologia atua enquanto um agente naturalizador da desigualdade em uma divisão binária, socialmente construída com o intuito de ocultar mecanismos que operam em prol da manutenção do poder, apagando toda forma de contestação e consequentemente de mudança social. Com isso, as memórias subterrâneas insurgem em cenários específicos onde as representações de sujeitos abjetos são influenciadas por contextos sociais, políticos, econômicos e culturais para além das lutas nas quais os grupos marginalizados auferem espaço.
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Libro colectivo del Programa GEDIS, de investigación en sexualidad y género de la Universidad Alberto Hurtado.
Thesis
There is a limited amount of academic research within social sciences investigating the experiences of queer people in post-Soviet Central Asian countries. My study aims to address this gap in the literature by focusing on the everyday narratives of queer people in Kazakhstan within a framework of power and agency, primarily using the theories of Michel Foucault and other scholars such as Hannah Arendt and Erving Goffman. In this study, ‘queer’ is understood as broadly encompassing the whole spectrum of nonheterosexual and non-cisgender identities. By looking at the narratives of queer people within their socio-historical context, this study aims to elucidate two key issues: in Kazakhstan, what regulates queer lives, and how do people negotiate their queer subjectivities? The qualitative study uses a Foucauldian-informed thematic analysis of interviews with eleven people who identify as queer and live in Kazakhstan. The findings reveal that practices of regulation of queer people in Kazakhstan range from legal and medical regulation, surveillance within different everyday contexts, limiting career prospects, and internalised gaze and oppression. Crucially, I argue that despite the manifold regulatory practices, the narratives of queer Kazakhstani participants of this study highlight the artful ability to navigate and negotiate the existing regulatory and power structures to live fulfilling and authentic lives. This study contributes to the scholarship on post-Soviet gender and sexualities by developing a deeper understanding of nonheterosexual and non-cisgender subjectivities in the context of Kazakhstan.
Article
This thematic volume explores how health, well-being, and ability are constructed in the past and in the present. The volume’s authors undo and question deeply ingrained assumptions about what constitutes a “normative” body. They do so by not only looking at how bodies have been medicalized and envisioned in the past, but also how our own profession and discipline discriminates against certain types of bodies in the present.
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In this concluding chapter we discuss some of the insights gained from juxtaposing three eclectic fields of knowledge: queer studies, transgender theory, and psychological research. Because the queer and transgender projects are political projects, in this conclusion we focus on understanding the processes that may lead to fragmentation within the queer and transgender movement as well as processes that are associated with continued solidarity activism among an increasing number of queer and transgender identities. To examine processes of intragroup conflict and solidarity activism we juxtapose research in social psychology, Black psychology, and contributions by queer thinkers in promoting community norms that support activism, dialogue, and solidarity.
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We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with LGBTQ+-identified individuals (n = 31) to explore the range of LGBTQ+ perspectives on genomic research using either sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI) data. Most interviewees presumed that research would confirm genetic contributions to sexual orientation and gender identity. Primary hopes for such confirmation included validating LGBTQ+ identities, improved access to and quality of healthcare and other resources, and increased acceptance in familial, socio-cultural, and political environments. Areas of concern included threats of pathologizing and medicalizing LGBTQ+ identities and experiences, undermining reproductive rights, gatekeeping of health or social systems, and malicious testing or misuse of genetic results, particularly for LGBTQ+ youth. Overall, interviewees were divided on the acceptability of genomic research investigating genetic contributions to sexual orientation and gender identity. Participants emphasized researchers’ ethical obligations to LGBTQ+ individuals and endorsed engagement with LGBTQ+ communities throughout all aspects of genomic research using SOGI data.
Article
I attempt to evaluate rebel discourse(s), as opposed to mainstream, dominant discourse, on gender as demonstrated by marriage practices in Chinese societies, both contemporary and historical, vis-à-vis general Western, marriage practices. This is done discursive-analytically by way of cross-cultural analysis as methodology. Contributions on the theory of discourse are considered and applied. In this contribution, several rebel discourses on marriage during both post-Maoist Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC) and former dynastic periods, are found to be emancipatory (with women refusing to partake in patriarchal constructs such as marriage) and progressive (with women having several sexual partners simultaneously). The hope is expressed that the profound insights unearthed from these rebel discourse(s) might be beneficial for Western feminisms. To this end, I utilise Zwart’s notion of cultural “mixing” and Derrida’s idea of the “sliding signifier” before making recommendations for improved public policy formulation. If the 21st century is indeed the Chinese century, such investigations are crucial
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