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Experimental studies of the anti-inflammatory activity of a homeopathic preparation



The effects of Arnica montana, either alone or in combination with other homeopathic substances, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies. However its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. This paper presents the findings of a study of the antii-inflammatory effects of Traumeeel (a preparation containing Arnica montana and other plant extracts as well as minerals that could potentially work synergistically) using various in vitro and in vivo models.
Key words: Tazaaalo§ supetoxide
mion rsay, neuuophil md platelet
adhesion osa1s, adjuv@t dthritis,
carageenan-induced edema.
'l he oti-iaflammarory effects of
Afltid nontdflq either alone or in
combination vidr otter homeopathic
substances, have heer obseryed in
experimental and clinical studies,
Howeyer, its me.hdism of action hd
not been elucidàted. This pàper pre-
senrs the ffndings of a stu<lv of the
anri-inflammato.v effects of
Tta m.elqs (^prcpùarion ontairing
Ar ;.d tuontdfta ud other plant
extacts c vell o minerals that could
potentially work synergistically) using
rùiots in riùo and in liùÒ tuo<lels.
The etrect of Tramte"!,'S or t*o
importmt cellulù functions, nmelv
superoxide ion production ànd
human plarelet adhesion, w6 t6ted.
TtarneeFS did not affect either of
thesc celluld tun.tions, suggesting
thrt its atrti'infldmàtory effectr ùe
rot du€ to grmùloq«e ànd platel.t
iahibitioo. These lìndings also suggest
that the antimidobial fuactions of
immune cells such c granulogctes
re not &srupted by lrazrzeel.iS.
}r zao experiments using models of
chronic md acure irflammation show
thar ir the sc of subnuimal activa-
tion of the inflammatory response!
TiazzaeliS signiffcmdy rednco the
developmenr of Iocal edena Guch as
thar seen in the Èrst ph*e ofadjuvmt
arthritisl and causes a r50/o ieduction
of the carmgeenan-induced edema
*.hen adninistered locallv. These
results that the anti-infldma-
:ory etr..ts of TtdatueelèS are not due
Coraoai.r,i EJpr n,(oraLsÌud,c on lrxumc.lls
Experimental Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory
Activity of a Homeopathic Preparation
A. CoMorri, S. Benani, tl. N,lerelnànn, S. CLirunbÒlÒ', S. Lùsignoli', and BclLalirc'
lmdrure ol lharmacology, Un;,ersLw of \ierÒnà, ltrlv
Bìologische Heiìmìrtel Hetl GnbH, Ba.Len Baden, GernàùI
'lnstittrte oI Clìnicil Che!, isrr y and lfic, oscopr: Lrniversi$ of \èiona, lrJ!
to iÌs aciion on a speciffc t?e of
imunonodùlating c€ll or due to à
biochemical mechanism associated
*ith conventional dti-infl matorv
drugs. Instea4 Ttdme.lrs àppets ro
inhibit the acute inflammatory
process at the local level.
lhe bkxsorns ot Amta nottma ate
used thempeuricilly prìnarìLv for Lhcn
ànt;inllamrnirory.nd ùrlgcsic propcr-
ries. -fhere àrc mor. tlìù 150
lbrances in Arnicr blosoms rnd. of
ther. hderalir and its dcLratires and
llavoroirls are rhe most inportant. The
ùti hfl.lrmanrn' and antimic«,bial
rctìriries of thesr sub*anes have been
dcnorsrraerl bodr tu ùm tt1 it Llo
l1.ll. A nedninàl prcpanti(,n onÈin
ing rctìre substrncts frm ,.1rrirt mr
rzra rogerhe, +rth other planr ertracr
ard oirerals that could porertiallr act
srnergisd.rllv has lten Jer.elopeJ br
Heel and is callcd Trnwelt'\. rlLe prL
inI) indi.[iÒDs of ,,,r,../iJ nrdudc
vri)u\ ivp.s oflesioDs aDd nillÙuiro-
,v prucesses oI rhe nrclcs rnd jona
such as sprùx and ì:nLiscs. fts cffìcr*
has hern dernonstntcd in a nurbcL of
experimrntrl and chrì..] srudics i3,11,
incltLrlìng rardonìzcd, doublcìlind,
phcebo colnoìled oials. Horercr the
lrc.hanìsnìGl bv Bhi.h lzr,,../nJ
crcrrs ir anti inlLnnatorv eflècts hare
hererolòre ,u been .larifìeJ.
Ìr rhìs paper rve teporr ase,ies of*uJ
ics on aniiì31 models ro improre the
undesrinding of linnna!'S atul ;*
nechanim ot rnti intlamnao,y actòn
ìn comparnon rith clasicrl rnti iniìan rh. dillìrcnr uss of
]]atnttliS iLt humus, oro rnimrl
nodeLs of inflan,narion havc bcor
ernployd. for asscsog its el1ècr on
chro c ìnflamnarlor T un,l:ts wa.
adnìliisrered ro nrs vìrh àdjùrant
anlrLtn (Ai.), rhich sLares rvirh human
rhcurmtoid arthrìris nanl ìomunologi
cal, biocliemical, and clinìcal charactcris-
rics. Adjuraor atrì,rirìs mav be induced
i! by inje.ting inb rhe hìnd paw or
rall a mrieg ol killed mycobacterla sus
penderl in ninerri oil. The sequcncc oi
phvsioìogiceL eflccrs is charactcrizerl b-r
etlv Loc nrlLunation ard, atler nvo
weeks, dìsscnnnrcd arthrirìc ìesions.
B..iusc of irs reprodu.ibilin, AA ;
widclv use,l tor rudring antl-inflamna
ron and immunomoJnlaory agens.
l,o.assesing n\ effr.t Òn r.u( nrlli!!
matx,n, 7i,,,r../is $,as Lestcd h car-
Lageenar-ìnduced rrlemr in msr a tcs
rhat is currentlv emplored for ruL{lcs of
corrcntnnal anti-in1ìammauv rinLgs.
Ìr rte caragecnan-ìnduced edema er,
rìre eanr *reìling nal have a serotonin
component since it crn be inhibited
tLsins serotonin anusÒnrs Hrta"ùìc
rloes ror rpy'ar to phv a signifìcant role
h Lhis rpc ofrcurc nflarn!ìarion, rhile
prosraglandns (l'G, flav .n ìùpotranr
rolc nr the dcvclopneri ol rhe sccond
phrse of canagccran-ìnduced foot
,\ serìes oladditional experìnents 'vas
pertormed on the basic lunctìons ofreu
rophils and platelers o invesìgrte possi
ble eiTe*s ol l/,r,,?.li,.l Òn ..ll ù
tuncrions ard po*ible crtot,xirtr
2. Mareriàls.nd methods
2.r. & zoo experiments
Adluvam aÌÌh.itn srs irdtccL{ n
I ewis rrts *eìghing lrll .190 g br nilccr
28 Biomedical Therapy / Vol. XV / No. 1 1997
CotrLni,l, &pùrucl SÌuirs on lnumel
ing ino the pLantar ufre ofthe hind
parv 0.1 n of. srspension .ontàining
0.3 nrg of heat-killed M,v.Òbrcteriu!ì
buwricum (Mb) in rnineml oil. frevious
exterinenis using a sùslension ot 0.6
mgofMb droucd slight inhibnory e1}èct
by Trdtmel6's, so we decid.d rc "se
lorver arthritogcric concentration of Mb
ln o«1er to fird the experinentJ condr
rions to better emphasizt rhis nodulato-
Ttd nelJ,S w^\ giver ì.n. (0.11
nli n0 cver rwo <1ars from dav 2 ro day
28 after arthriris ìodùcriol accordìng to
therapeuric protocol. Conrrol rats
rcceived an equJ volunie of0.9% NaCl.
Everv two days the animàls wci.
weighed ard rheir contralatcraL paw
srvelling was me*und b,r r wrteL
pledrysmomru (Éod. 7150, Uso
Ba,ìle. Milan,Italv). The parv cdcna was
*rsed bv the e in pùv volune
comparcd to prv volLrme ncaured
bdorc anhrnis inductior.
fourteen.2l,18, ud 35 dai* alìer the
arlhrirogeric nrjecrion, arthrìtn delelop
ment was cvaluated bv the *me obsen,
er using an arbnrary scale as follows: Lcli
ard right hhd paws, each 0-7j lelì d.l
rìght fÒrepa§s, each 0-4.5i tuìl 0-5: eùs
0-2j nÒs. ind erÌs, er.h 0-1. The neao
parv sntllìng and thrids inder h ùc
groups of rerd ainals s,ere compand
§irh rhàt obtÀined in the coiirol group
erd rhe percentage of inl birioD rv6
Carrageenan-inductd edema was
induced br iniectlng 0.1 rnl of 1% car
ragcenan {suspended n srcrilc salinel
nìro the pLdrar surfacc of the lìind tàw
of 40 Sprague-Da§ley rats weighing
210 230 g. The lìrst group (n=21 ràrs)
receivcd 0.1 ml oi Tintùeel:.S in ù.it
hìnd pa§ one hour before the car
ragecran inleoìon od the second group
(n=8 ra§) \$ ù.àted i m. wlth 2 nicc-
dons of 0.1 ml oi araazral.S half an
houL before ad rir* cdcna inductior.
Each ofthr coorol rors (n=21) rec.n-ed
an identical \!!ùme oi 0.90,t, NaCl in
l he pr. . oLmes strc mcauLcd wit!
a nier ple-,i.soomctcr bcforc.nd 1. 3,
and i hoùi arrù -,-he càrixgccDin iljec-
tiÒr, and cdcma wa! as$sed bv measur
irg rhe j.crcase in pew volume com-
pared r'ìth rhe paw volume btfore the
inlection ol crngeenm l5l. The hern
pav welling in the treated group wrs
compared wrh thrt ofthe control group.
Thc rcsponse was *pressed s percent
ase inhibnn,n Geducrion) of nrflannu-
2.2- In litro .xpelnents
The neutrophil is one of the most
inporrut cells involved in the ;nflmr
nrtory respo,sei Prti.ùla.lY rvhen tis
suc damage or bacterial products re pre
scnt.'lheretàre. it *t o{i
the possible eilecs of laaz..l@.loD rhe
tìnuiom ofrhc reutrophil ce.Lls ìn titro-
'lìvo inportarr tunctions ol granulc
cytes verc rncarr.,l i" th. p..'.".. ."d
in the rbscnce of TidunebS, mtel'-
superolidc arion produ*n,n (vhich
reflccts the ability of the cells to nounr
an cxudarire metrbolic response nccca
sary ro kill microorganisns) ard adh*
sion to sermr coated plastic urLfìrces
(whìch nflects rhe abiliw of cclls ro
*press and actiratc mcmì:ranc adhcsìon
molecules, a piercquisirc for chcmotùìs
and phaso.rtosis). Ìr ùoLrld be poinrcd
out rhat nay conrcntioml anri nrflam-
maory md enrlgesìc compourds are
krorvn to inhibir one oL both of these
Hunar blood neutrcphils from
herlthy volunteos scre isolaed as
Jescribed prcviously I6l; upe.o*ìd.
erion ras neasured bv rhe SOD-
inhibital:le reduaion of leric,vochrone
c, and adherent ceLLs wen quantified by
measuring the monbranc cnzvmc rcid
phosphatrse 16l. 'Ìhc pcrccnragc of
adherentcelis rvas calculatcd by rncans of
a stand*d cuvc obrained wìrh knovn
numb*s ofnertropiils.
Inflanmatory and homcomric otnts
are stictLy ntcrluked ard it is stll
kro",n thar plrrelers are involved ìn
inflànrn.tor,ns. One ìmponant
nechanism br whi.h bhrdplarele$ pd
forn thcn functions is adhqion b the
lnjured rcsclwrì1, whìch ,rarbe regard-
ed o the cmcial first sep ofrhe hom«r
ràtic piocc$. Acauired or genetic
defeos for plateLet adhesìon may serious
lv conpror sc rÌrc Ìromcosriric process,
while an umecesrrv nrcrcase ni platelet
àdhesivcnc$ may resrlr n1 an jicreÀ€d
i6k of vascula. disorders. Since
Tizaarel@.! ho been used o net ta
maric onditiom whoe the hemorhrgìc
erenrs aLe highLy probrble md snrcc
helenalin là.tones fron AJnica !ìorrana
have been found ro ìnIìbir !ìatelet
dggresàrion [7], ìr wd ol ìnterest to
erpLore platelet lincrìon ìn rhe ptesence
The adhcsion of human plateles tu
fi brinogen-coated oLfaces wo rneasurc<1
asing a caloinetìc merhod bard on
rhc mcmbrane enrme acid phosphatase
[8l. lhe p-nitrophenoL prÒduced by rhc
reactn,n was mearrecl wi$ a microplate
reÀds Àt 40t nn rganxt a plateler-fìee
b1anL. The pcrcentagc of adheLent alls
wr cJcuLrrcd or thc basis ofa sandaLd
curve obranred wih a knorvn numb* of
3. Results
The th.rapcuric administration of
I'td""Èel.S lcà. ro r significanr Leduc-
rn,n in àcurc local infÌanmation (fìnt
phae of adjuvant artÌrrftis) nr compai-
«,n b the cÒntrÒls (Fisue l). Snicc ùis
etrect occuncd durnrg thc fisr l-7 days
ìn dre hind pan shere the Mb ra,
injc.rcd and ro! durins the gener:1ized
rrthriric reacrjon of ìmmunol,glcJ ori
gin, ìt suggess a srhlbmati. à.tiÒn or
locaÌ inflammaiion mth* than r capacl
ry to nodul,te the rvhole artlritic
proce$. 'lhì"- prcmpecl us to ue drc
conventi<»a1 moJels lòr à.ute inflam-
The elkcts of 7ì&nrcl.S on.av
ngeenrn edcma rrc rcponed h !ìgure 2.
ft can be rotcd that systcmìc adnìnrisra'
tio of l/a,,,1,1is (i.m.) did not rcdrce
edena rlevdopnent. §'len the dmg was
ìoÈdeJ inro thr hind pà1v onc hour
before crrageenu, ir appcarcd to nduce
edemNoluN by up ro lrqo (p=0.05).
TÌrs nrhibirior by tiaunrbS 1s simllat
to rhc c$eci by aspirin at a dose
of 30 mg/kg ln rhe same experìmeno1
model. l.he locaì inj*ion of lir""iÈliS
rr thc sune time ard halfan hor aftcr
cdcma inductrcn did not influence thc
Biomedical Therapy / Vol. XV / No. 1 1997 29
lNouttupnìl adlesion and sùDeroridc anio.
r:,.."g""n*i,"tu*a "r"*
Àc'r[oN oF rraralvrzz€{§
N trcphii ad6.\ion rcn{1i n,è :6iliLy oa tIÈ clls Ò dpres d r.lvte men$mr idhesion rol
cul6, x 0rre,lùisi.È là, .henoixn xnd phrgoqaosis
?lI€ler rdlìsion n dre (ùcnÌ tìrt ftp !lùc h.n!n{i. pn,r$. shi.f is {!.dr nìIe,ln,krJ
Camsesan-induc.ll .,lcsr n. m.,lèl.arùe n,nrnnnr on.
irljnanr.{hrirh n tr nìodel ol.h'onic inatrnmtrn.f,
Trb t : tianrtl'r.\ tìLitt rn erTu ittotd udt!: tt t i,rù r d I iù).
e ù si.eiifi cùn er,..!r., n,,ìihirion
Strpdonde miotr pnducrion rtt1e.6 r!.
rtspoNq lcrrsrùy ro LlÌ mi@!.!ari$s.
J by nrie.rioo in loco lh lÈroE
Fn! x.ùr! phaF !9.!U4j!Iqt! È!i!.
lbil,n oflh..dl! tu noù.r , Òrldrn. mlrboli.
[ir 1: Àt!r.rh,Lt. al ,ì,1jtunnt /..t!s i,!A): i,j{tul prtr tulti4 ùf..1]'ir! inn ,nd ùt
t..tìttrr0 tt rn!.l t;rt.kt!'t.\ i! a,trlnLrtht:fortlq2rutL4.z8rlio)liuhti
by tt t ngltr tl lltrtlmttìt'n tùar iaù i;tli,) tit tr,4l Ò11. Dùt tnt.lrt udt r
, ,l
fig.2: C,r*gatan-nlrtL e,laù: t'ar :rilmt. tf mi1! tr: tt -21). t.t: meit ng i;t
hiù pat a 2 nl oJ't'rarnc.ll.\ t hu l'?it Ln-*!rù nt=21) n ì ùt u!;Lins tùr
;ii?.iott i. . aJ 0.2 ùt .t t uwt'rs hnt tt iou btfut at di* ?ttt n in.hirn
nt-8,. Ttt. t!l^ tt u.ta ! S t) t)J nm qaùic e\Ì,ùìrun':. 'P<a 0i lsttli 1t t t?n.
LLe"elopnent oi intìanmarion drra ror
Ihc lr rr" clpcrtrnerB dulrd rh:r
/lza;rrr1-.( neirhcr srrnLrhr«1 ror
inhibite,l ùe hucriors of rlt rcr
rophiìs ùth rs rufc o{idc ifio! tnr
,lÌrrì.n :fn :JLe,l.f
FurLerrroLe. ',/i,r&t.J dìd nor
atièlt eithcr pornilch.r negrtnfh thc
plrr1t heslor sunuLtclL.r rLo nr
uiil igonìsrs, {Dìr ùd rlùonlLìlr.
A n,mm:rr ol /iz,ozrrl',.§ rct rin or
erper nenraì models nr lnz ild n, rr.,
Ih. .roq jignilì.rnl tìnL1n,s Èoor
rhes. itrlcsrlgariLrtrs is rh ar,,rir.:1.-\
,loes not 41ea, ro rcr as r comorioml
anti infìammr«,Lr drù.e ;in.€ fofe oi
the allùlu tìncrr»r rcrcd r, ,n,,
shored r.igniiìcrnt inhibition ared b"
the JnLs lrarar,lrS di.L re,lnte acrre
nLilunrLu, n dre test animLs
,",/rrl.-J', at rllc ligh.sL con.otr.rliÒn
r«rinrblc n cornccti'c rì$rcs Lrr
ì, k n.t roric ro l.ui.ocrrcs and
rÌarel.s. Ltiu,. rh. noDet dctcnsnr and
hoùeosriri. fLr.crioDs ot rhcsc cdls rrc
Àr pÒstrnc ron.L$b! rlìrt
.a! rr. drrrf noù .tl oI ltrr g rnloc, re
crperilrcnG is rhù ,i,/,r../r-! n'.ms
\rie to, rhesc utcs oicelh ard t[crctore
rloe" not nhibi dìc anrlmi.,obiil tìrr
ddèm.s rhich the granuìocites repre-
'enr. This point appea,s paricuì: r .lg-
nitì.r.t in vies olthe f.ssihle use olnre
drug in inmunoconp,onìised p idìts
or lvhere the tn"ue rnatonu could
lead o rrl oI;rfection (i.e.. ùù,mlr
rirh LatnLiors, bum, otolrrngerl Llis
Àlorcov*, rhc j:rcr rhir Lhc ccll ncLrb
o]trm ìs noL srhullcLl ip;ncdl rs *rir
orlÙ .lrugs aqqer' rhat Lrrrrrr:J
Llocs rot hlt Lhc potentiJl, .t:ler:riùr\
clltrs olnnmno*nrLrL:ol rgo::. 1iLr
crtolrnr, oi]orornrs l4,oforsi..hl
rldesl, :nd orh:,,ial ..mtnf..r.
The use oi{ce r{enr i. rorrairJicared
in patids "irh intlamm:rion of
enrlogenru, oririr iin panirular auoin
30 Biomedical Therapv / Vol. XV / No. r 1997
il-i*i ,, ,r, a*p.i-oa s'au "' T"-"l"s
lLunlrÌ1. Ho$o€r, bAed on dJÉ
ùi. dr* nor àPPer rc be à Prohl'nr
Tte i, ,;ùo {udies con6rm thar
In,,r1./"Sdoc. not,cr rn the §me
* -,nreotional anti-lnJlm'mrto'J dft'g\
antl rugge* rht need to finJ new rnd
more àPP.oPflJre models m n'i g:É
-e.hrni'm ol,crion' 5rn* thc adlu
.:nt rrthrir. s a moJel toL rreimmune
rlrea< r. n"r nsnrfiLrntlv inhibikd bn
7iz,zc.l,S, the drug does nor àpPear ro
htr\c rmouro'uPPresitt
rmmuromodulatol e{ecB à ci N!Ù-
sio. \h,"h s c.nsistent wtrh !a'k Ùt
.lf.cs "n ldrkoclt. hrNooi\ /' ''e'
Hov.'er Iaaaraets! is abìe to sìgnttt-
,rndv uh,brt the 1ìr't Phrk ol rrhr'ns
whtn rhe dnot is nJtcd bv r vot'r
,p i (Mb at lo$er c"'c'ntr{roor' $
.i-,"*n.n-irdr«d eJ'm resa
r-aia1,r ,ed".e. ellemr only when
rhe irleLnoo is adrrinnrreJ ì"rll1'
,,r,,..r'"S lPPer\ o *cn ir rhsr-
otuo. effics b' rnctucting not §rd' l
i.<,fi. cell rP. Òr hrochcmic:l m(hl
;i'm amotrg ùo\e {ùdred dru' tri but
b\ lLne ,nd.omPlc( rtgularion of lure
l;-l '"flamm,tio" \hlrc n tr lnù$n
rhàt ncur"peltidù rcl''s«l b' rnsnit
,,..,. ",,di,'e' Flàl L criflcJ r'ìe l')l'
1',Jtmi,rarv- "b.e 'rro" l'd " to
hroorh.rnt rhrr IaarrazF) rnar atfe'c
"."-*",..-t..,'-'' f rnfìarrn:rt on
,*l hì«ier ,oLr.h is n*deJ to irve*r
sate rhis Po$ible lrechànism ofacrion'
Iil auzollLr L, a,'nfnrrr \, AJJmr -À'
Lssietroli s Nl.iennnàr D€ S"lJro
t Reiori G. PhamntoL Xcr 1995i 3t
(r):61 5.
tu l lleilarire ll (hLrumL'olo
nt..*,1d" C C.Lndloi G Dn P
Ldi?Lqt? Bxl .,)92, 51 .329'35
I:l s.hrodcr H, Losc[c \ Srrobrch
H.'L.."n !q vill,hn G, Till U S'l''"'
K- Thtunh. Ra. 1990t 51 :839'45 -
tsl Bel[ure I] ,{idrioli (ì' Cuz?u I
( ii;,.b.1. s, Manzrr' F' Lei c'
lnaL. Bìochatt. 1994; 216:444 5A-
l9l Brrncs l! Bdvni MG, Roges DH
fl?S 19901 11:185-89.
hrrutÒ di larna.olosir
Univcrsnr dl Verom
Ì'oiicìinico l'1. Ronn
lll \X/rlnsmtr R, V/oti.lenbrg Hl'
q,i,.e \\ 7";6/,,,1 rtr Ìhrtui'dnfic.
r995r 1:48 62.
l7l Ktrbo I Muror H KuLo '\'
Ch";Jhu,i sK \Àn.htz Y Osu'À I
ANinicrobial aeents froF Heterorttcca
;nnlaiàes ?h"u Me,Lcn' 1994 6:ztq
,1. Mru i,
f4l Tniet w, Botho B BioL' Mtd'
l99l r 20:506.
Zdl l, a'rrnt( \ÙD'
P.ì,-sqke C. Fotr't MeJ'
ffiTÈ lh. to*trÀ,ot.l'd'aal@Ta"'i''' .r,.,,uo,. How.r.r nro,ntsr.d,er(. ,{n . no ,ra.."d:t ld
ioenrrcal rngredtens L fu'aù1t95 r!e'l rn _ ''- _. -,^.t, ",t ,hra. ,noo al d. p"
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Biomedical Therapy / VoI XV / No 1 1997 31
... Jest nie tylko lekiem regulującym stan zapalny, działa również przeciwbólowo, przeciwobrzękowo i przeciwwysiękowo, stymuluje także proces gojenia tkanek. Szybko zmniejsza stan zapalny, redukuje ból i obrzęk oraz pobudza pro ces kolagenogenezy, wpływając korzystnie na kondycję tkanki łącznej włóknistej wiotkiej [5,6]. W przeciwieństwie do NLPZ, nie hamuje agregacji granulocytów obojętnochłonnych i ich migracji do obszarów objętych stanem zapalnym [7,8]. ...
... Ponadto badania in vitro wykazały, że Traumeel ® S (w największym stężeniu możliwym do uzyskania w tkance łącznej po miejscowym wstrzyknięciu) nie jest toksyczny wobec leukocytów ani trombocytów. Za chowane są zatem prawidłowe funkcje ochronne i homeostatyczne elementów morfotycznych krwi [5]. ...
... Skuteczność terapeutyczną leku badano również w przewlekłych stanach zapalnych na modelu reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów u szczurów, indukowanego za pomocą adjuwantu Freunda (FCA -ang. complete Freund's adjuvant) [5,11]. Podawanie leku w celach leczniczych prowadziło do znacznego zmniejszenia ostrego miejscowego stanu zapalnego (pierwszy etap indukowanego zapalenia stawów), w porównaniu z grupą kontrolną. ...
... In vitro effect of Traumeel ® S (a homeopathic dilution containing Arnica montana and other plant extracts as well as minerals) on two important cellular functions, namely superoxide anion production and human platelet were tested and found this drug did not affect either of these cellular functions, suggesting that its anti-inflammatory effects are not due to granulocytes and platelet inhibition. [33] Homeopathic treatment with Rhus tox induced chondrocyte differentiation and inflammatory responses, such as COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, in primary cultured chondrocytes. [34] The induction of COX-2 expression is closely associated with the release of PGE2, and treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor reduces inflammation in animal models. ...
... [39] Arnica montana also reported to reduce the development of local oedema (such as that seen in the first phase of adjuvant arthritis) and caused a reduction of the carrageenan-induced oedema when administered locally in rats. [33] The positive effects of Arnica montana 6C on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were reported. [40] Carrageenan-induced inflamed rats showed signs of reduced inflammation by showing less intense oedema and lower percentage of mast cell degranulation increase in lymphatic vessels diameter when treated with Arnica montana 6C. ...
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Background: Before the 20th century, research in Homeopathy was limited either for its proving in healthy human volunteers or to its clinical verification/clinical efficacy in diseased individuals. However, in recent years, there has been an increased trend in the number of pre-clinical studies aimed to evaluate the pharmacological activity produced by homeopathic medicines. The objective of this review is to make a systemic compilation of results of experimental pharmacological findings of homeopathic medicines, both in vitro and in animal models, and to present the same in a summarised form. Methods: Articles published up to March 2017 having information of in vitro and in vivo studies using homeopathic medicines were collected from the PubMed database, review articles, scientific reports, research articles, thesis, online information extracted from Medline, etc. to compile this review. The articles from the most common therapeutic areas such as antimicrobial effect, central nervous system disorders, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticancer, wound healing, antiasthmatic and liver toxicity and other therapeutic areas such as diabetes and malaria were included in this review. Results: This review article not only provides the scientific approaches applied in Homeopathy research but also provides evidence-based information on pharmacological effects of dilutions/potencies as well as mother tincture of different homeopathic drugs. This review article also reveals the use of improved methodology, molecular techniques and analytical part adopted in recently published research articles to understand the mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Conclusion: Homeopathy has substantial scope in pre-clinical research where therapeutic and biological effects of homeopathic medicines with proper mechanism of action can be traced out with the use of modern molecular techniques in in vivo and in vitro experiments.
... A. montana is a beautiful mountain daisy mostly found in acidic soils and mountain pastures. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities (Conforti et al., 1997). , reported that the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina was significantly inhibited by A. montana. ...
Full-text available
Nowadays, homeopathy is being rapidly practiced almost all over the world for preventing or curing human and plant diseases. In the current study, homeopathic medicine, i.e., Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis, sulfur, and silicea were applied against plant disease causing pathogens, i.e., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Ascochyta rabiei, Alternaria solani, Septoria lycopersici, and Phomopsis vexans. The radial mycelium growth of these species was found to be significantly decreased with the increased concentrations of homeopathic medicine under in vitro condition. At 8 days after inoculation, the highest inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, A. solani, S. lycopersici, A. rabiei, and P. vexans over control was observed with T. occidental at 200 ppm (73.73%), T. occidentalis at 200 ppm (76.73%), A. montana at 200 ppm (64.22%), silicea at 200 ppm (59.77%), and sulfur at 200 ppm (53.82%), respectively. Accordingly, these fungal species minimal radial growth was as follows: 22.80 mm, 18.10 mm, 31.66 mm, 34.91 mm, and 38.12 mm. Such findings outline the potential of homeopathic medicine treatment in the reduction of mycelial growth of several fungal species affecting consumed crops.
... Conforti and Lussignoli have observed reduction in IL6 levels in rat paw edema model of inflammation 17,18 . Al Santo et al have shown Rhus tox. ...
... (26,27) Thus the relation between periodontal health and diabetes has been described as bidirectional. (28) Traumeel is a homeopathic remedy that represent a good example of bioregulatory medicine through modulating inflammatory pathways by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines and up regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, (29)(30)(31) More over Žilinskas J etal (2011) (17) proved that traumeel had an antioxidant effect thus using traumeel with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties In the present study, we noted that PPD, CAL,and MGI were significantly decreased in the test group and control group after 3 months as well as the HbAlc, serum and crevicular TNF-α , concerning FBG and FBI levels they also decreased and are a good indication for the improvement of insulin resistance as when the FBI decrease this means that more insulin start to enter the cells to start to consume it for energy production which occur only when insulin resistance decrease. ...
... This is evidently something which requires further investigation; perhaps worth noting in this aspects that a number of studies have found certain physico-chemical characteristics of diluted and succussed solutions. Preparation of homeopathic medicines are done by the process of dynamization, in which a miniscule quantity of the original natural medicinal essence is vital when manufacturing these medicines, as these remedies are supposed to be harmless associated with less adverse effects [31,32,33,34,35]. ...
... В отличие от НПВП Траумель С и входящие в его состав компоненты не влияют непосредственно на метаболизм арахидоновой кислоты, но оказывают биорегуляторное действие посредством ингибирования различных провоспалительных цитокинов, таких как интерлейкин (ИЛ)-2, ИЛ-6 и фактор некроза опухоли a; модулирования регуляторных T-клеток/трансформирующего фактора роста b, а также ингибирования cекреции ИЛ-b и ИЛ-8 [36][37][38][39][40], что обуславливает лучшую безопасность и переносимость препарата по сравнению с НПВП. ...
... There is evidence that Traumeel is involved in the microbiologic biochemical pathways regarding inflammation. While reducing acute inflammation similar to NSAIDS, Traumeel does not affect granulocyte function or human platelet adhesion in vitro [22]. There is evidence to suggest that Traumeel accelerates the healing process rather than inhibiting edema development directly. ...
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Traumeel is a compound that is utilized by a wide variety of healthcare practitioners to treat inflammatory states. It is utilized extensively in Germany for multiple inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this document is to review and critique publications written about Traumeel and Traumeel S, a proprietary formulation. Furthermore, this review will determine if the literature supports substituting Traumeel for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids or if adding Traumeel to NSAID and corticosteroid treatment protocols benefits patients with inflammation. Long-term use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids causes significant pathology leaving many patients without an effective treatment to manage their inflammatory condition. Traumeel does not have the severe side effect profile of NSAIDs and corticosteroids. There are important implications of the studies included in this review. The literature supports Traumeel as an effective alternative to NSAIDS and corticosteroids in preventing stomatitis for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Traumeel also provides pain-free outcomes following musculoskeletal and tissue injuries.
... The current study shows that homeopathic treatment used as a complementary method leads to encouraging clinical results, comparatively with the classical treatment with massage, physio-and kinetotherapy, at least in terms of speed of installation of the therapeutic effect, but requires further research on a larger number of patients, to confirm or refute with certainty the effectiveness of the drug combination in the treatment of low back pain with Traumeel S associated to conventional treatment. Till present time, we could not find any other references concerning the treatment of low back pain with Traumeel in the specialty literature (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24). ...
Full-text available
Abstract. The current study aims to assess the effects of associating Traumeel S to the classical treatment with physiotherapy, massage and kinetotherapy, in order to facilitate the recovery in patients with low back pain. Until now, we included in the study a total of 20 patients, aged between 20-86, divided into two groups (study and control group). During the study, a clinical improvement was faster found in patients treated complementary with Traumeel S, with better values, in the 6th day of the treatment, but in the end, patients experienced similar conditions in terms of quality of life and VAS score. Larger number of patients have to be included in the study in order to make a relevant statistical evaluation and confirm with certainty the effects of the complementary treatment with Traumeel S in patients with low back pain.
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