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Computer support for knowledge-building communities

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Computer support for knowledge-building communities

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... Information accumulation is a key criterion of the success of the knowledge construction process on Q&A sites [7]. Knowledge construction on Q&A sites creates new ideas, explanations, and theories that help the members of a community understand the world [8][9][10]. According to Latour and Woolgar [11], information is accumulated in the knowledge construction process through the negotiation of new content among knowledge contributors. ...
... Q&A sites promote social participation, which is pivotal to facilitating knowledge contributions because it promotes the development of social cohesion and a sense of belonging [8][9][10]. According to Gunawardena et al. [2], participation features determine the key stages of knowledge construction, which are the discovery and exploration of dissonance or inconsistency among ideas, concepts, or statements; the negotiation of meaning and co-construction of knowledge; and the testing and modification of the proposed synthesis or co-construction process. ...
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This study examined how the knowledge market promotes knowledge construction on question-and-answer (Q&A) websites. Data were collected from Zhihu, one of the largest Q&A sites in China. Hierarchical linear modeling was employed to estimate the dynamics of information accumulation, that is, the provision of informative content as factual construction. By employing information accumulation as the objective measure of knowledge construction, we determined that online knowledge construction was facilitated by a competitive marketplace of ideas. In addition, participation, temporal, and discourse features affected the dynamics of information accumulation. In specific, active users contributed significantly less to information accumulation than did ordinary users. Information accumulation shows a naturally decaying process represented as a function of answer order. The time interval between answers at the two preceding time points reduced the informativeness of answers at the subsequent time point. Answers with a higher readability score reduced the informativeness of subsequent answers. The results indicate that knowledge construction on Q&A sites unfolds as a process of mass collaboration among users. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1140/epjds/s13688-022-00346-6.
... Less physically-involute learning approaches, where tutoring services are available (Harasim et al., 1995;Hiltz & R., n.d.;Swan, 2005), are known as asynchronous learning networks. This mode of learning is also known as collaborative computer-mediated learning (Koschmann et al., 2002;Miyake, 2007;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996) and e-learning (Andrews & C., n.d.;Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2004;Land & S., n.d.;Lea & Nicoll, 2002;Sharples et al., 2007). The relational, constructivist and cognitivist end of the spectrum encourages the active participation of students by means of theoretical methods and leads this initiative to a community of individual concepts of apprenticeship (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996). ...
... This mode of learning is also known as collaborative computer-mediated learning (Koschmann et al., 2002;Miyake, 2007;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996) and e-learning (Andrews & C., n.d.;Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2004;Land & S., n.d.;Lea & Nicoll, 2002;Sharples et al., 2007). The relational, constructivist and cognitivist end of the spectrum encourages the active participation of students by means of theoretical methods and leads this initiative to a community of individual concepts of apprenticeship (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996). ...
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Disruption to education and the havoc of a health crisis have been common trends found in every region of the globe as a consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This pandemic has interrupted educational activities worldwide. Countries have taken significant measures to continue education via asynchronous learning. Cases were selected to explore “how have countries taken initiatives in switching from synchronous learning to asynchronous learning during the critical time of the COVID-19 pandemic?” Secondary data was collected from existing literature and published reports. Yin explanatory, embedded case study design was employed and thematic analysis was carried out using NVIVO 12. It is observed that 95 percent of countries of the world have taken steps toward asynchronous learning in the emergency period for each level of education, and some common emerging tools for asynchronous learning are also identified in the study. This study was first conducted to investigate the trend of countries in a state of emergency providing a continuation of educational activities utilising their available resources. The study is believed to be helpful for countries of different regions wanting to modify the existing asynchronous learning infrastructure. Post emergency measures may be considered for further studies
... Meier (2015) suggests "three critical questions" to be asked while engineering online courses. (Vygotsky, 1978;Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1994). Bereiter and Scardamalia set learning in three stages: Knowledge acquisition, knowledge-building, and knowledge refinement (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1994). ...
... (Vygotsky, 1978;Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1994). Bereiter and Scardamalia set learning in three stages: Knowledge acquisition, knowledge-building, and knowledge refinement (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1994). ...
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Education is a fertile land for innovation and change. Technology, on its side, has always shown a deliberate potential to move language teaching and learning. Integral in the latter is the teacher-learner relationship. The entire study is about the importance of this relationship. It is also about the open paths for it, mainly within contexts that increasingly endorse tech-use. With that, teachers’ roles are expected to vary; thus, this work sheds light on how the use of online learning affects those roles. To fulfill the purpose of this work, data are gathered from a sample of 26 EFL teachers and 100 of their students at the University of Oran 2, Algeria. Questionnaires were conducted as well as interviews and classroom observation in the Department of English. This triad of instruments allowed for a corpus that fed the investigation. A breadth of attitudes and opinions pertaining to tech-use and the teacher-learner relationship were amassed. They showed that the teacher-learner rapport is fundamental, impactful, and valuable for the studied sample. In addition, respondents ‘subverted’, with their expressed views, the spread ‘fear’ and the thought that technology can replace teachers. For the majority of them, no machine can substitute good teachers, i.e. they stuck to face-to-face instruction (57.14%). 47.62% of them opted for blended learning whereas, surprisingly, none of them preferred online instruction. Based on those percentages, the work demonstrated that, for the investigated case, the future has two main paths instead of three: face-to-face and blended instruction. This also preserves teachers’ roles. The sample suggested many roles but the most notable one is the role of guiding. Within online learning environments, teachers will still be present to guide, supervise, and train students for online and auto-learning. As it has been found, teachers will keep doing their job in the best way they can. This study concludes that change touches methods, tools, means, and materials. The human aspect of teaching and learning will not be withdrawn. Ultimately, the teacher-learner relationship will be held important differently from what has been the custom though.
... The concept of Collaborative knowledge improvement within a class duration is drawn from the concept of Rapid Collaborative Knowledge Improvement (RCKI) (Looi, Chen & Patton, 2010;Looi, Patton & Chen, 2011). This notion differs from the concept of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), as knowledge building connotes the process of idea improvement over a protracted or extended period . Studying idea improvement over a short duration of class time involves seeking to harness the collective intelligence of the group to learn and envision new possibilities and reveal latent knowledge in a dynamic live setting (Looi, Chen & Patton, 2010). ...
... Understanding RCKI is crucial as this laid the foundation for this study. When knowledge is constructed within a limited time constraint, it means that the community's efforts toward social processes were aimed at improvement rather than knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). When knowledge construction takes place over the limited duration of a class session, the focus on democratic knowledge sharing, as well as cycles of individual and group knowledge enhancement, should take the stance of improvement rather than building . ...
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Online peer feedback plays a critical role in collaborative learning. This process improves learning and helps both giver and receiver develop and refine their metacognitive knowledge. A deeper examination of the feedback types, specificity, and affective nature is needed to understand its impact on collaborative knowledge improvement. A mixed-method study was conducted to examine how online peer feedback supported collaborative knowledge improvement in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. How the different types of formative peer feedback, the specificity and affective nature of the peer comments supported pre-service teachers' in improving their TEL design were examined. The results showed that the peer feedback supported pre-service teachers in improving the quality of TEL design measured by the TPACK framework. It was found that feedback that raised concerns about the work and suggestive feedback facilitated the further improvement of the work. Elaborated feedback rather than verification feedback with short responses also affected the responses to the feedback. The implications on how online peer feedback support collaborative knowledge improvement are discussed.
... The differences in thinking simultaneously promote learning for the learners' prior knowledge is reshaped and refined. Scardamalia and Bereiter (1994) have even describe this process as learners working collaboratively in solving a problem. It is because learners possess a sense of ownership when sharing their thoughts in resolving a matter together. ...
... Owing to the constant and random cognitive flow and interactions between individuals in the collaborative group, it is crucial to search for a more accurate and objective depiction for measuring the quality of the collaborative learning process for the CSCL research (Miyake & Kirschner, 2014). Knowledge Building (KB) practice is introduced into CSCL as a novel pedagogical model for learning analytic (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). In the KB learning setting, collaborative learning is premised on four core KB principles which foster collective cognitive responsibility (Scardamalia, 2002): "idea generation", "idea connection", "idea improvement", and "rise above". ...
Conference Paper
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Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning technologies to automatically mine latent patterns from educational data holds great potential to inform teaching and learning practices. However, the current AI technology mostly works as "black box"-only the inputs and the corresponding outputs are available, which largely impedes researchers from gaining access to explainable feedback. This interdisciplinary work presents an explainable AI prototype with visualized explanations as feedback for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). This research study seeks to provide interpretable insights with machine learning technologies for multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) by introducing two different explanatory machine learning-based models (neural network and Bayesian network) in different manners (end-to-end learning and probabilistic analysis) and for the same goal-provide explainable and actionable feedback. The prototype is applied to the real-world collaborative learning scenario with data-driven learning based on sensor-data from multiple modalities which can assess collaborative learning processes and render explanatory real-time feedback.
... However, students' interaction does not always lead to the best possible learning outcomes due to low participation and low quality of the posts (Joubert & Wishart, 2012). Additionally, online discussion is often dominated by few students (Romiszowski & Mason, 2004), while successful knowledge construction needs active and broad participation (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). ...
...  In een learning community wordt ingezet op de groei van zowel collectieve kennis als individuele kennis 23 . ...
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In deze publicatie presenteren we hoe we samen met bedrijven zijn gekomen tot concrete ontwerp-principes voor een learning community en laten we met een praktijkvoorbeeld zien hoe een learning community kan worden vormgegeven. De aanpak en het ontwerp is uitgevoerd binnen de context van de energietransitie; de generieke ontwerpaanpak en de vormgeving van de learning community zijn echter ook interessant voor bedrijven en kennisinstellingen die stappen willen zetten met het ontwerpen van learning communities.
... A broad spectrum of different research methods is used in the field of CSCL depending on considerations such as the specific research goals, the maturity of the theories, the complexity of the problems and the researcher's epistemological orientation. Thus, CSCL is a dynamic and active research community and a wealth of CSCL research has been conducted to reveal the mechanisms of successful CSCL (King, 2007;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). In order to achieve a more comprehensive and precise conclusion about CSCL mechanism, structured research synthesis are needed that integrate the rich amount of primary studies about specific topics in CSCL However it also became of a source of confusion and disagreement about integrative conclusions that can be drawn from CSCL research (see also .. Goals and motivations of the synthesis may dictate the use of quantitative or qualitative synthesis methods, which, in turn, limit the type and scope of conclusions that can be drawn from them. ...
Conference Paper
There has been a rise in the demands of looking for ‘appropriate’ research methodology to investigate how educational technology is used so as to search for ‘better’ ways for sustainable development in the field. Some scholars described the potentials of phenomenography as ‘opening a new territory’ (Bruce, 1999) that explores the understandings of a phenomenon in the use of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) for informing educational practice from a second-order perspective, rather than a first-order perspective that cannot reveal the phenomena as it is understood (Rovio-Johansson & Ingerman, 2016, p. 261). Phenomenographic research helps ‘to bridge the gap between research and practice’ that puts an emphasis on collective meaning and identification of conceptions in an empirical manner (Johnston & Salaz, 2017).
... It does not belong to or exist in any one person's head. Just as angry cats and dancing babies spread across the web, the cognitive tools (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) we use for meaning-making get passed around in communities of shared interests (Gee, 2007). This adds layers of complexity beyond self-directed text construction. ...
... Por su parte, los encuentros asincrónicos fueron fortalecidos durante la pandemia de la Covid 19, mediante vídeo-llamadas, en tiempo real, ofrecidas por herramientas como zoom, Skype, Google meet, teams, entre otros. En la selección del EVA en prácticas docentes socialmente innovadoras, primeramente, definimos el modelo pedagógico más apropiado para nuestras formaciones, en este caso el liderazgo social y la construcción de paz, bajo un modelo constructivista que implementa un aprendizaje situado en la idea de la legítima participación periférica, es decir, en la posibilidad de construir conocimiento en diferentes grados; Este modelo sustenta que los espacios formativos deben reestructurarse como comunidades de aprendizaje donde los miembros interactúan y comparten objetivos de formación (Scardamalia y Bereiter, 1994) como a continuación veremos. ...
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Los años, 2020 y 2021, se constituyeron en momento propicio e histórico para que actores sociales en el mundo replantearan procesos, tecnologías y estrategias. Los educadores no fueron la excepción; mientras la pandemia mundial por Sars-COv-2 (mayormente conocida como COVID-19) se extendía por todo el mundo, las sociedades latinoamericanas agregaban un nuevo desafío social a sus vigentes ¿Cómo seguir capacitando a sus grupos humanos en liderazgo social y construcción de paz? Una de las acciones implementadas fueron los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje liderados por el Centro Internacional de Investigación en Innovación Social de la Universidad de Guadalajara – México, en los cuales, participaron representantes del gobierno, universidades, organizaciones sin fines de lucro, comunidades rurales y urbanas. Este artículo describe sendas experiencias realizadas en América Latina, como seminarios web, certificación de capacitaciones, interacción social, foros entre otros, liderados por académicos y educadores, altamente comprometidos con la formación social y los cambios sistémicos. Estos procesos formativos, fueron dirigidos a la sociedad civil en general, residentes en México y en otros países de la región. Hicieron parte de un proyecto macro denominado “Líder Social” en el que bajo metodologías de investigación acción participativa, se lograron interesantes hallazgos y resultados, que aportaron en la formación de capacidades en la región y estimularon cambios desde las comunidades base.
... Otra de las modificaciones del BSCW es la conversión de sus foros en los "espacios de construcción del conocimiento" (Scardamalia y Bereiter, 1994) de Synergeia. Corresponden a espacios compartidos de discusión en donde los estudiantes pueden comunicarse y crear su propio conocimiento compartido. ...
... Teachers are suggested to inform their design ideas based on what is currently known and continually improve their design ideas by conducting evaluations. Moreover, teachers are suggested to share their designs for learning and lessons learned to support the improvement of what communities of teachers can accomplish (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1994). The study of this paper is based on workshops where adult education teachers were encouraged to suggest how their designs for learning could be informed and evaluated and how the designs and lessons learned could be shared. ...
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Purpose An issue that has received limited attention is how teachers make informed decisions when designing learning activities, which makes effective use of resources and technologies. The aim of this paper is to explore how teachers suggest informing their designs for learning. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on documentation from workshops where adult education teachers were encouraged to suggest how a design for learning can draw on what is known, how the design can be evaluated and how the design and lessons learned can be shared. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Most teachers did not explicitly suggest how to inform their designs for learning, although some suggested to draw on learning theories. The teachers were able to provide many examples of how their designs for learning could be evaluated based on student perceptions and assessment. They primarily suggested to discuss and share their designs and lessons learned at the school. Practical implications The workshop format could be adapted and used in practice. Originality/value Relatively little attention has been paid to how teachers inform their designs for learning. A key challenge for teachers is to understand design for learning as an informed practice, which could be integrated as part of their daily work.
... Behavioral GA information could be beneficial for strengthening the effects of cognitive GA information because it is known to trigger intensified social interaction, which cannot be taken for granted but is seen as a fundamental prerequisite to knowledge construction by socio-constructivist approaches (Bento & Schuster, 2003;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). For high-order thinking skills, active participation or externalization of knowledge is indispensable (Daspit & D'Souza, 2012;Galikyan & Admiraal, 2019). ...
Article
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Group awareness (GA) tools can facilitate learning processes and outcomes by visualizing different social attributes, such as cognitive and behavioral information about group members. To assist learning and writing in social media, combining various types of awareness information may foster learning processes due to challenges, which are difficult to address by one type of GA information alone. The systematic investigation of GA tool combinations is largely unexplored with GA information often being examined separately or intermixed. To reveal both positive and negative (interaction) effects of providing different types of GA information, we conducted a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment with N = 158 participants. Learners were provided with a wiki learning environment and, except for the control condition, different types of GA tools involving cognitive (knowledge bars) and/or behavioral (participation bars) GA information. GA tool effects were considered at wiki selection, discussion, and article levels. Eye-tracking was used for investigating the attentional effect of the GA visualizations. The results show that both types of GA information have effects on individuals’ selection preference, more strongly with the goal to learn new content than to support other wiki collaborators, which were introduced as within goal scenarios. Also, participants provided with behavioral GA support were more engaged in wiki contributions. However, only the combination of cognitive and behavioral GA information, rather than their separate visualization, had a positive effect on resulting article quality. This highlights the need for a holistic perspective when developing GA tools to improve wiki processes and outcomes.
... The progressive inquiry is defined as "a heuristic framework for structuring and supporting students' epistemological advancement and development of epistemic agency and related skills" (Muukkonen et al., 2005: 530). The framework was developed by Hakkarainen (1998), Hakkarainen (2003), Muukkonen et al. (2004) and it comes from the theories of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), the interrogative model of scientific inquiry (Hakkarainen & Sintonen, 2002;Hintikka, 1999), and concepts of distributed expertise in a community of learners (Brown & Campione, 1994;Hakkarainen et al., 2004). The framework has mostly been implemented to the studies at the University of Helsinki in Finland. ...
Chapter
Approaches and methodologies that promote and trigger twenty-first century skills such as critical thinking, creativity, from self-employment to entrepreneurship, sustainability and responsibility of climate have been current topics in media, in funding resources and scientific research. One of the approaches which has been provided as partial solution is design thinking combined with agile and lean methodologies. This chapter provides an overview of the background of agile and lean methods and design thinking in educational institutes inspired by industries’ practices. The chapter starts by discussing the reasons for engineering practices need to be renewed after which brief background on evolvement of agile and lean methodologies in higher education institutions are presented. The chapter then focusses on the background and needs of design and highlights good practices and risks.
... The progressive inquiry is defined as "a heuristic framework for structuring and supporting students' epistemological advancement and development of epistemic agency and related skills" (Muukkonen et al., 2005: 530). The framework was developed by Hakkarainen (1998), Hakkarainen (2003), Muukkonen et al. (2004) and it comes from the theories of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), the interrogative model of scientific inquiry (Hakkarainen & Sintonen, 2002;Hintikka, 1999), and concepts of distributed expertise in a community of learners (Brown & Campione, 1994;Hakkarainen et al., 2004). The framework has mostly been implemented to the studies at the University of Helsinki in Finland. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the role of agile software development methods and design thinking in university education. We will discuss the combination of agile and design thinking methods in software and media engineering education. The approaches of project-based learning and agile methods intermingled into various learning contexts are presented and discussed. The knowledge gathered from a series of experimental modules at the Metropolia University of Applied Sciences in Helsinki is brought together into a summary.
... This learning view claims that knowledge and skill should be acquired from collaborative interaction and communication between learners. AIED research has adopted learning theories in social constructivism to explore methods for scaffolding collaborative interaction and communication such as discussion and debate [19] . These scaffolding methods have been integrated into systems called CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning). ...
Article
The key to developing learning support using technology is understanding learning from an informatics point of view. Research on informatics for learning and education applies learning theories or views to model learning and develop various methods and systems for learning support. The Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education (JSiSE) has demonstrated leadership in this research field in Japan. JSiSE particularly encourages theoretical development, as well as practical use of models, methods, and systems, which involves circular interaction between them. In this paper, we introduce the history, research aim and approach, and academic activities of JSiSE. The paper also highlights the research being conducted by JSiSE on theoretical modeling of learning and development of methods and systems, and its transition owing to the influence of learning theory and learning media.
... The reason why students' questions are significant is because students' questions can be regarded as a signal or an observable and identifiable expression of epistemic activity (Zenios, 2010) and epistemic curiosity. This is especially the case when the question is posed to seek, acquire or engage with data, facts, information as part of the process of constructing knowledge or 'knowledge building' (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1994. It can be assumed, that when epistemic activity (Zenios, 2010) leads to epistemic questions (Collins and Ferguson, 1993), subsequently, there is evidence of an existence of epistemic curiosity. ...
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The aim of the study was to critically analyse teachers pedagogical approaches and how voice technology was used by students as a more knowledgeable other and the extent to which it affected students’ epistemic curiosity. Using an exploratory ethnographic approach, Amazon’s Echo Dot voice technology was studied in lessons at Hillview School. Data was collected through participant observation, informal interviews and recordings of students’ interactions with ‘Alexa’. Students asked questions to Alexa in large numbers. Alexa was asked 87 questions during two lessons suggesting that Alexa was a digital more knowledgeable other. Types of questions asked to Alexa, such as ‘Can fish see water?’, were epistemic questions and suggestive of epistemic curiosity. Teachers used the Echo Dots infrequently and in a limited number of ways. Teachers relied upon a pedagogical approach and talk oriented around performance which overlooked students’ learning talk. The answer to why students might not be curious was not found. However, evidence to understand how and why they might appear not curious was revealed. The study makes contributions to knowledge through the novel use of the Echo Dots to collect data and through a new data visualisation technique called ‘heatmaps’. The study contributes to knowledge by proposing three tentative notions that emerged inductively from the research: ‘performance-oriented talk’, ‘metricalisation’ and ‘regulativity’. The study aims to make a further contribution to knowledge by suggesting evidence of a ‘pedagogy of performance’. The study recommends ‘learning-oriented talk’ and development of Alexa ‘Skills’ as a way to disrupt the pedagogy of performance and as an area for further research.
... The models led the researches on reading and writing to the exploration of how learners build and organize the content they read in their minds and use the knowledge to solve problems. Deeply believed in the knowledge-creating civilization that knowledge is created by communities and realized the significance of collaborative development of shared knowledge, they later put forth the important concept of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1993, 2006. Advocates of the knowledge building theory explored how to promote cognitive development in the process of social reading based on the principles of knowledge building (Chen & Du, 2017; Doto, 2015; Lupo, Berry, Thacker, Sawyer, & Merritt, 2019). ...
Article
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With the development of technologies for reading and the rise of social reading which considers readers the core in learning and emphasizes sharing and interaction, traditional theoretical reading models are facing challenges. Social reading is a type of interactive reading activity that can activate readers’ reading and discussions, promote expressions of multiple ideas, and facilitate collaborative inquiry and knowledge building. While previous researchers proposed theories or frameworks in reading or literacy research, no specific model has been developed especially for social reading and socially shared regulation. Integrating the socially shared regulation theory into social reading and expanding the theoretical perspective of problem-solving on reading can be beneficial for constructing a new social reading model. In this study, we propose a theoretical framework, Social Reading Based on Shared Regulation (SRBSR), which can account for the details and procedures of readers’ collaborative learning and shared regulatory behaviors during social reading activities. This framework can help improve the theory of purposeful reading in the new media environment and provide future instructors and researchers an operable model for designing and developing social reading courses.
... Different learning technologies such as the Knowledge Community and Inquiry Model (Slotta & Najafi, 2013) use Web 2.0 technologies where students explore a conceptual domain, express their ideas, and create a collective knowledge base that future users can use. Web-based collaborative environments allow equal opportunities for learners to participate without the limitation on knowledge levels (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). Learners in web-based collaborative learning believe it is a time-saving and efficient knowledge-sharing system (Liaw, 2004). ...
Article
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An important subdomain in research on Human-Artificial Intelligence interaction is Explainable AI (XAI). XAI aims to improve human understanding and trust in machine intelligence and automation by providing users with visualizations and other information explaining the AI’s decisions, actions, or plans and thereby to establish justified trust and reliance. XAI systems have primarily used algorithmic approaches designed to generate explanations automatically that help understanding underlying information about decisions and establish justified trust and reliance, but an alternate that may augment these systems is to take advantage of the fact that user understanding of AI systems often develops through self-explanation (Mueller et al., 2021). Users attempt to piece together different sources of information and develop a clearer understanding, but these self-explanations are often lost if not shared with others. This thesis research demonstrated how this ‘Self-Explanation’ could be shared collaboratively via a system that is called collaborative XAI (CXAI). It is akin to a Social Q&A platform (Oh, 2018) such as StackExchange. A web-based system was built and evaluated formatively and via user studies. Formative evaluation will show how explanations in an XAI system, especially collaborative explanations, can be assessed based on ‘goodness criteria’ (Mueller et al., 2019). This thesis also investigated how the users performed with the explanations from this type of XAI system. Lastly, the research investigated whether the users of CXAI system are satisfied with the human-generated explanations generated in the system and check if the users can trust this type of explanation.
... Knowledge Building is a socio-constructivist approach in which students take collective responsibility for improving ideas and pursuing more coherent explanations as a community (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994, 2014. It is critical to engage students in the Knowledge Building culture to better prepare them for the knowledge society era (Hong et al., 2019b). ...
Article
Knowledge Building is a socio-constructivist approach that aims to engage students in a knowledge-creation environment as early as possible to get them ready for the knowledge society. Rather than following fixed procedures or scripts, the twelve Knowledge Building Principles, such as collective responsibility, real ideas and authentic problems, and improvable ideas, have framed the Knowledge Building approach. These principles support teachers and students to identify and work on their needs to improve the coherence and explanatory power of their community knowledge. We hypothesize that the extent to which students adopt these principles influence their group Knowledge Building. We analyzed the online discourse, design artifacts, and reflection of 39 pre-service teachers. We found that the participants did well in contributing diverse ideas, engaging in Knowledge Building discourse, taking initiatives in their groups, and considering each other as legitimate contributors. However, they needed support to use authoritative sources, assess their discourse and knowledge status, rise above diverse ideas to achieve new syntheses, and make complementary contributions across teams. Principles such as improvable ideas, embedded and transformative assessment, democratizing knowledge and symmetric knowledge advancement tend to distinguish the high-performance groups from the medium- and low-performance groups. This study implies the importance of teachers and researchers to help students engage in productive Knowledge Building using the twelve Knowledge Building Principles.
... In this study, peer-to-peer interaction was related to students' problem-solving performance, aligning with prior research that considered peer-to-peer interaction an important component in online discussions (Choi et al., 2005). By interacting with peers, learners can consider diverse perspectives of a problem, justify personal perspectives, and negotiate a shared understanding of solutions (Harasim, 1990;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1996). While new ideas and alternative perspectives can help students develop better in-depth ideas themselves, considering diverse perspectives may overwhelm students if the amount of information received is way beyond their current cognitive level (Chi & Wylie, 2014). ...
Article
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Asynchronous online discussions (AODs) are a central component of online courses and have been widely implemented in case-based instruction (CBI). In online CBI, AODs offer learners a medium for making sense of complex problems, as they consider case topics col-laboratively with peers and facilitators. Therefore, learners' interactions with others have the potential to impact the overall effectiveness of the method, and specifically, participating in AODS during CBI may help learners develop problem-solving skills. However, little research has considered how learners' interaction patterns in an AOD relate to the development of problem-solving skills during CBI. We used social network analysis (SNA) to consider the relationship between social interactions and learners' problem-solving skills, as it offers a way to consider the structure of learners' social interactions. We found that the number of posts, replies, and connections learners made in course discussions were related to problem-solving performance measured both in case analyses and overall course grade.
... Education for the Knowledge Age must shift from teaching students as passive receivers of knowledge to empowering them as active creators of knowledge (Bereiter, 2002;Tan, So, & Yeo, 2014;Chan et al., 2020). For more than three decades, Knowledge Building pedagogy and technology has been transforming the culture of teaching in schools so that students can assume higher levels of agency for creative knowledge work (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1991;1994;see Chen & Hong, 2016 for review). Toward that end, Knowledge Forum has been designed and refined over countless iterations with input from teachers, researchers, engineers, designers, and even students to facilitate sustained, creative work with ideas in K-12 classrooms. ...
Conference Paper
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One of the core aims of Knowledge Building is to move students toward higher levels of agency. The design challenge for Knowledge Forum is to provide supports "attuned to the self-organizing character of learning" through powerful feedback mechanisms that enable students to make reflexive and progress-oriented decisions that sustain collective knowledge advancement. This study follows three design iterations of metadiscourse with 8-and 11-year old students, culminating in a cross-community discussion of next-generation analytics for Knowledge Forum at the 2019 Knowledge Building Summer Institute. Through metadiscourse, students demonstrated sophisticated interpretations of their online activities with the Knowledge Forum analytic tools. Not only were they honest and open about receiving feedback through novel forms of data visualization, they were also aware of the potential limitations of these tools and offered thoughtful and insightful feedback for our engineers. Pedagogical and technological implications are discussed within the context of nurturing the emergence of new competencies, such as design thinking and computational literacy.
... According to several authors, using new e-learning platforms allows the research of increasingly rich and complex materials and stimulates the creation of knowledge-building communities (Scardamaglia and Breiter, 2004). Moreover, they call for a collaborative, reflective, and metacognitive approach to study through the comparison of the objectives and content of educational activity (Bereiter;2004;Varisco, 2009;Zucchermaglio, 2008, 2009;Trentin, 2011;Zucchermaglio and Alby, 2016). Studies in literature state that social media as well have shown to have potential as learning environments, if developed within educational projects (Siemens and Weller 2011;Manca and Ranieri 2013). ...
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On March 9, 2020 attendance classes in Italian universities were suspended due to Covid-19 Pandemic. Thanks to the fast actions put in place by Sapienza University Governance and to the efforts made by all components of the university, the face-to-face courses were turned into on-line courses in only one week. This sudden change has been an even more exciting challenge for the Faculties of Medicine, whose members were also involved in the frontline battle against the virus. Anatomy academics, recognizing the challenges as opportunities to innovate anatomy teaching, set up at the same time: a specific survey to investigate students’ perspective on educational preferences and their mood; a longitudinal quantitative study to compare, for the first time in the same student’s population, exam grades after face-to-face classes and after online classes. The students, although with different motivations, considered valid both modes of attendance. Exam grades statistical analysis showed that anatomy exam marks after the online course had a higher average value (statistically significant) and with an excellent correlation factor, compared to the marks obtained at the end of the face-to-face course. Considering our data as a whole, we can suggest that face-to-face classes and online classes, rather than being interchangeable education modes, should be considered as modes with different characteristics that offer different educational benefits. These advantages may have different relevance for individual students, depending on their specific needs and individual preferences. This suggests the opportunity to propose customizable courses, centered on the student’s needs.
... In those early days of the learning sciences in the US, most of the theoretical stances were either cognitive or somewhat situative (rather than socio-political, cultural-historical, etc.). But interesting interventions implemented in the field were twinned with interesting learning theories that were design-relevant, including Brown and Campione's fostering communities of learning, Bransford's anchored instruction (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990), Brown, Collins, and Duguid's (1989) cognitive apprenticeship, Papert's constructionist environments for learning (Harel & Papert, 1991), Scardamalia and Bereiter's (1994) knowledge-building communities, Anderson's cognitive tutors (e.g., Andreson, Conrad, & Corbett, 1989), and Lave and Wenger's (1991) communities of practice. In each case, important claims about learning were asserted and tested by creating new genres of (mostly technologymediated) learning environments. ...
... In the same vein, there are various approaches and models, which combine well-known learning theories and teaching practice on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). The main teaching models are: Knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), Progressive Inquiry (Hakkarainen & Sintonen, 2002;Muukkonen, Hakkarainen & Lakkala, 1999;Lehtinen, 2003), Knowledge Integration (Hoadley & Linn, 2000;Bell & Linn, 2000;Linn, Bell & Hsi, 1998), Knowledge Creation (Lipponen, Hakkarainen & Paavola, 2004), and Social Theory of CSCL (Stahl, 2002;2004). These models are technological applications that support the implementation of collaborative learning activities. ...
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The purpose of this small-scale qualitative research study was to examine the use and perceived value of integrating collaborative learning techniques at teleconferences at the Hellenic Open University (HOU). Qualitative semi-structure interviews with tutors from the School of Humanities at the HOU were conducted in order for the research plan to be fundamentally heuristic and generate original results. Purposeful sampling was chosen for the data collection process, cross-sectional organization for the data classification and thematic analysis for the data analysis. The results of the present research study indicate the parameters needed to be taken into account in order for the tutors to use collaborative learning techniques at teleconference teaching at HOU. An adequate teleconference platform, tutors’ training on distance collaborative learning and group dynamics, and a common understanding regarding distance learning and group dynamics in e-learning environments are some of the most significant findings derived from this research study. The role of students, as well as the role of the distance-learning provider, in integrating and adopting distance collaborative learning strategies, are also highlighted by the results.
... Design-based research has contributed in significant ways to how people learn within and across complex learning ecologies (see Cobb, McClain, Gravemeijer, 2003;Jurow et al., 2008;Lehrer, Strom, & Confrey, 2002). From the evolution of strategies such as "reciprocal teaching" and "fostering a community of learners" to the design of "intentional learning environments" (Brown & Campione, 1990;Brown & Palincsar, 1989;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994), DBR has demonstrated its central commitment to iteration, collaboration, and utility for practical problem solving (Penuel et al., 2011), which has the potential to improve education research, as well as learning for diverse stakeholders and populations. ...
... Knowledge forum: is a powerful program for encouraging collaborative knowledge construction (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994). Knowledge Forum involves students contributing to a bulletin board by generating their own problems, posing their own questions and commenting on each other's work. ...
Chapter
Reflective practice supports critical thinking and assessment skills through analyzing one's own life experiences, and the role of reflection in learning is well reckoned. Reflective practice, the habit of looking back and analyzing one's own life experiences, is a process that supports learning and develops critical thinking skills. The role of reflection in learning has been recognized for decades and the reflective observation learning style may provide an important means of deepening student understanding and engagement especially with better technology integration. Many management educators recommend reflective practice for managerial and professional development as learning to reflect is a key element in mastering the important management skill of self-awareness and developing management competencies. Adopting a mixed method qualitative approach, the aim of this chapter is to delve on the current scenario of the reflective practices and technology integration in management education.
... De este modo, la colaboración bien estructurada consigue promover el aprendizaje a través de procesos socio-cognitivos de negociación basados en la presencia social y emocional, que sustenta el aprendizaje mediado por tecnologías, mejorando los resultados de aprendizaje individual e incrementando la satisfacción de los estudiantes (Johnson, Johnson y Stanne, 2000;Oakley, Felder, Brent y Elhajj, 2004;King, 2007;Medina y Suthers, 2008;Kwon, et al., 2014). En el CSCL el aprendizaje se desarrolla a través de procesos complejos que conllevan: a) la definición de un objetivo común, que constituirá un desafío para los grupos e implicará el desarrollo de los aprendizajes/competencias; b) la organización del grupo para dar respuesta al desafío; c) la cooperación y negociación para ofrecer la solución; y d) la co-evaluación o evaluación por pares, tanto del proceso como del resultado del trabajo en grupo (Scardamalia y Bereiter, 1994;Johnson y Johnson 2004). ...
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Esta aportación deriva de un proyecto de investigación en el que se analiza una propuesta pedagógica y tecnológica para el diseño de procesos de aprendizaje CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning). En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las herramientas en el aprendizaje colaborativo a partir de la percepción del alumnado participante en el estudio. Se articula sobre un análisis de las principales ‎soluciones tecnológicas aplicadas en el campo del CSCL, distinguiendo entre el uso colaborativo de la tecnología y la tecnología colaborativa. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio cuantitativo ‎ex post facto de carácter no experimental basado en el método de encuesta en el que participan 106 estudiantes de ‎cinco asignaturas pertenecientes a los grados de Maestro Educación Primaria e Infantil ‎del Campus La Salle en Madrid y que desarrollaron aprendizaje basado en proyectos con una ‎metodología basada en ‎CSCL. Los estudiantes valoran que las tecnologías más útiles en el CSCL son la videoconferencia y la mensajería instantánea, como WhatsApp, frente a otras herramientas como Wikis, Blogs o Redes Sociales. Al margen de la situación derivada de la pandemia del COVID-19, los sistemas de videoconferencia y mensajería instantánea desde dispositivos móviles no han sido las herramientas integradas de forma habitual en las plataformas virtuales (LMS) o incorporadas en los procesos CSCL, sin embargo, los estudiantes valoran positivamente su utilidad en los procesos de colaboración. En este sentido, las instituciones de educación superior deberían promover una amplia reflexión en torno a las herramientas que favorecen los procesos de interacción y los aprendizajes en colaboración, aprovechando el gran esfuerzo que se ha tenido que asumir en la situación de pandemia, que se ha sostenido en gran medida gracias a los ecosistemas digitales. This contribution derives from a research project that analyzes a pedagogical and technological proposal for the design of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) learning processes. This work presents an analysis of the tools in collaborative learning based on the perception of the students participating in the study. It is based on an analysis of the main technological solutions applied in the field of CSCL, distinguishing between the collaborative use of technology and collaborative technology. The research entails an ex post facto non-experimental quantitative study based on the survey method conducted with 106 students of five subjects belonging to the degrees of Primary and Infant Education at Campus La Salle Madrid. Students developed project-based learning with a CSCL-based methodology; analysis are presented according to the age of the students and the years of experience working in virtual environments. Students value that the most useful technologies in CSCL are videoconferencing and instant messaging, such as WhatsApp, compared to other tools such as Wikis, Blogs or Social Networks. Aside from the situation derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, videoconferencing and instant messaging systems do not tend to be integrated into virtual platforms or incorporated into CSCL. However, students positively value their usefulness in collaborative processes. In this sense, higher education institutions should promote extensive reflection on the tools that favor interaction processes and collaborative learning, taking advantage of the great effort that has been made during the pandemic situation, which has largely been sustained by digital ecosystems.
Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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The competences of making good use of digital information and technology as well as making critical judgments and communicating with others have been considered as important educational objectives, in particular, for teacher education. Peer assessment is a frequently adopted learning strategy to assist students in rating and offering instant feedback to peers from the perspective of instructors, which has good potential for fostering students’ critical thinking. However, the conventional peer-assessment approach mainly focuses on communications between reviewers and reviewees, while peer communications for collaboratively providing comments or suggestions are generally ignored. As a result, the present study proposed a Collaborative Feedback-based Peer-Assessment (CFPA) learning approach; moreover, a learning system was developed for evaluating the effectiveness of the different collaborative peer-assessment approaches by conducting a quasi-experiment in a pre-service teacher training program. Two classes of students participated in the experiment. One class including 48 students was the experimental group learning with the CFPA approach, while the other class with 49 students was the control group learning with the Non-Collaborative Peer Assessment (NCPA) approach. The findings indicated that the pre-service teachers who learned with the proposed approach showed significantly better instructional video development quality and commenting quality as well as higher self-efficacy and critical thinking tendency than those learning with the Non-Collaborative Peer Assessment approach.
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Η δημιουργία μαθησιακών περιβαλλόντων όπου οι μαθητές/τριες με μαθησιακές δυσκολίες θα διαδραματίζουν το ρόλο όχι μόνο του ενεργητικά εμπλεκόμενου πομπού αλλά και του δέκτη αποτέλεσε και αποτελεί μια διδακτική πρόκληση. Η παρούσα εργασία έχει ως βασικό στόχο να παρουσιάσει το θεωρητικό πλαίσιο του σχεδιασμού του εκπαιδευτικού λογισμι-κού, το παράδειγμα σχεδιασμού που ακολουθήθηκε καθώς και τη δομή και την οργάνωσή του. Το λογισμικό «Η Χώρα των Λενού» μπορεί να βοηθήσει τον εκπαιδευτικό να δημιουρ-γήσει διευκολυντικά, παροτρυντικά υποστηρικτικά και εξατομικευμένα περιβάλλοντα μάθη-σης όπου οι μαθητές/τριες με μαθησιακές δυσκολίες θα αναπτύσσουν γνώσεις και δεξιότη-τες αποτελεσματικότερης πρόσληψης, επεξεργασίας και χρήσης των πληροφοριών. Είναι σχεδιασμένο για να παρέχει νύξεις και οδηγίες αποτελεσματικότερης επεξεργασίας των παρεχόμενων πληροφοριών και να υποστηρίζει τους μαθητές/τριες με μαθησιακές δυσκολί-ες να δομήσουν γλωσσικο-επικοινωνιακές και λογικομαθηματικές γνώσεις και δεξιότητες.
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Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) was tasked with the development of career path information for our students. The IT faculty team, under the direction and leadership of the Associate Dean, created the Information Technology Pathways model. The Associate Dean invested significantly in infrastructure and planning to ensure cross-team knowledge exchange. We also wanted to enhance awareness and increase student engagement via social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, and MeetUp. This study was designed to create pathways and curriculum that other programs could replicate; other departments can now benefit from the template and design strategies developed to enhance the IT curriculum and pathways. These pathways and the dialogues have led to increased training requests and pooled training. Our MATC case study is a good example that identifies and shares pathways, curriculum development, and partnering with advisory committees to gain input for incorporating instructional technology in the classroom based on student needs. Purpose: This article describes a dynamic and innovative pathway model for instructors to service students, parents, counselors, and employers needs around digital and social technologies that support student enrollment, retention and provides collaborative learning opportunities for improved job placement. The goal is to produce graduates that bring relevant and reliable skill sets that match current business and industry needs. The two primary reasons for enrolling are preparing for a job and career change. In addition, it provides training for a career ladder for training employees who need to advance, many employers are moving incumbent workers along this career path as well. Methodology/Approach: A case study Findings: The integration of pathways including certificates, embedded technical diplomas, associate degrees, online community through digital, mobile and social technologies, MeetUp, LinkedIn, Google Apps, groups, Netlab, Blackboard Learn & Internships.com, have a positive influence on student advising, enrollment, retention and job placement. Many of the social media tools are free so they did not involve increased funding but mostly involved legwork, making them effective tools for reaching new students. Research Limitations: The research was limited to the IT faculty population at MATC, and did not include data collected from students outside the USA to find out what role cultural mores, attitudes and gender play in the learning process. Practical Implications: Workplace employers are increasingly experiencing a skills mismatch and the growing retirement gap. Thus, institutions of higher education are under increased scrutiny regarding the preparedness of their graduates for the workforce. This study provides curriculum design strategies that foster community, utilize mobile, social media and support student learning and retention through effective course design. The sharing of best practices will help the next generation of students with pathways that are connective and progressive and empower them with marketable, stackable credentials. The study provides an entry point for all learners and a bridge to further opportunities on a pathway at any point to gain support and structure for job entry, advancement and higher wages. This is important since there is an increased demand for a credentialed workforce. The end result will be a larger pool of qualified workers and a better pipeline to fill skilled jobs, which subsequently will result in higher employee retention and loyalty. Pathways enable students, faculty and leadership a familiar path of program offerings and job prospects. In addition, this model can be used to inform policy and practice related to performance funding, college affordability, and alignment of higher education and workforce needs, as well as for new research on topics including: state-level labor market outcomes for certificates and degrees; returns to for-profit college credentials; the impact of the federal grants and loans on earnings and employment; challenges in using labor market outcomes data in performance funding systems; and how post-college earnings data can be used to help students make a better program and career choices. It is necessary to rethink the academic work environments based on social media tools and applications like Google Groups, MeetUp, Blackboard Building Blocks, or LinkedIn, in accordance with the learning needs, skills, and competencies of students.
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Fast-moving changes to society as part of the digital age are posing new educational challenges that require students to be flexible, adaptive, and growth-oriented. Humanistic knowledge building communities (HKBCs) are a growth promoting pedagogy, suitable to address these challenges. Yet, the way that students’ identities as knowledge builders are transformed remains undertheorized. In this study, we rise above existing frameworks of fixedness versus fluidity to elucidate how students develop growth orientations. Using a grounded approach, we examined a graduate course, coding 322 relevant utterances that were expressed by the course participants over the semester. This resulted in a five dimensional framework of fixedness versus growth that was used to describe the personal transformation of students within the HKBC. The changes that students made over time were shown to occur at statistically significant levels. This study suggests that learning communities should focus on the complementary nature of collective idea-advancement and personal growth promotion if they are to address the challenges of preparing students for life in a rapidly changing world.
Book
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Publikacja stanowi przykład teoretycznej i metodologicznej konceptualizacji badań nad rozwojem człowieka oraz ich egzemplifikacji w postaci badań nad dziecięcym konstruowaniem wiedzy. W pracy szczegółowo przedstawiono sposób pozyskiwania jakościowych danych, odsłaniających wewnętrzne zróżnicowanie pojedynczych interakcji (wieloetapowa mikroanaliza ich filmowych zapisów), by na postawie analiz przypadków (case study) rekonstruować empiryczne wielościeżkowe modele zjawiska (graficznie przedstawiane „mapy” transformacji). Przejścia od analizy przypadków do budowania uogólnień dokonano z stosując autorską adaptację metody sztucznej inteligencji (algorytm C4.5 Quinlana). Teoretyczną podstawę badań dziecięcej współpracy stanowiły teorie J.Piageta i L.S. Wygotskiego. Wyniki odsłaniające mechanizmy i genezę różnych postaci dziecięcego konstruowania wiedzy mogą znaleźć zastosowanie w diagnostyce psychologicznej oraz projektowaniu zindywidualizowanych ścieżek edukacji dzieci na przełomie wieku przedszkolnego i szkolnego. This publication presents the theoretical and methodological conceptualization of a study on human development and its practical application in investigating knowledge construction by children. It describes in detail the process for obtaining qualitative data reflecting the internal diversity of single interactions (a multi-stage microanalysis of the video recordings) and the analysis of case studies to construct empirical multi-path models of the phenomenon under consideration (presented graphically as “maps”). The transition from the analysis of case stud-ies to generalizations is carried out in the framework of an artificial intelligence method (Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm) adapted by the author. The theoretical foundation for studying chil-dren’s collaboration is J.Piaget’s and L.S. Vygotsky’s theories. The findings of the study pro-vide an insight into the mechanisms and genesis of the different ways used by children to construct knowledge, which makes them useful in establishing psychological diagnoses and designing individualized educational paths for children entering school age.
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هدفت الدراسة إلى الكشف عن متطلبات التعليم عن بعد في جامعات المملكة العربية السعودية لمواجهة كورونا. ولتحقيق هدف الدراسة قامت الباحثة من خلال منهج الدراسة الوصفي التحليلي بتحليل الأدبيات والتجارب المتعلقة بالتعليم عن بعد في مؤسسات التعليم الجامعي بشكل عام والسعودي بشكل خاص وجمع المعلومات وتحليلها وتفسيرها للاستفادة منها في موضوع الدراسة.
Chapter
In order to collaborate effectively in group discourse on a topic like mathematical patterns, group participants must organize their activities in ways that share the significance of their utterances, inscriptions, and behaviors. Here, we report the results of an ethnomethodological case study of collaborative math problem-solving activities mediated by a synchronous multimodal online environment. We investigate the moment-by-moment details of the interaction practices through which participants organize their chat utterances and whiteboard actions as a coherent whole. This approach to analysis foregrounds the sequentiality of action and the implicit referencing of meaning making—fundamental features of interaction. In particular, we observe that the sequential construction of shared drawings and the deictic references that link chat messages to features of those drawings and to prior chat content are instrumental in the achievement of intersubjectivity among group members’ understandings. We characterize this precondition of collaboration as the co-construction of an indexical field that functions as a common ground for group cognition. Our analysis reveals methods by which the group co-constructs meaningful inscriptions in the dual-interaction spaces of its CSCL environment. The integration of graphical, narrative, and symbolic semiotic modalities in this manner also facilitates joint problem-solving. It allows group members to invoke and operate with multiple realizations of their mathematical artifacts, a characteristic of deep learning of mathematics.
Chapter
The field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)—as a unity of educational practice and academic research—is characterized in this investigation by a specific vision of learning, illustrated by a prototypical research effort. A number of recent publications are reviewed to extend the scope of CSCL in response to contemporary theory and current social issues. This leads to advancing theoretical concepts and frameworks for conceptualizing CSCL research and practice, which contrast with traditional educational approaches. Although these ideas were originally proposed in disparate contexts, they provide the conceptual skeleton of a unified theory for CSCL, which would be distinguished from popular theories of individual learning and would integrate technological support with collaborative cognition. These insights concerning theory have methodological implications for analyzing CSCL interventions in terms of group knowledge-building practices mediated by interactionally appropriated artifacts. Revised forms of analysis can help innovators evaluate CSCL trials during iterations of design-based research, leading to revisions of the collaborative-learning theory and research methods. Bridging from academic research to educational practice, two examples of efforts to bring the CSCL vision to scale within national school systems are then reviewed. Finally, a global collaboration among CSCL researchers is recommended for effective implementation of the CSCL vision in education worldwide, based on the presented conceptualizations of a unified theory of collaborative learning and their implications for evaluation of CSCL technical and pedagogical designs. This could advance the field of CSCL in its theory and practice, toward its underlying vision of cognition at the group level.
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Recreating the social aspects of face-to-face teaching in an online environment became more challenging in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. With limited or no face-to-face interaction with students, lecturers had to explore alternative ways to recreate aspects of an engaging and supportive face-to-face learning environment. This article focuses on the use of online discussion forums through the lens of the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework to meaningfully engage a mathematics community of learning. The COI framework, comprising social, cognitive and teaching presences, has been widely applied to online learning. We investigate the question: ‘How can online discussion forums support the development of a learning community in a fully online Vector Calculus course?’ We do this through evaluating our online discussion forum as a COI and consequently recommend design principles. Data from engineering students taking Vector Calculus in an extended degree at a South African university includes interviews, surveys, discussion forum content, and learning platform analytics. Analysis of data using the COI framework shows that discussion forums contributed to social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. Design principles and directions for further research are suggested.
Technical Report
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Learning through retro gaming the compilation features the following: 1. Stem software development proposal 2. Retro games as learning 3. Retro remakes as learning 4. The hardest retro games. Making the case for games development, programming, and gaming as learning through games for change. (returnlearn.com 2002-2017)
Chapter
The activities of the knowledge society differ fundamentally from those of the industrial period. Regional economies are increasingly heterogeneous as are local capacities to deal with these new circumstances. On the macro-level, that capacity can be developed through a collective process in which people and organisations cooperate in order to deliver better public services. On the micro-level, the knowledge society understandably perhaps requires that an unhindered flow of information and knowledge occurs. This refers to the social capital knowledge and information-sharing in the innumerable processes of everyday life. This chapter explores how the ‘smartness’ of a city lies not only in its infrastructures, but also in the social capital that a region is able to generate to promote social innovation and regional development. Empowering residents means that they not only have a voice, but that they are regarded as key stakeholders helping to shape the Smart City as a Knowledge-based Community.
Preprint
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The Internet provides a new way of getting access to knowledge resources and materials. The Internet platform is proven provides an efficient way of communication among instructors, students and management using computers via network. However, an integrated learning management system (LMS) is required in order to have an efficient and effective communication, and to fully utilize the facilities provided by the Internet. There are already several implementations of such system, which are developed for commercial purpose, specifically for an organization or even provided in the public domain. This paper describes our work in utilizing open source tools particularly MySQL database, to develop web-based learning management system. The main focus is to evaluate the performance of MySQL, ease of usage, and platform dependency in a medium-scale project.
Thesis
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This book is in fact my Ph.D. thesis on the effectiveness of my own innovative approach to teaching namely Competitive Team-Based Learning vis-a-vis Johnson and Johnsons' Method (i.e., Learning Together) at Harvard University.
Thesis
La thèse explore le rôle des réseaux et des processus sociaux dans les dynamiques du savoir des enseignants à travers deux questions de recherche. Premièrement, comment peut-on caractériser les différentes dynamiques du savoir professionnels des enseignants ? La thèse examine la façon dont les enseignants mobilisent et construisent du savoir collectivement, et les mécanismes de diffusion de ce savoir au sein de leur communauté de pratique et dans leur réseau plus large. Deuxièmement, comment les processus sociaux influencent-ils la dynamique du savoir des enseignants ? Le travail s’intéresse à mettre en évidence la complexité des processus sociaux et la manière dont ceux-ci contribuent aux différentes dynamiques du savoir. Une étude à méthode mixte a été menée dans le cadre d'un supra-réseau d'établissements en France. L’élément quantitatif consiste en deux questionnaires – un adressant les enseignants, un les chefs d'établissement. Les données sont analysées à l'aide de la modélisation par équations structurelles et d'une analyse du ego-réseau des écoles. L’élément qualitative consiste en des études de cas menées dans deux collèges.
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Collaborative learning can be a worthwhile and valuable part of a student’s online course experience, and interpersonal exchanges among members of an online course community often rely on greater intentionality within the design of the learning experience. We present a synergistic framework for strategic design of collaborative learning in the online environment, grounded in universal design for learning and facilitated through supportive technologies. The framework takes into account distance education student variability in regard to their learning, communication, abilities, and interests and incorporates curricular flexibility to mitigate barriers. Exploring relationships among key features of collaborative learning in the online environment, this conceptual article illustrates the framework through examples, strategies, and tools for two common online course activity areas—online discussions and peer teaching. © 2022 Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc.
Conference Paper
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What happens when we transform graduate students’ learning environments into simultaneous warp zones? It enables us to take what we usually define as distinct learning spaces and mode of delivery and make them interchangeable interaction and collaboration dimensions. In this presentation we will share two cases in which we applied the concept of “warp zones” in learning experience design and the pedagogical approach we adopted, and discuss the challenges we faced and the lessons we learned.
Conference Paper
The study investigated critical factors for engagement in online classroom and propose a framework for integrating factors like online community support, Mental Health, Lecture Effectiveness and interaction amongst the teachers and students for their influence on student satification as a outcome. The paper further study the effect of online community support (OCS), mental health (MH), lecture effectiveness (LE), interaction amongst the teachers and students (IL) on student engagement (SE) and student satisfaction (SS). . This research paper aims to analyze all of these factors together and establish relationship amongst all these factors and how they affect the student satisfaction in online classes.Data were obtained using structured questionnaires from 303 undergraduate students of online degree programs in a private university in India. We found that selected variables have equal and moderate effect on student engagement. OCS explains 18 percent variance, LE explains 20 percent variance, IL explains 19 percent variance. Student engagement is negatively influenced by mental health. It explains 10 percent variance in student engagement. Student engagement explains 39 percent variance in student satisfaction.The constant lockdowns and students stuck inside their homes, their anxiety levels have escalated, significantly impacting their class performance. The results of study have important managerial implications to understand the student's behavior towards the technological based classroom engagement and its impact over the student's satisfaction.
Chapter
Learning takes place over long periods of time that are hard to study directly. Even the learning experience involved in solving a single challenging math problem in a collaborative online setting can be spread across hundreds of brief postings during an hour or more. Such long-term interactions are constructed out of posting-level interactions, such as the strategic proposing of a next step. This investigation identifies a pattern of exchange of postings that it terms math-proposal adjacency pair and describes its characteristics. Drawing on the methodology of conversation analysis, the investigation adapts this approach to examining mathematical problem-solving communication and to the computer-mediated circumstances of online chat. Math proposals and other interaction methods constitute the collaborative group as a working group, give direction to its problem solving, and help to sustain its intersubjective meaning making or group cognition. Groups sustain their online social and intellectual work by building up longer sequences of math proposals, other adjacency pairs, and a variety of interaction methods. Experiences of collaboration and products of group cognition emerge over time.
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