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The people make the place

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... The attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model, however, recognizes the ways that P-O fit is apt to evolve in the long run. Proposed by Schneider (1987b), this theory contests that viewing individuals and environments as separate entities is misguided. Rather, because people make up the environment, people are the environment (Schneider, 1987a). ...
... Organizations need people with particular competencies. Thus, organizations will narrow their recruitment and hiring procedures to select employees based on those competencies most needed for effectiveness (Schneider, 1987b). Assuming that certain kinds of people have certain kinds of competencies, this means that selection processes will tend to engender withinorganization homogeneity (Oh et al., 2018 ...
... This theory seems to have empirical evidence: personal dissimilarity with respect to education level, college curriculum, and industry experience have been found to be strong predictors of turnover (Jackson et al., 1991). Schneider's (1987b) central thesis is that if the people who don't "belong" leave, then the remaining employees will not only be similar to one another, but they will be even more homogenous than those who were originally attracted to the job. In this way, attrition completes the homogeneity cycle. ...
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Research on person-environment (P-E) fit has become increasingly nuanced over time, resulting in an alphabet soup of conceptually related acronyms, e.g., person-job (P-J), person-supervisor (P-S), person-group (P-G), person-organization (P-O), and person-vocation (P-V) fit-all temporally connected to attraction-selection-attrition (ASA). We propose a typology for P-E fit research that conceptualizes these various components into three dimensions: functional, environmental, and temporal. The functional dimension deals with the operational definitions of fit. The environmental dimension identifies the various units of analysis with which a person might fit. The temporal dimension arranges fit according to time by spanning the entirety of the work cycle and its effects on the organization. Drawing on a number of representative publications, we demonstrate how each of these dimensions might look in public sector research, identifying any gaps that might prompt future lines of research for HRM in the public sector.
... The theoretical notion that people are attracted to, and perform better in environments that fit with their personal characteristics is a contemporary cornerstone of organizational psychology (Nye, Perlus et al., 2018;van Vianen, 2018), with ample applications in both work (Nye et al., 2012) and higher education (Schelfhout et al., 2019, Schelfhout et al., 2021a. In his original seminal framework, Schneider (1987) formulated three mechanisms that describe how people (1) are attracted to an environment to achieve fit, (2) are selected into an environment because of (perceived) fit and (3) possibly also leave an environment in case of experienced misfit (i.e., attrition). As a result, the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) processes imply that the environment is made by the people in that environment (De Cooman et al., 2009;Oh et al., 2018;Schneider, 1987;Schneider et al., 2000). ...
... In his original seminal framework, Schneider (1987) formulated three mechanisms that describe how people (1) are attracted to an environment to achieve fit, (2) are selected into an environment because of (perceived) fit and (3) possibly also leave an environment in case of experienced misfit (i.e., attrition). As a result, the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) processes imply that the environment is made by the people in that environment (De Cooman et al., 2009;Oh et al., 2018;Schneider, 1987;Schneider et al., 2000). In a similar research line, Holland's (1997) theory proposes that people are inherently motivated to select environments that fit with their personal interests. ...
... The profile of an environment can be obtained in a number of ways. One way to obtain such a profile uses individuals from that environment as representatives or incumbents of that environment, as was already theorized by Schneider (1987). For a more detailed overview, we refer to Allen and Robbins (2010). ...
Article
Polynomial regression is a proven method to calculate person-environment (PE) interest fit between the RIASEC (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional) interests of a student and the RIASEC profile of a study program. The method has shown much larger effects of PE interest fit on academic achievement than earlier approaches in literature. However, the polynomial regression method in its current form only focuses on establishing the regressed interest fit (RIF) of a population of students with their study environments, in order to observe how large the general impact of PE interest fit can become on academic achievement. The present study (N = 4407 across n = 22 study programs) further validates this method towards new applications by theoretically deriving two measures of RIF that only affect a single environment like a study program. Analyses show that the use of RIF for a single study environment results in an even stronger positive relation between PE interest fit and academic achievement of r = 0.36, compared to r = 0.25 for the original polynomial regression method. Analyses also show that RIF for one environment can be used to generate interpretable and reliable RIASEC environment profiles. In sum, RIF for a single (study) environment is a promising operationalization of PE interest fit which facilitate both empirical research as well as the practical application of interest fit in counseling settings.
... As a relevant determinant of employment stability, tenure may entail a sense of job security, resulting in higher organizational commitment and engagement (Auer et al. 2005;Furåker & Berglund, 2014;Getahun Asfaw & Chang, 2019). In addition, a long tenure usually underpins extensive tacit and firm-specific knowledge (Becker, 1964;Polanyi, 1958Polanyi, , 1966 as well as a better fit with the organizational environment, its values, norms, and procedures (Mitchell et al. 2001;Schneider, 1987). Nevertheless, tenure-related benefits might not necessarily persist through time. ...
... Other theoretical frameworks from the management literature endorse such predictions. The attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model (Schneider, 1987) emphasizes that long-tenured workers are more likely to exhibit elevated performance, as they embody both high personorganization fit and extensive organizational knowledge (Ng & Feldman, 2010;Steffens et al. 2014). In particular, workers tend to be differentially attracted to organizations based on a given fit between personal and organizational characteristics (attraction). ...
... Finally, employees self-select out of organizations perceived as having a low fit with their values and attributes (attrition). Over time, such a cycle is expected to lead to higher organizational homogeneity and, accordingly, higher employee retention, satisfaction, and commitment (Bretz et al. 1989;Schneider, 1987;Schneider et al. 1995). The organizational embeddedness theory (Mitchell et al. 2001;Ng & Feldman, 2007, 2010) offers a similar perspective. ...
Article
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Using rich longitudinal matched employer-employee data on Belgian firms, we explore the impact of workers' tenure on firm productivity. To do so, we estimate production functions augmented with firm-level measures of tenure. We deal with the endogeneity of standard inputs and tenure , which arises from unobserved firm heterogeneity and reverse causality, by applying a modified version of Ackerberg et al.'s (2015) control function method, which explicitly removes firm fixed effects. Consistently with recent theoretical predictions, our analyses point to positive , but decreasing, returns to tenure. We also find that the impact differs widely across several firm dimensions. Tenure is particularly beneficial for productivity in contexts characterized by a certain degree of routineness and low job complexity. Along the same lines, our findings indicate that tenure exerts stronger positive impacts in industrial and capital-intensive firms, as well as in firms less reliant on ICT-intensive and knowledge-intensive processes. K E Y W O R D S control function estimators (CFEs) of production functions, firm productivity, longitudinal matched employer-employee data, tenure J E L C L A S S I F I C A T I O N D24; M59
... Drawing on Schneider's (1987) Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model and his aetiology on climate, people will join and remain in groups whose members have similar personalities to themselves and leave groups whose members do not. Team members create, then, similar perceptions and ascribe much the same meaning to team's events because of their personality, goals, values, attitudes, and needs congruence. ...
... For example, team members' similarity with respect to locus of control (i.e., low internal locus of control) helps to emerge similar perceptions among team members regarding their autonomy within the team regardless of the team's perspective towards decision making (Schneider, 1983). Schneider (1987), thus, suggests that "people make the place" and the characteristics of the environment are defined and shaped by the people in the environment (see also , Xu, Jiang, & Wang, 2019). As such, he brings attention to the issue that some aspects of organizations or teams (e.g., team climate) are in fact outcomes of people's personalities and their behaviors and not the other way around. ...
... However, when selecting individuals based on their personal characteristics to work in team settings, we must also be aware of the restrictions that the within team personality configurations set for team operation and innovation. Using the ASA framework in teams (Schneider, 1987) and the homogeneity hypothesis we can have an explanation why we need to apply specific configurations on certain personality characteristics inside the team. Only individuals with similar characteristics will be attracted, selected, or retained to a team based on their perceived personality fit (see, also, Halfhill et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is first to explore the direct effects of team personality on team innovation implementation, using different operationalizations for team‐level conscientiousness and emotional stability. Second, although past research offers guidance for the role of team personality in shaping team climate, only a few empirical studies have demonstrated this link. Thus, we examine how the operationalizations of the two personality characteristics at team‐level predict team innovation implementation via team climate for innovation. We test our model using a sample of 192 employees nested within 49 teams from different medium to large Greek organizations. Our results indicate that no effects for team mean personality are observed, but a range of effects emerge for team personality diversity. More specifically, team emotional stability diversity has a significant negative relation to team innovation implementation, while team conscientiousness diversity has not a direct effect on the performance criterion. However, team conscientiousness diversity is significantly related to team innovation implementation via its negative effect on team climate for innovation. Theoretical and practical implications for building innovative teams are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
... In particular, by defining internal CSR actions embedded in a sustainable HRM framework the organization could recruit CSR-motivated job seekers to encourage employee behavior to contribute to sustainable business strategies. Consistent with the person-organization (PO) fit approach (Kristof, 1996;Schneider, 1987;Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith, 1995), we recognize that personal values are fundamental to every hiring candidate. Personal values predict attitudes, preferences and behavior of individuals as underlying foundations and guide "what is good and worthy" (Sagiv et al., 2017, p. 1). ...
... The distinction between corporate vs. employee focus sheds some light on the overall structure of internal CSR, which helps to separate the focus at an organizational vs. individual level (Mory, Wirtz, & Göttel, 2015. Consistent with the PO-fit approach (Kristof, 1996;Schneider, 1987;Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith, 1995), this proposed congruence of internal CSR fit of employer vs. employee (Haski-Leventhal, Pournader, & McKinnon, 2017) could be a key factor for sustainable HRM, e.g., by recruiting candidates with high values fit with employer's values, or existing staff with a high fit for internal green projects, or transforming the workplace culture into transparency and ethical values. However, which specific personal values of the employees could increase the congruence with the CSR values of the organization remains open and should be specified. ...
... Further empirical validation will be necessary in future studies to determine which of the internal CSR dimensions contribute to the internal latent CSR construct. Following the PO fit approach (Kristof, 1996;Schneider, 1987;Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith 1995) we can learn from internal CSR evidence which aspects of a potential employer can attract highly skilled job seekers as potential candidates so that they increase their intention to apply (Aguinis & Glavas, 2019;Haski-Leventhal, Pournader, & McKinnon, 2017). From a sustainable HRM perspective, these target groups could fit the CSR values of the employees vs. the organization (Mory, Wirtz, & Göttel, 2015 and could act as CSR ambassadors for the organization's sustainability projects in the future. ...
Article
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In order to increase corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities with organizations, the support of employees in times of climate change is crucial: employees with CSR awareness of sustainability and their subsequent extra-role work behavior are an asset to an organization. Sustainable HRM promotes sustainable employee behavior. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between personal values orientations and internal CSR preferences which increase subsequent sustainable employee behavior fostered by sustainable HRM practices. Specifically, our central research question here examines the extent to which personal value orientations predicts internal CSR preferences towards sustainable employee behavior. In this paper, we look at this issue from the perspective of young, highly qualified job seekers who have to face issues of sustainability. We conducted an integrative literature review of empirical studies on internal CSR and sustainable HRM. In addition, we reviewed the application and relationship of Schwartz’s personal values framework and employees’ internal CSR preferences. Based on previous studies we develop an integrative internal CSR framework (with employee vs. organizational dimensions) that could be applied in organizations to measure their internal CSR maturity level and be supported by the specific, sustainable HRM practices discussed. In addition, we dealt with the question of how the connection between the personal value orientations of potential candidates or employees and their internal CSR preferences can be proven in field research.The findings conclude that the relationship between personal value orientations of employees and their preferences in the focus of the company’s internal CSR is heterogeneous, as positive vs. negative paths between personal values and internal CSR preferences were identified. Further, different scales for internal CSR dimensions were applied.Based on recent heterogeneous study results, we identify five research gaps and propose research design ideas for future research. Practical implications are also discussed.
... Commitment might be aligned with organizational strategic goals, for example, if the individual is interested in pursuing organizational growth, but equally so, commitment might be entirely personal, such as when the individual is primarily interested in developing the skills necessary to be a great engineer. Similar suggestions have been made in the attraction-selection-attrition model (Schneider, 1987); however, that model also relies on the consistency of individual goals within one organization, in that the same organization is likely to attract individuals with very similar personal goals. This empirical study suggests that within the same organization individuals may or may not share the same commitments, simply because of stratified reality within which intentions, actions, and perceptions coexist providing different interpretations of and about the same organization. ...
... building on the reasoning behind the Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model: "people are differentially attracted to careers as a function of their own interests and personality"(Schneider, 1987: 441); thus, are likely to be attracted by and to the organizations which corresponds to their interests, values, and needs(Schneider, 1987). ...
Thesis
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Managers often cite strategy implementation as the number one challenge in strategic management. Nevertheless, the topic has attracted relatively little attention, and particularly so from the perspective of how individual strategic behaviors emerge that result in successful implementation. Addressing the need to bring in the individual to improve our understanding of these processes, this dissertation aimed to examine how the corporate strategy of a loosely coupled MNC becomes (or otherwise) strategic behaviors of its managers and non-management employees across different levels of the organization. The dissertation investigated one Finnish MNC and the implementation of its corporate strategic goal “Working as ‘One Corporation’’’ within three of the MNC’s units: The headquarters in Finland, and two of its foreign subsidiaries in India and Russia. The embedded qualitative case study comprises 50 in-depth interviews with top and middle-level managers and non-management employees connected by one global project; and a large set of secondary data. Applying critical realism (CR), the findings illustrate how the interplay of the three realities (the Real, the Actual, and the Perceived) of the MNC served to create an environment in which individuals performed their (non-)strategic behaviors. The study reveals two theoretical mechanisms—commitment and reciprocity—through which strategic behaviors emerged, and also provides illustrations of how these mechanisms interacted with enabling or inhibiting entities. The dissertation contributes to the IB literature in several ways. It advances the Multilevel view of the MNC, which addresses theory development on the nested arrangements that exist within the MNC. It provides a systematic conceptualization of eclectic research on strategy implementation in MNCs, and sheds light empirically on the bottom-up processes that help to explain cross-level, cross-border interactions. In addition, the dissertation offers evidence of how the critical realism philosophy of science can be beneficial in studies on microfoundations, develops a method for CR application in fieldwork within the MNC, and illustrates its utility through this empirical study. https://osuva.uwasa.fi/handle/10024/11348
... He transferred charisma to his followers by using democratic, participative leadership techniques, and he created an egalitarian environment that empowered others to continue the mission. Schneider's (1987) attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model holds that organizations gravitate toward greater homogeneity among their members by attracting and selecting similar people via recruitment processes, and losing those who differ via voluntary and involuntary attrition processes. These human resource management practices apply readily to organizationally desired affective dispositions (individual differences) and affective experiences (Collins et al., 2013;Ellis and Bauer, 2020;Knight et al., 2018). ...
... Further, these levels were associated with departmental positive and negative affective tone, respectively. To paraphrase Schneider (1987), the people appeared to have made the affective climate. ...
Article
Can affective states – emotions, moods, and sentiments – become institutionalized in an organization such that they become “objective” factors that are exterior to any one person and resistant to change? We argue that the answer is yes, through intertwined top–down and bottom–up processes that shape an organization’s (or subunit’s) affective climate and affective culture, resulting in a dynamic equilibrium. The top–down processes include leadership, attraction–selection–attrition, and socialization, coupled with the physical, task, and social context, while the bottom–up process of emergence occurs via affective events, appraisal, affective sharing, and affect schemas. We also consider how identification with the organization (or subunit) enhances the likelihood of institutionalized affect. We conclude that institutionalized affect in organizations is far from an oxymoron.
... Transformational leadership behaviors elevate human needs to the level of growth needs and inspire collective efficacy (Bass et al., 2003). The attraction-selection-attrition framework proposes that "environments are functions of persons behaving in them, that is, E = f (P, B)" (Schneider, 1987;p. 438). ...
... Third, Pawar (2009) has shown that transformational leadership is a precursor to workplace spirituality because of the common theme of self-interest transcendence, which connects these two constructs. As team members' similarity in values and behaviors (Schneider, 1987) is likely to create a homogeneous culture of transformational leadership in teams, individual team members will appreciate spiritual values of meaning and community. However, they might differ in their notions of spirituality (Kolodinsky et al., 2008). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of shared transformational leadership and its components on team viability and team satisfaction through the mediating processes of workplace spirituality and team trust, the emergent states of team processes. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on software project teams working in India’s information technology sector. The study adopts a cross-sectional research design to investigate the relationships between the study’s constructs. Findings This study shows varying effects of the components of shared transformational leadership on team viability and team satisfaction. The study has shown empirical evidence for the mediating role of workplace spirituality in the relationship between shared transformational leadership components and team effectiveness components. This study reveals the intervening roles of workplace spirituality and team trust in the relationship between shared transformational leadership as a unidimensional construct and team viability and effectiveness. Research limitations/implications Team rewards and team autonomy can cultivate a sense of community and trust among team members. Team trust facilitates autonomy, and workplace spirituality helps develop connectedness among team members. Originality/value This study has contributed to the research discourse on team effectiveness by demonstrating that workplace spirituality and team trust act as mediators in the relationship between shared transformational leadership and team effectiveness. This study has shown the relative strength of the effects of the components of shared transformational leadership on workplace spirituality, team viability and team satisfaction.
... However, to the best of our knowledge, none have directly examined which type of leader exerts more influence on cultures. Indirect evidence suggests that founders may exert stronger and more lasting effects on cultures (e.g., Martin, 1992;Schneider, Smith, Taylor, & Fleenor, 1998) because they tend to select successors who are similar to themselves (Schein, 2004;Schneider, 1987;Schneider, Goldstiein, & Smith, 1995), which makes it more likely for successors to continue the cultures that were created by the founders (e.g., Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Kotter, 2008;Schein, 2003;Schneider, 1987). Nevertheless, direct empirical evidence on the comparative influence of founders and successors on cultures is limited. ...
... However, to the best of our knowledge, none have directly examined which type of leader exerts more influence on cultures. Indirect evidence suggests that founders may exert stronger and more lasting effects on cultures (e.g., Martin, 1992;Schneider, Smith, Taylor, & Fleenor, 1998) because they tend to select successors who are similar to themselves (Schein, 2004;Schneider, 1987;Schneider, Goldstiein, & Smith, 1995), which makes it more likely for successors to continue the cultures that were created by the founders (e.g., Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Kotter, 2008;Schein, 2003;Schneider, 1987). Nevertheless, direct empirical evidence on the comparative influence of founders and successors on cultures is limited. ...
Article
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This review presents comprehensive analyses of extant research on culture creation and change. We use the framework of culture creation and change (Kim & Toh, 2019), which consists of three unique perspectives, to understand past research on the antecedents of cultures. The basis of the functionality perspective is that environmental changes shape cultures, and thus, the created cultures enable an organization to address the demands of its environments effectively. In contrast, the leadership perspective argues that leaders have disproportional influence on cultures, and when exercising such influence, they are often unsuccessful at creating functional cultures. The leadership perspective comprises two subperspectives-the leader-trait and cultural transfer perspectives. The leader-trait perspective argues that when creating cultures, leaders often overlook the functionality of cultures but rely heavily on their traits. The cultural transfer perspective suggests that leaders often recreate the cultures that they have experienced in the past. Building on this framework, we review 74 studies in 68 articles across multiple disciplines to widen our understanding of culture creation and change. We then present agendas for future research guided by a four-stage model and a theory of coordinated actions for creating functional cultures. Finally, we discuss methodological limitations in past studies and offer possible solutions.
... D"ailleurs, c"est l"un des plus difficiles à définir et à opérationnaliser (Straub et al., 2002). Toutefois, Hofstede et al. (1990), Cameron et Quinn (1999) et Denison (1996) Schneider (1987) et Schneider et al. (1995 proposent un modèle d'analyse « ASA: Attraction-Selection-Attrition » pour comprendre l'étiologie du comportement organisationnel. Ce modèle montre que les organisations sont fonction de type des personnes qu'elles renferment et, souligne l'utilité de la mesure de leurs personnalités, en particulier les fondateurs, pour appréhender le comportement organisationnel. ...
... De sa part, le DG de ""U"" nous renvoie systématiquement aux travaux de Schein (1983) précisant que le Leader est susceptible de créer et gérer la culture de l"organisation en fonction de ses propres postulats de base. De surcroît, les propos du DG de ""T"" rejoignent les préconisations de Schneider (1987) et Schneider et al. (1995 soulignant l'utilité de mesurer la personnalité du fondateur pour comprendre l'étiologie du comportement organisationnel. ...
Article
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L' attention portée sur le style cognitif dans le domaine de la cognition a invité de nombreux chercheurs en sciences de gestion à se pencher sur l"étude de ses effets sur des aspects managériaux. L"objectif de cet article est d"explorer l"impact du style cognitif du Dirigent/Stratège sur la culture organisationnelle. Une étude qualitative menée auprès de 11 membres des équipes de direction, relevant de 3 entreprises tunisiennes, permet de mieux comprendre la relation entre les deux concepts. L"analyse du matériau empirique montre que la culture de l"entreprise est indissociable du style cognitif de son Dirigeant/Stratège. Les témoignages révèlent un lien étroit entre les deux styles cognitifs « Extraversion » et « Amabilité » et la « Culture de Groupe » ainsi qu"une relation significative entre le style cognitif « Consciencieux » et la « Culture Hiérarchique ». Abstract Attention to the cognitive style in the cognition"s field has invited many researchers in management to study these effects on managerial aspects. The aim of this paper is to explore how the cognitive style of the General Manager/Strategist can impact the organizational culture. A qualitative study of 11 members of the management board, from 3 Tunisian companies, leads us to a better understanding of the relationship between these two concepts. The analysis of the empirical material proves that the organizational culture is inseparable from the cognitive style of the General Manager/Strategist. In fact, the answers reveal an a significant impact of the cognitive styles such as "extraversion" and " agreeableness " of General Manager/Strategist on "clan culture", and a close link between cognitive style " conscientiousness " and "hierarchical culture".
... Terdapat berbagai karakter dan visi misi pemimpin dalam organisasi (Chiniara & Bentein, 2016). Menjadi pemimpin berarti harus siap memiliki banyak tanggung jawab dan mampu memberi pengaruh di lingkungan organisasi (Schneider, 1987). Seorang pemimpin sejatinya memiliki pengetahuan kepemimpinan dalam mengelola dan mengendaliakan organisasi dalam mencapai tujuan. ...
... Keterampilan yang mempengaruhi untuk tujuan bersama organisasi. Bagian yang menjadi terpenting dalam membangun organisasi untuk tujuan organisasi adalah pegikut baik karyawan, anggota maupun relawan (Schneider, 1987 (Parris & Peachey, 2013). ...
Article
Research on servant leadership is interesting to study, because it involves virtue, ethics, morals and ideal leadership. The results of the discussion of scientists gave birth to the type of leadership in organizational theory that developed. Scholars debate the theory of servant leadership in an organizational context. The main concern is considered suitable, worthy, and valuable for organizational success, because the characteristics of servant leadership focus on listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, openness, commitment to growth, and building community, which are prerequisites for organizational progress and success.. The purpose of this study is to identify servant leadership theory based on empirical studies, involving population and sample sizes, the results of which show its influence on organizational goals. The analysis method uses a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to assess how it works, its implementation and its influence on organizational dynamics and performance. The process of skinning from the population to the end of 35 studies in empirical studies revealed servant leadership theory: generally accepted in the organizational context; able to improve organizational performance; not suitable to be practiced in certain fields; and can contribute to organizational goals and shared success. This study contributes to the methodology of the SLR approach to organization and leadership, highlighting and mapping the influence and workings of servant leadership by looking at new research topics.
... The fact that individuals frequently seek "person and organization fit" suggests that they are not blank slates whose behavior is simply imposed by their environment. As Schneider (1987) pointed out, organization's members are recruited through a process of attraction, selection, and attrition processes that tend to interest, recruit, and retain individuals with certain antecedent character traits. If there happens to be a poor fit between the organization's culture and the individual's values, the organization will be less likely to hire this individual and the individual will be less likely to work or stay in this organization (Kristof, 1996;Schneider 1987;cf., Miller 2014, p. 177). ...
... As Schneider (1987) pointed out, organization's members are recruited through a process of attraction, selection, and attrition processes that tend to interest, recruit, and retain individuals with certain antecedent character traits. If there happens to be a poor fit between the organization's culture and the individual's values, the organization will be less likely to hire this individual and the individual will be less likely to work or stay in this organization (Kristof, 1996;Schneider 1987;cf., Miller 2014, p. 177). Moreover, while organizational influences can develop certain character traits among its members, we suspect that there are important individual differences that modulate how such influences shape each person (cf. ...
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This paper introduces a body of research on Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology (OB/IO) that expands the range of empirical evidence relevant to the ongoing character-situation debate. This body of research, mostly neglected by moral philosophers, provides important insights to move the debate forward. First, the OB/IO scholarship provides empirical evidence to show that social environments like organizations have significant power to shape the character traits of their members. This scholarship also describes some of the mechanisms through which this process of reshaping character takes place. Second, the character-situation debate has narrowly focused on situational influences that affect behavior episodically and haphazardly. The OB/IO research, however, highlights the importance of distinguishing such situational influences from influences that, like organizational influences, shape our character traits because they are continuous and coordinated. Third, the OB/IO literature suggests that most individuals display character traits that, while local to the organization, can be consistent across situations. This puts pressure on the accounts of character proposed by traditional virtue ethics and situationism and provides empirical support to interactionist models based on cognitive-affective processing system theories of personality (CAPS). Finally, the OB/IO literature raises important challenges to the possibility of achieving virtue, provides valuable and untapped resources to cultivate character, and suggests new avenues of normative and empirical research.
... In the reference of social entrepreneurship personality can play a major role as only certain individual create social venture and benefit the society whether others are not, so it shows role of personality traits for their behavior. While it does not mean this inter-individual difference is only criteria for entrepreneurial behavior because according to ASA theory individuals are attracted to specific occupational choices (such as starting a social enterprise) because they perceive their personality characteristics, motivations, and skills to align with the requirements of that occupational choice (Schneider, 1987, Baron, Franklin, & Hmieleski, 2016. In this way the entrepreneurial process depends on the decisions of the entrepreneurs and these decisions are influenced by their personal characteristics (Shane et al. 2003). ...
... Leader moral identity has broad potential to positively impact age-diverse teams. First, at team formation, leaders high in moral identity are likely to draw similar followers through the attraction-selection-attrition effect (Schneider, 1987;Schneider et al., 1995). Moral leaders are attractive, and research has shown that teams or organizations perceived as having higher ethical and moral standards were more attractive to potential job applicants, even compared to those perceived as having higher competence (van der Lee et al., 2017;van Prooijen & Ellemers, 2015). ...
Article
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While prior research has shown a relationship between age diversity and outcomes in teams, little knowledge exists regarding the theoretical mechanisms driving these outcomes. Furthermore, mixed findings from prior research indicate that these relationships differ depending upon contextual factors. Our field study tests two potential mediators and one possible moderator of the relationship between age diversity and team performance. Multi-source data collected from 71 Chinese township government leadership groups showed that team age diversity is positively associated with survey measures of two emergent states, specifically, perceived team effectiveness and collective team identification, which in turn positively predict an objective measure of team performance. The fully mediated model was moderated by leader moral identity, which strengthened the relationships between age diversity and both team emergent states. Results also showed a curvilinear relationship between age diversity and the two team emergent states which was not significantly moderated by leader moral identity. These findings contribute to extant knowledge from an integrative approach within a non-Western cultural context. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Coworkers can be defined as the employees working within the same organization and who interact regularly to realize daily tasks (Singh et al., 2019). Moreover, coworkers are very important as they define the work environment (Schneider, 1987) and can be a source of support at the workplace, namely 6 coworkers social support. This latter refers to the extent to which employees perceive that their coworkers provide them with work-related assistance or resources in the execution of their tasks or activities (Ng and Sorensen, 2008). ...
Article
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This study aims to first examine the relationship between perceived coworker support and career plateauing in a collectivist culture. Second, it examines the relationship between career plateauing and organizational commitment. 228 Algerian executives employed in various public sector organizations took part in our study. The hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling. The results showed coworker support was negatively correlated to both hierarchical and job content plateaus. In terms of the consequences, the results demonstrate that both forms of career plateauing are negatively related to affective commitment, while only the content career plateau is positively related to few alternatives commitment.
... Schneider pointed out that the organization's behavior is a product of the compound characteristics of its people (Schneider, 1987). Culture, structure and process are all a consequence of the attributes of the people that make up the organization. ...
Thesis
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In the economical context of tight labor markets, “the great resignation” and “the battle for talent” and within the philosophical zeitgeist based on utilitarian and existential beliefs, we explore the value of work, that is, the value experienced by the employee. We follow a cross disciplinary approach integrating both recent and not so recent insights in organizational and behavioral psychology in an economic model of cardinal utility. The extensive literature review led to the conceptually clustering of the types of needs that are addressed, material needs, social needs, and identity related needs. We distance ourselves from a needs satisfaction perspective following the economic assumption of non satiation. We develop the subsequent utility categories: material utility, social utility, and transformational utility. The theory and the random utility model created is a cross disciplinary integration effort. A survey is created and validated following DeVellis (2016) scale development method. The study confirms, via the methods of factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) at least 3 and possibly 4 dimensions of job utility. Further refinement of the scale with SEM leads to the compact and robust Simple Present Job Utility Scale supporting the three factor model. Post-hoc we look for mediators and moderators in the effects of job utility on job satisfaction and turnover intention, we find that all but material utility are mediated by job satisfaction in their relationship to turnover intentions. We did not find evidence of the utility factors moderating each other's relationships to the behavioral outcomes looked at. This together with the limitations outlined from the study form the segway into our recommendations for future research. Special attention is paid to the ethical implementation of the study and the broader impact the development of models for data-driven HR practices have on society, equality, privacy and justice.
... Moreover, the fit dimension of job embeddedness shows the individual's affinity towards the community through the culture or climate which in turn decreases turnover . Schneider (1987) stated that the fit dimension is the best example of the attraction-selection-attraction paradigm. Further, person-organization fit increases the chances of employees to stay overtime (Holtom et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This study intends to scrutinize the findings of existing studies on five motivational factors affecting employee retention in a developing country, Pakistan. The present study is exploratory in nature that employees content analysis of 18 published articles in Pakistan. While, 52 articles are from other countries, extracted through google scholar, Scopus database and web of science database. The present study revealed that work-life balance, job security, job autonomy and social supports indicates both positive and negative association with employee retention. While, it is concluded that job embeddedness is a relatively new and less explored concept as compared to other factors; thus, its relationship with employee retention needs further investigation in Pakistan. The present study only incorporated empirical work that is related to motivational factors i.e. work-life balance, job security, job embeddedness, job autonomy and social support. Other than that, various motivational factors can be added in the study to explain the ongoing issue of employee retention. This is a comprehensive review study that focused exclusively on employee's motivational factors affecting employee retention, by analyzing 72 articles from the period (1984-2019).
... The JD-R model suggests a positive relationship between perceived goal congruence and OCB like the social exchange theory. Goal congruence is a job resource as employees are attracted to and remain in organizations where they share similar goals because it enables them to achieve their work goals (Schneider, 1987). Goal congruence is a type of job resource because the perception of fit realizes individuals' core psychological requirements, such as relatedness, linked to individuals' development and progress (Deci and Ryan, 2000). ...
Article
Purpose: Aligning employees' goals with organizational goals is an overarching objective of an organization to increase employees' outcomes and, ultimately, the firm’s performance. Employees' perceived goal congruence is proposed to be an important mediator of the effect of high-performance work systems (HPWS) on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). We proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that depicted how servant leadership increased or restrained these effects. Design/methodology/approach - This study used data from 56 managers and 322 employees working in Bangladeshi organizations. The study conducted cross-level analyses using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the hypothetical relationships among variables. Findings - This study revealed that employees' perceived goal congruence mediated the influence of HPWS on OCB. Consistent with the moderated mediation prediction, employee perceived goal congruence mediated the relationship between HPWS and OCB when servant leadership is high. Originality/value - This study examined how and when HPWS affects OCB by incorporating perceived goal congruence and servant leadership as mediating and moderating variables, respectively.
... In this context, it is significant to reflect that IKSI take place first and foremost among colleagues within an organization. Since specific organizations attract only certain individuals, and only certain individuals are hired and remain, the employees of an organization are typically characterized by a comparatively high degree of homogeneity [37]. This is further enhanced by the fact that employees in organizations share knowledge interactively with each other, thereby assimilating. ...
Article
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Background: Informal Knowledge Sharing Interactions (IKSI) are particularly valuable for innovation projects if they connect partners who are categorically, socially and formally distant from each other. Then the chances are higher that partners possess non-redundant knowledge and can thus open up new perspectives. By improving their knowledge supply, IKSI enhance the success, job satisfaction and well-being of employees in knowledge-intensive industries. So far, however, it is unclear how such interactions between heterogeneous partners emerge. Objective: The paper examines the formation of IKSI and develops the argument that serendipitous IKSI are more likely than planned IKSI to connect heterogeneous partners and open up new perspectives. Methods: The paper develops the argument in detail and empirically grounded by drawing together the unconnected literatures on the formation and impact of IKSI. Furthermore, the argument is empirically tested using 132 IKSI from developers collected with event-based diaries. Results: In line with the conceptual work, the empirical analysis shows that serendipitous IKSI are more likely than planned ones to open up new perspectives. Conclusion: Serendipitous IKSI are of particular significance and require appropriate promotion in order to enhance innovative capability. The increasing virtualization of work is creating opportunities and challenges in this regard.
... We included organizational tenure and job level as controls because according to the attractionselection-attrition model (Schneider, 1987), those with longer tenure and higher job level are likely to identify more with their organization. Tenure was measured as the number of years each We also controlled for job function, given previous studies suggesting profession as an alternative locus of identification (Bamber & Iyer, 2002;Millward & Haslam, 2013;Russo, 1998 Studies indicate that individuals differ in the propensity with which they identify with social groups (Glynn, 1998;Mignonac et al., 2006). ...
Article
This study investigates the patterns of dual identities of host country managers working in multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries and how these patterns relate to their feelings of identity-related stress within the foreign-owned firms. Drawing on the acculturation literature, we classify the patterns of dual identities based on membership in nation and organization into four identity profiles: (1) diffuse (weak national and organizational identification), (2) national (strong national and weak organizational identification), (3) organizational (weak national and strong organizational identification), and (4) integrated (strong national and organizational identification). We submit that perceived conflict between the dual identities renders MNEs’ host country managers less likely to present the integrated and the organizational identity profiles and more likely to present the national identity profile than domestic firm managers. MNEs’ host country managers also identify more strongly with their nation and less strongly with their organization than domestic firm managers. The combination of strong national identification and weak organizational identification among MNEs’ host country managers exposes them to greater acculturative stress within foreign organizations. The results of an analysis of a sample of 843 Korean managers working in 19 Korean firms and 60 MNE subsidiaries in Korea corroborate our main hypotheses.
... Although we anticipate that a team's affect asymmetry (i.e., dissimilary) should negatively affect team decision-making performance, both interactional psychology (Schneider, 1987) and the affect infusion model (Forgas, 1995(Forgas, , 2002(Forgas, , 2019 suggest affective influences are situationally constrained. Thus, the manner in which a team functions may influence how affect asymmetry influences cognitive resources, information processing, and subsequent decision outcomes (Marks et al., 2001). ...
Article
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Purpose: Teams in extreme and disruptive contexts face unique challenges that can undermine coordination and decision-making. In this study, we evaluated how affective differences between team members and team process norms affected the team’s decision-making effectiveness. Approach: Teams were placed in a survival simulation where they evaluated how best to maximize the team’s survival prospects given scarce resources. We incorporated multi-source and multi-rater (i.e., team, observer, and archival) data to ascertain the impacts of affect asymmetry and team process norms on decision-making effectiveness. Findings: Results suggest that teams with low positive affect asymmetry and low process norms generate the most effective decisions. The least effective team decision performance occurred in teams characterized by high variance in team positive affectivity (high positive affect asymmetry) and low process norms. We found no similar effect for teams with high process norms and no effect for negative affect asymmetry, however, irrespective of team process norms. Originality: These findings support the affect infusion model and extend cognitive resource theory, by highlighting how affect infusion processes and situational constraints influence team decision-making in extreme and disruptive contexts.
... Given these possibilities, we attempt to better understand the role of workplace social networks on employee performance by exploring how they interact with PO fit. If indeed "the people make the place" (Schneider, 1987), then studying individuals' networks of social relations alongside their fit may help us better understand a complex work environment that provides many signals, resources, and demands. Our research contributes to the social networks literature by identifying PO fit as a key moderator that determines the extent to which incoming ties are a blessing or curse for employee performance. ...
Article
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While scholars have attended to the performance implications of employee embeddedness in social networks within the workplace, less research accounts for the interface of employee and organizational values in enabling employees to leverage these networks. Network perspectives on employee performance acknowledge that certain informal network positions create resources that are beneficial for performance while simultaneously creating demands that may diminish or erode these benefits. Leveraging a Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) perspective, we suggest that person–organization (PO) fit—the perceived congruence between individual and organizational values—will play a crucial role in shaping the performance effects of demands and resources inherently generated by workplace relationships. Results suggest that PO fit moderates relationships between network positions and individual job performance. Specifically, we find that having many friendships or being heavily sought out for advice enhances performance for those with higher levels of PO fit. Supplemental analyses highlight that incoming friendships or advice ties that are cross‐functional are still beneficial for those among the highest in PO fit, but also that these same network positions can be detrimental for employees who are among the lowest in PO fit. These results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the demands and resources generated by informal networks and how the translation of these features into performance is contingent upon the extent to which an employee identifies with organizational values.
... One important reason for such genetic influences on putative work contextual variables is selection: self selection or organizational selection. That is, people are not randomly assigned to their organizational and work context; they select, or are selected into their occupation and organization based on their individual characteristics (e.g., intelligence, values, personality traits) (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984;Holland, 1997;Schneider, 1987), which are greatly influenced by genetic factors. Put differently, various processes of person-job or person-organization fit account for significant genetic influences on putative work environmental factors (Edwards, 2008;Wu & Li, 2016). ...
Chapter
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Recent developments of behavioral genetics in organizational research and broader social sciences point to the possibility of an emerging field of organizational genomics. In this chapter, we first review theory and research looking at how genetic factors influence constructs in social sciences that are related to organizations. We include both twin studies and recent molecular genetics research. We then outline a few directions for future organizational research that may capitalize on recent developments in molecular genetics research driven by the big data revolution. We conclude with reflecting on crucial issues related to ethics, genetic determinism, and practical implications of organizational genomics to employees, organizations, and the society at large.
... In addition to belongingness or affiliation need fulfillment processes, organizations proactively embrace employees with P-O supplementary fit. According to the attractionselection-attrition framework (Schneider, 1987), organizations tend to establish long-term relationships with employees who share similarities, invest more resources in them, and ultimately retain them (Schneider et al., 1995;Stamper & Masterson, 2002). Therefore, if an employee shares similarities with an organization, then the employee is likely to be more involved in critical tasks and treated as an insider, which constitutes perceived inclusion (Mor Pearce & Randel, 2004). ...
Article
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The identification of the factors that facilitate employee inclusion in the workplace is of great importance to both scholars and practitioners. However, our knowledge of the antecedents of perceived workplace inclusion is limited to employee demographic backgrounds and workplace contextual factors according to social identity theory or social exchange theory, neglecting the fact that perceived inclusion develops from the interactions between the individual employee and the environment. This study aims to offer a new account based on the person-environment (P-E) interaction perspective. Using two waves of data on 306 employees, we find that both person-organization (P-O) supplementary fit and P-O complementary fit are positively associated with employees’ perceived inclusion. Furthermore, two impression management strategies—self-promotion and ingratiation—separately moderate these effects. These conclusions enrich the literature on perceived workplace inclusion from the perspectives of P-E interactions and motivational behaviors.
... Organizational identification and person-organization fit are the cognitive adaptation of the person to the organization. The feeling and integration of the individual to the organization helps him to adapt to all the dynamics of the organization (Chatman, 1991;Schneider, 1987). In studies conducted in different sectors and professional groups, a positive correlation was found between these two variables (Edwards & Cable, 2009;Vondey, 2010;Akbas & Cetin, 2015). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of person-organization fit in the effect of perceived organizational identification and leader-member exchange on the innovative behaviors of the nurses. Using a five-phase survey, data were collected from 408 nurses from working in a university hospital in the province of Eskisehir (Turkey). Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between of variables. The mediating effects is further examined by using three-statelier archival regression analysis proposed by Baron and Kenny. Person-organization fit partial mediates the positive relationship between perceived organizational identification and innovative behavior, and person-organization fit fully mediates the positive relationship between leader-member exchange and innovative behavior.
... Kişiler sahip oldukları kişilik özellikleri ile örgüt kültürü, örgüt iklimi, değer ve amaçları arasında uyum olduğunu algılamaları halinde örgütten olumlu etkilenmektedir. Schneider (1987)'e göre kişi-çevre uyumunda eğer birey kendi yeteneklerine ve ilgilerine uygun çalışma çevresi seçerse, sadece tatmin sağlanmaz aynı zamanda başarılı ve verimli de olur. Ancak uyumun sağlanamadığı durumlarda ise, tatminsizlik, stres, başarı düşüşü ve örgütten ayrılma gibi olumsuz durumlar meydana çıkmaktadır (Turunç & Turgut, 2017: 237-238;Lovelace & Rosen, 1996). ...
... Eine bedeutende Rolle, um zu erklären, welche der gesendeten Informationen stärker gewertet werden, spielt hierbei die von Schneider aufgestellte ASA-Theorie (Attraction-Selection-Attrition theory) (Schneider, 1987 Stresssymptomen (Muchinsky & Monahan, 1987). ...
Thesis
324 anerkannte Ausbildungsberufe (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, 2021) und über 21.000 unterschiedliche Studiengänge (Stiftung zur Förderung der Hochschulrektorenkonferenz, 2021) gibt es in Deutschland. Begleitend dazu informieren Unternehmen, Institutionen und Organisationen in ihrem Employer Branding über ihre Jobangebote. Schulabgänger:innen und Berufseinsteiger:innen werden so mit einer Vielzahl von Karrieremöglichkeiten und einer Flut von Informationen darüber konfrontiert. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, inwieweit und mit welchen Effekten Unternehmen mithilfe von Gamification zielgruppenaffin Informationen für berufseinsteigende Bewerber:innen bereitstellen können. Auf Basis einer Inhaltsanalyse werden zunächst gamifizierte Anwendungen (n=88) in der deutschsprachigen Personalbeschaffung aus den Jahren 2001 bis 2021 untersucht und in die vier Ausprägungen Berufsinformationsspiel, e-Assessment, Self-Assessment und Matching typologisiert. Self-Assessment und Matching werden im Anschluss auf positive Effekte hinsichtlich der Kontaktpunkterzeugung (Touchpoint), der realistischen Einblicke (Realistic Job Preview) und des Passungsabgleichs (P-O-Fit/P-J-Fit) untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck werden zwei quantitative Befragungen mit Mitarbeiter:innen von Personalabteilungen (n=221) und Berufseinsteiger:innen (n=217) durchgeführt und verglichen. Eine statistische Analyse mit dem Kruskal-Wallis-Test zeigt, dass insbesondere das Matching aus Sicht der Personalabteilungen die stärkeren Effekte hat (p<05), während beide gamifizierten Ansätze auf Seiten der Berufseinsteiger:innen gleich starke Effekte erzielen.
... Organizational culture refers to the culture of an organization, which connects all the employees to work together, to achieve something and differentiates the organization from other organizations in method of working. The concept of "organizational culture" received attention from the work of Katz and Kahn (1978), Pettigrew (1979), Hofstede(1980), Schneider (1987, 1990 etc., There are different viewpoints related with the concept-organizational culture. The Competing Values Framework (CVF) which was forwarded by Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) explain organizational cultures along with two dimensions: structure and focus. ...
... This finding implies that when academics perceive that their values and goals are congruent with the organisation, their tendency of staying with the job increases. This result is consistent with Schneider (1987) arguments that employees prefer to stay with organisations that match their characteristics. The finding also concurs with the conclusion of that employees' perceptions of fit with organisations reduce their tendency to leave the job. ...
Article
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Academic members’ turnover is a pressing problem for the management of higher educational institutions in Baluchistan, Pakistan. This study investigates the influence of personorganisation fit (PO fit) and person-job fit (PJ fit) on academics’ intention to stay with the job. Data collected from 97 full-time academics of higher education institutions was analysed using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results obtained revealed that PO fit and PJ fit are significantly and positively associated to academics' intention to stay. This study adds to the knowledge of fit by empirically showing that when academics feel compatible with the organisation and job, they intend to stay with the organisation for a longer time. This study results can be used by management to adopt certain organisational practices (e.g., training and development, orientation, and compensation) that may enhance the fit of a person with the organisation and job, which, in return, strengthens academics’ desire to stay with the organisation. The study’s results and discussions, and directions for future research are discussed at the end.
... In the same way that people segregate based on political ideology (Gentzkow & Shapiro, 2011), there is also evidence to suggest that people are drawn to individuals and organisations who possess values that match their own (Hogan et al., 1972;Schneider, 1987). Husbands and wives, too, not only exhibit concordance in their political views but also their personal values (Caspi & Herbener, 1993;Watson et al., 2004). ...
Thesis
When trying to form accurate beliefs and make good choices, people often turn to one another for information and advice. But deciding whom to listen to can be a challenging task. While people may be motivated to receive information from accurate sources, in many circumstances it can be difficult to estimate others’ task-relevant expertise. Moreover, evidence suggests that perceptions of others’ attributes are influenced by irrelevant factors, such as facial appearances and one’s own beliefs about the world. In this thesis, I present six studies that investigate whether messenger characteristics that are unrelated to the domain in question interfere with the ability to learn about others’ expertise and, consequently, lead people to make suboptimal social learning decisions. Studies one and two explored whether (dis)similarity in political views affects perceptions of others’ expertise in a non-political shape categorisation task. The findings suggest that people are biased to believe that messengers who share their political opinions are better at tasks that have nothing to do with politics than those who do not, even when they have all the information needed to accurately assess expertise. Consequently, they are more likely to seek information from, and are more influenced by, politically similar than dissimilar sources. Studies three and four aimed to formalise this learning bias using computational models and explore whether it generalises to a messenger characteristic other than political similarity. Surprisingly, in contrast to the results of studies one and two, in these studies there was no effect of observed generosity or political similarity on expertise learning, information-seeking choices, or belief updating. Studies five and six were then conducted to reconcile these conflicting results and investigate the boundary conditions of the learning bias observed in studies one and two. Here, we found that, under the right conditions, non-politics-based similarities can influence expertise learning and whom people choose to hear from; that asking people to predict how others will answer questions enhances learning from observed outcomes; and that it is unlikely that inattentiveness explains why we observed null effects in studies three and four.
... These connections come to comprise, and define, an individual's social environment in the workplace (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008;Schneider, 1987). ...
Thesis
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Building on the stream of literature that seeks to better understand the effects turnover has on those who remain with the organization, this manuscript answers calls for understanding the mechanism through which turnover contagion operates and identifying the types of individuals disproportionately responsible for its spread. Delving into human motivations for engaging in imitation and the significance of employment, I identify cues emitted by leavers, and colleagues engaging in Pre-Quitting Behaviors, about the organi- zational attractiveness as a mechanism responsible for the spread of turnover. I apply Theories of Normative Influence and Social Comparison to identify the types of individ- uals whose turnover is most consequential. In a sample of 144 public university newcomers, results suggest that presence of turnover related behaviors among colleagues need not be evidence of contagion. It’s not so much the behaviors themselves, but the interpretation of cues behind these behaviors, and whether these cues speak negatively about the organization, that are responsible for the spread of turnover.
... The value of a positive work environment and culture cannot be understated (Luthans et al., 2008). The formal and informal values, behaviours, and beliefs practiced in an organisation (Cheese and Cantrell, 2005;Huhtala et al., 2014;Schein, 1992;Schneider, 1987). How do leaders connect employees to their workplace culture? ...
Article
The study purported to identify elements of positive culture and explore the effect of positive culture on engagement, well-being, and efficacy levels of knowledge professionals in Indian IT and ITES organisations. A sample of 626 knowledge professionals drawn from multiple IT companies identified through multi-stage sampling. This study show that the positive culture is positively related to employee well-being (path = 0.29, p < 0.01) and in turn, the intervening variable employee well-being is positively and significantly related (path = 0.58, p < 0.01) to the dependent variables such as work-related perceived efficacy and to engaged employee (path = 0.44, p < 0.01). Compared to the direct effect of positive culture on employee efficacy beliefs and engagement level, the study asserts that employee well-being plays a mediating role in the culture-engagement relationship. Keywords: Employee well-being; engaged employees; IT industry; knowledge professionals; India; perceived efficacy; positive culture
... Prior to initiating selection processes, organizations first need to attract people to their vacancies and those people furthermore need to be interested in working within a certain organization (Ritz & Waldner 2011). Against the background of the attraction-selection-attrition framework and person-organization-fit theory, the underlying assertion is that individuals' decisions about attraction, selection, and attrition are based on the fit between an organization's characteristics and their own traits and motivations (Schneider 1987;Wright & Christensen 2010). Such a fit is based on individuals' "affective and attitudinal thoughts about particular [organizations] as potential places for employment" (Highhouse et al. 2003, p. 989). ...
Article
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A commonly held assumption is that public service motivation (PSM) positively affects individuals' attraction to government, but there are also private and nonprofit organizations that are beneficial to the common good. Therefore, the goal of this study is to shed light on an understudied topic in Public Administration, namely, how the public value of public, private, and nonprofit organizations affects their attractiveness to citizens and how PSM moderates this relationship. We find that employer attractiveness is strongly influenced by organizations' public value regardless sectoral affiliation. This attribution of public value interacts with citizens' PSM. For high-PSM individuals, the relationship between public value and attractiveness is stronger than for low-PSM individuals. Furthermore, high PSM exercises an asymmetric effect, punishing organizations with low public value more strongly in the private sector. These results highlight important implications for HR practitioners in all three sectors seeking to attract and retain highly motivated employees.
... This process is not only influenced by the organization and the job's objective characteristics, but also by more subjective judgments such as the perception of fit (Cable & Judge, 1996). Such perceptions are part of the attraction phase (attraction-selection-attrition model - Schneider, 1987), in which it is argued that job pursuit intentions will be encouraged if individuals' goals and values match those of the organization. Person-organization fit (P-O fit) focuses on the compatibility between individuals and entire organizations, and it has been found to have medium to high correlations with organizational attraction, applicant job acceptance, intent to hire, and job offers (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study aims to analyze the causal effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) recruitment messages on jobseekers’ pursuit intentions for a hotel position. Specifically, perceived value fit (PVF) and anticipated organizational support (AOS) were tested as sequential mediators between the relationship and personal aspiration values as a moderator between recruiting messages, PVF, and AOS. A between-subjects design online experiment was conducted to test the theoretical model. Besides the theoretical contributions of exploring these mechanisms together in a hospitality context, this research is particularly relevant for hospitality managers and recruiters as they strive to attract applicants that are a better fit for the organization, which in turn might reduce turnover rates and improve performance.
... Nevertheless, this socialization reflects the newcomers' involvement in their workplace (R.J. Taormina, 1997). Co-worker support (CWS) as a facet of organizational socialization is a vital social support aspect and an essential part of the social environment in the organizations (Schneider, 1987). Employees perceive that emotional, instrumental and informational assistance from their peers help them create a combination of resources and better creativity performance (Chiaburu et al., 2013). ...
Article
The vital success factors for an organization are its employees and their support perspective for each other. The present paper reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on co-worker support. We created a framework for understanding co-worker support research on the basis of the literature review. This conceptual framework classifies the areas of emphasis of co-worker support research in the context of an organization, association with supervisor support, individual, interpersonal and team characteristics, motivational factors and mental health circumstances. This paper also discusses the theoretical frameworks applied and sheds light on the results of the empirical research. Moreover, a discussion on emerging issues, avenues for future research and practical implications on co-worker support for resilience and flexible approach towards employee and organizational sustainability are encompassed.
... Building on this, Berson et al. examined the relationship between CEO values, organizational culture, and organizational performance, establishing a model in which CEO values influence organizational outcomes (Berson et al., 2008). Berson cites Schneider's Attraction-Selection-Attrition model in which organization members are attracted to, selected by, and sometimes departed from organizations on the basis of their fit (or lack thereof) with the organization's characteristics and orientations (Schneider, 1987). Over time, the members come to resemble their organizations with respect to characteristics such as personal orientations and values. ...
Article
In today’s knowledge economy, an engaged and inspired workforce that is also a learning community, enables business success. Companies that learn the fastest and adapt well to changing environments perform the best over time. Although academic research indicates this positive link between learning and business success, there is no comprehensive framework that defines what constitutes a learning culture. Certainly from a practitioner standpoint, a C-Suite perspective on what constitutes a learning culture, is yet to be researched. On a similar vein, although academic research has established the central role that senior leaders play in shaping organizational culture in general, the role of C-Suite leaders in shaping a learning culture is relatively unexplored. This research aims to explore these gaps and supplement current knowledge with a practitioner’s perspective that companies and C-Suite leaders can apply. This study delivers an integrative learning culture model from the perspective of C-Suite leaders and identifies their role in shaping that culture. The research methodology is qualitative and is based on 20 interviews with C-Suite leaders. Exploratory logical research was applied to develop a C-Suite perspective driven model that integrates underlying assumptions, espoused values, and behaviors of a learning culture, as well as the role of C-Suite leaders in shaping that culture. Associations are established to prior research, bridging between practitioner and academic realms and providing theoretical validity.
... It draws upon person-environment (P-E) fit. P-E fit is a umbrella term for approaches (e.g., Chatman, 1989;French, Rodgers & Cobb, 1974;Holland, 1959;Muchinsky & Monahan, 1987;Schneider, 1987) that share certain assumptions, including that people are attracted by work environments that are compatible with and allow them to express their attributes, and that the degree of fit with their environment determines outcomes (e.g., job performance, satisfaction, stay or leave intentions) (Van Vianen, 2018). P-E fit posits that, among others, individuals' personality, attitudes, values, and interests dictate the environments in which they will feel most comfortable and perform best (Edwards, 1991;French, Caplan & Harrison, 1982;Kristof, 1996). ...
Article
Abstract This study focused on United Nations (UN) civilian volunteers serving in “hot spots”, and tested a model to predict their intentions to apply for a new UN assignment. These individuals have characteristics of both assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates. In-Role Behaviours (IRB) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours towards the Local Population (OCB-Locals) were related to sense of personal accomplishment, that in turn was related to intentions to apply for another UN assignment. Sense of personal accomplishment played a mediating role. Both the personality trait of agreeableness and the attitudinal factor of commitment towards the local population were predictive of IRB, but only agreeableness was predictive of OCB-Locals. Moderation effects were identified, but the direction of most of them was unexpected. For example, it was low openness to experience that strengthened the link between sense of personal accomplishment and intentions to re-apply. The study’s implications for expatriation research and for practice are discussed.
... Team performance is influenced by person-environment (P-E) fit, including the habitat. 19 A basic principle of fit theory posits that a lack of congruence between personal and environmental attributes lowers positive outcomes. Congruent with P-E fit theory, in 2016 the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) convened a panel to evaluate progress and future directions on the research plan for Deep Space Habitat: Livability, Well-being, and Performance. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Maintaining psychologically adaptive relationships among team members operating in an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment for an extended period continues to be a challenge, with relevance for long-duration missions to the Moon and beyond.METHODS: Two male architects were studied who lived and worked over a 60-d period in a polar ICE environment in a lunar analog habitat they designed and helped construct. Psychological measures were completed at different points of the mission, including a post-mission debriefing interview.RESULTS: Team members were highly different from each other on a number of personality traits, personal values, and stress and coping factors. Marked differences were noted on NEO-PI-3 Agreeableness and Extraversion personality traits, and Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) Stimulation, Power, and Achievement values. Team Effectiveness Questionnaire (TEQ) findings showed consistency between team members with high ratings on the Passion and Commitment and Purpose and Goals scales, and low ratings on the Roles scale. The leveling influence of decision authority and its deleterious effect on interpersonal interactions and work performance was evident. The interior design with attention to materials that made it more Earth-like and the circadian lighting system were associated with ease of work performance and promotion of relaxation and privacy.DISCUSSION: The study findings demonstrated the impact of incompatibility in personality traits and values on team performance, challenges regarding decision authority in a long-term dyadic relationship, and highlighted the human factors components of the habitat that facilitated effective individual and team functioning.Kjærgaard A, Leon GR, Chterev K. Team effectiveness and person-environment adaptation in an analog lunar habitat. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(2):70-78.
... Watkin and Hubbard (2003) have mentioned that the climate as a measure of what employees perceive from the environment regarding how work should be done. Schneider (1987) has also addressed climate as the way by which members of the organization understand what is important for a creative organization. The climate often conveys expectations about acceptable behaviours and attitudes of employees. ...
Article
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Organizations today are constantly focusing on increasing their competitiveness. One of the ways of increasing competitiveness is by tapping the creative potential of the employees. One of the best ways in which organizations' can capture their employees' creativity is by creating a climate that nurtures creativity. Having a creative working climate nourishes and creates a suitable working culture that enhances the creative spark of the employees. Based on this premise, the study attempted to determine the attributes that facilitate the development of a creative climate and to examine the difference between the present state and the desired state of organization creative climate attributes. A sample of 78 marketing professionals were taken from media and advertising firms and quadrant analysis was employed for analysis. The results highlighted the attributes that require increased attention from organizations to enhance employee creativity. The paper also discusses the managerial implications and directions for future research.
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