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# Ubiquitous Expansion of Particles Would Be Observed as an Attractive Force

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## Abstract and Figures

I passed out of all the engineering physics courses at UT Austin in 1986, and then studied some more advanced subjects. This included a couple of Chapters from Wheeler, Thorne, and Misner´s book on General Relativity, "Gravitation". So I was thinking, there are other distortions in addition to space time curvature that would create the illusion of a force. Ubiquitous expansion is one of them. This essay is quite old now, it used to have Flash animations that went along with it. (I often get feedback ´hey it is space-time curvature´, hence I have added this little intro.) An interesting attribute of every particle expanding, is that we can model the universe as a multi handle Klein bottle, with each handle opening back into space as a particle. The whole manifold is then expanding. It is an entertaining concept. It would be nice to be able to spend some more time working on it. The title on the old pdf is a bit heavy. I suppose I had planned to take it further.
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Theory that Gravity is an Illusion of Living in an Exploding
Universe
by Tom Lynch, 1997 04 10
Expanding Particles
Given the following two postulates:
1. That each and every particle in the universe is expanding.
2. Without an external force, all particles remain on their current path, as described by Newton and
Einstein.
It follows that we can not build a ruler that is also expanding. When using a ruler that is expanding at
the same rate inertial particles are expanding, the net effect is that we observe using our expanding
ruler that particles of constant size approach each other until they collide.
Consider the following analogy. Suppose that two balloons are placed above gas helium bottles being
filled. So initially we have the following picture:
Figure 1: Expansion level at time t0
I have added a ruler above the bottles. Each balloon measures one unit across on the ruler. The
distance between the balloons is two units.
Now consider the picture at time t1 where the balloons and the ruler have doubled in size:
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Figure 2: Expansion level at time t1
The balloons used to measure one unit across on the ruler, and they still do because the ruler has
expanded at the same rate. Note however, as the balloons have doubled in size, the distance between
them is only ¼ of what it used to be. The distance between the balloons using our expanded ruler is
now one half unit. The centers of the balloons have not moved.
Had we scaled the picture so that one unit on the ruler was a constant size on the paper, we would have
witnessed that two balloons started two units apart, and they maintained their size but came closer
together under some magical force of attraction.
A Circular Universe Explanation
No explanation for the expansion is required for the theory to be an postulated model for gravity;
however, interesting explanations avail themselves. For example it could be that every particle or point
of space in the Universe is expanding because the most fundamental element in the Universe is the
Universe itself, and the Universe is expanding. I.e. in the very small one begins to view the very large.
A similar explanation would be that of a recursive universe, i.e. a universe made of particles
undergoing their own big bangs.
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