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Chemical composition of Musa sapientum (Banana) peels

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... The mixture was titrated with 0.02 mol/dm 3 silver nitrate using a micro burette until a faint but permanent turbidity was obtained (1cm 3 0.02 mol/dm 3 AgNO 3 = 1.08mg HCN) (Anhwange et al., 2009). ...
... 25.0cm 3 of the filtrate was taken into a conical flask and 5.0cm 3 of 0.3%ammonium thiocyanate solution was added. The mixture was titrated with a standard solution of iron (III) chloride until a brownish-yellow colour persisted for five minutes (Anhwange et al., 2009). ...
... The pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted to about 4.5 by adding sodium chloride, and the solution was shaken with butanol. The butanoic extract was washed twice with 10ml of 5% sodium chloride and was evaporated to dryness in a fume cupboard, to give the saponin, which was weighed and expressed in percentage (Anhwange et al., 2009). ...
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Pollution in the aquatic ecosystem by pesticides, their metabolites and by-products is considered critical in the conservation of biodiversity and natural resources. Several studies have reported the toxicological issues and adverse effects of pesticides in aquatic biodiversity. After the development of the field ecotoxicology, researchers have expanded their studies towards the effects of pesticides in aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides containing chemicals such as Pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and other related compounds have been shown to cause adverse effects on the development, behaviour and mortality of different species of fish, birds, amphibians and aquatic mammals. This review article summarizes the adverse impact of the use of pesticides and related agrochemicals in populations of aquatic, amphibian and avian species.
... Since approximately 30% of banana fruit is comprised of inedible peel [5], it is obvious that, on a global scale, a lot of peel waste is generated annually in fruit industries, as well as in households. Regarding the chemical composition, carbohydrates and crude fibers make up most of the banana peel's dry matter, but a significant amount of proteins, potassium, essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids can also be found [6][7][8]. Banana peel also represents a great source of phenolic compounds, like gallocatechin, and catecholamines, especially dopamine, whose content was found to be much higher in the peel compared to the banana pulp [9,10]. ...
... A high content of insoluble dietary fibers in agro-industrial wastes correlates with an abundance in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin [43,44]. Anhwange [6] also reported a high content of crude fiber for banana peel (31.7%), while Emaga et al. [8] also reported an increase of fiber content in banana peel during maturation. Further, the results on sugar content presented in this study are consistent with the study of Tapre & Jain [27], who reported a sugar content of 18.48% in banana peel in maturity stage 7. ...
... In the study of Morais et al. [45], a different profile of fatty acids in freeze-dried banana peel was determined, with palmitic acid being dominant (3.59 mg g -1 dmb), followed by linoleic (3.35 mg g -1 dmb) and linolenic (2.42 mg g -1 dmb) acids. Regarding the macroelement composition (Table 2), banana peel showed to be a rich source of potassium (75.06 mg g -1 dmb), as also reported by Anhwange [6], who stated that banana peel consumption could contribute to the regulation of body fluids, the maintenance of normal blood pressure and the mitigation of respiratory, kidney or heart problems due to a significant amount of potassium. The content of other macroelements, including sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron and phosphorus, was notably lower ( Table 2). ...
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The nutritional and bioactive content of banana and red beetroot peels was investigated. The basic macrocomponent composition was determined using standard AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) methods, while the recovery efficiency of bioactive compounds was investigated using conventional and innovative extraction techniques (subcritical water extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction). Extracts were analyzed for biological effects in vitro on human hepatic, tongue and colon cancer cell lines. A macrocomponent analysis revealed a notable amount of dietary fiber in banana and beetroot peels (39.0 and 33.6% dmb) and a relatively high content of protein in beetroot peel (18.3% dmb). Regarding the micronutrients-minerals, banana and beetroot peels were shown to be a very good source of potassium (75.06 and 41.86 mg g-1 dmb). Both extracts of banana and beetroot peels obtained by conventional extraction - decoction (100 °C, 20 min) exhibited the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, in banana peel, these extracts were the richest in dopamine content (12.63 mg g-1 dmb). Extraction by infusion (80 °C, 30 min) yielded a beetroot peel extract with the highest total betacyanin content (9.80 mg g-1 dmb). Biological effects in vitro were dose- and time-dependent, as well as influenced by the presence of polysaccharides.
... Reports about the detailed composition of the peel are available by different authors, see Agama-Acevedo et al. [175] for fibers and Khamsucharit et al. for pectin content [179], in addition, Anhwange summarized trace elements [178]. ...
... Banana peel contains carotenoids in a concentration of up to 1.86 µg/g of banana peel [176]; lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, violaxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, isolutein, β-cryptoxanthin and α-cryptoxanthin were identified [180]. Further compounds present in banana peels are saponins (24 mg/g) [178], sterols and triterpenes (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, cycloeucalenol, cycloartenol, 24-methylene cycloartanol) [181]. ...
... Predominant components of the peels of Musa sapientum are 59% carbohydrates and 32% crude fiber [178]. Similar to the pseudo-stem, the carbohydrates can be saccharified by different methods [209,210]. ...
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Biorefineries are a model for greener production processes, based on the concept of bioeconomy. Instead of targeting first-generation biofuels—that compete with food supply—the focus relies on lignocellulosic material, considering many aspects, such as sustainable fuel production, as well as valorization of waste, as an alternative to the traditional petrochemical approach of goods production. Especially, in tropical countries agricultural activities lead to tremendous amounts of biomass, resulting in waste that has to be dealt with. In the case of Costa Rica, the five major crops cultivated for export are coffee, oil palm, pineapple, sugarcane, and banana. Traditional ways of waste treatment cannot cope with the increasing amount of biomass produced and therefore, bear various challenges often related to increased pollution. This review aims to bring up the recent state of waste treatment but even more, stress potential opportunities of adding value to not used residues; thus, improve sustainability in the agro industrial sector. Part I of the review already highlighted the potential of producing promising bioactive chemical compounds by novel biorefinery concepts from agricultural waste originating from coffee and oil palm cultivation. This second part focuses on the lignocellulose-rich biowaste from pineapple, sugarcane, and banana, showing biorefinery concepts, where fuel and energy production, as well as establishment of novel products and new applications, play an important role.
... The peel contains 0.9% crude protein, 1.7% crude fat, 59.0% carbohydrate and 31.70% crude fibre, and if properly processed, it could be a high quality and cheap source of carbohydrate and minerals for livestock (Ahwange, 2008). Tartrakoon et al. (1999) also reported that the peel has high energy content but low in protein. ...
... Tartrakoon et al. (1999) also reported that the peel has high energy content but low in protein. However, anti-nutritional factors such as hydro-cyanide, oxalate, phytate and saponins have been reported in banana peels by Ahwange (2008) which affect their utilization in poultry. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of replacing maize with graded levels of banana peel meal on the growth, haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. ...
... The range of values (4.60 -5.06%) obtained in this study was adequate to provide the necessary mineral such as calcium and phosphorus needed for development of bones. The energy values were slightly higher than the values of 2800 Kcal/kg and 3000 Kcal/kg recommended by Olomu (1995) for the starter and finisher respectively which may be as a result of banana peel meal carbohydrate content (59.00%) reported by Ahwange (2008). ...
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and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed banana peel meal as replacement for maize in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4 (5): 121-126. ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120) Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed and water were given ad libitum. The productive performance results indicated high significant (P<0.05) difference in final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the treatment group at different levels of replacement. Haematological indices and serum biochemical indices also followed similar pattern as the productive performance by revealing high significant (P<0.05) difference at different levels of maize replacement with banana peel meal in Packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), White blood cell (WBC), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Heterophils and Lymphocytes. The serum biochemical indices revealed high significant (P<0.05) difference in total protein, albumen, glucose, total bilurobin, potassium, sodium and chloride. In view of the above, up to 15% replacement of maize with banana peel meal has no adverse effect on performance and blood components of broiler chickens with concomitant reduction in feed cost N/kg and feed cost per kg gain.
... The inorganic composition of the banana peels and the hydrochar samples (Table 2) was determined by ICP-MS. The most abundant element in the feedstock was potassium, as previously reported in other studies (Anhwange, 2008;Emaga et al., 2007;Kuppusamy et al., 2017), with a concentration of 259 ± 13 mg g −1 (mean ± SD, n = 3) on a dry matter (DM) basis, higher than the range of 44 to 78 mg g −1 (DM) observed by other authors (Anhwange, 2008;Emaga et al., 2007;Kuppusamy et al., 2017). This discrepancy could be attributed to differences in the species of the bananas analysed or the even the ripening stage. ...
... The inorganic composition of the banana peels and the hydrochar samples (Table 2) was determined by ICP-MS. The most abundant element in the feedstock was potassium, as previously reported in other studies (Anhwange, 2008;Emaga et al., 2007;Kuppusamy et al., 2017), with a concentration of 259 ± 13 mg g −1 (mean ± SD, n = 3) on a dry matter (DM) basis, higher than the range of 44 to 78 mg g −1 (DM) observed by other authors (Anhwange, 2008;Emaga et al., 2007;Kuppusamy et al., 2017). This discrepancy could be attributed to differences in the species of the bananas analysed or the even the ripening stage. ...
Article
Banana peels were used as feedstock to produce a carbon dense hydrochar for the removal of toxic metals from wastewater. Compared to the biomass feedstock (41.3% mass C), the banana peel hydrochar possesses higher carbon (54–72% mass C) and lower ash contents. The carbonised banana peels treated between 150 and 300 °C (1−2h) demonstrated an excellent ability to remove Cd²⁺ (5–100 mg L⁻¹), achieving 99% removal, in comparison with 75% for the raw peel. The liquid by-product generated in the carbonisation process was tested as feedstock in microbial electrochemical devices, showing significant reduction in the chemical oxygen demand levels (initially 10–25 10³ mg L⁻¹), associated with the production of electrical outputs; 81–85% reduction with microbial communities from compost, and 53–85% with anaerobic sludge. The results demonstrate the complete utilization of waste from mass cultivation of banana, providing a full-cycle solution for the pollution associated to this important crop.
... Phenolic compounds can be found in leaves, roots, fruits, seeds, and bark of almost all plants. Phenolic compounds are categorized as secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health and have immense nutritional and medicinal values, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, blood pressure control, and other activities [6][7][8]20]. ...
... Cosmetics 2021,8, 70 ...
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Hyperpigmentation caused by melanin overproduction can be induced by UV radiation. The quest for effective depigmenting agents continues because many anti-melanin agents have restricted use and/or produce side-effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of Musa sapientum Linn. (AA group) peel ethanol extracts (MPE) on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin production. In addition, the molecular mechanism related to this process was examined in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The results indicated that MPE remarkably inhibited melanogenesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expressions were suppressed by MPE in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, MPE significantly decreased the expression of melanosome transfer protein markers (Rab27a and Pmel17) in a dose-dependent manner. This study found that the elevated phosphorylation of AKT in the B16F10 cells was diminished by MPE treatment. Furthermore, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p62 (autophagy markers) were affected after the B16F10 cells were treated with MPE. This study demonstrated that MPE might be an effective agent for anti-melanogenesis through the AKT pathway, subsequently diminishing MITF expression and tyrosinase enzyme family production. The findings indicated that MPE could potentially serve as a depigmenting agent in cosmeceuticals.
... Banana peel help in treating anaemia, improves mental health, lowers cholesterol levels, reduces weight, thus maintain good heart health. Further its use improves immunity and prevents occurrence of cancer (Someya et al., 2002;Anhwange et al., 2008) [41,1] . ...
... Banana peel help in treating anaemia, improves mental health, lowers cholesterol levels, reduces weight, thus maintain good heart health. Further its use improves immunity and prevents occurrence of cancer (Someya et al., 2002;Anhwange et al., 2008) [41,1] . ...
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Banana is one of the most common and widely used food all over the universe from ancient time. In this work mainly the nutrition analysis of various commonly cultivated banana varieties in Kerala has been used such as Najalipoovan, Poovan, Etha, Palenkodan, Robesta, Chemkadali, Pachakadhali, Sundari and Kannan. The peel contain about 40% of weight of banana fruit, its nutrition analysis is been also done to analyse various contents of significance. Further there is chance of occurrence of nutrients in peel since banana fruit is rich in various nutrients. And the peel of banana, a biomass just discarded into nature can thus be converted to various value added products like drugs, soaps, animal feed etc. It is been observed that these peel is source of various natural antioxidants, dietary fibre, crude fat and crude protein. On analysis Pachakadali fruit has highest moisture content and moisture content of peel is highest for Etha. Crude protein content of fruit and peel is highest for Kannan. Crude fibre content of fruit is highest for Kannan and crude protein content of peel is highest for Sundari. Ether extract in fruit and peel is highest for Kannan. Total ash content of fruit is highest for Kannan and ash content of peel is more for Pachakadali. Gross energy of fruit is highest in case of Najalipoovan fruit and gross energy of peel is highest for Robesta. On comparing these varieties on the basis of test result Kannan is the most superior variety on the basis of nutritional quality. Further on analysing test results it has been found that the peel has superior nutrient and moisture content. So from the analysis it is revealed that one of the most useful part of a banana is it's peel. By the above analysis one can easily understand importance of many varieties of banana and further detailed researches can extend the scope of study.
... Peel represents about 40% of total weight of fresh fruit (Fatemeh et al., 2012). Banana fruit peels are rich in K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Br (Anhwange et al., 2009). From orange (Citrus sinensis) a large amount of peel is produced annually. ...
... At 8 th WAP, okra stems did not show a significant difference among treatments except T1. Fruit peel contains substantial amounts of macronutrients which are essential for plant growth (Anhwange et al., 2009). It helps to increase the plant growth such as plant height, the number of branches that help to increase dry weight of stems. ...
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Purpose : Fruit peels waste is one of the waste accumulate in huge quantity every day. It is a serious problem and need to be managed to make environment free from pollution. Fruit peels are very rich in macro and micro nutrients that are beneficial for plant growth. By using fruit peel as fertilizer we can reduce load of wastes and can get more benefits than inorganic fertilizer. Research Method : The experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design with six treatments having twenty replicates. Treatments were, recommended fertilizer application at basal and topdressing (T1, control), half dose of recommended fertilizer application at basal and topdressing times with 1g of banana peel powder (T2), 1g of pomegranate peel powder (T3), 1g of orange peel powder (T4), 0.5g each of banana and pomegranate peel powders (T5) and 0.5g each of orange and banana peel powders (T6) at both times. All agronomic practices were followed as per Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka except fertilizers. Findings : The results reveals that application of fruit peel powder at basal and top dressing had significant differences (P<0.05) on plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, chlorophyll content, days to 50% and 100% flowering, dry weights of leaves, stem, root and fruit, fruit length and girth. At 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th picking, and the highest value was obtained in T6 and lowest value in T1. Originality/ Value : Application of fruit peel powder into the soil leads to improve growth and yield of okra in sandy regosol compared to recommended inorganic fertilizer and present study suggested that, among the all tested treatments, half recommended fertilizer application at basal and topdressing times with 0.5g each of orange and banana peel powders at both times would be the most suitable fruit peel powders to get higher growth and yield of okra in sandy regosol.
... Major nutritional components such as lipids, proteins, and carbs are abundant in banana peels, accounting for 91.50% of the dry weight. It also contains high content of indigestible fiber [56]. ...
... typical animal feed. As a result, the banana peel has been utilized in the production of animal feed [56]. ...
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Banana is one of the most important food crops which is generally planted in tropical countries and has beneficial applications in the food industry. A large amount of by-products such as leaves, inflorescence, pseudostem, and rhizomes serves as a source for different industries. Most of these by-products may serve as an undervalued commodity with a limited commercial value, application and in some cases, it is considered as an agricultural waste. This also paves the way to utilize a huge amount of untapped biomass and resolve some of the environmental issues. Most of the edible bananas are cultivated mainly for their fruits, thus, banana farms could generate several tons of underused by-products and wastes. The present review mainly discusses the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, pseudostem juice, stalk, and inflorescence in various industries as a thickening agent, alternative source for renewable energy, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, coloring agents, bioactive compounds, and bio-fertilizers. Banana waste serves as a potential source for the production of valuable products and preserves renewable resources and provides additional income to the farming industries.
... The proximate composition of unripe and ripe peels of local M. Sapientum varieties [20,21]. The peels demonstrated a high percent of ash from 11.3 ± 0.16 -14.7 ± 0.04. ...
... 18-20% of the banana it its peel as it is taking into consideration as a wastage. It is a fine source of lignocellulosic compounds and 91% of matter that is organic is present among which carbohydrates is 59% ( Anhwange 2008). It is vital to pay consciousness to use peel of banana as a xylose, sucrose and turn it into a added value product: Xylitol. ...
... Banana peel is "% from the total banana fruit and it contains high amount of potassium (K) around 78.10 mg/g which is essential for plant growth. Also 19.20mg/100g of calcium,0.61mg/100g of iron,76.20mg/100g of manganese are present in banana peel [11]. ...
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Waste management has become a prominent topic as waste is a burning dispute in the modern world. There will be so many social and environmental issues if the generated waste is not managed properly. There are so many valuable compounds mixed with this waste that can be effectively used in a more beneficial and profitable way. The preparation of organic fertilizer by utilizing those valuable compounds will create a solution to reduce the harmful effects on waste and the effects occurred by using chemical fertilizers as well. Underused waste which are used to prepare this fertilizer contains the nutrients which plant required for their growth. In this research, paddy is focused as it is one of the major crops in Sri Lanka which has so many complain about being contaminated with heavy metals with the use of chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizer is developed with cow bone, citrus peel, banana peel, eggshells as well as adding dried neem leaves. Neem is added to give pest repellent behavior to the fertilizer. The developed fertilizer is added to the paddy field to identify the impact of organic fertilizer. The paddy after three weeks of the fertilizer applied start fast-growing without any pest damages.
... The amount of crude fibre in the peel (12.74 ± 0.67%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the pulp (3.89 ± 0.04%) and seed (3.08 ± 0.13%). These are in good agreement with Anhwange (2008), who stated that fruit peels were an excellent source of fibre. Thompson red avocado pulp showed a higher fibre content than mandarin orange flesh (0.40%), but lower than the guava flesh (6.80%) (Voon and Kueh, 1999). ...
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Purpose Thompson red avocado is a bright red-coloured fruit when ripe. As the global market for avocado fruit is increasing, this unique avocado variety could potentially be the savory fruit for consumers. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of different parts of Thomson red avocado fruit. Design/methodology/approach Physical parameters were measured using a calibrated digital balance and a vernier caliper. The methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and a calibrated digital pH meter were used to measure the proximate composition and pH values of different fruit parts. Meanwhile, the total soluble solids and titratable acidity were determined using titration methods. Findings Thompson red avocado is a medium-sized fruit with an average mass, length and diameter of 216.92 g, 9.50 and 7.20 cm, respectively. The major part of the fruit is pulp (56.01%), followed by seed (33.04%) and peel (10.94%). Each of these fruit parts was further investigated for their proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. All the fruit parts were found to be low in protein (<1%) and titratable acidity (<0.42%), but high in moisture content (>60%). The pH of these fruit parts was in the range of 5.04–5.59. Compared to the peel and seed, the pulp has the highest crude fat (20.79%), but the lowest ash content (1.47%), total carbohydrates (3.39%) and total soluble solids (7.83 ºBrix). Originality/value The physical and chemical properties of the commercial avocado varieties such as Fortuna, Collinson, Hass and Barker are well-documented in the literature. Unlike typical avocado fruits, which change from green into dark black, dark green or deep purplish colour when ripe, Thompson red variety changes into red colour when ripe. As the global market for avocado fruit is increasing, the unique, bright-red-coloured Thompson red avocado could potentially be the savoury fruit for consumers. Previous studies reported the nutritional composition of avocado fruit is affected by variety and geographical locations, but the data on the nutritional profile of Thompson red avocado fruit are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the physical properties and nutrient contents of Thompson red avocado fruit.
... The maturation of banana fruits has shown to impact the dietary fibre compositions of Cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses contents of, the components of the insoluble dietary fibre fractions, varied from 7-12g/100 g, 6.4-9.6 g/100g and 6.48.4g/100g, respectively, where as pectin contents, a component of the soluble dietary fibre ranged from 13-21.7g/100g [6] . The concentrations of hydrogen cyanide, an extremely poisonous substance and oxalate contents in swill found to be 1.33 mg/g 0.51mg/g respectively, falling within the safety limits [1] . These results indicated that swill safe and valuable functional ingredients for human consumption. ...
... Other than being used as traditional medicine, the banana peel is also used a livestock feed, due to its rich nutrient content. The nutrient content of the peels include carbohydrates, protein, and lipids and may contain even essential minerals like potassium (Anhwange 2008). Banana peel is also used as organic fertilizer and various methods are used to make fertilizer from banana peels (Kalemelawa et al. 2012). ...
... Norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin are also, present in the ripe peel and pulp [11] . The first two elevate blood pressure, serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines [12] . ...
... It is different from many other fruits, as it can be easily digested (Kumar et al., 2012). Banana is quite popular because of number of features such as; simply to peel, high contents of both potassium and calcium and low in sodium, aroma and texture (Wall, 2006;Anhwange, 2008). In addition, the carbohydrate in banana is resistance starch. ...
Chapter
Petroleum plastics are heavily used nowadays in all aspects of life. Due to their negative impacts on almost all living, environment and others, the transformation to bioplastic has become a necessary requirement rather than an option. Starch-based bioplastic that is separated from the conventional starch sources is one of the main common types of biopolymers, nowadays that has proven its potentials in some industrial applications. The poor properties and the brittleness of Starch-based bioplastic have impeded the wide application of starch in real applications. The additions of polymers, bio-fillers or bio-fibers to the starch are some of the ways currently used to enhance the properties. Due to that and the excessive uses of the conventional starch and bio-fibers, there is a crucial need to discover other sources of starch and biofibre and study their properties. The present article depicts negative impacts of the conventional plastics and reviews the major aspects of starch-based bioplastic as an alternative bio-product. It also reviews the characteristics of some of the conventional and non-conventional starch sources which are extracted from the wastes of fruits and vegetables. The study suggested further investigations on the production of starch-based bio-plastic from unconventional starch and bio-fillers.
... The development of this industry disposes of a significant amount of banana peels, accounting for approximately 36% of the total weight of the fruit (Rebello et al., 2014). However, previous studies have shown that this is a valuable source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant and antibacterial activities (Cai et al., 2004;Anhwange et al., 2008, Chabuck et al., 2013. Hellendoorn et al. (2011) determined the presence of phenolic compounds from the peel of nine different bananas grown in India and its eISSN: 2550-2166 © 2022 The Authors. ...
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The banana peels accounts for approximately 36% of the total fruit weight yet are mostly discarded as waste or used only for animal feeding. However, studies have shown that this by-product is rich in phenolic compounds and is a traditional treatment. The levels and composition of phenolic compounds are influenced by various factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ripeness and extraction conditions on polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of banana peels (Musa paradisiaca L.) by analysing the total phenolic content (TPC) and using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. Results have shown that yellowish green coloured banana peels exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to mature (green-coloured) and ripe (yellow-coloured) peels. The optimal extraction conditions include ethanol concentration of 50%, material/solvent ratio of 1:40 (w/v), extraction time of 1.5 hrs and temperature of 60°C. Under these conditions, the obtained TPC and the antioxidant activity was approximately 9.93 mg GAE/g and 50 μmol TE/g, respectively. Quantitative results by HPLC indicate the presence of quercetin-3-glc, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and epicatechin.
... Several flavonoids and related compounds (Leucocyanidin, quercetin and its 3-Ogalactoside, 3-O-glucoside, and 3-O-rhamnosyl glucoside) were isolated from the unripe pulp of plantain [19 -21]. Serotonin, nor-epinephrine, tryptophan, indole compounds, tannin, starch, iron, crystallisable and noncrystallisable sugars, vitamin C, B-vitamins, albuminoids, fats, mineral salts have been found in the fruit pulp of M. paradisiaca and M. sapientum [15].Carbohydrates have been isolated from M. sapientum [22]. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine have been isolated from pulp and peel of M. paradisiaca [23][24]. ...
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The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The terms 'bananas' and 'plantains' require clarification. 'Bananas' refers to all the members of the genus Musa. In the narrow sense, plantains are characterized by the orange-yellow color of both the compound tepal of the flower and the fruit pulp at ripeness. In this review work, we discuss the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. and M. sapientum (Musaceae) for their anti-diabetic activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidant property, wound healing, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic, augmenting action on skeletal muscle contraction, antihypertensive activity, anti-allergic activity and mutagenic effects and haemostatic activity. This literature review also presents some taxonomy, traditional uses, phytochemicals, minerals and detailed pharmacological information of Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum Linn. Some pharmacological studies has been reported and number of activities require the proper scientific justification on the plant in which diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcer, antispasmodic, hypertension, nephroprotective activity and cardiac diseases etc., are scientifically possible. The different phytoconstituents present in the unripe fruit extract of the plant like; alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids etc that gives the possibility of expected pharmacological activities and which help for further research and treatment for the patients.
... The banana and orange peels consist of a complex of many organic compounds particularly pectin, lignin, reducing and nonreducing sugar and other, the dried peels of banana and orange consist of 45.26% of organic compound the result of this current study agreed with studied ( Anhwange et .al, 2014, Shogren-Knaak, et .al, 2001. ...
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In this study a low-cost adsorbent was designed for treatment of water pollution such as banana and orange peels and mixture of both and used it as a biological treatment to remove 1- Elements 'Cr, Pb , Cd 'from wastewater in General Company for Battery Industry and the Public company for Electrical Industries in Waziriyah 2-Radioactive pollution (Radon Rn ) from water well in Al- Doura and Al- Autafiyah sites and 3- Cesium Cs element from the water near the nuclear reactor at Tuwaitha station southen of Baghdad. Used In Silico in a computer simulation was designed between molecules composed of peels depending on the chemical composition of both peel plants and radioactive elements. The process was done by Discovery Studio 4.1v software; all molecules are prepared for Molecular Docking from PubChem website was used to get essential chemistry information about the radioactive elements. The banana and orange peel consist of a complex of many organic compounds particularly pectin, lignin, reducing and non-reducing sugar and other, dried peel of banana and orange consist of 45.26% of the organic compounds. All the organic compounds (Pectin, Lignin, and Sugar) and radioactive radon (Rn) and cesium Cs sketched into 2D and created 3D structure and applied the force field to minimize the energy. All compounds (lignin, pectin, and sugar) and target radioactive radon (Rn) were subjected to the Docking a logarithm by Swiss Dock Server to estimate the binding affinity. The total binding energy and ΔG were used as the main criteria for describing the successful compound. Automatic calculation of molecular docking process was done and the final results of molecular docking for all compounds. II The validity between the radioactive elements and the plant residues, therefore, has been drying and grinding the peels and conducting the SEM , the sample show a large aggregation of large fibers in different degrees magnifications of Surface ( 1KX, 5KX, 10.0KX ) magnifications further milling shows more regular and flattened considerable change in particle size, the disappearance of fibres is due to further decrease in particle size by fracturing during milling processes of the fibre and particle, it was also observed that the particles were regularly and uniformly shaped to make sure that we examined the chemical bonds of crusts and summarized the following N-H, C-O, C = O, C-H, O-H, that showed the similarity of the chemical structure of banana and orange peel through the testing of the FTIR in terms of the same chemical bonds the highest atomic weight in banana peels is the potassium component, which is 3.406% , in orange peel is Calcium, which is % 0.5322 , its knowledge of secondary metabolites such as compounds ( Saponine, Phenols, Alkaloids, Tannis, Resins). Best size of 1000 µ particles obtained the highest percentage of adsorption which is 99.7% for banana peel higher than orange and mixture in the Chromium Cr ˃ Cadmium Cd ˃ Lead Pb. The best acidity level was detected for adsorption in pH 6 ratios of 89.9% for Cr using banana peel, about time, which obtained the highest adsorption in two hours rate of 99.3% of Cr in banana peel. The study proved the efficiency of highest percentage of adsorption of bananas and oranges peels and mix of both that are considered to be a non-expensive domestic waste on the biological removal of dangerous environmental pollutants radon and cesium.
... Several biological materials have attracted many researchers and scientists as they offer both cheap and effective removal of heavy metals from the waste water. Therefore it is necessary to study and explore all possible sources of agro based inexpensive adsorbents for their feasibility in the removal of heavy metals ( Anhwange et al., 2009 ;Zahra and Mohammad, 2013 ;Rajoriya and Kaur, 2014 ). ...
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Over the last decade the world has been generating a high quantity of tangerine peel waste (TPW), pomegranate peel waste (PPW) and banana peel waste (BPW). These peels have several economic benefits but there is mismanagement or inappropriate valorisation that could present risks to environment and public health. In the current review, we discussed the use of TPW, PPW and BPW directly for animal feed, soil fertilization, specific compost production and bio-adsorbent. We also discussed the valorisation of these peels for manufacturing the value-added products including enzymes, essential oil and other products that can be used in human food, in medical and cosmetic industry. Additionally, recent studies concerning the valorisation of these peels by biorefinery for bioethanol, biogas and biohydrogen production have been discussed. In the same context some other recent studies about valorisation of microorganisms isolated from these peels for medical, agronomic and industrial interests have been also discussed.
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India is an agricultural country. As per the 2014 FAO world agriculture statistics India is the world's largest producer of banana with 30.5 million Tones per year. This seasonless banana tree not only having edible fruit and it can also be used for the purpose of fibre extraction. Currently, this pseudostem where we can extract fibre is considered to be waste. In olden days, our ancestors extracted fibre from the stem in a small scale. In India, Fibres are being used for preparing handicrafts, ropes, etc. the major problems of non-adoption of fibre extraction technology is low recovery of fibres leading to high transport cost. This plant has long been a good source for high-quality textiles in many parts of the world, especially in Japan and Nepal. In conclusion, this paper reviews the possibilities of converting banana fibre into Garment with spinning and blending possibilities. The feasibility will increase the utilization of waste in banana plant. The land of our country is suitable for Banana cultivation. The farmers will get benefitted and it will directly contribute to our national economy.
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The present study investigated the effects of overripe pulp and green peel extract and powder of banana fruit (Musa. cavendish) on haematological, biochemical, immunological, health, and performance of Holstein dairy calves. In all, 40 newborn calves were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals. In the control group, animals received no banana meal. In group 1, calves were supplemented with 2 g (dry matter)/kg body weight/day of overripe banana pulp extract. The calves in group 2 were supplemented with 1 g (dry matter) of overripe banana pulp extract/kg body weight/day and 1 g (dry matter) of green banana peel extract/kg body weight/day. The animals in group 3 were supplemented with 2 g/kg body weight/day of green banana peel powder. The feeding period of calves on the tested supplements was 5 days. Blood samples and other evaluations were taken on day 0 (at birth, before supplementation) and on days 7, 15 and 30. Just a trend towards better average daily weight gain was seen in groups 2 and 3 than others (p = 0.073). Significant group and sampling time interactions were seen for the quantities of RBC (group 1 was lower than other groups at day 30), MCV (group 3 was lower than other groups at day 30) and MCH (group 1 was higher than other groups at day 30) (p < 0.05). A trend towards significance in values of IgG (group 1 was lower than other groups at days 15 and 30) and bilirubin (higher values at day 7 in groups 1 and 2 than control, higher amounts at days 15 and 30 in groups 3 and 2 than control, respectively) was also observed. In conclusion, banana supplementation in neonatal calves had beneficial effects on the values of RBC, MCV, MCH, bilirubin, IgG and average daily weight gain in dairy calves. In conclusion, banana supplementation in neonatal calves showed that it may has beneficial effects on the values of MCH, bilirubin and average daily weight gain.
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The main aim of the present work is to prepare a natural extractant from the Egyptian plant remains, banana peels. The latter were chosen because they are considered among the popular and widespread plant wastes in Egypt. In this study, banana peels were investigated as a solvent to extract uranium ions from sulfate leach liquor. A synthetic sulfate solution was firstly conducted to optimize the extraction conditions. The work was then oriented to extract uranium from Abu Thor ore sulfate leach liquor. Finally, the results proved that uranium can be efficiently recovered from its sulfate solution using banana peels extractant.
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This progress of industry revolution, which involves reutilizing waste materials and simplifying complex procedures of analysis through artificial intelligent (AI), are the current interest in automated industries. There are two main objectives, firstly, the use of waste molasses from sugar mills as a cultivation medium for microalgae and nutrients extraction. The biomass in 15% of the molasses medium without carbon dioxide aeration during cultivation obtained the highest dry cell weight at 1206.43 mg/L. Protein content in the biomass of 10% molasses cultivation medium is 20.60%, which is higher compared to commercial mediums. Secondly, the exploitation of the deep colouration properties of molasses-cultivated microalgae, a novel photo-to-property estimation was performed by k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) algorithm through RGB model pixel raster in the images to rapidly determine the biomass concentration, nitrogen concentration and pH without use of tedious analytical processes. The k-value at 4 was studied in normalized Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) for biomass concentration at 0.10, nitrate at 0.11, and pH at 0.02 for a sequence of days.
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All parts of a banana cv. Raja can be used as functional food and health or beauty products. The physicochemical properties of fruit peels, pulp and banana cv. Raja need to be known to determine the type of processing because it can affect the final product processed. This research aimed were to determine the characteristics of banana cv. Raja Flour from peel, flesh and fruit and its minerals content. The results obtained from the analysis of moisture content ranged from 6.21 to 39.33%, ash content was 1.33-1.86%, protein content was 2%. The content of vitamin C in the peel, fruit and flesh of bananas is 32.3 mg/100 g, 7.18 mg/100g and 4.99 mg/ 100g respectively. The mineral content of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca), in banana peels, is higher than the flesh and fruit of bananas, such as 73.03% and 16.12%, while the content of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and chlorine (Cl) in the pulp was higher than the skin and banana fruit 10.52%, 6.58%, and 4.37% respectively. The crystalline structure of banana flour from banana peels, fruit flesh and fruit shows the same type is type A and the gelatinization temperature ranges from 74.85 to 76.9°C within 8.6 to 10.6 minutes.
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This study presents the synthesis of activated orange peel, derived from bio-waste (orange peel) and its doping with selenium nano-particles to enhance the adsorption capacity. The synthesized nanocomposite orange peel/Selenium (OP/Se) was applied as adsorbents for the removal of Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) from synthetic waste water as an economical water cleaning technology. Orange peel/Selenium nanocomposite was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scanning electron microscopy results showed the porous structure of OP/Se nanocomposite and distinct peaks observed in XRD and FTIR spectra depicted the successful synthesis of nanocomposite. Batch experiments were conducted to figure out the effect of different parameters on adsorption of Pb and Cr by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The maximum adsorption capacity of 99.9% was achieved for both lead and chromium at acidic pH. While at temperature of 60°C the maximum adsorption of 98.3 and 95.9% was found for Pb and Cr respectively. Furthermore the experimental data was examined with Pseudo-first order, first-order and Pseudo-second order kinetic model, as well as Morris Intraparticle diffusion model where the pseudo second order was best fitted which indicated the chemisorption mechanism in adsorption process. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model verified that OP/Se nanocomposite was found to be favorable for the process of adsorption. The adsorption thermodynamics indicate that adsorption of heavy metals ions is spontaneous (ΔG° < 0) and the adsorption increases with increase in temperature which means that reaction was endothermic in nature. This study revealed that the synthesized bio-activated nanocomposite was an efficient adsorbent material for the removal of heavy metals from waste water.
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This study reports the extraction and performance evaluation of two bio-derived polymers for enhanced oil recovery applications. The oil displacement processes were conducted using six (6) unconsolidated sandstone core plugs. Reservoir permeability tester was used to simulate real reservoir conditions in order to evaluate the suitability of the formulated biopolymers for oil displacement applications at laboratory conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the biopolymer solutions in enhanced oil recovery in terms of their superior incremental oil recoveries after conventional waterflood with percentage oil recovery of 30.9–39.3% for banana peel derived polymer and 40.6–50.8% for mango kernel derived polymer compared to conventional waterflood with percentage recovery of 16.2–32% of the initial oil in place. This work identified the potential suitability and use of bio-derived polymers for enhanced oil recovery applications with emphasis on their biodegradability.
Chapter
Banana is a staple fruit because it is available all through the year and it also serves as a source of income and food to a great number of people. Banana peel is the major byproduct of banana processing which account for 30% of the banana fruit and also constitute to environmental hazard. Banana peels are promising byproduct for different applications in nutraceuticals and medicinal usage due to the high dietary fiber and phenolic content present in them. Numerous studies have identified banana peels as a rich source of phytochemical compounds, mainly antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, gallocatechin, anthocyanins delphinidin and cyaniding, and catecholamines, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. This chapter consulted literature and presented scientific evidence of banana peels as a source of nutraceuticals.
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Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and it is not free everywhere. Ammonia (NH3) in drinking water may be beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration in water. NH3 is colorless, pungent gas composed of nitrogen and hydrogen. The acute exposures to high levels of ammonia have also been associated with diseases of the lower airways and interstitial lung. Ammonia occurs naturally and is produced by human activity. It is an important source of nitrogen which is needed by plants and animals. The removal of ammonia from contaminated water by treatment with biosorbents is one of the most effective methods. Biosorption is a simple, economical and environment-friendly method for removal of ammonia from water. Every biosorbent had different physical, chemical and biological properties for removal of ammonia by biosorption from the water. The order of percentage removal of ammonia from water by using three different biosorbents was as follows: Orange peels> Coconut wire waste> Tea waste. The optimum sorption was obtained at basic pH is 4, dosage is 3.9gm, contact time is 60min, temperature is 30°C and agitation speed is 60rpm. In the SEM and XRD characterization observed that the particle size and crystallite size of orange peels biosorbent was 2.54µm and 3.02nm respectively with the end-centered cubic structures. In the FTIR analysis of orange peels biosorbents observed that the O-H, C-H, alkynes with -C=C- stretch, carbonyls, amines and aromatics group peaks are presence. In the BET characterization observed that orange peels biosorbents has a higher surface area (45.42m²/g) and pore volume (0.512cm³/g) as compared to other biosorbents. In orange peels biosorbents observed that the presence of heterogeneous surface with non-uniform distribution of heat adsorption and the adsorption process is multilayer. In the regeneration process observed that the reusing of orange peels biosorbent continuously for three times the adsorption capacity of ammonia from water reduced by 100 to 93.32%. This procedure can be made economical by regenerating and reusing of the biosorbent after removing the ammonia from water.
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Background The use of agricultural by-products as a source of functional ingredients, particularly those from crop plants, has received great interest. Banana (Musa spp.) is a common food crop worldwide, but its peel, similar to other agricultural by-products, is often discarded. Banana peel has the potential to be transformed into functional foods because it is historically consumed as food and medicine in some regions of the world. Scope and approach: Current analysis recaps the nutritional characteristics, bioactive elements and potential health-promoting properties of banana peel and its utilisation in the food industry. Key Findings and Conclusion: The discoveries, particularly on the broad array of bioactive chemical constituents in peel and their related biological activities, seem to rationalise the proposed use of banana peel in several food industries. Banana peel is appreciated for its bioactive components, particularly the phenolic compounds. The major phenolic compounds found in the banana peel are grouped as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, and catecholamines. The incorporation of banana peel into food products enhanced the nutritional content, particularly the dietary fibre and phenolic content. It has been demonstrated that banana peel reduces lipid oxidation, particularly in meat-based products. Despite the nutrients offered by banana peels, this paper discusses the potential anti-nutrient content that must be addressed. From this review, banana peel shows great potential to be developed into beneficial functional foods and nutraceuticals. However, proper regulation and legalisation of bioactive enrichment of food products from the banana peel are required to ensure its safety for human consumption.
Article
This study explored the potential of functionalized nanoparticles with active compounds extracted from tropical fruit wastes to increase the performance of turbidity removal from the water of natural coagulants. Extracts from banana, durian, and jackfruit wastes (peel and seed) were tested for their coagulation activity. Banana peel extract had the highest coagulation activity of 70% and was functionalized with magnetite nanoparticles and characterized with X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Analysis of variance showed the mass and settling time of the functionalized nanoparticle as significant parameters associated with water turbidity removal. Response surface methodology using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) for tropical fruit wastes indicated that a linear model was able to describe the effects of the parameters (tropical fruit mass, nanoparticle mass, and settling time) on the response (turbidity removal). Optimized parameters via BBD for tropical fruit mass, nanoparticle mass, and settling time were 0.26 g, 14.37 mg, and 25 min, respectively. Field sample tests showed turbidity removal percentages using the functionalized magnetite nanoparticle with banana peel extracts were between 88.5 and 92.8%. The performance efficacy score of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with banana peel extract as the coagulant showed promising potential as a water turbidity removal during an emergency.
Chapter
Bioethanol is the one of the most commonly-used liquid biofuels in the world and could significantly contribute to the renewable energy balance. This chapter will map the potential biowaste streams that could produce second-generation bioethanol. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste, food processing waste along with lignocellulosic residues will be quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. This chapter will encompass up-to-date information on recent technological developments for bioethanol production. Apart from the fermentation process, all the upstream and downstream process techniques will be reviewed. In addition, the bottlenecks and barriers that impede the sustainable and viable bioethanol production, and the future trends and perspectives shall be discussed.
Article
Production of single cell protein (SCP) from food waste is one of the promising approaches for excellent waste management. In the present study, SCP was produced through submerged fermentation using selected food wastes (banana peel, citrus peel, carrot pomace and potato peel). During process optimization, combinations of various temperature and nitrogen sources were studied for optimum SCP yield (g/100g). The results indicated that maximum SCP yield was obtained at 30 °C for 7 days on potato peels, whereas citrus and banana peels exhibited the lowest SCP yield at the same process conditions. The SCP compositional analysis indicated that the amount of non-essential amino acids was significantly higher than wheat flour. Furthermore, SCP enriched bread was prepared by adding SCP at different concentrations (0, 4, 8, and 12%). The organoleptic properties indicated that SCP addition up to 4% can be added in bread was acceptable to prepare protein enriched bread. Thus, SCP may be effectively used for food waste management and food security.
Conference Paper
The main aim of this study is to formulate a cake using green banana (Musa acuminata), which can be dried using tray dryer, microwave dryer, freeze dryer. The banana was sliced at average size of 3mm and it is dried. The dried pieces are then size reduced and was sieved in sieve shaker at size of 212µm. The physical properties (pH, moisture, ash) Chemical properties like (Polyphenols, Anti-oxidants and Flavanoids) Nutritional properties (Carbohydrate, Protein, crude fiber) of the flour were studied. Among these different drying methods, freeze dried sample is regarded as the best sample to retain all the Functional, Chemical and Nutritional properties when compared with other two types of drying. So the freeze dried banana flour (BF) was substituted with wheat flour at varying proportions (2BF, 14BF, 6BF, 8BF and 10BF) to prepare cake samples. The physical (Moisture, pH, Specific volume), chemical (Anti-oxidants) and nutritional properties (Crude fiber) of the cake were analyzed. It is concluded that the cake made out of 8BF substitution had the overall acceptability and had maximum volume. The 10BF composition had higher nutritional values but had poor sensory properties. The texture profile of samples (2BF, 4BF, 6BF, 8BF, 10BF) was done and compared with the control sample which is made of 100% wheat flour. The fiber content and the antioxidant properties of the fortified samples increase upon addition of BF from 2% to 10% level whereas it shows a negative impact on the textural and sensory profile beyond 8% level of incorporation. Thus the 8% level shows highest nutritional and functional properties without showing negative impact on sensory and textural properties and is considered as the optimized sample. Thus 8% incorporated sample is considered as most acceptable both organoleptically and nutritionally.
Article
Background Agro-food processing industries generate a large volume of plant-byproducts that has immense potential in energy recovery, food product and packaging development. Recently, there is an emerging research interest in utilizing plant-byproducts to develop biodegradable packaging materials. Plant-byproducts possess strong structural and functional characteristics that can enhance the biopolymer packaging with improved barrier, mechanical, active, and intelligent properties. Scope and approach Biodegradable packaging materials, formulated using plant-byproducts, can be an innovative approach to overcome the waste management hurdles in the processed food industry. Plant-byproducts obtained from fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, and seeds deliver distinct functions to the packaging matrix. This state-of-the-art review discusses the plant-byproduct based biodegradable films and coatings with respect to their film-forming, antioxidant, antimicrobial, mechanical, barrier, and pH-sensitive properties. The future perspectives of the plant-byproducts-based packaging material including the importance of industrial, regulatory, and environmental requirements have also been discussed. Key findings and conclusions Plant-byproducts can be used to formulate novel food packaging materials due to their multi-dimensional advantages starting from waste utilization to ensuring food safety and ending as a biodegradable material. The polyphenols present in the byproducts such as peel, skin, roots, and seed significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in the packed foods. Similarly, the anthocyanin extracted from the skin, pomace, and bran incorporated films showed color changes due to pH variation. These novel materials have the potential to develop both intelligent and active packaging systems to extend and monitor the shelf life of packed foods.
Article
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Micronutrient deficiency is raising concern worldwide, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa, Southern Asia, and certain developing countries, posing a significant risk to the nutritional status. This study aimed to develop cake fortified with Moringa leaf powder (MOLP), ripe banana flour (RBF) and assessed the effect of MOLP and RBF on the nutritional composition as well as consumer acceptability. The nutritional, mineral, vitamin A and sensory attributes of MOLP and RBF fortified cakes were assessed. Proximate analysis results showed that the addition of MOLP and RBF significantly increased from 5.79% to 8.90% for protein, 1.25% to 1.66% for ash, 2.70% to 6.98% for fiber, and 53.0% to 60.88% for carbohydrate. However, the fat and moisture content decreased from 20.16% to 13.06% and 17.77% to 13.54%, respectively. The mineral contents (phosphorus, potassium, iron, and zinc) increased significantly in the fortified cake compared to the unfortified control. The vitamin A content (3.40–5.62 mg/100 g) of the fortified cakes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the vitamin A (1.62 mg/100 g) content of the unfortified cake. Although MOLP and RBF substitution raised most of the nutritional contents, the maximum consumer acceptability was recorded in the unfortified control, which was statistically similar to C2 (1.5% MOLP and 2% RBF) substitution in terms of shape, sweetness, flavor, mouth feel, and overall acceptability. The results indicated that cake supplemented with 1.5% MOLP and 2% RBF provided the enriched nutritional quality and potentially contributed to the improvement of food and nutritional security of the vulnerable populations. Furthermore, utilizing ripe bananas with peels in cake recipes will help to encourage the recovery of food waste for functional food preparation.
Article
The ammonia and nitrate are one of the most common groundwater contaminants present in the rural areas. Therefore it is necessary to remove ammonia and nitrate from water. There are several methods aviliable for removal of ammonia and nitrate present in the ground water among these methods the biosorption is a simple, economical and environment-friendly method for removal of ammonia and nitrate from water. Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to concentrate passively and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Every biosorbent had different physical, chemical and biological properties for ammonia and nitrate removal from water. The orange peels biosorbent is one of the best biosorbent for removal of ammonia and nitrate present in water. The orange peels biosorbent concentration of 4gm is highly capable for ammonia and nitrate removal from water. The optimum biosorption of ammonia and nitrate over orange peels biosorbent was obtained at pH = 5.5, contact time = 60 min, temperature = 35 °C and agitation speed = 90 rpm. The characterizations of orange peels biosorbents are done by several techniques like XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM-EDX. These results are interpreted in terms of structure of orange peels active biosorbent. The reusability of orange peels biosorbent was also tested and found that no high level of significant change in its performances even after reuses.
Book
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This edited book has made an earnest attempt to include academic research outputs from social science disciplines. We sincerely hope that this book fulfils the requirements of the commerce, management and business researcher, Since errors are inevitable, we shall be grateful if mistakes are brought to my notice. Such corrections will be incorporated in subsequent editions. We thank the lord almighty and our parents for their blessings to us to write and publish this book. We express our appreciation and heartfelt thanks to the authors those contributed chapters in the book and made this endeavour fruitful. We extend our thanks to all our family members, well-wishers and our dear friends for their moral support and encouragement during the preparation and publication of this book.
Article
Water is a basic and significant asset for living beings. Water assets are progressively diminishing due to huge populace development, industrial activities, urbanization and rural exercises. Few heavy metals include zinc, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium and so forth can easily transfer into the water system either direct or indirect activities of electroplating, mining, tannery, painting, fertilizer industries and so forth. The different treatment techniques have been utilized to eliminate the heavy metals from aquatic system, which includes coagulation/flocculation, precipitation, membrane filtration, oxidation, flotation, ion exchange, photo catalysis and adsorption. The adsorption technique is a better option than other techniques because it can eliminate heavy metals even at lower metal ions concentration, simplicity and better regeneration behavior. Agricultural wastes are low-cost biosorbent and typically containing cellulose have the ability to absorb a variety of contaminants. It is important to note that almost all agro wastes are no longer used in their original form but are instead processed in a variety of techniques to improve the adsorption capacity of the substance. The wide range of adsorption capacities for agro waste materials were observed and almost more than 99% removal of toxic pollutants from aquatic systems were achieved using modified agro-waste materials. The present review aims at the water pollution due to heavy metals, as well as various heavy metal removal treatment procedures. The primary objectives of this research is to include an overview of adsorption and various agriculture based adsorbents and its comparison in heavy metal removal.
Article
This study aimed to study the effect of substitution of jackfruit seed flour and the addition of plantain peel on organoleptic assessment and nutritional value of brownie products. This study used a completely randomized design. The first factor was the substitution of jackfruit seed flour in wheat flour with levels of 0%:100% (T1), 15%:85% (T2), and 30%:70% (T3). The second factor was the addition of plantain peel pulp with levels of 0% (P0), 5% (P1), and 10% (P2). The data were analyzed using the Analysis of Variances (ANOVA). The results with a significant effect then followed by the Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test at the 95% confidence level (α = 0.05). The results show that the organoleptic assessment selected by the panelists was the sample with 30% jackfruit seed flour substitution with 5% plantain peel pulp addition. The hedonic assessment scores of color, aroma, texture, and taste reached 4.46 (like), 4.26 (like), 4.00 (like), and 4.20 (like), respectively. Meanwhile, the average descriptive assessment scores of color, aroma, texture, and taste reached 4.16 (bright), 4.13 (fragrant), 4.26 (soft), and 4.46 (good), respectively. The nutrient content of the selected sample shows that it had 27.58% water, 1.89% ash, 13.79% protein, 22.58% fat, and 34.16% carbohydrate. The moisture content of brownies did not meet the national standard, while the ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrate contents met the national standard.Keywords: Brownies cake, jackfruit seed flour, plantain skins porridge, flour.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh substitusi tepung biji nangka dan penambahan kulit pisang raja terhadap penilaian organoleptik dan nilai gizi produk brownies. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap. Faktor pertama adalah substitusi tepung biji nangka pada tepung terigu dengan taraf 0% : 100% (T1), 15% : 85% (T2), dan 30% : 70% (T3). Faktor kedua adalah penambahan bubur kulit pisang raja dengan taraf, yakni 0% (P0), 5% (P1), dan 10% (P2). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analyses of Variances (ANOVA), Hasil berpengaruh nyata dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kepercayaan 95% (α=0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penilaian organoleptik terpilih oleh panelis terdapat pada substitusi tepung biji nangka 30% dengan penambahan bubur kulit pisang raja 5% dengan skor penilaian hedonik terhadap warna 4,46 (suka), aroma 4,26 (suka), tekstur 4,00 (suka), rasa 4,20 (suka), sedangkan skor penilaian deskriptif meliputi warna dengan rerata 4,16 (terang), aroma dengan rerata 4,13 (harum), tekstur dengan rerata 4,26 (lembut), dan rasa dengan rerata sebesar 4,46 (enak). Kandungan gizi meliputi kadar air 27,58 (%), kadar abu 1,89 (%), kadar protein 13,79 (%), kadar lemak 22,58 (%), dan kadar karbohidrat 34,16 (%). Kadar air brownies tidak memenuhi standar SNI, sedangkan kadar abu, lemak, protein, dan karbohidrat telah memenuhi standar SNI.Kata kunci: Kue brownies kukus, tepung biji nangka, bubur kulit pisang raja, tepung terigu.
Chapter
Banana fruit is produced and consumed worldwide and belongs to the Musa genus. They are accessible for the entire year and affordable to everybody. It is a source of starch, fibers, minerals (magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and manganese), and vitamin B6. Raw and mature bananas are used as a source of important compounds, such as carotenoids, phenolics, biogenic amines, and phytosterols. It has numerous health benefits, for instance, enhances brain health, improves heart health, good for bones, enhances digestive health, valuable for diabetes, brightens the teeth, strengthens the immune system, and helps to treat diarrhea, migraines, and anemia. They are also helpful against cancer and useful in skin and hair care. They can be easily processed into value-added products, which include flour, puree, chips, brew, jam, wine, vinegar, and sauce. Banana produces huge waste in the form of peels, pseudostems, inflorescence, leaves, fruit stalk, and rhizome, which can be used for several applications (medicinal use, as biosorbent, as fiber source, as bio-fertilizers, and livestock feed). Additionally, in recent years, banana peel extract has been utilized for nanoparticle synthesis. Overall, this chapter discusses the health benefits, value-added products, and other significant uses of bananas.
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