Article

Building theories from case study research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... We conducted a case study to analyze how digital transformation enables strategic renewal. Because the research question is exploratory and based on "how," it is better answered through inductive methods (Eisenhardt, 1989). This study aims to investigate the relationship between digital transformation and strategic renewal, and the case study method is effective in exploring new conceptual arguments. ...
... A theoretical lens was selected and confirmed. We adopted the ambidexterity perspective to understand the phenomenon in our case (Eisenhardt, 1989) and used it as a guide for subsequent on-site data collection and analysis. ...
... Each digitally recorded interview was then transcribed. All questions were answered by the interviewees, and the same question was asked by at least two interviewers and cross-validated with secondary data and field observations (Eisenhardt, 1989). ...
... The boundaries of the phenomenon are not clearly evident at the outset of the research and no experimental control or manipulation is used" (Benbasat et al., 1987, p. 370). The data sources include, among others, interviews, observations, archival data, and questionnaires (Eisenhardt, 1989). In the following, the different phases for conducting a case study research as suggested by Yin (2018) are briefly described: ...
... In the collection phase a variety of data from multiple data sources should be gathered in order to provide a "stronger substantiation of constructs and hypotheses" by executing data triangulation (Benbasat et al., 1987;Eisenhardt, 1989, p. 538;Stake, 1994;Yin, 2018). According to Eisenhardt (1989), the most common data sources are archival data (written documents and records) (Hodder, 1994), interviews (Fontana andFrey, 1994), and observations (Adler and Adler, 1994). ...
... To answer our research question, we analyzed qualitative data collected from several actors embedded in different German service ecosystems for intermodal mobility. As outlined in literature, such an approach is suitable to understand new and complex phenomena (Yin 2014;Eisenhardt 1989) and is thus well-suited for the analysis of the logic multiplicity of actors and its impact on the functional range of service platforms. In addition, it is especially useful for generating practice-relevant knowledge (Gibbert et al. 2008). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis examines how the information technology-supported use of multiple mobility services for a trip from an origin to a destination, known as smart mobility, can be realized in Germany. We examine this challenge through the meta-theoretical lens of the service-dominant logic perspective, which is further developed towards a midrange theory by complementing it with additional theories and concepts. Our empirical results provide insights into barriers and possible solutions for the realization of smart mobility in practice
... Due to the aim of our research, the population of interest includes firms which deployed sustainability-focused SCF programs. Besides, the theoretical sampling method (Eisenhardt 1989) is used with the selection of heterogeneous case firms regarding company size (e.g., large firms and medium-sized companies), ownerships (e.g., partnerships and corporations), industries (e.g., electronic components, textile products, furniture and fixtures, and fabricated metal products) in a single business context of a developing country, i.e., Vietnam. The chosen case firms were contacted by the authors from previous research projects. ...
... Multiple approaches introduced by Eisenhardt (1989) and Yin (2014) were adopted in both data collection and analysis phases to maintain the validity and reliability of our findings. First, data from multiple sources are collected to maintain the construct validity. ...
... Our analysis proceeded in several steps; first, we followed the data analysis procedure suggested by Eisenhardt (1989) and Voss et al. (2002), in which a database including interview transcripts, field notes, and archival documents was developed using NVivo, a qualitative data analysis software. In the first step, interview transcripts and supporting data were prepared for each case and verified by the interviewees. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that supply chain finance (SCF) is an efficient set of methods for reducing financing costs and improving financing efficiency. This paper studies how newly introduced sustainability-focused SCF programs can promote both sustainable development and supply chain sustainability for firms in Vietnam. Given the scarcity of research on SCF and supply chain sustainability in Vietnam, this study adopts the multiple case methodology based on six supply chain buyers which have introduced sustainability-focused SCF programs in Vietnam. Data were collected from 32 in-depth interviews with supply chain managers and business leaders in six case firms. By comparing empirical findings through cross-case analyses, the number of drivers, barriers, and current propositions regarding sustainability practices of companies that employ sustainability-oriented SCF programs in Vietnam are investigated. Our research delivers valuable practical implications by highlighting key designed concepts of the newly introduced sustainability-oriented SCF programs in Vietnam. It also contributes to supply chain sustainability literature by addressing a number of propositions regarding the engagement in sustainability-oriented SCF programs and the development of supply chain sustainability in Vietnam.
... Given the scarcity of research on multistakeholder engagement for SDGs in frontier markets and the context-bound nature of the phenomenon, this study uses an exploratory research design (Creswell, 2007) with a qualitative case study approach (Eisenhardt, 1989;Yin, 2014). As such, we follow Eisenhardt's (1989) strategy for theoretical sampling by selecting a theoretically useful case with the potential to extend emergent theory. ...
... Given the scarcity of research on multistakeholder engagement for SDGs in frontier markets and the context-bound nature of the phenomenon, this study uses an exploratory research design (Creswell, 2007) with a qualitative case study approach (Eisenhardt, 1989;Yin, 2014). As such, we follow Eisenhardt's (1989) strategy for theoretical sampling by selecting a theoretically useful case with the potential to extend emergent theory. Our case is the phenomenon of multistakeholder engagement for SDGs in the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry, which includes several sub-cases of different stakeholder groups. ...
... A round of follow-up interviews was also made with the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI) and with the United Nations Industrial Development Agency (UNIDO) to further triangulate and deepen the SDG aspects (see Tables 2 and 3). Following this procedure, we reached theoretical saturation by continuing data collection until the point at which incremental learning was minimal because we encountered phenomena seen before (Eisenhardt, 1989). To manage large volumes of data, all empirical materials were collected into one case-database for systematic processing. ...
Article
Full-text available
How to achieve sustainable communities with decent work and economic growth without negative environmental impact, is at the heart of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and a top priority of many governments around the world. This article critically explores the role of government intervention for achieving sustainable local prosperity in frontier markets of developing countries, where such advancement is especially crucial. More specifically, we explore by an in-depth case study how multiple stakeholders cooperate to enhance local development and export from firms in the leather and leather products industry in Ethiopia. From a multistakeholder engagement perspective, including representatives of local businesses, United Nations, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and other development partners, we analyze how government interventions have resulted in unintended outcomes despite their good intention. We contribute with a new understanding of why development initiatives in frontier markets struggle with stakeholder integration, caused by power asymmetry and lack of institutional trust which prevents the achievements of sustainable development goals. Contextualized implications for firms, government, and non-governmental actors on how to improve collaboration are provided, and policy implications are proposed.
... To do an in-depth examination of different organizational replies to multiple identities' balance and legitimacy in terms of organizational design, a comparative multiple case studies approach is used (Ridder, 2017). Because our research problems are qualitative in nature (Eisenhardt, 1989) and the literature is rather limited, this methodology is suitable. We adopted multiple case studies (Yin, 1993), specifically 9 in our study, to externally validate and strengthen results coming from a single case study (within-case analysis) with a cross-case comparison (between-case analysis) (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). ...
... We adopted multiple case studies (Yin, 1993), specifically 9 in our study, to externally validate and strengthen results coming from a single case study (within-case analysis) with a cross-case comparison (between-case analysis) (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). Such a number offered us a theoretical saturation (Eisenhardt, 1989) since the collected emergent evidence started to converge. Yet this number is in alignment or even a little above the average for a qualitative study on hybrids, e.g., Pache and Santos (2013) collected evidence from four case studies. ...
... For the criteria to include NPOs in our qualitative study, we followed the pertinent literature suggestions (Mair et al., 2015). First, we checked the availability of secondary data, such as organizations' publications, social reports, code of ethics, publicly available statutes, and websites to allow for triangulation of data (Eisenhardt, 1989). Second, we considered the accessibility to primary data ensured by lively engagement of NPOs' presidents and managers; this allowed researchers to have multiple rounds of feedback (Saldaña, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid organizations’ success should effectively fulfill both beneficiaries’ and customers’ needs, requirements, and expectations, being embedded in the conflicting—and often incompatible—institutional logics of social mission and commercial activities. Despite the increasing attention to such a phenomenon in the business research literature, still little is known regarding how hybrid organizational structures may facilitate or hinder the co-existence of such conflicting institutional logics. Relying on an inductive comparative case study realized on 9 socially entrepreneurial NPOs—which represent significant examples of socially imprinted organizations involved in commercial activities (hybrid)—operating in the Italian socio-healthcare sector, two main concerns have arisen as particularly influenced by organizational decisions, namely (a) effectively combining multiple identities within the organization and (b) gaining legitimacy from stakeholders. Results show that a coherent identity for a hybrid organization seems to be facilitated by an integrated structure, i.e., social programs and commercial activities run in a unique organization. On the contrary, a compartmentalized organizational structure creates two separate legal entities of a social or commercial nature only and is more crucial in gaining external legitimacy. Finally, some hybrids seem to mimic both features of these organizational structures, tackling both necessities. Thus, this study provides comparisons and practice-oriented implications to implement such organizational changes and explores the complex universe of hybrid organizational design by simultaneously comparing different organizational structures.
... We followed a case study approach [25,26] to analysis with the vendors being the main unit of analysis (i.e., cases). The number of cases exceeds the minimum of four recommended for such analyses [25]. ...
... We followed a case study approach [25,26] to analysis with the vendors being the main unit of analysis (i.e., cases). The number of cases exceeds the minimum of four recommended for such analyses [25]. While the data demonstrate valuable information related to implementation in both rural and urban contexts, the analysis concentrated on understanding how rural sites differed. ...
... The final step in the analysis was inductive, with two analysts identifying and establishing themes within the CFIR constructs through a consensus process and identifying how they differed between the urban and rural vendor groups over the course of the implementation (e.g., T1, T2, & T3 data). We determined saturation to be at the point when no additional insights were gained through further iterations between data and developing themes because adding new cases or interviews was not possible [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background In an effort to address the current opioid epidemic, a number of hospitals across the United States have implemented emergency department-based interventions for engaging patients presenting with opioid use disorder. The current study seeks to address gaps in knowledge regarding implementation of a sub-type of such interventions, emergency department-based peer support services, in rural areas by comparing implementation of rural and urban programs that participated in Indiana’s Recovery Coach and Peer Support Initiative (RCPSI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative semi-structured implementation interviews collected as part of an evaluation of 10 programs (4 rural and 6 urban) participating in the RCPSI. We conducted interviews with representatives from each program at 3 time points over the course of the first year of implementation. Our deductive coding process was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and an external context taxonomy. Results We identified key differences for rural programs corresponding to each of the 5 primary constructs in the coding scheme. (1) Intervention characteristics: rural sites questioned intervention fit with their context, required more adaptations, and encountered unexpected costs. (2) External context: rural sites were not appropriately staffed to meet patient needs, encountered logistical and legal barriers regarding patient privacy, and had limited patient transportation options. (3) Inner setting: rural sites lacked strong mechanisms for internal communication and difficulties integrating with pre-existing culture and climate. (4) Characteristics of individuals: some rural providers resisted working with peers due to pre-existing attitudes and beliefs. (5) Implementation process: rural sites spent more time identifying external partners and abandoned more components of their initial implementation plans. Conclusions Findings demonstrate how rural programs faced greater challenges implementing emergency department-based peer services over time. These challenges required flexible adaptations to originally intended plans. Rural programs likely require flexibility to adapt interventions that were developed in urban settings to ensure success considering local contextual constraints that were identified by our analysis.
... We also adopt a case study approach as it typically allows for a variety of perspectives, taking advantage of a range of data collection methods and multiple views of various characters in an organisational setting (Eisenhardt, 1989;Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007;Yin, 1994), the data triangulation approach to ensure data validity (Jick, 1979). The case study method also allows us to utilise a variety of data sources, including interviews, published documents, and observations, thus enhancing validity of our findings. ...
... The case study approach is also favourable when the goal of study is to explore contextual circumstances that could be applied to the investigated phenomenon (Creswell, 1998). Given the objectives of the present study, the case study approach is the most appropriate to explore key variables and relationships at the very early phase of a new management model (Eisenhardt, 1989). ...
... Desde el grupo de trabajo, se ha elegido el estudio de caso como metodología de aproximación al fenómeno minero del Parque de la Unión, para conocer en profundidad el objeto de estudio [5] [6]. Consecuentemente, se ha analizado un amplio conjunto de documentos que describen el contexto geográfico, económico y social de La Unión y, en concreto, la evolución histórica del Parque Minero, desde su explotación para actividades mineras hasta la gestión actual con fines turísticos [7] A partir de estos datos, se ha realizado un análisis DAFO para poner en evidencia los puntos fuertes, los débiles, las oportunidades y las amenazas del Parque Minero de La Unión. ...
... Actividades y experiencias creativas propuestas. Fuente de las imágenes5 ...
Chapter
Full-text available
El Parque Minero de La Unión ha experimentado desde su inicio hasta la actualidad numerosas vicisitudes en cuanto a su gestión y explotación como bien cultural. Esta comunicación tiene como objetivo la exposición de una propuesta de valorización adecuada al caso de estudio y su idiosincrasia particular, tomando ventaja de las herramientas de participación y colaboración ciudadana, mediante el empleo de la metodología Design Thinking y de la implementación de actividades creativas. Con este fin, el capítulo se organiza de la manera siguiente: 1. Introducción y contexto, 2. Metodología, 3. El proyecto de valorización del Parque Minero de la Unión, y 4. Conclusiones. En el apartado 3 se establecen varias secciones enfocadas en la concretización de la propuesta, entre las que destacan el análisis DAFO realizado durante su elaboración, el diseño de una nueva imagen de marca que permita la identificación de la experiencia ofrecida de manera inmediata, el establecimiento de las actividades que potencian la imagen de marca propuesta, y el desarrollo de una estrategia de comunicación que permita activación del espacio y su posicionamiento en el mundo digital. A través de esta propuesta para el Parque Minero de La Unión se pretende ofrecer una nueva perspectiva de valorización del espacio minero y de su entorno, desde las necesidades locales hacia la incorporación del mismo en una escala de rango europeo. Teniendo siempre en cuenta su condición de patrimonio subterráneo y las posibles relaciones con espacios del mismo carácter.
... To answer these questions and examine how European traditional companies can prosper, we first conducted two case studies of traditional manufacturers that establish digital platforms. Consistent with the research traditions of Eisenhardt (1989), Lee (1989), Benbasat, Goldstein, and Mead (1987), and Clemons, Constantiou, Marton, and Virpi (2019), we use these semantically rich ethnographic observations to construct models and hypotheses. The first case study was with a manufacturer of premium cars that is establishing a digital platform for the cars' onboard infotainment system, with plans to extend the platform much further, into control of scheduling of autonomous vehicles. ...
... Our use of a contrasting pair of diametrically opposed examples is an extension of the methodology endorsed by Eisenhardt (1989), and we believe makes it easier to construct models and hypothesis than a single ethnographic observation would do. ...
Conference Paper
Digital platforms have gained importance across a wide range of industries because they enable superadditive value creation in their platform ecosystems. Giant platform operators such as Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon dominate areas such as web search, mobile applications, social media, and online shopping and harvest most of the superadditive value in their ecosystems. With the advance of cloud computing technology and the Internet of Things, traditional industries such as manufacturing will also move towards platformization. If manufacturing companies become dependent on other companies' platforms, these platform operators may be able to exploit manufacturers' strategic dependence. In particular, platform operators may be able to extract much of the value that their platforms create, leaving the manufacturers with limited gains from their platform strategies. To understand how traditional manufacturers can address this issue, we first construct a simple mathematical model of the sources of value in digital platforms. We then study two German manufacturing groups and use this model to evaluate the groups' platform strategy. We identify control of relevant information domains, control of the customer interface, and collaboration in joint platforms as important factors to understand when developing strategies to deal with giant platform operators and to avoid strategic dependence on these competitors. We contribute to the literature on digital platform emergence in two ways, through the construction of our model and through the use of this model to examine the platform strategies of traditional companies .
... By applying epistemological principles of Pragmatism, ethnographic work intends not to produce content that is correct because of its quality to closely mirror reality (cf. Eisenhardt, 1989;Lipton, 2004). Instead, the bedrock of truth to classical ...
... Corresponding to the previously established unhelpfulness of associating the creation of ethnographic work with a state of not knowing, a useful way to proceed is not a turn to blankness or non-theoretical attitudes (cf. Glaser and Strauss, 1967;Eisenhardt, 1989). Instead, the researcher, well versed in the existing literature, works through a theoretical framework flexible enough to accommodate alternative lines of interpretation as she or he is explicitly stimulated by empirical material to develop insights that are, perhaps, more helpful than what has come before. ...
... The overlapping petals capture each of the five nested eco-systemic layers (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) corresponding to each of the five disciplines (Senge, 1990)colour coded in keeping with the modified integrated and analytical framework in Table 6 (Eisenhardt, 1989) and due to concerns over generalisability and replicability (Yin, 2014), I can only claim that my emergent whole school change model seeks to represent the inductive interpretation of my own findings as expressed by participants 'hung on' my integrated theoretical and analytical framework. Thus, Figure 6.8: Emergent model of whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning effective whole school change must consider the individuals and components of the school as a system, their interrelationships as well as their relationships to other systems or subsystems (classroom, departments) and not least the relationship of the system as a whole to the larger systems (overall educational system) of which it is part or within which it interacts (Reigeluth & Garfinkle, 1994). ...
... Because my research design is a case study devoted to exploring the dynamics present in a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and due to concerns over generalisability and replicability (Yin, 2009), I can only claim that my emergent whole school change theory seeks to represent the inductive interpretation of my own findings as expressed by participants 'hung on' my integrated theoretical and analytical framework. ...
Thesis
Thinking about change in a Thinking School: Conceptualising whole school change in the context of an English secondary school This thesis examines a qualitative case study of whole school change based on the perceived experiences of members of a Staff Drive Team and a Student Drive Team in a coeducational selective secondary school. The Staff and Student Drive Teams are a special feature of Thinking Schools, tasked with driving whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning that encourages an intentional, explicit, and long-term commitment to the process of teaching and learning for, of, and about thinking. This study seeks a further understanding of whole school change through a systems theory perspective by considering the role of practices, processes and structures involved, as well as their interrelationships. The philosophical underpinnings of this research encompass constructivist principles from an interpretive relativist position. The case study draws on two non-participant observations, two initial focus groups, 16 semi-structured interviews and two final focus groups as primary data sources combined with contextual secondary information from three school development plans, ten agendas of Drive Teams meetings and three Thinking School accreditation reports. The semi-structured interviews are analysed adopting Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with Content analysis (CA) employed for the rest of the data. An integrated theoretical and analytical framework is developed to interpret the findings, drawing from previous research on whole school change (Thomson, 2010) based on systems theory with influences from systems thinking (Senge, 1990) and ecological development (Bonfenbrenner, 1979) and subject to autopoietic connotations. This research concludes that initial struggles with resistance to whole school change were reframed and translated into openness to change achieved through systems thinking. The findings indicate that the Student and Staff Drive Teams experienced the whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning as ongoing systemic change and as a multiple-loop, multi-layered learning process supported by risk taking, reflection, teams interrelations, non-negotiable whole school change, common values and language, and continuous learning. From this case study, a ‘petal’ model of whole school change is proposed as meriting further attention.
... This protocol contains the research goals as well as the case study questions; however, the case study questions serve more as a reminder than as the actual questions that are used to gather data from the interviews. Finding out about previous constructs helps the researcher figure out how to build a theory and makes it easier to evaluate these constructs during interviews (Eisenhardt, 1989). Even in theory-building research, researchers cannot begin with a clean theoretical ground; instead, they must predetermine previous variables without looking for connections among them (Eisenhardt, 1989). ...
... Finding out about previous constructs helps the researcher figure out how to build a theory and makes it easier to evaluate these constructs during interviews (Eisenhardt, 1989). Even in theory-building research, researchers cannot begin with a clean theoretical ground; instead, they must predetermine previous variables without looking for connections among them (Eisenhardt, 1989). New variables may emerge during data collection, necessitating revision of the theory if it is confined to only those already known. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is difficult to choose between the Glaserian and the Straussian grounded theory approach when adopting them as a methodology. Many researchers in human resource management and organizational behavior rely on grounded theory to guide their work. They use it sometimes as a method and sometimes as a methodology. The disagreement between Glaser and Strauss, the theory's originators, led to its unique application. There is some social sciences research that suggests using case studies and grounded theory at the same time. Theoretical work pertaining to the area of human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB) has yet to define how grounded theory may be utilized to develop a research methodology using an interpretive case study approach. The purpose of this article is to help HRM and OB researchers who are considering using grounded theory as a data analysis approach in integration with the case study method. It accomplishes this by first justifying the use of Strauss' methodology in this integration and then enlisting indicators to assist researchers in determining how to carry out this integration.
... Neste sentido, o método de Estudo de Caso tem sido bastante utilizado para a geração de conhecimento (EISENHARDT, 1989;YIN, 2001) em diferentes áreas do saber, com destaque e ênfase nas Ciências Sociais, pois baseia-se em uma investigação empírica que investiga um fenômeno contemporâneo dentro de seu contexto da vida real (YIN, 2001). ...
... Agora, com relação aos estudos múltiplos ou casos múltiplos, Eisenhardt (1989), vai dizer que esses trazem mais benefícios ao pesquisador justamente por possibilitar um poder maior e melhor de comprovação e desenvolvimento, sendo possível a realização da investigação de cada caso em particular. Sendo assim, a realização da investigação e exame entre os múltiplos casos possibilitam uma comparação e consequentemente vai prover elementos para o pesquisador construir e formular pressuposições e especulações. ...
... Neste sentido, o método de Estudo de Caso tem sido bastante utilizado para a geração de conhecimento (EISENHARDT, 1989;YIN, 2001) em diferentes áreas do saber, com destaque e ênfase nas Ciências Sociais, pois baseia-se em uma investigação empírica que investiga um fenômeno contemporâneo dentro de seu contexto da vida real (YIN, 2001). ...
... Agora, com relação aos estudos múltiplos ou casos múltiplos, Eisenhardt (1989), vai dizer que esses trazem mais benefícios ao pesquisador justamente por possibilitar um poder maior e melhor de comprovação e desenvolvimento, sendo possível a realização da investigação de cada caso em particular. Sendo assim, a realização da investigação e exame entre os múltiplos casos possibilitam uma comparação e consequentemente vai prover elementos para o pesquisador construir e formular pressuposições e especulações. ...
... The study adopted an interview-based exploratory case study approach (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007;Eisenhardt, 1989) and content analysis of University College London (UCL) sustainability policy, UCL's annual sustainability reports, websites, and other relevant documentation. Primary data was generated using ten (10) semi-structured interviews of UCL staff: One (1-A) from the UCL HR unit, two (2-B and C) from departmental HRs, one (1-D) from the UCL sustainability team, three (3-E, F and G) teaching staff across three faculties and three (3-H, I and J) non-teaching staff across three professional service units excluding UCL HR. ...
... The interview data, including the transcripts and the content review, were subjected to coding, inductively generating a range of themes (Bryman, 2016;Eisenhardt, 1989). The thematic analysis was employed to identify the process of developing the sustainability policy, specific GHRM policies and the functionality of employees in GHRM policies, and the broader sustainability policy formulation rather than focusing on the frequency of these outcomes. ...
Article
This paper explores employees’ place in Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) and Sustainable Prosperity. It examines the role of GHRM in organisational sustainability initiatives, emphasising the employee’s role in sustainability decision-making. GHRM facilitates the achievement of sustainable practices by using every employee’s interface. Its goal is to raise sustainability awareness among employees through HR practices that are environmentally friendly and promote long-term and efficient usage of organisational resources. The paper employs a qualitative case study of the University College London (UCL) through semi- structured interviews and content review based on a qualitative exploratory approach. Drawing on thematic analysis, the paper indicates the need for organisations to place employees at the forefront of sustainability policy formulation that is participatory in character as it cultivates shared ownership and positive outcomes.
... This allowed filtering for specific relationships to identify enablers for each mechanism. In an iterating process of comparing data and theory, themes and relationships emerged, which were constantly refined to establish construct validity (Eisenhardt 1989). ...
Conference Paper
The ability to recombine established digital technologies is a central driver for developing innovative service solutions within service systems. However, factors that enable the application of mechanisms for recombinant digital innovation in service systems are somewhat vague, leading to unwitting recombination efforts. Based on theory from service science and digital innovation literature, we investigate which innovation capabilities are necessary to apply recombination mechanisms by using the example of service solution development in the media industry in a multiple case study. We identify specific enablers for associative and additive recombination mechanisms embedded within an organization's IT application portfolio, structure, culture, capabilities, and partnerships. We contribute to IS literature by providing insights on the prerequisites for recombinant innovation in service systems. Our conceptual framework helps managers focus on implementing appropriate enablers for their respective digital innovation strategy.
... Bottom-up approaches provide more detailed information on material flows, offering a suitable empirical basis for practitioners and for academic research [63]. Furthermore, to acquire reliable data on conventional and organic durum wheat, the authors have adopted the research triangulation paradigm [64,65]. Such an approach combines data and observations at farm level and helps in boosting the credibility and validity of research findings [66]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional and intensive agriculture systems represent an environmental challenge. This research aims at evaluating the economic and environmental implications of conventional and organic durum wheat production in Southern Italy by applying material flow analysis and the crop accounting method. The purpose is to evaluate and compare the natural resource consumption, waste generation and economic profitability of conventional and organic durum wheat farming, respectively. The functional unit is one hectare of cultivated land. System boundaries encompass all agronomic operations, from cradle to gate. The research applies a bottom-up approach and relies on either primary or secondary data. It emerges that organic durum wheat production reduces the use of synthetic chemical and phytosanitary products, as well as plastic waste, by up to 100%. Moreover, it decreases diesel use by 15%, with a consequent reduction in CO2 emissions, and also avoids soil and groundwater pollution. From an economic perspective, gross income for conventionally farmed durum wheat is still 55% higher compared to organic production. Public authorities should boost environmental sustainability by supporting organic production from either an economic or a social perspective, by enhancing the sharing of best practices, by certification for farmers’ groups, by research and innovation, and by incentives in taxation. Overall, this research represents a further step towards the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices.
... The study was conducted through an intentional non-probabilistic sampling plan, used in exploratory research, in which the sample selection is carried out by the researcher's judgment (Oliveira, 2001). For Romney et al. (1986) and Eisenhardt (1989), in quantitative terms, the sample in exploratory studies of multiple cases can be equal to or greater than four, which allows extremely accurate information to be captured with a high level of confidence (0.999), and this is independent of the population size. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to evaluate the current level of knowledge about lean construction (LC) practices in construction companies, universities and class organizations in Brazil and identify the barriers to implementing LC in the Brazilian construction industry and prioritize them through comparison with global challenges. Design/methodology/approach This multiple case study was carried out through a questionnaire answered by 56 construction companies, 15 universities and 10 professional associations. The questionnaire evaluation allowed the authors to determine the level of knowledge about the LC, its adoption and barriers to its adoption in the Brazilian industry. The results were statistically analyzed using the weighted average (MIS) of results using the Kruskal–Wallis test, which compares sample distribution among groups, and Cronbach’s alpha test to measure the questionnaire reliability. Findings This study points to universities as the main ones responsible for the low adoption of LC in Brazil and points to the need for an integrated action among construction companies, universities and class organizations to overcome the traditional project management culture and raise the level of knowledge about LC. Originality/value This study evaluated the current LC situation in an emerging country, Brazil, and compared it with the principal international challenges observed in studies of other developing countries – China, India, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Singapore – least developed countries – Bangladesh and Nigeria – and developed country – UK. These studies evaluated construction companies located in the listed countries. Based on that, 22 international challenges were established for the LC adoption. Additionally, this research also evaluated universities and working-class organizations in addition to construction companies. This addition can contribute to a better result understanding that can be explored by Brazil and other countries.
... We selected Bareec to study outsider-driven institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields because specific theoretical implications were evident (Eisenhardt, 1989;Yin, 2014). First, preliminary investigations revealed that significant changes in the field of positive psychology had been introduced within the MoE in Kuwait. ...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon of outsider-driven institutional entrepreneurship may appear both paradoxical and opaque. We examine outsider-driven institutional entrepreneurship by drawing on an in-depth qualitative case study of the emerging field of positive psychology education. We investigate how institutional entrepreneurs, located outside Kuwait’s Ministry of Education, enabled actors inside the Ministry both to deviate from existing institutional arrangements and to institutionalize new practices. Our findings illustrate that outsider-driven institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields starts with ‘normalization’, that is, the production of claims, arguments, and evidence, about the effectiveness of the newly proposed practices. Our study contributes to the literature on outsider-driven institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields by identifying a set of critical activities associated with deviation from prevailing institutional arrangements, and the institutionalization of innovation.
... A second multicase strategy is multicase design (Eisenhardt, 1989). In pursuing this strategy, researchers may sample for similarities or differences among cases. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of computationally intensive theory construction is to produce theoretical insights from patterns identified using computational techniques, including—but not limited to—those that reveal categories, category memberships, associations, networks, sequences, and complex system dynamics by providing simulated data, pattern visualizations, or quantifications (Berente et al., 2019). Despite increasing understanding of the application of computational methods to theory construction, this genre poses unique challenges. Such work involves creative yet disciplined inquiry with rigorous yet reasonable thoroughness. Striking this balance involves judgment calls rooted in community norms, standards, and conventions. In this editorial, we offer guidance for conducting and assessing computationally intensive theory construction, without any ambition to prematurely forestall community debates surrounding this genre. We hope to reduce uncertainty for researchers and review teams by distilling the foundations of a framework from our collective experiences as authors, reviewers, and editors of work in this genre. This framework is offered as a scaffold and should not be applied dogmatically, since doing so would infringe on the creativity imperative to this genre. As computational tools and methods continue to evolve, so too will community norms, standards, and conventions, and we champion mindful departures from this and prior frameworks.
... The single embedded case study (embracing four projects) involved theoretical sampling in order to extend the emergent theory and fill theoretical gaps rather than replicating theories (Eisenhardt, 1989). Theoretical replication occurs through choosing different sub-units of cases (Piekkari et al., 2009) through focusing on comparisons within the subunits of the organisational context. ...
Thesis
This research focuses on anger and sunk cost effects as sources of cognitive bias and also portfolio interactions in relation to the retention/termination decisions on projects. Departing from a traditionally narrow and quantitative perspective of traditional project appraisal, this study investigates a wider psychological view of investment project decisions within four project management groups. The thesis emphasises that the role of the specific emotion of anger is influenced by the past sunk cost of projects and the effects of a portfolio of projects across the whole firm. In the sense that project retention is perceived to be a positive outcome of anger, it has arguably been neglected in empirical entrepreneurship and strategic decision-making research, but this study claims that the retention and termination of projects may be analysed using psychological theories of emotions. A case study based on a Palestinian holding company, therefore, investigates the influence of anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations on project retention and termination. The holding company under study operates in an uncertain political context likely to be a rich laboratory eliciting high levels of anger, thus highlighting their role. This study conducts fifteen emotion assessment surveys using a STAXI-2 inventory and content and thematic analyses of fifteen interviews, adopting multi-levels of analysis, and claims to make contributions to the entrepreneurship, strategic decision-making and psychology literatures. The analysis reports that anger has an important emotional influence on decisions. It demonstrates three main findings, i.e. mostly positive associations between anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations and project retention. It also presents four subsidiary findings. Hope emerged as the second most important emotion and is claimed to be associated with project retention. Other emotions also co-exist with anger and may have influenced retention decisions, and findings reveal an association between corporate identity (i.e. a factor emerged from data) and project retention. Finally, in an atypical case, anger is found to encourage project termination.
... The single embedded case study (embracing four projects) involved theoretical sampling in order to extend the emergent theory and fill theoretical gaps rather than replicating theories (Eisenhardt, 1989). Theoretical replication occurs through choosing different sub-units of cases (Piekkari et al., 2009) through focusing on comparisons within the subunits of the organisational context. ...
... The collected materials were transcribed, thematized, and analyzed through a within-and cross-case analysis (Eisenhardt, 1989) based on the grounded theory (Glaser, 1992). The cases are analyzed based on the description, understanding, and interpretation of the research material. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this article is to create an understanding of how the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) can be used to steer stakeholder engagement for transformative change, meeting global challenges, and navigate a new business-societal practice driven by a values-based business model. The article is a conceptual study with case studies of the role that the SDGs play in multi-stakeholder dialog via the kind of sustainable business-societal practice that takes corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the next level, where it is embedded in a values-based business model, creating a new meaning to effect real business-societal transformation. Multi-stakeholder dialog implies interactive and communicative engagement with the full range of stakeholders in order to create value for all, employing a societal perspective and using the value network as a basis for effective decision-making. We explain our methodological approach by presenting multi-stakeholder dialog in practice, in the form of multiple case studies. These empirical settings consisted of two values-driven privately owned companies with a strong reporting mechanism and a clear transformation agenda based on the SDG challenges: IKEA and Löfbergs. The empirical study provides the basis for our proposed model. This article makes an original contribution to the study of the use of SDGs in management and service research. It investigates steering and navigating processes in specific contexts in order to determine what should be subject to legal enforcement and what comprises moral and/or ethical value, particularly at the societal level.
... Therefore, this research is based on a qualitative study with cases (Yin, 2009) which is appropriate when looking for new perspectives on the study context (Eisenhardt, 1989). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research aims at expanding our understanding of founder social identity in decision-making processes with regards to the founder’s marketing choices. Specifically, the main research question of this work is: how does founder social identity influence decisions regarding identity anchors in sustainable new ventures? The identity anchor that this work will take into account is the company’s logo, one of most powerful communication tools available to companies and the main synthesizer of what a brand stands for.
... All these executives worked in areas relevant to our study (e.g., IT, Digital, Innovation, Transformation, etc.). We did not focus on a specific sector or set of sectors; rather, we were interested in interviewing professionals from a range of businesses with different origins, business models and competitive positions, which ensures an appropriate level of disparity between companies (Eisenhardt, 1989;Flyvbjerg, 2006). Table 1 provides a high-level description of the firms and interviewees included in our study. ...
Article
Digital Transformation is upending businesses everywhere. While there is ample research on this topic, there is a clear gap when it comes to understanding the changing talent management role of senior executives in digital transformation processes and the demands of individual employees. This article relies on 23 in-depth interviews with senior managers who are leading all or some of the digital transformation efforts of their respective organizations. Our research, using a grounded theory approach, identifies four key activities (and 37 sub-activities or themes) stemming from the new managerial needs and talent management practices arising from DT processes. We branded these key activities “Drive business change”, “Master fluid & loose organizational structures”, “Master Talent Complexity”, and “Prioritize learning”. This paper aims to provide an overview into the thinking and managerial practices of senior executives in a digital transformation context and complements the limited number of studies that examine the intersection between managerial actions and digital transformation. It also provides a conceptual framework that captures the key managerial demands arising from digital transformation processes and identifies key actions made by senior executives as part of these processes, which can be leveraged by both scholars and practitioners alike.
... We analyzed our data following recommendations by Yin (2017), Miles and Huberman (1984), and Eisenhardt (1989) to support the theory-building process that unfolded through the interplay of data analysis, literature review, and generation of insights (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). Throughout data collection and analysis, to ensure rigour, we adopted an insider/outsider approach, with one researcher collecting field data (e.g., through interviews and observation), while others reviewed emerging findings (Davison & Martinsons, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The nature, scope, and impact of digital transformation reaches well beyond the boundaries of a single firm. This suggests information systems research should consider how digital transformation unfolds within business ecosystems that consist of multiple interdependent firms, and how this process can ideally be managed. We pursue this research opportunity by introducing orchestration as a concept through which to view digital transformation in business ecosystems, and by presenting empirical insights from a longitudinal in-depth case study that highlights how a focal firm became the orchestrator of digital transformation in its business ecosystem. We explain that becoming an orchestrator of digital transformation occurs through three distinct phases: initiating, opening-up, and integrating. We also identify the interplay of activities by which a focal firm strategizes, mobilizes, and aligns other actors and their resources, as it orchestrates the digital transformation of its business ecosystem. We conclude by outlining how our work serves as an important foundation for future information systems research and offer managerial guidelines outlining how to orchestrate digital transformation processes within business ecosystems.
... With the various actors involved and to capture the phenomenon from their perspectives, we adopted a case study approach (cf. Pettigrew, 1973;Eisenhardt, 1989;Yin, 1994). We looked for the following criteria in our selection of a suitable case: ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Although ecosystems have been researched extensively over the past decade, we know little about how they should be organised. Focusing on a knowledge ecosystem comprising a university and a regional strategic network (RSN), this paper aims to describe and discuss the mechanisms for knowledge development in knowledge ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach This paper studies the integration of a university into a Swedish RSN. Data were collected through interviews with representatives of the university, the RSN and all firms comprising the RSN. A qualitative content analysis helped to detect mechanisms for knowledge development. Findings Two reinforcing mechanisms for knowledge development in the knowledge ecosystem are identified: structure and openness, which relate to insight and outlook, respectively. The findings also indicate a knowledge division, with the university representing the transfer of knowledge capabilities as a linear process, whereas the content-related knowledge is collaborative. Originality/value This paper contributes to research on knowledge ecosystems by describing how their organisation is based on a number of contradictions (structure and openness, insight and outlook, linearity and collaboration) to accomplish the development of knowledge capabilities and content-related knowledge.
... Data analysis was performed concurrently with data collection to take advantage of the flexibility that the case research method affords (Eisenhardt, 1989). The voluminous and poorly organised qualitative data was first condensed into manageable form via narrative and visual mapping strategies (Langley, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of Fintech platforms has revolutionized the way financial services are provided. And yet, in spite of their growing prominence in the global financial sector, there remains a lack of understanding of the competitive strategies that are appropriate for these platform‐based businesses, and the implications of those strategies for their performance. Examining four case studies of some of the most successful Fintech platforms in China from the theoretical perspective of the core logics of strategy, we develop a theoretical framework that suggests that the nature of the competitive strategies deployed by a Fintech platform should be contingent on (1) the extent to which their services can be differentiated, as well as (2) the tangibility and physical presence of the platform’s service offerings. More specifically, our framework presents four different combinations of competitive strategies that Fintech platforms can adopt contingent on the nature of their services along these two dimensions. In addition, beyond the two dimensions, our framework suggests that all Fintech platforms should be underpinned by a common strategic core consisting of strategies that align the platform with social pressures. These pressures include those exerted by the government, the market, and society in general. With its findings, it is hoped that our study will provide specific guidance for Fintech practitioners on the appropriate competitive strategies to adopt in order to set their platforms on the path of commercial success.
... This study is built primarily on qualitative research methodologies, with a case study approach to enable understanding of the dynamics in a specific context (Eisenhardt, 1989). This study employs two main methods to collect data: data analysis and in-depth interviews. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sustainability as a concept is not a novel idea among Indonesians, and Indonesia itself adopted the Sustainable Development Goals and published the Indonesia's SDG Roadmap for 2030 in October 2019. Among the 17 SDGs outlined in the roadmap, SDG 12 Ensure Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns is among the least prioritized, seeing from the lack of data, objectives, and discussion regarding the policy direction. However, brands and companies are quick to respond to the UN's call to achieve the SDGs. They start taking measures to address sustainability issue along their business process and communicate it to their stakeholders through multiple platforms. Garnier Indonesia is one of those, and they further their effort by co-producing an integrated waste management service with eRecycle. This service is free of charge and allows customers to order pickup for inorganic waste, as long as it has been cleaned and separated by the customers. This paper aims to analyze and better understand the role of brand co-creation-or in this case, multi-brand co-creation-in promoting sustainable consumption, particularly in waste management. This will be done by employing the co-production and co-creation frameworks. Data for this study is collected through in-depth interviews with key people in Garnier and eRecycle related to this collaboration and data analysis of secondary information published by Garnier and eRecycle on their online platforms. The study concludes that the collaboration between Garnier and eRecycle could be analyzed from two phases: co-production and co-creation. Furthermore, the co-creation processes between customers and the two brands occur in two facets: with Garnier and/or eRecycle as a brand, and with eRecycle as a service. Hence, the multi-brand co-creation. The former facet results in indirect sustainability co-creation and the latter results in direct sustainability co-creation.
... We engaged in theory building by juxtaposing insights from the four cases into relationship patterns between IT managers and line managers engaged in digitization efforts. First, we listed similarities and differences among the four cases in order to break simplistic frames and foster sophisticated understanding (Eisenhardt 1989). We also compared and contrasted the four patterns to deepen our understanding and search for possible explanations (Miles and Huberman 1994). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
IS plays an important role in modernization of the public sector, and government agencies increasingly use IT for both innovation purposes and exploitation of existing opportunities. These organizations not only see IS as an enabler of business strategy but also focus on the operational and tactical benefits of IS. However, although IS management has been studied at the strategic level, middle management has not received the same attention. Existing research has, for example , investigated the relationship between the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and top management, but no studies have looked at the relationship between IT and middle management in bridging the gulf between the strategic and operational level and bringing about IS benefits to the organization at the tactical level. This article addresses this research gap by exploring the relationship between IT and middle management in government agencies across four Danish municipalities. Based on 132 an exploratory, multiple case study we develop a descriptive model of the dynamic relationships between IT managers and line managers in public organizations. The model describes four archetypes-craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, partnership, and companionship-depending on the level of involvement (arm"s-length versus embedded) and the envisioned role of IT (management versus leadership). The model is a powerful vehicle for understanding and possibly changing the relationships depending on the needs and visions of the organization wanting to increase its e-government maturity.
... The second method, cross-case analysis, is concerned with generating new theory by cross-analyzing different cases to find similarities and differences. According to Eisenhardt (1989) the analysis of multiple cases should be based on looking at data in different ways. This is done by grouping or pairing cases and then examine for similarities and differences between and within each group or pair. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
A framework for deciding on a supply chain strategy for a startup is presented. In addition, critical success factors as well as relevant key performance indicators, for a startup to assess when scaling is presented. To determine a supply chain strategy, we propose that the following four factors should be considered: (1) the characteristics of the industry they are operating in, (2) the type of product they are selling, (3) the stage in the product life cycle that the product is currently in, and lastly (4) the stage in the startup life cycle the organization is currently in. The CSFs and KPIs are identified to help a startup scale its supply chain
... 1. Clearly define the research question. This is because many case studies are exploratory, the theoretical and empirical literature may provide only a vague foundation for the study (Eisenhardt, 1989). ...
Article
Research design is the bedrock or roadmap of any research work which is anticipated to provide suitable framework on how a study is to be conducted. This design should be carefully prepared prior to the commencement of the research. The type of identified research problem will determine the research design and not vice-versa. Also, the questions to be answered by conducting the research constitute the most important element of any research design. In accordance to literature, the most predominant designs used in Library and information Science (LIS) researches are: Case study, Survey and Experimental designs. This study explained in details these three common designs in LIS in terms of when to be used and how it is been designed. Therefore, it is crucial for LIS researchers to understand these designs in order to always use effective, appropriate and achievable research designs.
... To conduct this study, we gathered an extensive dataset through semi-structured, one-to-one interviews as our primary data source complemented with shorter follow-up interviews aimed at clarifying specific aspects that emerged, taking extensive notes from nonparticipatory observation and archival data (written and electronic documentation). We triangulated the diverse datasets to obtain a better understanding of key aspects and/or to inquire into apparent incoherencies or discrepancies among informants (Eisenhardt, 2002;Jick, 1979). ...
Article
This paper examines brokerage dynamics in technology transfer networks (TTNs), i.e., hybrid networks of different actors operating in the transitional area between knowledge and business ecosystems (i.e., innovation ecotones), with research organizations as anchor tenants. This particular type of network is gaining increasing attention. However, despite evidence of the importance of brokerage dynamics for knowledge mobility anchored in science and technology research, three main questions remain open: Who acts as network broker in TTNs? What are their specific functions? What mechanisms do they adopt to support these functions? To answer these questions, we conducted an in-depth multi-case study focusing on three European centers of excellence in scientific research, namely the University of Cambridge (UK), the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), and the Italian Institute of Technology (Italy). We find that institutional actors as well as individuals act as network brokers in TTNs, and that brokerage manifests with varying degrees of formalization related to the TTN's level of maturity. We also identify six network brokerage functions, namely conflict resolution, spreading knowledge, linking idea fragments, connecting problems to solutions, expanding the network, and strengthening the network, and five mechanisms, namely endorsement, mediation, events, antennas, and digital support systems, that support these functions.
... The two GEU cases have a collegial structure, wherein legally independent but systemically integrated colleges -31 at case A and 36 at case B -support teaching and research alongside the provision of residential, catering and recreational facilities. Having multiple cases and comparing between groups is valuable analytically, encouraging theory development through the discovery of interesting patterns within the data (Eisenhardt, 1989;Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007;Yin, 2013). Having cases drawn from a single country, negating the dangers of contextual variation, adds to theory development more generally. ...
Article
Full-text available
How is it that global elite universities operating in a hyper-competitive world replete with aspirational challengers maintain positions of dominance within the field of higher education decade after decade? Taking a Bourdieusian approach, we argue that the highest-ranking universities strategically leverage pronounced philanthropic advantages to differentiate themselves from would-be challengers. Philanthropy is a critical differentiator because it enables elite universities to sustain privileges that attract highly qualified students, faculty and powerful supporters, who in turn boost their competitive positions through acquisition of valuable cultural, social and symbolic resources. Elite universities co-create with stakeholders strong bonds of identification, honing the disposition to give back philanthropically and complete the socially reproductive cycle of elite domination. At a time of increasing concern about social inequalities, our contribution is to uncover how higher education philanthropy-an essentially conservative force-operates to entrench privilege and magnify social differences while purporting to do the opposite.
... One case study could have been used; however, as Johnston (2014) argued, "it is beneficial to have multiple sources to bolster confidence in the findings, whether two or more sources arrive at the same conclusion for comparison or not, providing an option for contrast". Further, Eisenhardt (1989) and Yin (2012) suggests that between four and ten cases usually works well for analytic generalisation. "With fewer than four cases, it might be difficult to generate theory with much complexity and the empirical underpinning is likely to be unconvincing" (Gray, 2014: 7). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the real estate market, boom and decline patterns that influence the development of a country’s economy are often considered. However, there exists limited information on which factors cause the real estate expansion and declines to occur. Therefore, this research explored the factors that cause real estate booms and declines using data from the period 2008 to 2018. The study adopted secondary research using various literature on the real estate boom and decline outlooks for developing countries. Content analysis and fact-finding were used to analyse the secondary data collected to identify the factors that caused the real estate market booms and declines to occur. For in-depth analysis, this study chose to focus on a sample size of four developing countries that display common factors that influence real estate market phases. The results showed that the factors that influenced real estate boom and decline outcomes for the selected developing countries during the period of investigation can be categorised into macro- and micro-economic factors. These included interest rates, tax incentives and policies, economic cycles, population growth, supply and demand levels, number of buyers and sellers, and vacancy levels. The research provides information that could signal the state and direction of the real estate market at a particular time or period, which is relevant to various real estate market participants, including planners, developers, and investors. Further empirical studies are required for greater attention on how the real estate market factors could affect the development of a country.
... Rather, it can be used in case studies as an initial guide, part of an iterative Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austria (CC BY 3.0), 2022. process, and part of a final product (Eisenhardt, 1989;Walsham, 1995). Each type of use is presented with an example below: ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an Open Government Data (OGD) publisher framework, with work roles, field of work, and environmental descriptions. Previous knowledge about publishers' work is fragmented, with gaps and variations, indicating a high level of complexity with variations in approaches and processes. A two-stage research approach, based on Design Science Research, was used to synthesize the publisher framework. First, a tentative framework was synthesized from previous research, empirical material, and public documents. Second, it was reviewed by informed OGD experts, as well as researchers attending a work conference, and evaluated in two international contexts. As a result, the publisher framework includes environments, social units, and fields of work. The publisher framework is ready to be evaluated in other international contexts, where as, practitioners can use it to inform their work.
... In order to meet the needs of practice, this study adopts the case study method especially advocated in the top academic field of international economic management as the main research method. Aberdeen and Yin's replication logic [8] and Eisenhardt and Graebner's replication and expansion logic [9] are the most used management case study methodologies in top management journals at present. e Chinese sports industry involved in this study has been rising for a short time, and there are few relevant studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the support of national policies and the holding of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games, China’s sports market presents an unprecedented prosperity, but it also faces many challenges. The market environment in which the sports industry is located is full of uncertainty and complexity. Creative products, competitive sports enterprises, and clear business models are urgently needed. Research purpose. To explore the future development mode and the prospect of China’s sports undertakings and enterprises through the analysis and research on the competitive advantage of China’s sports industry. In this context, since 2016, this study has started with the micromarket players. Research methods. Using the case study method highly praised by the international economic management academic circles, combined with in-depth learning, this study has conducted a systematic and comprehensive study on a total of 50 Chinese sports enterprises by mining and analyzing the unstructured text, video, and other data obtained from public materials and interviews. This paper deeply analyzes the competitive strategy of China's sports enterprises, creates and maintains competitive advantages in the sports industry, and studies the model construction of case studies and analysis. Conclusion. The study found that the product and business model, the leadership of managers, the innovation ability of teams, and the external market environment are the core elements for sports enterprises to formulate competitive strategies and create and maintain competitive advantages. The organic combination of the four eventually forms a competitive advantage that is difficult to replicate and finally forms a value chain through the implementation of competitive strategies so as to realize the value promotion and sustainable development of enterprises.
... During this stage, it became apparent that there were general issues with the ways in which the three different eHealth solutions mediated work. It was decided to do a cross-case analysis [75][76][77] to dig deeper into whether or not general insights about the mediating effects of these solutions could be derived. The cross-case analysis is a method for an in-depth examination of similarities and differences across cases, aiming to explore empirical generalisability. ...
Article
Full-text available
Against the backdrop of eHealth solutions increasingly becoming a part of healthcare professionals’ ways of doing care work, this paper questions how the solutions mediate the experience of healthcare professionals when deployed. We undertook a qualitative study of three eHealth solutions, conducting qualitative interviews with a diverse sample of 102 healthcare professionals from different care settings across the south of Sweden. Materiality and postphenomenology serve as analytic tools for achieving an understanding of the mediating roles of eHealth solutions. The analysis emphasises the mediating roles consisting of interrelated paradoxes: (1) changing and perpetuating boundaries between patients and professional groups, (2) (dis)enabling augmented information and knowledge processes and (3) reconfiguring professional control over work. This contribution provides critical insights into materiality as a category of analysis in studies on the deployment of eHealth solutions, as these technologies have both intended and unintended consequences for care work. Our study identified general positive consequences of all three solutions, such as the increased feeling of closeness to patients and colleagues over time and space; increased ‘understanding’ of patients through patient-generated data; and increased autonomy, due to the fact that asynchronous communication makes it possible to decide when and which patient to attend to. We also identified general unintended consequences of the solutions, such as maintenance of power relations maintained due to organisational structures and professional relations, disabled information and knowledge processes due to the lack of non-verbal clues, reduced professional autonomy due to technical scripts determining what data is collected and how it is categorised, and uneven workload due to the dependency on patient input and compliance.
... Case study allows exploring complex and little-known phenomena (Eisenhardt, 1989). Yin (2003) advocates the single case method if the study focuses on understanding a process in its real context and in which the boundaries between the studied phenomenon and its context are not obvious. ...
... Regarding the technical procedures, the case study was used, whose unit of study is the packaging sector in Brazil. The case study was structured according to Eisenhardt (1989). The triangulation of data instruments was carried out (Oppermann, 2000) based on documental analysis and in-depth interviews, based on a semi-structured script. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to Institutional Theory, it is possible to internalize values in society and make certain attitudes considered appropriate or correct. In recent years, the Circular Economy (CE) has been popular in management reports, and the Academy follows by investigating it increasingly. Circular Economy is understood as an opportunity to do business by maximising the usefulness of the product, through different practices and strategies. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the situation in Brazil in the different stages of the process of institutionalisation of the Circular Economy of packaging. This is an applied, qualitative and descriptive study that used the triangulation between document analysis and in-depth interviews to collect data. The intention was to enable the confrontation of the perceptions of several stakeholders (cross analysis) in the packaging sector in Brazil. Fifty-three (53) stakeholders working in the packaging chain participated in the interviews. The results of the interviews were submitted to content analysis, supported by the NVivo® software. From the perspective of stakeholders, the results point out the initial phase of institutionalization of the Circular Economy of packaging (habitualization) in Brazil. After all, even ten years after its sanction, the Brazilian Policy of Solid Waste Management (BPSWM) presents a low level of implementation. First, because the country still has problems related to disposal in dumps, low recycling rates, little socio-productive inclusion of the waste pickers and low level of integration in waste management. Additionally, several stakeholders reported conflicts (objectification) and setbacks in terms of social control, making the sedimentation phase even more distant. The limitations of the study are associated with the difficulty of carrying out on-site visits to view the reality of the sector, directly associated with the restrictions imposed by the covid 19 pandemic period. The practical contribution is associated with the identification of barriers and challenges that make it difficult to institutionalize the circular economy of packaging. Such findings generate relevant contributions to different stakeholders. As recommendations for future studies, it is recommended to carry out a longitudinal study of a specific packaging chain to identify the barriers that arise in this chain in different geographic regions of the country.
Preprint
Modularity-in-design (MID) and modularity-in-production (MIP) relationship has been gaining the attention of scholars and practitioners along the years. However, the literature does not specify how this connection occurs and its implications. This paper analyzes the relationship between MID and MIP within the automotive scenario and investigates its main technical and organizational implications. Through an abductive, matched-pair case study carried out in two large automakers, the study gathered data from interviews, on-site observations, and field notes from all interactions within the plants. The paper indicates that (i) both automakers prioritize modular design before modular production, characterizing a product-related approach, and (ii) the investigated automotive companies have different approaches when developing MID. One automaker focuses on product functionalities to develop the modules; the other company dedicates efforts towards a MID-MIP relationship through the industrial condominium concept. Results indicate significant propositions to be tested regarding MID-MIP connection, with original insights from two make-to-order (MTO) automotive companies.
Thesis
Full-text available
As our global economic system draws closer to an irreversible breaking point, governments from both the North and South countries are called upon to reduce the environmental and social impacts of our fossil-based production and consumption patterns. From a neo-Schumpeterian view, innovation can prove instrumental in triggering such “transformational change” of our global economic system towards sustainability. This thesis posits that innovation and the largely endorsed theoretical framework of innovation system (IS) give a useful heuristic for the design of the economic policies that foster structural change. However, the promotion of the broader Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the 2030 Agenda requires an analytical lens that extends beyond IS technology-centric logic and adapts to respond to the variety of local contexts in both the Global North and South. An application put forward by this thesis is that of the concept of “Dedicated Innovation System (DIS)” (Pyka, A., 2017) as a revised approach to IS framework. DIS allows for the study of the often-overlooked and contextually unique qualitative dynamics that influence innovation processes in the informal and insecure institutional local contexts of developing countries. Specifically, this work focuses on DIS practical application in the Mexican local context. It builds upon the concept of “Dedicated Actors (DAs)” to examine the roles that system actors play in fostering directionality, legitimacy, and responsibility in DIS sustainability transformations. This thesis addresses the overall research question: How can Dedicated Actors (DAs) introduce a commitment to sustainability in DISs in informal and insecure institutional settings in Michoacán, Mexico? To respond to the research question, three sets of sub-questions are explored: (a) what are the characteristics of DAs that allow them to direct IS towards sustainable outcomes in informal and insecure institutional settings in Michoacán, Mexico; (b) what is the role of DAs in the building of collective capabilities in informal and insecure institutional settings in Michoacán, Mexico? and (c) what are the local capabilities that result from DIS in informal and insecure institutional settings in Michoacán, Mexico? As the focus of the thesis has been the study of innovation-led transformations towards sustainability at the local level, the research has prioritised the analysis of Dedicated Grassroots Actors (DGAs) through three practical case studies. A first research finding looks at the characteristics that define DGAs and positions them as agents of systemic change. DGAs are found to be actors that break out of the “paradox of embedded agency” because of their prior exposure to the institutional spheres that contrast local established beliefs; and that are “positively” embedded in local institutions, which allows them to circumvent existing cultural beliefs, and stretch societal norms. A second finding of this research refers to the roles of DGAs in the building of collective capabilities in informal and insecure institutional settings in Michoacán, Mexico. Three main roles have been identified: (1) conscientisation: DGAs create awareness in local people, foster critical reflection on alternatives to perceived feasible possibilities, and inspire a desire to improve their lives; (2) conciliation: DGAs play a strong role in fostering the creation of collective capabilities by enabling linkages between individual needs with wider sustainability communal goals, and coordinating community participation and active voice, as well as facilitating knowledge exchange and skills acquisition; (3) collaboration: DGAs have an active role in facilitating collaboration with regional and external actors. A third research finding relates to the creation of collective capabilities in informal and insecure settings in Michoacán, Mexico. It was observed that a general sense of collective injustice within these institutional settings encourages local communities to adopt collective strategies to resist injustices caused by external conditions. The local communities from the case studies, tended to develop resilience capabilities to face poverty traps, violence, and a lack of social mobilisation. Although the creation of collective capabilities was initially triggered by issues related to economic and social factors (that are generally viewed and valued as high priorities in insecure and informal settings), these capabilities have also served to address other environmental challenges affecting local communities (e.g. climate change, biodiversity loss, deforestation, etc.).
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper explores the impact of supply chain (SC) disruptions on the performance outcomes of a semiconductor company during the Covid-19 pandemic and propose appropriate risk mitigation strategies to overcome this crisis. This research uses a single case study methodology and 24 SC employees in Belgium and Germany took part in a survey. To measure the effect of SC disruptions on the firm's financial performance, quarterly financial statement data was collected from the years 2018 to 2021. The results of the regression analysis show that there is no significant impact of SC disruptions on the firm's productivity and non-financial performance. The paired samples t-test suggests that there is no significant change in the firm's financial performance before and during Covid-19. This may be due to the political and economic stability of Belgium and Germany or the fact that the semiconductor company has developed effective SC risk management strategies to deal with Covid-19.
Article
Full-text available
The necessity of epistemological theorisation for management science is questionable. However, epistemology can be useful if the following distinction between three kinds of epistemology, usually overlooked, is taken into account: epistemology as a structured academic discipline, epistemology as an intellectual exercise produced outside academic epistemology, and finally the epistemology specific to each researcher. When this distinction is not made, epistemology can become counterproductive and impede scientific work.
Thesis
This research aims to better understand and define some characteristics and conditions of innovation theory and practice in relation to mobile technology. Mobile technology is seen as a potential actor and new model for transforming ideas into action and for managing creativity and organisational management in the realm of the Creative Industries. Based on a qualitative approach, this research highlights three salient elements associated with mobile technology. The first is an enrichment of the fluidity of innovation processes filling a gap in the literature on mobile technology, organisational and knowledge management, and collaborative and innovative practices within SMEs. Secondly, this research contributes to a new vision of the concept of ba (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995) beyond organisational boundaries, and the definition of the ba mobile. Finally, it also providesa new perspective on the work of Cohendet et al. (2010) regarding 'creative slack' and associated notions of value creation and capture for SMEs.
Article
Full-text available
The need to curb the soaring trend of residential neighbourhood crime, considering its negative impact on the neighbourhood in general and property value in particular is not to be given the expected attention in academia and government settings. However, the consequences of residential neighbourhood crime are found to be devastating. Hence, this study proposes a Socio-Environmental Design Factors (SEDeF) model for residential neighbourhood crime toward improving property value in Nigeria. Purposive and systematic sampling techniques were adopted, while logistic regression and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and achieve the set objectives. The findings showed that social risk factors (poverty, unemployment, juvenile delinquencies, illiteracy, and homelessness) and the environmental design factors (natural access control, surveillance, efficient maintenance, territorial functioning, and target hardening) are capable of influencing residential neighbourhood crime in Nigeria. The results of the analysis find the set hypotheses to be significant. This is shown through the regression weights and p-values of the influence of the social risk factors and environmental design factors on residential neighbourhood crime to be 0.69 (0.000) and 0.14 (0.000), respectively. Also, the impact of residential neighbourhood crime on property value gives regression weight and p-value at 0.47 and 0.000, respectively. The model fitness is further guaranteed by the R2, which stands at 52%. The interpretation of these results is that applying social development programmes to tackle the social risk factors and purposeful manipulation of the residential neighbourhood through design could go a long way to decrease neighbourhood crime and boost property values. This research serves as an awakening call to the Nigerian government, policymakers, and researchers to tackle property crime to ensure housing sustainability and property value appreciation, among others.
Article
Analyzing multiple data sources from a global information technology (IT) consulting multinational enterprise (MNE), this research unpacks the configuration of a digitalized HR ecosystem of artificial intelligence(AI)‐assisted human resource management (HRM) applications and HR platforms. This study develops a novel theoretical framework mapping the nature and purpose of a digitalized AI‐assisted HR ecosystem for delivering exceptional employee experience (EX), an antecedent to employee engagement (EE). Employing the theoretical lenses of EX, EE, AI‐mediated social exchange, and engagement platforms, this study's overarching aim of this article is to establish how AI‐assisted HRM fits into an organization's ecosystem and, second, how it impacts EX and EE. Our findings show that AI‐assisted applications for HRM enhance EX and, thus, EE. We also see increases in employee productivity and HR function's effectiveness. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
Article
Objetivo: describir el proceso de implementación de la PAIS percibido desde sus actores y las particularidades territoriales del departamento del Cauca. Materiales y métodos: investigación de perspectiva cualitativa que adopta el estudio de caso y como referente, el modelo analítico de Subirast. Se realizaron 14 entrevistas semiestructuradas a líderes de procesos, se revisaron 47 documentos de planeación y se complementó información con un diario de campo. Resultados: el proceso de implementación de la PAIS permitió avances desde algunos elementos del marco estratégico y operativo, sin embargo, los participantes vivencian limitaciones en la adopción de la atención primaria, la autoridad sanitaria y la articulación de actores. El talento humano en salud es fundamental en la política, sin embargo, su permanencia en territorio es discontinua. Conclusiones: el limitado trabajo interinstitucional, las prácticas clientelares, la débil autoridad sanitaria y la falta de estructuras de gestión acorde a la PAIS, conducen a pensar en la necesidad de acrecentar capacidades y recursos para nivelar la comprensión y operación de estrategias contemplados en la política. Se insiste en la debilidad estatal para hacer efectiva la regulación, el control y la vigilancia de los actores en salud.
Chapter
Full-text available
In a Danish context regular (weekly or biweekly) education outside the classroom (EOtC), school-based outdoor learning or learning outside the classroom (LOtC) is called udeskole and aims to enhance both health and education. The purpose of this chapter is to present two Danish research projects; the Søndermark School and TEACHOUT studies. It highlights the impact and potentials of physical activity (PA) in primary school based on results from pupils (grade 3–6 grade—year 9–12), taught weekly outside the classroom and school buildings. The chapter summarises how teaching in nature, green areas or using cultural institutions like museums, factories, cemeteries etc. has an impact on PA levels. The Søndermark School study in Copenhagen investigated whether udeskole in urban nature or cultural institutions helps to increase children’s PA in four classes. 44 girls and 40 boys (grade 4–6) participated in this study, where the PA was measured for seven consecutive days. For all 84 pupils, the average PA was significantly higher on udeskole days compared to traditional school days without PE lessons. The average PA levels among boys were significantly higher than among girls in all mentioned settings, except on days with PE lessons, where both sexes’ PA levels were equal. As part of the TEACHOUT research project, PA of 663 children was measured 24 h a day for 9–10 consecutive days. Udeskole classes were compared with control classes, i.e. their parallel classes, from 12 schools located in different parts of Denmark, in a quasi-experimental design. A gender comparison was made on a weekly basis, i.e. days with more than 150 min of udeskole were compared with traditional school days and days with physical education (PE) classes. Measured over a whole week, boys having udeskole were more physically active than boys in control classes and girls in both settings. No difference was found between girls in udeskole and the comparison classes during a week, but girls on udeskole days were associated with a greater proportion of PA at light intensity than on traditional school days and days with PE lessons. In general, the children were far less sedentary during udeskole compared to traditional classroom teaching.
Article
Circular Economy (CE) implementation is considered an instrumental strategy to help reaching the world's resource, energy, and climate mitigation targets, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. However, major barriers must be overcome to facilitate CE implementation in industry such as cultural, market, regulatory and technological considerantions (Kirchherr et al., 2018). Improving management systems within industrial companies is crucial when implementing effective CE solutions in compliance with existing industrial standards such as quality and environmental management systems. However, it is not yet common practice yet due to the lack of standardized, suitable, and easy-to-use supporting analytical tools. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting Industrial Circular Economy Questionnaire (ICEQ), a self-diagnosis questionnaire built upon the revision of industrial harmonized standards and, academic literature on business-level CE assessment tools. ICEQ, compiling a set of 165 questions for company self-CE assessment, was applied to 30 industrial companies belonging to 17 economic sectors (automotive, machining and metalworking transformation, waste management, machine tool, etc.) in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) in Spain. The automotive sector stands out with 70% of circularity while Machining and metalworking transformation only has 34%, showing that the automotive sector is more conscious of CE since they must comply with End-of-Life Vehicles (EoLV) legislation.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.