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Making a difference with CPS: A summary of the evidence

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Making a difference with CPS: A summary of the evidence

Many of the references were first published in: Isaksen, S. G. & De Schryver, L. (2000).
Making a difference with CPS: A summary of the evidence. In S. G. Isaksen, (Ed.), Facilitative
leadership: Making a difference with creative problem solving (pp. 187-248). Dubuque, IA:
Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Available as a free download from cpsb.com.
© The Creative Problem Solving Group, Inc. 2015. Current as of 9/4/19
A Compendium of Evidence
for Creative Problem Solving
Scott G. Isaksen
Creative Problem Solving Group, Inc.
BI Norwegian Business School
Creative Problem Solving version 6.1™ is a contemporary
framework for managing change and meeting the
innovation challenge.
Those who have attended our training programs and workshops have used a variety
of words to describe our approach:
Proven CPS has been applied and researched for more than 65 years by
individuals, teams, and organizations around the world.
PortableCPS is easy to learn and can be applied directly after training.
Powerful CPS can be integrated with other methods and approaches to help
make a real difference.
Practical CPS can be applied on a variety of challenges, from everyday
problems to long-term opportunities.
Positive CPS helps to unleash creative talents and embraces a diversity of
problem-solving styles. It promotes effective teamwork, helps to creative a
constructive climate for creativity, and helps to approach challenges with an
optimistic attitude.
When we say that Creative Problem Solving version 6.1™
is based on 65 years of research and development, we
mean it.
This document provides a summary of the evidence by including selected
references to a variety of publications and research. Aside from citing clear
conceptual and philosophical literature that supports CPS, 1029 studies, reports,
case studies, and publications are included.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 2
Sections of the Compendium
Section Page
Introduction 3
1. A solid and explicit conceptual foundation exists 5
2. Subjected to continuous research and development 18
Buffalo-based foundational work 18
Instructional Materials are Available 19
Cognitive Styles Project 20
Other Evidence 27
3. Courses and programs have been evaluated 35
Scholarly reviews and syntheses 40
4. There is experimental evidence 46
Foundational Evidence 46
Brainstorming Research 47
Electronic Brainstorming 58
Extended Effort 62
Individual versus Group 62
Literature Reviews 64
5. There is evidence of course impact 67
6. CPS has been widely applied 73
Case Studies 79
A Compendium of Evidence Page 3
A Compendium of Evidence
Scott G. Isaksen
Founder,
The Creative Problem Solving Group
Professor,
Leadership and Organizational Behavior
BI-Norwegian Business School
Why Creative Problem Solving?
There are many models available to help people manage change (Isaksen & Tidd,
2006). With so many different models and methods available, we are often asked:
Why do you take such a deliberate stance on Creative Problem Solving? Why not
de Bono’s approach, Design Thinking, Synectics®, Triz, or any of the other methods
that are out there?
We believe that there is unique value derived from building a contemporary
approach on the basis of a tradition of more than 60 years of research and
development. CPS has withstood the test of time, and has been enriched by a
growing global community of practice and research.
The purpose of this document is to create a road map of a big part of the creativity
field for people interested in knowing if there is an actual research base behind that
“creativity stuff.” Our goal is to take stock of the available evidence in support of
learning and applying Creative Problem Solving (CPS). We reserve the use of the
capitalized letters CPS for the Osborn-Parnes and Buffalo-based method that
originated in the early 1950’s with the seminal work of Alex Osborn. (We use the
small letters cps for the rather large and inclusive family of change methods that
promote creative thinking and problem solving.) There is much more to creativity
than CPS, but it would be a difficult task to take stock of everything ever written on
creativity or its enhancement from an all-inclusive perspective.
We saw the challenge as assembling everything we were aware of that provided
evidence that learning and applying CPS made a difference. We are certain that we
did not collect every shred of evidence. In fact, we invite you to find something
that we missed. We will include it in future editions of this document and credit you
for the find!
Our experience tells us that people are often overwhelmed by the amount of
information available on creativity. This creates a particular problem when they
have to deal with the new focus on creativity and innovation. When participants,
clients, consultants, academics and students venture into relatively unfamiliar
territory, knowing that there is a foundation underpinning their efforts may help
A Compendium of Evidence Page 4
them along. We believe that those interested in facilitative leadership in general,
and more specifically, the facilitation of Creative Problem Solving, can benefit from
being aware of the research and related literature that supports their practice.
This road map starts with some foundational work. In order to know where we are
going as a discipline, we first need to know from where we came. Although the
field of creativity is relatively young, creativity has intrigued many authors and
researchers for many decades, even going back to Duff (1767). This foundational
work consists of three parts: some historical perspectives, major theoretical
approaches, and finally some general philosophical support.
Secondly, we focused on the research and development that is occurring not only in
Buffalo, but also in Europe and in other parts of the world. During the last few
decades, researchers have been building evidence that CPS does have a positive
impact on individuals, teams and organizations. This evidence has grown through
case studies, the development of programs, and their evaluation, in the United
States, England, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and all over the world.
Finally, we focused on some experimental evidence. Researchers, clients, and
those in organizations want to have more than a surface understanding of some of
the important issues around introducing and nurturing creative behavior and
creative output. What are the underlying mechanisms that push individuals, teams,
departments and organizations to be innovative? In the last part of this document
the reader will find references to brainstorming research and impact research.
Finally, an overview of a wide range of CPS applications and case studies is
provided.
The central question that organizes this document is “How do we know that
training, teaching, learning or applying CPS is worthwhile?” There are numerous
ways to know that learning something is worth the effort. We invest our resources
in teaching and learning because the content we choose makes sense. We also
know that it is worthwhile if it works or makes a real difference in the world. Each
of the major subheadings provides a basic assertion to answer the central question.
These are followed with a short narrative to explain the assertion, and then a series
of selected references to support it.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 5
1. A solid and explicit conceptual foundation exists.
There is a wealth of evidence to support the teaching and learning of CPS from
conceptual, theoretical and philosophical viewpoints. Support for teaching and
learning creativity comes from a variety of sources. CPS fits a conceptual context
of an identified domain (creativity) and there is sufficient knowledge to inform the
sub-domain. There is a long-term history to the concept, numerous theoretical
foundations support its deliberate development and an established philosophical
literature provides even further support.
Historical perspectives
There is a great deal of mythology associated with the concept of creativity. Most
of the mythology has some historical basis. Some believe that creativity is magical,
mysterious, or linked with madness. These myths have their basis in history. First,
from the point of view of the Greeks and Romans as an act of divine inspiration,
then later as a unique gift from heredity or special talent.
God’s Gift of Genius
The earliest thinkers to take up the subject of creativity explained it as a gift from
God (or the gods). The Greeks had Homer’s poetry that supported the idea of the
bicameral mind. According to this view the mind had two chambers, one of which
was for the gods to provide original insights and inspiration. All creative thoughts
came from the gods or through the mediation of a muse. The other was reserved
for humans to translate or express this inspiration into words or deeds. This point
of view is exemplified in Homer’s tales in which the characters could accomplish
great acts, but only as directed by the gods.
The creative process was explained as a gift from above. Creative
accomplishments carried out by humans were products of divine inspiration. Many
early thinkers also believed that the mind’s chamber for creative inspiration also
contained madness when the muse’s spirit was present.
It is no wonder that the concept of creativity is laced with notions of mysticism and
madness.
See: Stein, M. I. (1983). Creativity in Genesis. Journal of Creative Behavior, 17, 1-8. and
Dodds, E. R. (1951). The Greeks and the irrational. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press.
Giftedness and Eminence
Although there is certainly evidence that people produced creatively during the
Roman era and the Middle Ages, it was the Renaissance and the beginning of
humanism during which creativity was considered more of a human characteristic.
The early investigation into creativity as a human characteristic began during the
A Compendium of Evidence Page 6
eighteenth century. The major focus was on understanding the nature of
giftedness and eminence. The major thrust was to explain creativity as an inherited
gift.
Today we can see the full spectrum of thinking about giftedness. On the one end
we have the most exceptional humans who have left lasting imprints on the world.
On the other end of the spectrum we have those concerned with nurturing and
developing the creative talents that can best be described as day-to-day.
Albert, R. S. (Ed.). (1983). Genius and eminence: The social psychology of creativity and
exceptional achievement. New York: Pergamon Press.
Albert R. S., & Runco, M. A. (1986). The achievement of eminence: A model based on a longitudinal
study of exceptionally gifted boys and their families. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.),
Conceptions of Giftedness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Duff, W. (1767). An essay on original genius and its various modes of exertion in philosophy and the
fine arts: Particularly in poetry. London: E. & C. Dilly.
Dunn, R., Dunn, K., & Treffinger, D. (1992). Bringing out the giftedness in your child: Nurturing
every child’s unique strengths, talents, and potential. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Eysenck, H. J. (1995). Genius: The natural history of creativity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press.
Feldhusen, J. F. (1992). Talent identification and development in education. Sarasota, FL: Center for
Creative Learning.
Feldhusen, J. F., & Treffinger, D. J. (1985). Creative thinking and problem solving in gifted education.
Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
Galton, F. (1870). Hereditary genius. London: AppletonCentury Crofts.
Getzels, J. W. (1987). Creativity, intelligence, and problem finding: Retrospect and prospect. In S.
G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 88-102). Buffalo, NY:
Bearly Limited.
Goertzel, M. G., Goertzel, V., & Goertzel, T. G. (1978). Three hundred eminent personalities. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gowan, J. C., Khatena, J., & Torrance, E. P. (1979). Educating the ablest: A book of readings on the
education of gifted children. Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers.
McCluskey, K. W., & Walker, K. D. (1986). The doubtful gift: Strategies for educating gifted children
in the regular classroom. Kingston, Canada: Frye & Co.
Miller, A. I. (2000). Insights of genius: Imagery and creativity in science and art. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press.
Miller, A. I. (2001). Einstein Picasso: Space, time and the beauty that causes havoc. New York: Basic
Books.
Seagoe, M. V. (1975). Terman and the gifted. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann
Simonton, D. K. (1984). Genius, creativity & leadership: Historiometric studies. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 7
Simonton, D. K. (1987). Genius: The lessons of historiometry. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of
creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 66-87). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.
Simonton, D. K. (1988). Scientific genius: A psychology of science. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who makes history and why? New York: Guilford Press.
Treffinger, D. J. (1998). From gifted education to programming for talent development. Phi Delta
Kappan, 79, 752-755.
Major Theoretical Approaches Confirm its Importance
Even those early thinkers who believed that divine inspiration was the source of
human creativity had some notion of how the creative process actually worked
within humans. Aristotle was one of the earliest to posit that great insights resulted
from people’s own thoughts. His view was that the mind consisted of ideas,
thoughts and images, each of which were associated with each other. Thinking was
a process of moving from one thought to another by way of a chain of associations.
He was one of the first to promote a particular theory of how creative thinking
happens.
This was a central development in the history of the concept of creativity as our
current focus has expanded to consider the nurture as well as the nature of creative
talents. New developments in the cognitive sciences have dramatically impacted
the basic philosophy upon which much of our view of the Western world is built
(Lakoff & Johnson, 1999).
The following table provides six major categories of theoretical support for CPS.
Within each of these major categories, there are a number of sub-categories that
relate to the general area of theory. Following each of these there are a few
selected references that illustrate the theory.
Cognitive, Rational, and Semantic
This first category of theories groups views that consider creativity as rational with
an emphasis on phases or semantic or verbal concepts or associations. Within the
cognitive, rational, and semantic theories we include several specific approaches:
they are Creative Problem Solving (Osborn, 1963; Parnes, Noller & Biondi, 1977);
cognitive abilities (e.g., Guilford, 1959, 1967; Sternberg, 1994, Torrance, 1962,
1963; Ward, 1997); associative theories (e.g., Koestler, 1964; deBono, 1978);
gestalt theories (e.g., Koffka, 1935; Wertheimer, 1945); and theories focusing on
language, thinking and meta-cognition (e.g., Upton, 1941; Vygotsky, 1978;
Chomsky, 1998).
A Compendium of Evidence Page 8
A. Phasal 1. Dewey (1933)
2. Hadamard (1945)
3. Kingsley & Garry (1957)
4. Osborn (1963)
5. Parnes, Noller & Biondi (1977)
6. Polya (1945)
7. Rossman (1931)
8. Wallas (1926)
B. Cognitive Abilities 1. Bruner, Goodnow & Austin (1956)
2. Gagné & Briggs (1974)
3. Gardner (1993)
4. Guilford (1959)
5. Guilford (1967)
6. Sternberg (1994)
7. Torrance (1962)
5. Torrance (1963)
6. Torrance (1974)
7. Ward (1997)
8. Mumford & Gustafson (2007)
C. Associative 1. Arieti (1976)
2. Koestler (1964)
3. Mednick (1962)
4. Mednick & Mednick (1964)
5. Rothenberg (1971)
6. deBono (1978)
D. Gestalt 1. Koffka (1935)
2. Kohler (1925)
3. Wertheimer (1945)
E. Language, Thinking and
Metacognition 1. Chomsky (1998)
2. Flavell (1979)
3. Frawley (1997)
4. Kitchener (1983)
5. Metcalfe & Shimamura (1994)
6. Ogden & Richards (1927)
7. Upton (1941)
8. Vygotsky (1978)
Personality and Environmental
In this second category theorists emphasize the affective nature of creative talent,
rather than the cognitive abilities stressed in the first category. These theorists are
concerned with the personality traits or characteristics of the creative person.
Within this group, we find theories that emphasize personality traits (e.g., Barron,
A Compendium of Evidence Page 9
1969; MacKinnon, 1962; Gruber, 1981); parental practices, social and cultural
settings (e.g., Stein, 1953); transactualization (Taylor, 1972); affective/cognitive
integration (Williams, 1966); and behavioral or stimulus-response models (e.g.,
Maltzman, 1960; Skinner, 1976; Thorndike, 1898).
A. Personality traits or 1. Anderson (1959)
characteristics 2. Barron (1969)
3. Gruber (1981)
4. MacKinnon (1962)
B. Parental practices, 1. Crutchfield (1962)
social and cultural 2. Eisner (1964)
setting 3. Stein (1953)
C. Transactualization 1. Taylor (1972)
D. Affective/Cognitive 1. Williams (1966)
E. S-R or Behavioristic 1. Hull (1934)
2. Maltzman (1960)
3. Skinner (1976)
4. Staats (1968)
5. Thorndike (1898)
Third Force Psychology
This family of approaches focuses on the human potential for self-realization,
personal growth and fulfillment. They see creativity as developing
throughout life. Theories in this category include self-actualization
approaches (e.g., Fromm, 1959; Maslow, 1959) and biological and personal
growth approaches (e.g., Sinnot, 1959; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996)
A. Self-actualization, 1. Fromm (1959)
self-realization, 2. Maslow (1959)
and psychological 3. May (1975)
growth 4. Rogers (1969)
B. Biological and personal 1. Csikszentmihalyi (1996)
growth 2. Land (1973)
3. Maturana & Varela (1998)
4. Sinnott (1959)
5. Wallace & Gruber (1989)
C. Positive psychology 1. Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2000)
2. Lopez & Snyder (2009)
A Compendium of Evidence Page 10
Psychoanalytic or Psychodynamic
The psychoanalytic view of creativity stems from the work of Freud. He
believed that creativity originates in conflict of the conscious, reality-bound
processes with unsatisfied, unconscious biological drives. He called this
defense mechanism sublimation. Others believed that another defense
mechanismregression was the primary cause for creativity (Kris, 1952);
“regression in the service of the ego”. Schachtel (1959) critiqued this view
and believed that the main motivation at the root of creative experience is an
individual’s need to belong to the world around him. Another approach
based on Freud’s work is Jung’s point of view. Jung pointed out that great
inventions and other new achievements were not solely the result of personal
experiences but also from a deeper source. He called this source of vague
memories of the experiences of the whole human race the “collective
unconscious” (Jung, 1959).
A. Freudian; emphasis on 1. Freud (1925)
conflict, sublimation
B. Emphasis on regression, 1. Kris (1952)
preconscious activity 2. Kubie (1958)
3. Weissman (1968)
C. Perceptual dynamics 1. Schachtel (1959)
2. Thurstone (1944)
D. Aesthetic 1. Jung (1959)
Psychedelic
The psychedelic approaches to creativity emphasize the importance of
expanding the awareness of consciousness of the mind. The aim is to help
the person to be more creative by opening vast new horizons of untapped
resources and experiences (e.g. Erikson, 1964; Naranjo & Ornstein, 1971).
A. Existential and non- 1. Barron (1956)
rational aspects 2. Houston (1973)
3. Krippner & Murphy (1973)
4. Weil (1972)
B. Altered States of 1. Aaronson & Osmond (1970)
Consciousness 2. Harmon (1969)
3. Lilly (1972)
4. Masters & Houston (1972)
5. Mogar (1969)
6. Tart (1969)
A Compendium of Evidence Page 11
C. Expansion of 1. Anderson & Savary (1972)
Consciousness 2. Erikson (1963)
3. Gowan (1974)
4. Karlins & Andrews (1972)
5. Naranjo & Ornstein (1971)
6. Payne (1973)
D. Spiritual 1. Briskin (1998)
2. Handy (1998)
3. Whyte (1994)
New Sciences
The new sciences are calling into question many of the assumptions derived from
the Newtonian view of the universe. Two key themes in this emerging area of
philosophical support include the complexity and chaos theories.
A. Complexity 1. Gell-Man (1994)
2. Stacey (1996)
3. Wheatley & Kellner-Rogers (1996)
B. Chaos 1. Masterpasqua & Perna (1997)
2. Zohar & Marshall (1994)
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Skinner, B. F. (1976). A behavioral model of creation. In A. Rothenberg & C. R. Hausman (Eds.),
The creativity question (pp. 267-273). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Staats, A. W. (1968). Learning language and cognition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Stacey, R. D. (1996). Complexity and creativity in organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Stein, M. I. (1953). Creativity and culture. Journal of Psychology, 36, 311-322.
Sternberg, R. J. (1994). Thinking and problem solving: Handbook of perception and cognition. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Tart, C. T. (Ed.). (1969). Altered states of consciousness. New York: John Wiley.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 15
Taylor, I. A. (1972). A theory of creative transactualization. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education
Foundation.
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative process in
animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplements, 2,8.
Thurstone, L. L. (1944). A factorial study of perception. Psychometrika Monographs. Vol. 4.
Torrance, E. P. (1962) Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Torrance, E. P. (1963). Conditions for creative growth. In E. P. Torrance (Ed.), Education & the
creative potential. (pp. 16-33). Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota Press.
Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance tests of creative thinking: Norms and technical manual. Lexington,
MA: Personnel Press/Ginn Zerox.
Upton, A. (1941). Design for thinking: A first book in semantics. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wallace, D. B., & Gruber, H. E. (1989). Creative people at work: Twelve cognitive case studies.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Vaid, J. (Eds.). (1997). Creative thought: An investigation of
conceptual structures and processes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Weil, A. (1972). The natural mind. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Weissman, P. (1968). Psychological concomitants of ego functioning in creativity. International
Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 49, 464-469.
Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive thinking. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Wheatley, M. J., & Kellner-Rogers, M. (1996). A simpler way. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
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New York: Doubleday.
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seminar on Productive Thinking in Education. St. Paul, MN: Creativity & National Schools Project,
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York: William Morrow and Company.
General Philosophical Support
The following selection of references provides a sampling of additional kinds of
philosophical support available in the literature.
Boden, M. A. (1991). The creative mind: Myths and mechanisms. New York: Basic Books.
Brophy, D. R. (1998). Understanding, measuring, and enhancing individual creative problem-solving
efforts. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 123-150.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 16
Carkhuff, R. R. (1981). Toward actualizing human potential. Amherst, MA: Human Resources
Development Press.
Combs, A. (1962). Perceiving, behaving, becoming: A new focus for education. Washington, DC:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & education. New York: Collier Books.
Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New
York: The Free Press.
Feinstein, J. S. (2013). Unleashing creative development. Kindai Management Review, 1, 132-142.
Getzels, J. W. (1964). Creative thinking, problem solving and instruction. In E. Hilgard (Ed.),
Theories of learning and instruction: 63rd Yearbook on the NSEE (Part 1, pp. 240-267). Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Gowan, J. C., Khatena, J., & Torrance, E. P. (1981). Creativity: Its educational implications (2nd
ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.
Guilford, J. P. (1962). Creativity: Its measurement and development. In S. J. Parnes & H. F. Harding
(Eds.), A source book for creative thinking (pp. 151-167). New York: Charles Scribners & Sons.
Guilford, J. P. (1987). Creativity research: Past, present and future. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers
of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 33-65). Buffalo, NEW YORK: Bearly Limited.
Hausman, C. R. (1984). A discourse on novelty and creation. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press.
Hausman, C. R. (1987). Philosophical perspectives on the study of creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.),
Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 380-389). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.
Isaksen, S. G. & Parnes, S. J. (1983). Curriculum planning for creative thinking and problem
solving. Journal of Creative Behavior, 19, 1-29.
Isaksen, S. G. (1988). Educational implications of creativity research: An updated rationale for
creative learning. In K. Grønhaug & G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Innovation: A cross-disciplinary perspective
(pp. 167-203). Oslo, Norway: Norwegian University Press.
Isaksen, S. G. (1995). On the conceptual foundations of creative problem solving: A response to
Magyari-Beck. Creativity and Innovation Management, 4, 52-63.
Isaksen, S. G., & Murdock, M. C. (1990). The outlook for the study of creativity: An emerging
discipline? Studia Psychologica, 32, 53-77.
Isaksen, S. G., & Murdock, M. C. (1993). The emergence of a discipline: Issues and approaches to
the study of creativity. In S. G. Isaksen, M. C. Murdock, R. L. Firestien, & D. J. Treffinger (Eds.),
Understanding and recognizing creativity: The emergence of a discipline (pp. 13-47). Norwood, NJ:
Ablex.
James, W. (1896). The principles of psychology. New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Locke, J. (1964). An essay concerning human understanding. New York: The New American Library.
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Co.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 17
Maier, N. R., & Hoffman, L. R. (1961). Organization and creative problem solving. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 45, 277-280.
Maier, N. R. (1970). Problem solving and creativity: In individuals and groups. Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1959). The nature of creativity. In H. H. Anderson (Ed.). Creativity and its cultivation (pp.
55-68). New York: Harper & Row.
Ogle, R. (2007). Smart world: Breakthrough creativity and the new science of ideas. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard Business School Press.
Richards, R. (Ed.) (2007). Everyday creativity and new views of human nature: Psychological, social
and spiritual perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Rogers, C. R. (1959). Toward a theory of creativity. In H. H. Anderson (Ed.). Creativity and its
cultivation (pp. 69-82). New York: Harper & Row.
Roweton, W. E. (1970). Creativity: Review of theory and research. Washington, DC: Office of
Education.
Runco, M. A., & Albert, R. S. (Eds.). (1990). Theories of creativity. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE
Publications.
Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press.
Stein, M. I. (1974 & 1975). Stimulating creativity (Volumes I and II). New York: Academic Press.
Torrance, E. P. (1963). Education and the creative potential. Minneapolis, MN: University of
Minnesota Press.
Torrance, E. P., & Myers, R. E. (1970). Creative learning and teaching. New York: Dodd, Mead &
Co.
Treffinger, D. J. (1995). Creative problem solving: Overview and educational implications,
Educational Psychology Review, 7 (3), 301-312.
Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., & Firestien, R. L. (1983). Theoretical perspectives on creative
learning and its facilitation: An overview. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 17(1), 9-17.
Vanosmael, P. & De Bruyn, R. (1984). Handboek voor Creatief Denken (Manual for Creative
Thinking). Antwerpen/ Amsterdam: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel.
Whitehead, A. N. (1929). The aims of education and other essays. New York: The Free Press.
Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Creativity: Understanding innovation in problem solving, science, invention
and the arts. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 18
2. CPS has been subjected to continuous research
and development.
An important way to know that CPS is worth the effort and makes a difference is
that there is an established and defined tradition of research and development that
is continuously growing. One of the critical reasons to approach the deliberate
teaching and learning of creativity and creative problem solving is that there is a
wealth of material and available information. There is a growing domain of
knowledge.
Buffalo-based foundational work
CPS has a rich Buffalo-based tradition. The research and development started with
the work of Alex Osborn (first generation) and then extended to Sidney Parnes and
Ruth Noller (second generation), then to Don Treffinger, Scott Isaksen and Roger
Firestien (third generation) and then on to others. Impact research has been
conducted across numerous organizations including: The University of Buffalo,
Buffalo State College, the Center for Creative Learning, the Creative Education
Foundation and the Creative Problem Solving Group, among others.
Alex F. Osborn’s works
Early work on CPS was begun by Alex Osborn, founder of the Creative Education
Foundation. A few of his key works include:
Osborn, A. F. (1942). How to think up. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Osborn, A. F. (1948). Your creative power: How to use imagination. New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1952a). Wake up your mind: 101 ways to develop creativeness. New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1952b). How to become more creative: 101 rewarding ways to develop your potential
talent. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1953). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative thinking. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1957). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative thinking (Rev. ed.).
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1963). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative problem solving (3rd
ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Osborn, A. F. (1967). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative problem solving (3rd
rev. ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 19
Instructional Materials are Available
This work was complemented by the early development of a program of research
design to test the effectiveness of instruction in creative studies. The materials of
Osborn were soon complemented by a variety of instructional materials. The
development work continues.
Buijs, J., & van der Meer, H. (2013). Integrated creative problem solving: Delft studies on innovating.
Den Haag, The Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing.
Feldhusen, J. F., & Treffinger, D. J. (1977). The role of instructional material in teaching creative
thinking. Gifted Child Quarterly, 7, 351-357.
Feldhusen, J. F., & Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1986). Creativity instructional materials: A review of
research. Journal of Creative Behavior, 20, 153-182.
Isaksen, S. G. (2000). Facilitative leadership: Making a difference with Creative Problem Solving.
Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (1994). Creative approaches to problem solving.
Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.
Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (1998). Toolbox for Creative Problem Solving: Basic
Tools and Resources. Buffalo, NY: Creative Problem Solving Group Buffalo.
Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (2000). Creative approaches to problem solving: A
framework for change. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Treffinger, D. J. (2011). Creative approaches to problem solving: A
framework for innovation and change (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Isaksen, S. G. & Treffinger, D. J. (1985). Creative problem solving: The basic course. Buffalo, NY:
Bearly Limited.
Joyce, M., Isaksen, S., Davidson, F., Puccio, G., Coppage, C., & Muruska, M. A. (1997). An
introduction to creativity (2nd ed). Acton, MA: Copley Publishing.
Keller-Mathers, S., & Puccio, K. (1998). Big tools for young thinkers: Using creative problem solving
with primary students. Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning.
Noller, R. B., Parnes, S. J., & Biondi, A. M. (1976). Creative actionbook: Revised edition of creative
behavior workbook. New York: Scribners.
Parnes, S. J. (1966). Programming creative behavior (title VII project number 5-0716 national
defense education act). Buffalo State University of New York: Albany: Research Foundation of State
University of New York.
Parnes, S. J. (1967). Creative behavior guidebook. New York: Scribners.
Parnes, S. J. (1967). Creative behavior workbook. New York: Scribners.
Parnes, S. J. (Ed.). (1992). Sourcebook for creative problem solving. Buffalo, New York: Creative
Education Press.
Parnes, S. J. (1997). Optimize the magic of your mind. Buffalo, New York: Bearly Limited.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 20
Parnes, S. J., Noller, R. B., & Biondi, A. M. (1977). Guide to creative action: Revised edition of
creative behavior guidebook. New York: Scribners.
Puccio, K., Keller-Mathers, S., & Treffinger, D. J. (1998). Adventures in real problem solving:
Facilitating creative problem solving with primary students (Grades K-3). Sarasota, FL: Center for
Creative Learning.
Puccio, G. J., Murdock, M. C., & Mance, M. (2007). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2011). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change (2nd
Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. [Translated into Italian, Korean & Chinese]
Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., & Dorval, K.B. (2000). An introduction to creative problem solving
(3rd ed.). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., Stead-Dorval, B. (2006). Creative Problem Solving: An introduction
(4th ed.). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., & Firestien, R. L. (1982). Handbook of creative learning. Sarasota,
FL: Center for Creative Learning.
Treffinger, D. J., Schoonover, P.F., & Selby, E. C. (2013). Educating for creativity and innovation.
Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
These core instructional materials were supplemented by the work of other authors. The
Buffalo-based instructional program was complemented by the work of other scholars and
developers from its inception. These included:
Basadur, M. (1994). Simplex A flight to creativity: How to dramatically improve your performance.
Buffalo, NY: The Creative Education Foundation.
Gordon, W. J. J. (1961). Synectics: The development of creative capacity. New York: Harper &
Row.
Gordon, W. J. J., Poze, T., & Reid, M. (1971). The metaphorical way of learning and knowing:
Applying Synectics to sensitivity and learning situations. Cambridge, MA: Porpoise Books.
Prince, G. M. (1970). The practice of creativity: A manual for dynamic group problem solving. New
York: Harper & Row.
Treffinger, D. J., & Huber, J. R. (1975). Designing instruction for creative problem solving:
Preliminary objectives and learning hierarchies. Journal of Creative Behavior, 9, 260-266.
Treffinger, D. J., Sortore, M. R., & Cross, J. A. (1993). Programs and strategies for nurturing
creativity. In K. Heller, F. Monks, & H. Passow (Eds.), International handbook of research and
development of giftedness and talent (pp. 555-567). New York: Pergamon.
Upton, A. (1961). Design for thinking: A first book in semantics. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.
Upton, A. & Samson, R. W. (1961). Creative analysis. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.
Cognitive Styles Project
This project was initiated at the Center for Studies in Creativity and based on the
early experimental findings that certain individuals seemed to benefit from the
A Compendium of Evidence Page 21
courses more than other, characteristically different individuals. The cognitive
styles project continues through the work of other scholars and within other
academic programs and other organizations.
Aerts, W. (2008). Exploring the relationships between problem-solving style and climates in best and
worst-case work experiences. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Department of Business and Economics,
Vlekho, Brussels.
Basadur, M., & Basadur, T. (2011). Where are the generators? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity
and the Arts, 5, 29-42.
Basadur, M., Gelade, G., & Basadur, T. (2014). Creative problem solving process styles, cognitive
work demands, and organizational adaptability. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 50, 80-
115.
Basadur, M., Graen, G., & Wakabayashi, M. (1990). Identifying individual differences in creative
problem solving style. Journal of Creative Behavior, 24, 111-131/
Basadur, M., & Head, M. (2001). Team performance and satisfaction: A link to cognitive style within a
process framework. Journal of Creative Behavior, 35, 227-248.
Basadur, M. S., Wakabayashi, M., & Graen, G. B. (1990). Individual problem-solving styles and
attitudes toward divergent thinking before and after training. Creativity Research Journal, 3, (1), 22-
32.
Bolner, D. J. (2018). A comparison of problem solving confidence and problem-solving styles among
teachers and students in multiple high school settings. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Western
Connecticut State University, Danbury, CT
Braun, C. L. (1997). Rogers, Weber, and Merton: Theoretical links to the KAI subscales and
Adaption-Innovation theory. Unpublished master’s project. Center for Studies in Creativity, State
University College at Buffalo.
Clapp, R. G., & Kirton, M. J. (1994). The relationship between cognitive style and psychological
climate: Some comments on the article by Isaksen and Kaufmann. Studia Psychologica, 36, 129-134.
Corbett-Whitier, C. (1986). The relationship of learning style preferences by high school gifted
students on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Unpublished master’s project. Center for Studies
in Creativity, State University College at Buffalo.
Crerar, A. (2010). Predicting career interests from problem-solving style with high school students.
Unpublished Dissertation, Fordham University Graduate School of Education, New York.
Deininger, G., Loudon, G., & Norman, S. (2012). Modal preferences in creative problem solving.
Cognitive Processes, 13, 147-150.
Delcourt, M. A.., Woodel-Johnson, B. L., Burke, K. & Treffinger, D. J. (2015). Learning styles and
problem solving styles of talented secondary school students. International Journal for Talent
Development and Creativity, 3(2), 183-196.
Dorval, K. B. (1990). The relationships between level and style of creativity and imagery. Unpublished
master’s thesis. Center for Studies in Creativity, State University College at Buffalo.
Dunn, R., Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical
approach. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing.
A Compendium of Evidence Page 22
Fitzjarrell, S. L. (2011). A descriptive study of the problem-solving styles of traditional patrol and
neighborhood police officers. Unpublished Dissertation, Capella University.
Franklyn, J. M. (1997). A study of the relationship between cognitive style of creativity and the
characteristics of creative products. Unpublished master’s thesis. State University College at Buffalo:
Cetner for Studies in Creativity.
Garfield, M. J., Taylor, N. J., Dennis, A. R., & Satzinger, J. W. (2001). Research report: Modifying
paradigms, individual differences, creativity techniques, and exposure to ideas in group idea
generation. Information Systems Research, 12, 322-333.
Geuens, D. (2006). An exploratory study of the relationship of problem-solving style and the
preference for and use of creative problem solving. Unpublished Masters thesis. Department of
Business and Economics, Vlekho, Brussels.
Grivas, C. C. (1996). An exploratory investigation of the relationship of cognitive style with
perceptions of creative climate. Unpublished master’s project. Center for Studies in Creativity, State
University College at Buffalo.
Gryskiewicz, S. S. (1987). Predictable creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity
research: Beyond the basics (pp. 305-313). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.
Hossbach, C. (2019). Organizational climate for creativity: Exploring the influence of distinct types of
individual differences. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Gabler.
Houtz, J. C., Matos, H., Park, M. S., Scheinholtz, J., & Selby, E. (2007). Problem solving style and
motivational attributions. Psychological Reports, 101, 823-830.
Houtz, J. C., Ponterotto, J. G., Burger, C., & Marino, C. (2010). Problem solving style and
multicultural personality dispositions: A study of construct validity. Psychological Reports, 106, 927-
938.
Houtz, J. C., & Selby, E. C. (2009). Problem solving style, creativity, and problem solving confidence.
Educational Research Quarterly, 33 (1). 28-30.
Hurley, C. A. (1993). The relationship between the Kirton Adaption-Innovation style and the use of
creative problem solving. Unpublished master’s project. Center for Studies in Creativity, State
University College at Buffalo.
Isaksen, S. G. (1987). Introduction: An orientation to the frontiers of creativity research. In S. G.
Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 1-26). Buffalo, NY: Bearly
Limited.
Isaksen, S. G. (2004). The progress and potential of the creativity level - style distinction:
Implications for research and practice. W. Haukedal, B. Kuvas (Eds.). Creativity and problem solving
in the context of business management (pp. 4071). Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget.
Isaksen, S. G. (2004). The level-style of creativity distinction: Comments on a recent comparison of
two measures of creativity style. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 223-224.
Isaksen, S. G. (2009). Exploring the relationship between problem-solving style and creative
psychological climate. In P. Meusburger, J. Funke, & E. Wunder (Eds.), Milieus of creativity: An
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Isaksen, S. G., & Aerts, W. (2011). Linking problem-solving style and creative climate: An
exploratory interactionist study. The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 21, 7-
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Isaksen, S. G., Babij, B., & Lauer, K. J. (2003). Cognitive styles in creative leadership practices:
Exploring the relationship between level and style. Psychological Reports, 93, 983-994.
Isaksen, S., DeSchryver, L., & Onkelinx, J. (2010). A cross-cultural examination of creative problem
solving style: The Dutch translation of VIEW. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 44 (1), 19-28.
Isaksen, S. G. & Dorval, K. B. (1993). Toward an improved understanding of creativity within people:
The level-style distinction. In S. G. Isaksen, M. C. Murdock, R. L. Firestien & D. J. Treffinger (Eds.),
Understanding and recognizing creativity: The emergence of a discipline (pp. 299-330). Norwood,
New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.
Isaksen, S. G., Dorval, K. B., & Kaufmann, G. (1992). Mode of symbolic representation and cognitive
style. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 11, 271-277.
Isaksen, S. G., & Geuens, D. (2007). Exploring the relationships between an assessment of problem
solving style and creative problem solving. The Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem Solving,
17(1), 5-27.
Isaksen, S. G. & Kaufmann, G. (1990). Adaptors and innovators: A discriminant analysis of the
perceptions of the psychological climate for creativity. Studia Psychologica, 32, 129-141.
Isaksen, S. G., Kaufmann, A. H., & Bakken, B. T. (2016). An Examination of the Personality
Constructs Underlying Dimensions of Creative Problem-Solving Style. Journal of Creative Behavior, 50,
264-281.
Isaksen, S. G., & Lauer, K. J. (1999). Relationship between cognitive style and individual
psychological climate: Reflections on a previous study. Studia Psychologica, 41, 177-191.
Isaksen, S. G., Lauer, K. J., & Wilson, G. V. (2003). An examination of the relationship between
personality type and cognitive style. Creativity Research Journal, 15 (4), 343-354.
Isaksen, S. G., & Pershyn, G. (1994). Understanding natural creative process using the KAI. KAI
International, 3, 5.
Isaksen, S. G., & Puccio, G. J. (1988). Adaption-innovation and the Torrance Tests of Creative
Thinking: The level-style issue revisited. Psychological Reports, 63, 659-670.
Isaksen, S. G., Puccio, G. J. & Treffinger, D. J. (1993). An ecological approach to creativity research:
Profiling for creative problem solving. Journal of Creative Behavior, 23 (3), 149-170.
Johnson, A., Jackson, M. A., Selby, E. C., & Houtz, J. C. (2014). Predicting career interests from
problem-solving style with high school students. International Journal for Talent Development and
Creativity, 2, 43-56.
Joniak, A., & Isaksen, S. G. (1988). The Gregorc’s style delineator: Internal consistency and its
relationship to Kirton’s adaptive-innovative distinction. Educational and Psychological Measurement,
48, 1043-1049.
Jung, C. G. (1923). Psychological types. (H. B. Baynes, Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace &
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Kaufmann, G., Isaksen, S. G. & Lauer, K. J. (1996). Testing the Glass Ceiling effect on gender
differences in upper level management: The case of innovator orientation. European Journal of Work
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Kirton, M. J. (1976). Adaptors and innovators: A description and measure. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 61, 622-629.
Kirton, M. J. (1978). Have adaptors and innovators equal levels of creativity? Psychological Reports,
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Kirton, M. J. (1987). Cognitive styles and creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity
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Kirton, M. J. (1989). Adaptors and innovators: Styles of creativity and problem solving. London:
Routledge.
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Kozhevnikov, M., Evans, C., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2014). Cognitive style as environmentally sensitive
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Larsson, E. (2009). Simulation training of boat handling: Contributions of problem solving style,
spatial ability, and visualization. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Fordham University, New York,
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differ in departments? Case study in a media industry in Taiwan. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Cass
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Other Evidence
There is a variety of additional evidence that supports the program developed in
Buffalo, and provides insight into improving instructional approaches.
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Barrett J. D., Peterson, D. R., Hester, K. S., Robledo, I. C., Day, E. A., Hougen, D. P., &
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3. Courses and programs have been evaluated.
It is not enough to know that there are courses and programs available to teach
CPS. To know if CPS is worthwhile, there must be evidence that these courses and
programs are evaluated. Most academic programs go through regular evaluation
from certifying and accrediting agencies. There is also additional evidence that
courses have an impact.
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Petersen, D. R., Barrett, J. D., Hester, K. S., Robledo, I. C., Hougen, D. F., Day, E., A., & Mumford, M.
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master’s thesis, Buffalo State College, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.
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Scholarly Reviews and Syntheses
Edited collections and bibliographies are tools for the emerging field of inquiry and
practice. The process of creating them encourages interaction and collaboration.
This literature is being read, critiqued, and developed by a variety of scholars.
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A Compendium of Evidence Page 46
4. There is experimental evidence.
A critical way of knowing if CPS is worthwhile is the extent to which there is
experimental evidence surrounding the development, training and application of
CPS methods, guidelines and tools. This evidence is categorized into foundational,
brainstorming, and experimental evidence of course impact.
Foundational Evidence
The early instructional program in CPS was developed at the University of Buffalo
and it was moved to Buffalo State College in 1967. A series of published reports
provided early evidence of the efficacy of the instructional program and the
Creative Studies Project.
Biondi, A. M. (1971). Applied creativity: The creative studies project introduction. Journal of
Creative Behavior, 5, 242-244.
Khatena, J., & Parnes, S. J. (1974). Applied imagination and the production of original verbal images.
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Meadow, A. & Parnes, S. J. (1959). Evaluation of training in creative problem solving. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 43, 189-194.
Noller, R. B., & Parnes, S. J. (1972). Applied creativity: The Creative Studies Project. Part III - The
curriculum. Journal of Creative Behavior, 6, 275-293.
Parnes, S. J. (1961). Effects of extended effort in creative problem solving. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 52, 3, 117-122.
Parnes, S. J. (1962). Can creativity be increased? In S. J. Parnes & H. F. Harding (Ed.), A source
book for creative thinking (pp. 185-191). New York: Charles Scribners & Sons.
Parnes, S. J. (1964). Research on developing creative behavior. In C. W. Taylor (Ed.), Widening
horizons in creativity (pp. 145-169). New York: Wiley.
Parnes, S. J. (1966). Programming creative behavior. (Grant number 7-42-1630-213). Buffalo, NY:
State University of New York at Buffalo, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Parnes, S. J. (1970). Programming creative behavior. Child Development, 41, 2-12.
Parnes, S. J. (1972). Programming creative behavior. In C. W. Tyler (Ed.), Climate for creativity
(pp. 193-227). New York: Pergamon.
Parnes, S. J. (1973). Evaluation of training in creative problem solving. In M. Goldfried & M.
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Parnes, S. J. (1974). Applied imagination and the production of original verbal images. Perceptual
and Motor Skills, 138, 130.
Parnes, S. J. (1976). Creativity development. In S. Goodman (Ed.), Handbook on contemporary
education (pp. 498-501). Princeton, NJ: Reference Development Corp.
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Parnes, S. J. (1978). The creative studies project at Buffalo State College. In M. K. Raina (Ed.),
Creativity research: International perspectives (pp. 272-274). New Delhi, India: National Council for
Educational Research and Training.
Parnes, S. J. (1987). The creative studies project. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.). Frontiers of creativity
research: Beyond the basics (pp. 156-188). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.
Parnes, S. J., & Meadow, A. (1960). Evaluation of persistence of effects produced by a creative
problem-solving course. Psychological Reports, 7, 357-361.
Parnes, S. J., & Noller, R. B. (1971). The creative studies project: Raison d’etre and introduction.
Journal of Research and Development in Education, 4, 63-66.
Parnes, S. J., & Noller, R. B. (1972). Applied creativity: The Creative Studies Project. Part 1 - The
development. Journal of Creative Behavior, 6, 11-20 (a).
Parnes, S. J., & Noller, R. B. (1972). Applied creativity: The Creative Studies Project. Part II - Results
of the two-year program. Journal of Creative Behavior, 6, 164-186 (a).
Parnes, S. J., & Noller, R. B. (1973). Applied creativity: The Creative Studies Project. Part IV -
Personality findings and conclusions. Journal of Creative Behavior, 7, 15-36.
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Publishers.
Parnes, S. J., & Noller, R. B. (1974). Toward supersanity: Channeled freedom Research
supplement. Buffalo, NY: DOK Publishers.
Parnes, S. J., & Treffinger, D. J. (1973). Development of new criteria for the evaluation of creative
studies programs. Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
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program on structure-of-intellect factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 401-410.
Brainstorming Research (Idea-Generation and
Selection/Development)
Brainstorming is one of the most researched (and least understood) tools within the
CPS framework. The following are actual studies (mostly published), some papers,
and unpublished theses and dissertations. They provide a foundation for
understanding the conditions for effective brainstorming.
Adanez, A. M. (2005). Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of
brainstorming. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 8, 215-220.
Akinboye, J. O. (1980). An experimental study of the effectiveness of brainstorming in small groups
of Nigerian subjects. Journal of Creative Behavior, 14(4), 268.
Alrubaie, F., Daniel, E. G. (2014). Revisiting the cognitive processes of the brainstorming technique:
Theoretical considerations from a synthesis of Piaget, Vygotsky, and SIAM for learning science.
International Journal of Thesis Projects and Dissertations, 2, 44-57.
Bartis, S., Szymanski, K., & Harkins, S. G. (1988). Evaluation and performance: A two-edged knife.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 242-251.
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Baruah, J. & Paulus, P. B. (2008). The effects of training on idea generation in groups. Small Group
Research, 39, 523-541.
Baruah, J., & Paulus, P. B. (2011). Category assignment and relatedness in the group ideation
process. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1070-1077.
Basadur, M. (1979). Training in creative problem solving: Effects of deferred judgment and problem
finding and solving in an industrial research organization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University
of Cincinnati, OH.
Basadur, M. (1982). Research in creative problem solving training in business and industry. In S. S.
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Basadur, M., & Finkbeiner, C. T. (1983). Identifying attitudinal factors related to ideation in creative
problem solving (Research and Working Paper Series #207). Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University,
Faculty of Business.
Basadur, M., & Finkbeiner, C. T. (1983). Measuring preference for ideation in creative problem solving
(Research and Working Paper Series #208). Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University, Faculty of
Business.
Basadur, M., & Finkbeiner, C. T. (1985). Measuring preference for ideation in creative problem-solving
training. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21(1), 37-49.
Basadur, M., Graen, G. B., & Green, S. G. (1982). Training in creative problem solving: Effects on
ideation and problem finding and solving in an industrial research organization. Organizational
Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 41-70.
Basadur, M., Graen G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1985). Improving attitudes toward creative problem
solving among manufacturing engineers (Research and Working Paper Series #237). Hamilton,
Ontario: McMaster University, Faculty of Business.
Basadur, M., Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1985). Training effects on attitudes toward divergent
thinking among manufacturing engineers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(4), 612-617.
Bayless, O. L. (1967). An alternate pattern for problem solving discussion. Journal of Communication,
17, 188-197.
Blackmore, S. (2010). Review of brainstorming: Views and interviews on the mind. Journal of
Consciousness Studies, 17, 229-231.
Blot, K. J., Zarate, M. A., & Paulus, P. B. (2003). Code-switching across brainstorming session:
Implications for the revised hierarchical model of bilingual language processing. Experimental
Psychology, 50, 171-183.
Boddy, C. (2012). The nominal group technique: An aid to brainstorming ideas in research.
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A Compendium of Evidence Page 49
Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1972). A comparison of two group brainstorming procedures. Journal of Applied
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Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1972). Training, motivation, and personality as determinants of the effectiveness
of brainstorming groups and individuals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(4), 324-331.
Bouchard, T. J., Jr. Barsaloux, J., & Drauden, G. (1974). Brainstorming procedure, group size, and sex
as determinants of the problem-solving effectiveness of groups and individuals. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 59(2), 135-138.
Bouchard, T. J., Jr., & Hare, M. (1970). Size, performance, and potential in brainstorming groups.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(1), 51-55.
Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Drauden, G., & Barsaloux, J. (1974). A comparison of individual, subgroup, and
total group methods of problem solving. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(2), 226-227.
Bray, R. M., Kerr, N. L., & Atking, R. S. (1978). Effects of group size, problem difficulty, and sex on
group performance and member reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(11),
1224-1240.
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discussion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 48(3), 175-179.
Brown, V., & Paulus, P. B. (1996). A simple dynamic model of social factors in group brainstorming.
Small Group Research, 27, 91-114.
Brown, V. R., & Paulus, P. B. (2002). Making group brainstorming more effective: Recommendations
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group brainstorming. Small Group Research, 29, 495-526.
Burns, M. G. (1983). A comparison of three creative problem-solving methodologies.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation (Microfilm No. DA 8411 924), University of Denver, Denver,
CO.
Butler, D. L.& Kline, M. A. (1999). Good versus creative solutions: A comparison of brainstorming,
hierarchical, and perspective-changing heuristics. Creativity Research Journal, 11(4), 325-331.
Buyer, L. S. (1988). Creative problem solving: A comparison of performance under different
instructions. Journal of Creative Behavior, 22(1), 55-61.
Camacho, L. M. & Paulus, P. B. (1995). The role of social anxiousness in group brainstorming, Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(6), 1071-1080.
Chen, Q. (2018). Idea development in online internal crowdsourcing: The role of peer contributions.
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm: Sweden.
Cohen, D., Whitmyre, J. W., & Funk, W. H. (1960). Effect of group cohesiveness and training upon
creative thinking. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44(5), 319-322.
Collaros, P. A., & Anderson, L. R. (1969). Effect of perceived expertness upon creativity of members of
brainstorming groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53(2), 159-163.
Comadena, M. E. (1984). Brainstorming groups: Ambiguity tolerance, communication apprehension,
task attraction, and individual productivity. Small Group Behavior, 15(2), 251-264.
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Connolly, T., Routhieaux, R. L., & Schneider, S. K. (1993). On the effectiveness of group
brainstorming: Test of one underlying cognitive mechanism. Small Group Research, 24(4), 490-503.
Coskun, H. (2011). Close associations and memory in brainwriting groups. Journal of Creative
Behavior, 45, 59-75.
Coskin, H., Paulus, P. B., Brown, V., & Sherwood, J. J. (2000). Cognitive stimulation and problem
presentation in idea-generating groups.