Article

Coping with marital transitions

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Abstract

Almost half the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and many of these children will also go through the changes associated with their custodial parent's remarriage. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents' marital transitions are diverse and are likely to vary with the age of the child and to change over time as family members adjust to their new circumstances. This longitudinal study examined family relationships and adolescents' adjustment during the transition to remarriage. Three groups of families were studied: stepfamilies with a divorced custodial mother who was in the first months of a remarriage; families with a divorced custodial mother who had not remarried; and nondivorced families. Families were assessed three times during a 26-month period, and there were approximately equal numbers of early adolescent male and female target children in each family type. Family relationships and children's adjustment were assessed using interview measures obtained from multiple perspectives and from observational measures of family interactions in the home. This Monograph examined differences between the three family groups in children's adjustment, marital relationships, parentchild relationships, and sibling relationships as the children were moving through early adolescence and as stepfamilies were coping with a new remarriage. Authoritative child rearing was associated with positive adjustment in children in all family groups. Children in nondivorced families were more competent and exhibited fewer behavior problems than children in divorced or remarried families. Unlike the findings with younger children, few gender × family-type interactions were obtained, and no adjustment to the remarriage over the 26 months of the study was found in stepfather-stepchild relations or in the adjustment of stepchildren.

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... Extant literature highlights a number of plausible correlates of stepfamily functioning. Indeed, both clinical and empirical literatures emphasize the stepfamily-stabilizing role of distinct dyads within stepfamilies (Browning & Artelt, 2012;Ganong & Coleman, 2017;Jensen & Howard, 2015;Papernow, 2013Papernow, , 2018, particularly stepcouple and stepparent-child relationships (Bray & Kelly, 1998;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). In addition to being interdependent , the quality of stepcouple relationships and the quality of multstepparent-child relationships have distinct implications for the stability of the stepfamily system. ...
... In addition to being interdependent , the quality of stepcouple relationships and the quality of multstepparent-child relationships have distinct implications for the stability of the stepfamily system. For example, past research suggests stepfamily functioning is promoted when parents and stepparents argue infrequently and experience a high-quality relationship (Bray & Kelly, 1998;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;. Moreover, parent and stepparent perceptions of marital quality and marital confidence have been linked positively to their perceptions of stepfamily functioning in the form of cohesion, expressiveness, and harmony (Ganong, Jensen, Sanner, Russell, Coleman, & Chapman, 2019). ...
... Taken together, it is our view that both stepcouple and stepparent-child relationships are critical and plausible correlates of stepfamily-level dynamics, and both warrant empirical attention in service to the larger goals of the stepfamily system and its functioning (Ganong, Jensen, Sanner, Russell, Coleman, & Chapman, 2019). We also acknowledge the plausibility of transactional and bidirectional associations, such that qualities pertaining to the larger stepfamily system can influence dynamics within specific dyads, just as dynamics within specific dyads can exert influence on the larger stepfamily system (see Bray & Kelly, 1998;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). For the purposes of the current cross-sectional study, we attend to dynamics within dyads as correlates of dynamics at the level of the stepfamily. ...
Article
Clinical and empirical literatures have highlighted the value of attending to distinct dyads within stepfamilies to ensure the needs of various relationships are being met. From a family systems perspective, the growth and maintenance of positive dynamics within one dyadic relationship can yield gains in other relationships and shape the larger stepfamily environment. Research seeking to link information about dyads and larger stepfamily systems is often marked by single-informant data or measures that represent individual-level constructs. Methods intended to leverage multi-informant data as indicators of dyad-or family-level constructs (i.e., common fate modeling; CFM) offer valuable opportunities to expand our understanding of stepfamily experiences. Using a sample of 291 stepparent-parent dyads, our study uses multi-informant data and CFM to assess three dyad-level constructs (i.e., marital quality, marital confidence, and stepparent-child relationship quality) as correlates of three stepfamily-level constructs (i.e., cohesion, expressiveness, and harmony). Our findings illustrate meaningful linkages among dyadic relationships and broader stepfamily-level dynamics, specifically emphasizing the role of stepparent-child relationship quality and marital confidence in shaping stepfamily cohesion, expres-siveness, and harmony. The results also signal the potential for substantive findings to vary with respect to the selected unit of analysis.
... Nevertheless aspects of parenting have been found to be consistent between parents and children of different temperaments (Belsky, 1984), living in different family structures (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992), and cultures (Shek, 1996), at successive points in the child's development (Metzler, Biglan, Aiy, & Fuzhong, 1998). This consistency in actual parenting has made possible the search for universal standards of optimal parenting: the sort of actual parenting which leads to optimal functioning in children. ...
... If one asks a teenager in front of friends and under moderate stress 'Do you want to go get help from your mom?', the answer nearly always comes back as a strong (perhaps overly so) 'NO'!" The ideal study would seek convergent validation by reports from parents, as work by Hetherington and colleagues has done (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). ...
... The instrument eventually chosen was the "Child-Rearing Issues: Parent and Child" instrument (Appendix 6) developed by Mavis Hetherington and colleagues(Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992) for a series of studies on the effects of divorce and step-parenting. The full questionnaire includes 197 questions on the adolescent's relationships with parents, siblings and grandparents, but this study used only the questions about parents. ...
Thesis
Research from the perspectives of parenting and attachment theory was reviewed and integrated within a biopsychosocial perspective. A framework was described showing several alternative links from received parenting, through attachment style and other cognitive attributes, to children's social functioning and reproductive fitness. This yielded four alternative views of attachment's role in childhood; "redundant", "restricted", "replaceable", or "integrated". The four views were tested with 70 12 to 13-year-olds at an inner-city state school, using child-report questionnaires of parenting and mediating variables, the Middle Childhood Attachment Interview, teacher ratings of strengths and difficulties, and disciplinary records. Results suggested that attachment was not "redundant", because 66% of its variance was unexplained by parenting and it predicted an extra 3% of prosocial behaviour. Nor was attachment's role "restricted" to modulating parental sensitivity to immediate threat, as it was strongly associated with parental control, but not parental warmth. Attachment could not be "integrated" into Baumrind's model of parenting, nor could attachment classifications be mapped onto parenting styles, because of the lack of association between attachment and parental warmth. However, a parental "demandingness" factor predicted attachment security- in 94% of cases, and attachment classification in 70% of cases. The results favoured the view that associations beween attachment and children's functioning are largely "replaceable" by direct associations with parenting. Associations between parenting and attachment appeared to reflect the importance of longer term rather than immediate security, for the benefit of school as well as core relationships. The novel association of attachment with parental control also suggests that attachment security requires inhibitory and corrective parenting, not just sensitively-responsive parenting which allows the child's natural capacities to unfold. This suggestion in turn allows parenting to be seen as a means, and attachment as a goal, of training the innate behavioural inhibition and approach systems described by Gray and McNaughton (2000) in "The Neuropsychology of Anxiety" to reconcile the goals of security and exploration described by Ainsworth (1982).
... Older sisters are perceived as more socially supportive than older brothers (Dunn, 1992;Howe & Recchia, 2006). With results from the Furman & Buhrmester (1985) study indicating same sex siblings were closer than siblings of different gender, it can be assumed that older sisters would be more supportive of their younger sisters than older brothers of their younger brothers (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Hetherington, Henderson, & Reiss, 1999;Tucker, McHale, & Crouter, 2001), and older sisters would be more supportive of their younger brothers than older brothers of their younger sisters. In addition, gender has a main influence on sibling violence: brothers act more violently against their siblings than sisters (Eriksen & Jensen, 2008). 5. ...
... In contrast, the current study showed mean values for empathy as high as almost 4.5 and about 4 for friendship on a 1-6 Likert scale. Overall, as was expected, girls ranked higher than boys both in empathy and friendship (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Stocker & McHale, 1992). ...
... Suggestions for further research 1. The Sibling Relations Questionnaire (SRQ) (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985) has been prepared for regular children and used in many family studies (e.g., Buhrmester & Furman, 1990;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Stocker & McHale, 1992). We hope to extend the study using a non-gifted Eilat sample similar by age, gender, number of siblings and age differences, which would enable us to compare results to those described in this article. ...
Article
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This study focuses on perfectionism in Japanese and North American academically gifted children as it pertains to their potential contribution in the countries seeking progress and global leadership. Perfectionist’ tendencies and the characteristics that typically reveal such tendencies are examined in academically gifted Japanese juku-school students (N=195, average age 11 years 6 months) using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al., 1990). A comparison is made with the same age peers living in the United States of America from the Parker and Mills study conducted in 1996. The study revealed a stronger orientation towards perfectionism in academically gifted Japanese children than their American counterparts, especially in terms of their efforts to do their best in their own social milieu. Concluding remarks recognize the difficulties in conducting cross-cultural research.
... Scales were selected for inclusion in the composite because they specifically addressed facets of parent-offspring interactions that are relevant to child outcomes. Disagreements about rules and behaviour in the household were assessed using a 38-item Child Rearing Issues: Parent-Child Agreement scale (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Parents reported on how often certain behavioural interactions occur with seven-point Likert scale responses to items such as 'How often have you not agreed with your child concerning if he/she uses alcohol?'. ...
... Parents reported on how often certain behavioural interactions occur with seven-point Likert scale responses to items such as 'How often have you not agreed with your child concerning if he/she uses alcohol?'. A 22-item Expressions of Affection scale (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992) measured both the frequency of parents' expressions of affection towards their child and their engagement in behaviours, such as playing music together. A seven-point Likert scale was again used to record parents' responses, and scores on this variable were reversed for inclusion in the composite. ...
... A seven-point Likert scale was again used to record parents' responses, and scores on this variable were reversed for inclusion in the composite. Finally, the 27-item Parent-Child Relationship (PCR) questionnaire (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992) was used to elicit parents' perceptions of the closeness (items reverse-scored) and conflict in their relationship with their children (e.g. 'How well do you and your child understand each other?'), via a five-point Likert scale. ...
Article
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Background Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent–offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. Methods We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent–offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. Results A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [ r = 0.21 (0.16–0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent–offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. Conclusion These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.
... Hetherington and associates have conducted three longitudinal studies that investigated stepfamily functioning, individual adjustment, and adaptation to remarriage and life in a stepfamily (Hetherington & Jodl, 1994). These include the Virginia Longitudinal Study of Divorce and Remarriage (VLSDR; Hetherington, 1987Hetherington, , 1993Hetherington, , 1999; the Hetherington and Clingempeel (1992) study of Divorce and Remarriage; and, the National Study of Nonshared Environment (Hetherington, Henderson, & Reiss, 1999;Hetherington & Jodl, 1994). Hetherington (1989) in the VLSDR found that mothers and daughters in divorced families expressed considerable satisfaction with each other 6 years after divorce, when the children were around 10 years of age. ...
... Mothers were observed to be less attuned to the needs of their children during this period, and some children appeared to compete with the new stepparent over the parent's time and energy and to experience a sense of parental abandonment (Bray & Kelly, 1998). Hetherington and Clingempeel (1992) also found that parent-child relationships were disrupted during the early stages of stepfamily living. Interactions between preadolescent children and mothers in stepfamilies were more conflicted than those in nondivorced families, and mothers in stepfamilies demonstrated increased negativity and decreased positivity toward their children from previous unions. ...
... Interactions between preadolescent children and mothers in stepfamilies were more conflicted than those in nondivorced families, and mothers in stepfamilies demonstrated increased negativity and decreased positivity toward their children from previous unions. However, these researchers found that parenting by mothers had mostly recovered after 2 years and there was little difference between mothers in stepfamilies and those from nondivorced families (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Bray (1999) and Hetherington (1999) both found that problems between parents and children increased again, relative to those in the nondivorced group, as children entered adolescence; they hypothesized that stepfamily adolescents were experiencing a ''sleeper effect'' from their parents' divorce. ...
Article
Historical Clinical and Research Perspectives on Parent-Child Relationships in StepfamiliesOutcomes for Parent-Child Relationships in StepfamiliesThe Impact of Stepfamily Processes and RelationshipsFuture Directions: Research and Clinical Practice
... in the 26 months after remarriage (Hetherington and Clingempeel, 1992). The researchers found that relationships between mothers and children were disrupted during the first two years and were more conflicted than those in non-divorced and established soleparent families. ...
... The researchers found that relationships between mothers and children were disrupted during the first two years and were more conflicted than those in non-divorced and established soleparent families. Parenting by mothers had mostly recovered after two years, although children in stepfamilies still had more adjustment difficulties compared to those in non-divorced families (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Similarly, Bray and associates (Bray, 1999;Bray & Kelly, 1998) in the longitudinal Developmental Issues in Stepfamilies Study (DIS) found that relationships between parents and children were often fraught in the early months of stepfamily formation. ...
... The areas of disagreement between parents and children that emerged demonstrate the challenges that parents face in the maintenance of positive relationships with children from previous unions and provide some explanation for the findings of increased negativity in parent-child relationships after remarriage compared to those in established sole-parent and first-marriage families (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Hetherington & Kelly, 2002). Parents reported disagreements around a number of issues that are not relevant for first-marriage or sole-parent families and only arise in stepfamily situations: issues around children's acceptance of the new parental partner; stepparent roles and behaviours; stepparent discipline; the changes in family structure and children's place or position; loss of time with parents; and, the presence of non-biologically related children in the household. ...
Article
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There has been little research into parenting in stepfamilies. In this study, 66 New Zealand stepfamily parents completed an online questionnaire that examined four areas of parenting that have emerged as important for stepfamily functioning in international research. These included parent and stepparent preparation for parenting roles; the discipline of children in the early stages; the maintenance of childcare activities by parents; and, confict between parents and children. As with overseas research, the majority did not discuss the management of children prior to repartnering. One in four parents attempted to share discipline with stepparents during the frst year, a practice that has previously been found to be problematic. On the other hand, parents reported maintaining most childcare activities, and stepparents assisted with less intimate activities, such as housework and transport. Discipline, the stepparent role, and children's loss of status were common areas of disagreement between parents and children.
... Older sisters are perceived as more socially supportive than older brothers (Dunn, 1992;Howe & Recchia, 2006). With results from the Furman & Buhrmester (1985) study indicating same sex siblings were closer than siblings of different gender, it can be assumed that older sisters would be more supportive of their younger sisters than older brothers of their younger brothers (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Hetherington, Henderson, & Reiss, 1999;Tucker, McHale, & Crouter, 2001), and older sisters would be more supportive of their younger brothers than older brothers of their younger sisters. In addition, gender has a main influence on sibling violence: brothers act more violently against their siblings than sisters (Eriksen & Jensen, 2008). 5. ...
... In contrast, the current study showed mean values for empathy as high as almost 4.5 and about 4 for friendship on a 1-6 Likert scale. Overall, as was expected, girls ranked higher than boys both in empathy and friendship (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Stocker & McHale, 1992). ...
... Suggestions for further research 1. The Sibling Relations Questionnaire (SRQ) (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985) has been prepared for regular children and used in many family studies (e.g., Buhrmester & Furman, 1990;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Stocker & McHale, 1992). We hope to extend the study using a non-gifted Eilat sample similar by age, gender, number of siblings and age differences, which would enable us to compare results to those described in this article. ...
Article
Full-text available
A most common belief is that giftedness is the cause of problems in sibling relationships when the family is •mixed•, has at least one gifted child, and at least one non-gifted one. This belief has been accepted not only by parents and educators of the gifted, but also by researchers in the area of gifted education in general and counseling the gifted family in particular. However, quantitative studies have shown that in most case gifted families maintain healthy connections, a high level of psychological adjustment and positive coping strategies (Mathews et al., 1986; Silverman, 1993a). Relationships among gifted and non-gifted siblings have not been widely studied. Thus, until the Chamrad et al. (1995) study the common belief was that having a gifted child has a negative influence on the sibling relationships. Our work is the first Israeli one that examines a whole population, all gifted children invited to participate at the enrichment program for the gifted in Eilat, the most southern Israeli city, with a population of approximately 50, 000, in the year 2007/2008. We studied the 6 following parameters of sibling relationships: friendship, empathy, learning, rivalry, conflict and avoidance. We found that the labeling of one sibling as •gifted• in Eilat did not have a negative influence on the sibling relationship. This result is of crucial importance, as many parents prefer not to send their gifted children to the enrichment program for the gifted I order not to harm the relationships between the gifted and the no-gifted sibling.
... With regard to disciplinary roles, stepchildren prefer that parents are the primary disciplinarians (Moore & Cartwright, 2005). Stepchildren are better adjusted (Bray, 1988;Hetherington, 1993) and stepfamilies are more successful (Bray, 1988;Golish, 2003;Hetherington, 1993;Hetherington et al., 1992;Kelley, 1992;Schrodt & Braithwaite, 2011) when the parent plays the primary disciplinary role and the stepparent is less active in disciplining stepchildren. When biological parents take the lead, particularly in setting rules and disciplining children, then stepparents can benefit by learning from observing what the parents' expectations for children have been; if the stepparent is inexperienced with children of that age, then they also benefit from gaining firsthand knowledge about children's development (Saint-Jacques, 1995). ...
... Authoritative parenting is related to better stepchild psychological adjustment (Nicholson et al., 2002), fewer behavioral problems, better stepfamily relationships, and greater social competence (Bray, 1988;Crosbie-Burnett & Giles-Sims, 1994;Fine & Kurdek, 1992;Golish, 2000;Haberstroh et al., 1998;Hetherington, 1993). Permissive parenting by stepparents is also related to better stepchild adjustment (Crosbie-Burnett & Giles-Sims, 1994) and closer steprelationships (Golish, 2000), particularly when stepchildren are younger (Hetherington et., 1992). Evidence suggests that high warmth and low control should be the initial approach by stepparents. ...
... Then, after a closer emotional bond has been made, the stepparent might move into authoritative parenting with the stepchild where levels of control (e.g., monitoring, supervision, clear expectations for responsible behavior) are higher. The best strategy for preadolescent stepchildren is for new stepparents to work at establishing relationships with them and supporting parents in their childrearing, which can be followed by more active authoritative parenting by stepparents over time (Hetherington et al., 1992). ...
Article
Objective The purpose of this review is to examine research evidence about effective childrearing of stepchildren by coparents in stepfamilies (i.e., childrearing that contributes to children's physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being). Background Childrearing after parental repartnering is likely to involve coparenting within stepfamily households (i.e., by parents and stepparents), across stepfamily households (i.e., by biological parent dyads), and a combination of intra- and inter-household coparenting subsystems. Effective coparenting of children in stepfamilies benefits individual, relational, and stepfamily well-being and effective family functioning. Method We reviewed 58 studies in which empirical evidence of effective childrearing of stepchildren by coparents in stepfamilies was obtained. Results Children in stepfamilies fare better when coparents work collaboratively in focusing on children's well-being, managing conflicts, being careful when communicating to children and to coparents, and keeping children out of parental issues. Coparenting within stepfamily households works when coparents agree on childrearing rules and roles, communicate clearly, and engage in parenting styles that emphasize high warmth. Step-household coparents also foster children's well-being by creating cohesive stepfamily dynamics and modifying expectations. Few researchers studied coparental triads that include both parents and a stepparent. Conclusions Stepfamily members benefit from effective coparenting. Implications Effective childrearing by stepfamily coparent subsystems is complex, but a key is focusing on children's well-being.
... Parental conflict may evoke strong emotional responses in infants and toddlers because of their limited verbal abilities [34], their complete dependence on parents and being restricted to the home environment [27]. Therefore, they are more vulnerable to the effects of relationship conflict and family disruption [29] [46] than older children [28]. ...
... Separated and re-partnered family households are often associated with experiences that place children at increased risk for developing social, psychological [11], behavioural [18], and academic problems [29] [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Australian society consists of diverse family forms. The introduction of reforms in the Family Law Act in 1976, making it easier to obtain a divorce has contributed to the increase in diversity in these family forms. Another factor that has contributed to the fluidity in relationships is the increase in economic independence of women[7]. As people re-partner following relationship breakdown, even more complex family forms emerge[24]. As a consequence, children potentially face more family transitions than children in the past. In Australia, parental divorce is a risk factor in the reduction of children's educational attainment. Remarriage does not ameliorate the risk of poor educational outcomes caused by parental separation[23]. Amato and Kieth[10] showed that children from divorced families scored significantly lower on a variety of outcomes , including academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social competence. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand and monitor the implications of relationship dissolution for adults, children and the larger society[7]. Although concerns about the implications of family type and transition on a child's well-being have been identified as two major issues facing society[22], de Vaus and Gray[22] comment on the lack of information about children's living arrangements, the number of affected children and the frequency of transitions experienced by children. This study will attempt to address this situation using all six waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey (HILDA), a longitudinal complex survey of Australian households. With HILDA the living arrangements experience by children at birth can be quantified along with the number of transitions experienced by children during the first six years of their life and how they have changed over time. The stability of the relationship a child is born into can also be quantified. This expands on the previous work by de Vaus and Gray[21][22], by using more recent data, Waves 2 through to 6 of HILDA, providing the most up-to-date picture of family transitions experienced by Australian children in the first six years of their lives by treating the HILDA data as a truly longitudinal survey.
... In the first years after forming a stepfamily, mothers have been shown to provide less care for their children, and mother -daughter relations appear to be much more strained. The influence of the mother on the daughter decreases and the daughters are less affectionate and more demanding (Hetherington, 1993;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). In the long run, the tendency for enmeshed mother -child relationships is weaker for remarried mothers than for single mothers (Walper & Schwarz, 2001). ...
... The special structure of the stepfather families should be considered for interpretation. Hetherington (1993; see also Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992) pointed out that the mother -daughter relationship is especially concerned when a new partner enters the family constellation. According to her findings, girls are more likely to perceive the entry of a stepfather as a threat to their position in the family than do boys, foremost with regard to their relationship to their mother who now has to divide her attention and affection between children and the new partner. ...
Article
This study compared concurrent as well as longitudinal associations between adolescent development and maternal wellbeing, in nuclear families with both biological parents and in single-mother and stepfather families. It relied on data from the first two waves of a longitudinal study in Germany (N = 436). Maternal wellbeing was assessed from mothers' reports of their sense of family mastery and self-esteem. Adolescent development was assessed from adolescents' reports of three aspects of individuation and of their romantic involvement. For single mothers and mothers in nuclear families, the associations between maternal wellbeing and adolescents' development were inconsistent. Mothers in stepfather families with daughters profited from their daughters' growing detachment. The results suggested that the associations between adolescent development and maternal wellbeing are family structure specific, and observable concurrently and across a one-year time period. The discussion considers the different demands and living situations of the three family structures.
... En effet, selon Dunn et al. (1999), les relations de fratrie sont moins positives dans ces familles que celles observées dans les familles intactes. En ce qui concerne les familles recomposées, les résultats sont moins clairs; certaines relations sont plus distantes, d'autres reflètent un degré élevé de négativité et d'autres, sont plus ou moins positives (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Quant aux répondants du groupe de familles intactes (1), ce sont les plus jeunes qui perçoivent le plus haut degré de conflit. ...
In this study, similarities and differences in sibling relationships between children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are examined. Comparisons are made between children who live in intact families, those whose parents have separated, and those who live in substitute care regarding the quality of their relationships with one of their siblings. More specifically, 4 dimensions describing the quality of sibling relationships are compared: Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Relative Status/Power, and Rivalry (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). The sample is made up of 3 groups of children (N = 158) aged between 8 and 12 years old: children living in intact families (n = 101), children who have experienced parental separation (n = 35), and children living in substitute care (n = 22). Results indicate differences on dimensions of Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, and Relative Status/Power. Different patterns of responses between the children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are observed for the dimensions of Conflict and Power. The significant difference observed between the groups for the dimension of Warmth appears difficult to explain. Discussion of these results emphazises the importance of the relationship between brothers and sisters experiencing family transition.
... comprender el divorcio de sus padres (Seijo, Fariña y Novo, 2000, Hetherington, Stanley-Hagan y Anderson, 1989, y de destrezas para afrontarlo eficazmente; no en vano, su desarrollo cognitivo, emocional y social se encuentra en las primeras etapas de desarrollo. Ante la separación de sus progenitores los preescolares presentan cogniciones, emociones y conductas negativas tales como miedo al abandono, miedo a la pérdida del padre custodio, ansiedad de separación, confusión, conductas regresivas, pesadillas, sentimiento de culpa e ilusión de reconciliación. ...
... Hostile parenting was assessed with the conflict subscale of the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCR: Hetherington and Clingempeel, 1992). This scale was designed to assess parents' negative, coercive and conflictual behaviors towards their children. ...
... M embership in a single-parent family or stepfamily is associated with increased levels of significant behavioral, emotional, and academic problems in children. 1,2 The mechanisms underlying this connection are likely to involve, among other factors, financial adversity, increased stress directly related to family transitions, and increased exposure to additional psychosocial risks. 3,4 Compared with the extensive research base connecting family type (ie, membership in a 2-parent biological family, stepfamily, or single-parent family) and children's psychological adjustment, little is known about the physical health consequences of membership in diverse family types. ...
Article
Objective. To investigate whether family type and psychosocial risks indexed by family type were systematically associated with differences in health outcomes in children. Design and Subjects. The study is based on a longitudinal, prospective study of a large (n = similar to 10 000) community sample of families, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency of accidents, illnesses, and medical interventions. Results. At 2 years of age, children in single-parent and stepfamilies were disproportionately likely to experience accidents and receive medical treatment for physical illnesses. In addition, children in single-parent families and stepfamilies were more likely to be hospitalized or receive attention from a hospital doctor for an injury or illness. Exposure to psychosocial risks also were elevated in single-parent families and stepfamilies, compared with intact or nonstepfamilies, and these factors primarily accounted for the connection between family type and children's physical health. Conclusions. The consequences of family transitions on children's health extend beyond traditional mental health and behavioral outcomes and include accident proneness, illness, and receipt of medical attention. The mediating processes are not entirely attributable to social class differences connected to family type and may instead be associated with a range of psychosocial risks that are more frequently found in single-parent families and stepfamilies, compared with intact or nonstepfamilies. Prevention and intervention efforts directed toward children at risk for poor behavioral and mental health adjustment secondary to family disruption should consider children's physical health and health-related behaviors.
... On the other hand, separation and divorce can impede with parenting (Kelly, 2000). Studies report that due to both psychological and practical reasons, times proceeding divorces are marked with decreased effectiveness of parenting (Amato, 2000;Astone & Mc London, 1994;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Baum, 2003). For example, changes in living circumstances and finances can have significant impact on parenting. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate post-divorce challenges and coping mechanisms of single mothers from differing socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds. Participants of the study were 125 divorced women who had not remarried and had at least one child. Proceeding calculation of descriptive statistic on the Scale for Vulnerability to Issues and Scale for Attitudes toward Problem Solving, either independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance was used depending on the number of categories of socio-economic and socio-demographic variables. Results showed that younger women had higher means on scales for vulnerability and problem solving attitudes. Women with elementary education scored higher on the vulnerability scale than those with higher education.
... Research into the impact of marital breakdown has shown that children experiencing family disruption are at greater risk for emotional and behavioural disorders (Amato & Keith, 1991;Aro & Palosaari, 1992;Cuffe et al., 2005;Garnefski & Diekstra, 1997;Lipman et al., 2002), and for lower school achievement (Allison & Furstenberg, 1989;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992;Lansford et al., 2006). Some studies also show a relationship between marital breakdown and substance use like smoking Griesbach et al., 2003;Pedersen et al., 2004), and alcohol use . ...
Article
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The aim of this project was to analyse the international data from the 2001/2002 survey of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study based on resilience approach. For this purpose we identified a group of students characterised by good adjustment pattern in spite of their detrimental living circumstances. Disadvantageous status was defined by living in non-intact or low income families. Then it was attempted to identify those psychosocial factors that predict good adjustment in spite of detrimental status. Finally, cross-national comparison has been made to examine whether the findings differ across EU-Member states that participated the 2001/2002 HBSC survey, and to test the possible impact of some macro-level country-features (as indicated by GDP, Gini, and Expenditure on Social Protection). The rate of students living in non-intact families (one or both biological parents are absent) is 21.1% in the total sample, whilst the rate of those living in low income families (according to tercilis of Family Affluence Scale by countries) is 33.1%. Good adjustment was defined on the basis of several parallel criteria: 1/ at least 6 points on the life satisfaction scale; 2/ no more than one health complaint experienced at least once a week; 3/ good or very good school achievement; 4/ non-smoking; 5/ have not been drunk yet; and 6/ being involved no more than once in bullying (either as a bully or as a victim). Almost 30% of the total sample has been proved to be well adjusted according to all of the six criteria. The rate decreases with age. In the risk groups this proportion is around 20%. The odds for good adjustment are about 50% (for 11-year-olds) and 80% (for 15-year-olds) higher among students living in intact families compared to those living in non-intact families. The odds are about 30% higher for those living in at least moderately wealthy families. The latter relationship is significantly weaker for young people living in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Slovenia and Sweden, and stronger for youths living in Estonia, Italy, Lithuania and Portugal. GDP, Gini and Expenditure on Social Protection significantly influence the relationship of family affluence on adjustment in some agegroups: the lower the GDP and the Expenditure on Social Protection, and the higher the Gini, the stronger this relationship. GDP and Gini are significant predictors also for resilience in some age- and risk-groups: in general, higher GDP is associated with higher odds of resilience, whilst higher Gini is related to lower odds of resilience. According to multilevel logistic regression models, parent-child relation, school environment, and peer relations predict good adjustment (lower odds describe worse parent-child communication, negative perception of school, a lot time spending with peers, and a worse communication with friends). There were no significant cross-national differences in the effect of these psychosocial predictors. Examining interactions among risk status variables and predictors some interesting findings emerged. In general, the impact of classmate support and school pressure is stronger for students in the risk-groups than for their more advantaged peers, indicating that the quality of school environment is especially important for adjustment of disadvantaged young people.
... Studies examining links between family structure and children's adjustment provide evidence that divorce, repartnering, and further relationship transitions place youngsters at risk for adverse outcomes (Brody, Neubaum, & Forehand, 1988;Capaldi & Patterson, 1991;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). In a meta-analysis of 92 studies, Amato and Keith (1991b) found that for some families, parental divorce is associated with acute negative outcomes in the areas of academic achievement, conduct, psychological health, and peer relations. ...
Article
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This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.
... Although all family relationships have the potential to contribute to a child's sense of belonging, relationships with-and between-parents are likely to be key. In two-biological-parent families in particular, a close relationship between parents serves as a foundation for positive relationships among other family members, especially between parents and their children (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Mother-child and father-child relationship quality are defined in this study as adolescents' perceptions of the affective qualities of the parent-child relationship, which include closeness, warmth, and satisfaction with each relationship. ...
Article
Adolescents' perceptions of family belonging are associated with several well-being indicators, yet we know little about which factors influence these perceptions or how they differ by family structure. The current study uses nationally representative data from Add Health to examine predictors of adolescents' perceptions of family belonging in two-biological-parent families (n = 9,686). The results are compared to a recent study using Add Health that examined family belonging in married mother-stepfather families. Findings suggest both similarities and differences across family structure in the factors associated with family belonging.
... Grych (2005) found that witnessing parental conflict resulted in a greater likelihood of being abusive toward romantic partners in adolescence , higher divorce rates, and higher rates of maladjustment as adults. High conflict is associated with harsh, coercive, and rejecting parenting (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992 ) and inconsistent or harsh discipline (Buehler & Gerard, 2002). For these reasons, some studies found that children were better off on multiple outcomes if parents in high-conflict marriages divorced rather than remain married (Amato & Booth, 1997 as cited in Amato, 2000 Amato, Loomis, & Booth, 1995). ...
Chapter
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This chapter addresses the unique challenges found in the performance of custody evaluations in cases where parental alienation (PA) is alleged. Such cases require attention to specific literature and expertise, which are described. The chapter is divided into four parts. Part One describes the long historical presence of PA. Part Two addresses the expertise necessary to perform such evaluations, and Part Three outlines steps necessary for their performance. Part Four then focuses on how all of this material can be best presented to the court so as to most likely produce relief to the victims of PA.
... En moyenne, les enfants de familles recomposées atteignent un niveau de formation plus bas, abandonnent un peu plus fréquemment l'école, présentent un peu plus de troubles des conduites et de troubles de l'humeur pendant l'enfance, et développent plus d'abus de substance à l'adolescence et des aptitudes sociales moindres (Bray et Berger, 1993;Coleman, Ganong et Fine, 2000;Dunn, 2002;Hetherington et al., 1992). L'ensemble de ces effets est indépendant de la durée du remariage : alors que le fonctionnement de certains enfants de familles recomposées stables s'améliore plus le temps passe, ce n'est pas le cas pour tous. ...
Technical Report
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Les familles recomposées sont devenues durant les dernières décennies une réalité incontournable. Malheureusement, la plupart des données quantitatives les concernant proviennent de recherches nord-américaines. Le petit nombre d'études portant sur les dimensions relationnelles et développementales de la recomposition familiale en Europe surprend particulièrement. La recherche dont les résultats sont présentés dans ce rapport a réuni une équipe de sociologues et de psychologues cherchant à mieux saisir les logiques à l'oeuvre dans ces familles, en comparaison des familles de première union. Elle est partie de l'hypothèse que différents types de capitaux sociaux sont présents dans les familles recomposées, qui ont des conséquences différentes sur le coparentage et, indirectement, sur les difficultés rencontrées par les enfants dans leur développement. L'enquête se fonde sur un échantillon de 300 femmes résidant dans la région genevoise, dont 150 ont recomposé une famille après un divorce ou une séparation, alors que les autres sont membres d'une famille de première union. Elle révèle qu'une grande diversité de configurations familiales caractérisent les familles recomposées, mettant un accent inégal sur la conjugalité et la parentalité
... As Hetherington and Camara (1984) see it, families must often cope with the reduction of family resources, alterations in residence, assumptions of new roles and responsibilities, establishment of new patterns of family interaction, reorganization of routines, and possibly the introduction of new relationships(that is stepparent/child and stepsibling relationships) into the existing family. Again, divorce is connected to more difficulties in rearing children (Fisher, Fagor, & Leve, 1998;Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992), less authoritative parenting (Ellwood & Stolberg, 1993;Simons & Associates, 1996), and a greater toil in parental role among noncustodial as well as custodial parents (Rogers & White, 1998). All these challenges, coupled with its associated stress are likely to prevent parents from being effective, efficient, and responsible parents. ...
... En effet, selon Dunn et al. (1999), les relations de fratrie sont moins positives dans ces familles que celles observées dans les familles intactes. En ce qui concerne les familles recomposées, les résultats sont moins clairs; certaines relations sont plus distantes, d'autres reflètent un degré élevé de négativité et d'autres, sont plus ou moins positives (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). Quant aux répondants du groupe de familles intactes (1), ce sont les plus jeunes qui perçoivent le plus haut degré de conflit. ...
... Na znaczenie czynników związanych ze strukturą rodziny uwagę zwrócili Hetherington i Clingempeel (1992), wskazując na związek antyspołecznego zachowania młodych ludzi wychowywanych w rodzinach z jednym rodzicem. Z kolei Fincham (1994) wykazał, że nastolatki o antyspołecznych cechach statystycznie częściej wychowywali się m.in. ...
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The main aim of the article is to describe the role of traumatic experiences in early childhood in individuals with dissocial/psychopathic personality structure based on the results of research devoted to this problem. The study was conducted on a group of 30 men who received psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder. Is the assessment of the severity of psychopathy The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R) was used, whereas the experiences of childhood were measured with The Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History – LTVH, The Scale of Retrospective Assessment of Traumatic Experience of People with Psychopathic Personality Structure and The Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire – SLESQ. The results support the thesis about the existence of links between traumatic experiences from childhood and psychopathy among offenders. These results are consistent with those obtained earlier by other researchers and can be interpreted both in the light of attachment theory and of the social learning theory.
... The dyadic interaction task comprises two parts: (a) identification of the three most frequent and intense areas of conflicts based on a checklist of common family issues, such as chores; and (b) a 10-minute discussion of problems and viable resolutions. 34 The parent-child interactions were videotaped and rated independently by two trained female coders using five sets of code (i.e., positive affectivity, negative affectivity, cohesiveness, coerciveness, and emotional support) from the Systems for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF). 9 According to Fleiss' criteria 35 Child-and parent-report measures ...
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Studies have shown that children frequently experiencing poor parent-child interaction are prone to video gaming-related problems, but it is unclear which specific aspects of such an interaction play a predictive role in the problems. To extend previous research that relies primarily on the self-report method to assess parent-child interaction, we conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study. In a laboratory setting, three major aspects of interaction (i.e., affectivity, cohesiveness, and parental behavior) were observed in 241 parent-child dyads (Children: 43 percent female, age range = 8-15, Mage = 12.09, SDage = 1.41; Parents: 78 percent female, age range = 27-63, Mage = 44.44, SDage = 6.09). In addition, both parent and children participants completed questionnaires that measured children's symptoms of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and exposure to violent video games at baseline (Time 1) and 12 months later (Time 2). The results revealed that at Time 1, positive affectivity and cohesiveness were inversely associated with child-report symptoms of IGD. Also, Time 1 coerciveness (i.e., control dimension of parental behavior) was positively associated with Time 1 child-report exposure to violent video games and Time 2 child-report symptoms of IGD, respectively. Apart from main effects, the results also showed that Time 1 negative affectivity moderated the protective effects of Time 1 positive affectivity on Time 1 parent-report and Time 2 child-report exposure to violent video games, respectively. Overall, this study identifies various key aspects of parent-child interaction that may serve as concurrent or temporal predictors of video gaming-related issues.
... Kumuliert man diese Zahl über die vergangenen 10 Jahre, kommt man in Deutschland auf rund 1,5 Millionen Kinder. In den USA erleben 38 % der weißen und 75 % der afroamerikanischen Kinder unter 16 Jahren die Scheidung ihrer Eltern ( Gottman, 1994), rund 10 % sind von multiplen Scheidungen der Eltern betroffen (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992 (Amato & Keith, 1991;Amato, 2001;. ...
... Family reorganization and attachment theory are relevant to understanding children's separation from their parents due to migration. Family reorganization, such as that due to separation, triggers change at multiple levels of the family system and creates adaptive challenges for all family members (Hetherington, 1992). In the context of migration, parentchild separation leads to change in family functioning and in multiple relationships--children and parents, children and other caregivers, parents and other caregivers--which creates disruptions in child development. ...
Article
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Migration has affected a large number of children in many settings. Despite growing attention to these children, important gaps remain in our understanding of their psychosocial development, as well as the factors that mediate and moderate the impact of migration on children. The present study examines the influences of migration on children's psychosocial well-being in China using a new nationally representative survey. We compared different groups of children age 3–15, including migrant children, left-behind children, and rural and urban children in nonmigrant families. Results show that rural children left behind by both parents were significantly worse off in psychological and behavioral well-being than rural nonmigrant children. By contrast, rural children left behind by one parent and migrant children were no worse off. The disadvantage of left-behind children was mediated by their caregivers' emotional well-being and parenting practices. Frequent contact with migrant parents, but not receipt of remittances, helped ameliorate the vulnerability of left-behind children. These results add to our understanding of how migration affects child development in general.
... Adolescents were asked to rate the extent their parents directed verbal aggression or criticism towards them and parents were asked to rate the extent to which they directed verbal aggression or criticism towards their adolescents using three items from the Conflict subscale of the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory at Time 2 (Hetherington & Clingempeel, 1992). This subscale consists of questions such as, "How much do you yell at this child after you've had a bad day?" and uses a 5-point response scale ranging from 1 (extremely) to 5 (not at all). ...
Article
Introduction: Adolescence is a period when impulsive decision making may be especially vulnerable to environmental influences. Impulsive decision making is often assessed using a delay discounting paradigm, which measures the preference for smaller rewards sooner over larger rewards with a delay. Research is needed to clarify the relationship between parents' and adolescents' delay discounting and to identify related environmental processes that might facilitate the intergenerational transmission of delay discounting. The current prospective longitudinal study examined the competing mediating processes of household chaos and harsh parenting in the intergenerational transmission of delay discounting between parents and adolescents. Methods: Participants included 167 adolescents (mean age = 14.07 years at Time 1; 53% male) and their parents (mean age = 41.98 years at Time 1; 87% female) recruited from the southeast United States. Parents' delay discounting was collected at Time 1, and adolescents' delay discounting was collected both at Time 1 and at Time 3 via a computerized delay discounting task. Parents and adolescents reported household chaos and harsh parenting at Time 2. Results: A parallel mediation model indicated that parents' delay discounting at Time 1 indirectly predicted adolescents' delay discounting Time 3 residualized change scores (regressing Time 3 delay discounting onto baseline delay discounting) through household chaos but not through harsh parenting at Time 2. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of household chaos in facilitating the intergenerational transmission of delay discounting between parents and adolescents. Furthermore, our findings point to household chaos as a potential environmental target for interrupting intergenerational impulsivity.
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Mignon R. Moore brings to light the family life of a group that has been largely invisible-gay women of color-in a book that challenges long-standing ideas about racial identity, family formation, and motherhood. Drawing from interviews and surveys of one hundred black gay women in New York City, Invisible Families explores the ways that race and class have influenced how these women understand their sexual orientation, find partners, and form families. In particular, the study looks at the ways in which the past experiences of women who came of age in the 1960s and 1970s shape their thinking, and have structured their lives in communities that are not always accepting of their openly gay status. Overturning generalizations about lesbian families derived largely from research focused on white, middle-class feminists, Invisible Families reveals experiences within black American and Caribbean communities as it asks how people with multiple stigmatized identities imagine and construct an individual and collective sense of self.
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The majority of research on ethnic identity (EI) has highlighted its role in mitigating risks associated with racial discrimination; however, discrimination is only one of many stressors that ethnic minority individuals face. The current study examined the relationships between EI, emotional distress, and the parent–child relationship among ethnically diverse, low-income parents. Results indicated significant associations between EI and emotional distress, and EI and the parent–child relationship for African American parents, but not for their Latino or European American counterparts. Furthermore, when examined separately by gender, stronger EI buffered the impact of economic hardship on emotional distress for African American fathers. The current study provides preliminary evidence that EI plays an important role in the lives of ethnically diverse parents who are facing economic hardship. Methods for embracing and fostering EI may be valuable to incorporate into therapeutic services and strength-based intervention programming, especially when serving low-income African American individuals.
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The present research was conducted to find out home chaos as a predictor of behavioral and peers problems among young children. Sample consisted of 80 children (40 girls and 40 boys), with an age range of 3 to 7 years (M = 5.32, SD = 1.26). It was hypothesized that children from families reporting high chaos would show high levels of behavioral and peer problems. Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale-Urdu (Shamama-tus-Sabah & Gilani, 2006) and Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire (Goodman, 2001) were administered to measure home chaos, behavioral and peer problems and prosocial behavior respectively. Correlation and Hierarchical multiple Regression was run to analyze the data. Home chaos was found to be positively correlated with children’s behavioral and peer problems. Moreover it was also found to be a significant predictor of behavioral and peer problems and prosocial behavior among young children. Implications and limitations and suggestion for future research have been discussed.
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The present study examined potential gender differences in the effects of family structure and family processes on externalizing and internalizing behavioral outcomes among youth over time. Using data from waves one through three of the Add Health study, results indicated that the relationship between family structure and family processes on behavioral outcomes varied depending on the specific externalizing or internalizing behavior. Family structure directly influenced three different externalizing behaviors, but indirectly influenced internalizing behaviors through its effect on maternal attachment and to some degree parental permissiveness. The long-term influence of family structure, family processes, and later externalizing and internalizing behaviors is complex. These relationships played out similarly across both male and female youth, suggesting that the effect of living in a single-parent home, subsequent family processes, and individual behavior and well-being may not be different across gender.
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This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, we outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up-the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. We then describe the measures used in this monograph, starting with those obtained at first contact with respect to functioning at the time of leaving institutional care. Because the group definitions relevant to the follow-up at age 15 are based on assessments at 6 and 11 years of age, we deal with the measures in those assessments first. At 11 years of age, we used a range of specific cognitive tests that might be of predictive value and those are detailed next. Then we discuss measures employed at the 15-year follow-up and those relevant to possible autism as used by Rutter in the separate assessment at 18-20 years. The monograph is structured around the possibility of deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs), and hence on the strategies needed to test for them (see Rutter et al. in chapter I). Accordingly, the next section of this chapter deals with that strategy and details the measures taken to test the assumption's underlying the strategy. In our published papers concerning the 11-year follow-up, we tested whether outcomes were affected by the fact that some parents adopted mainly for altruistic reasons and others because of infertility-affected outcomes. Here we repeat this analysis in relation to DSPs. Similarly, we report findings on gender differences. The longitudinal study involved obtaining DNA for genotyping to examine the possibility that genetic features moderated the young people's response to institutional deprivation. Accordingly, in the next section of the chapter, we outline our genotyping approach. The final section of this chapter describes the statistical techniques we employed in our analyses.
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In the current study the authors drew on Waves I and III from Add Health to examine the closeness of parent-adolescent relationships in married mother-stepfather families (N=1,934). They used latent class analysis to identify family constellations defined by adolescents' relationships with all of their parents: mothers, stepfathers, and biological nonresident fathers. In particular, the authors (a) identified the most common underlying patterns of adolescent-parent relationships in stepfamilies; (b) determined the background characteristics that predict membership in these groups; and (c) examined how adolescents in these groups fare with respect to depressive symptoms, delinquency, and substance use. The results indicate that adolescents' relationships can be represented with 4 latent classes. Adolescents in these classes differ on measures of adjustment, and many of these differences persist into the early adult years.
Article
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Objective The objective of this research note is to use both sequence analysis (SA) and repeated‐measures latent class analysis (LCA) to identify children's family structure trajectories from birth through age 15 and compare how the two sets of trajectories predict alcohol use across the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Background Contemporary family scholars have studied the influence of changes in family structure, often referred to as family structure instability, on child and adolescent development. Typically, this research has focused on either the number or type of transitions children have experienced, but statistical advances are increasing the viability of more complex person‐centered approaches to this issue, such as SA and LCA. The choice to use one approach or the other, however, is often discipline specific and relies on different assumptions and estimation techniques that may produce different results. Method The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth–Child and Youth Cohort (N = 11,515) to identify clusters (using SA) and classes (using repeated‐measures LCA) that represented children's family structure trajectories from birth through age 15. Using two multiple‐group random slope models, the authors predicted alcohol use across adolescence and young adulthood (ages 16–24) among the clusters (Model 1) and classes (Model 2). Results The SA identified five clusters, but the LCA further differentiated the sample with more detail on timing and identified eight classes. The sensitivity to timing in the LCA solution was substantively relevant to alcohol use across the transition to young adulthood. Conclusion Overall, the SA is perhaps more suited to research questions requiring exclusive group membership in large, comparative analyses, and the LCA more appropriate when the research questions include timing or focus on transitioning into or out of single‐parent and stepfamily homes.
Article
Many parents fear the time when their beautiful happy children will become unmanageable adolescents continually engaging in risky or destructive behaviour. Unfortunately, this view of adolescents is the focus of the media, even though it relates to just a small proportion of young people. As the large amount of research we report shows, most adolescents are responsible young people who care about their families and crave the support of their parents. It is also true, however, as much research indicates, that the quality of the relationship parents have with their adolescents is crucial to the wellbeing of those young people. We discuss the need for parents to set reasonable limits on their adolescents and to expect appropriate behavior. We also show, on the basis of research, that children who have experienced positive, caring relationships with their parents are more likely than other adolescents to behave responsibly. In other words, behavior in adolescence does not 'come out of nowhere' but builds on earlier experiences in the family. Because of the large amount of research reported in this volume, we expect that it will be useful to practitioners from a range of professions that are likely to focus on adolescents: social workers, youth leaders, welfare workers, religious leaders, psychologists and psychiatrists and contribute to a better understanding of young people and their development, and the importance of families to that development.
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Divorce has become a form of family change in contemporary western societies, spawning much research to investigate its causes and consequences. Such research has promoted a sociological understanding of divorce, impact on families and individuals as well as implications for public policy. However, research in this domain has been largely restricted to white populations in western contexts as well as adhering to quantitative research methodologies. There is little understanding of the dynamics of minority ethnic families, sometimes resulting in false assumptions and over-generalizations about family structures, stability and transitions in these communities. The impact of this gap in knowledge leads to perspective blocks in terms of how minority ethnic families are conceived in the public sphere as well as in academia. Similar to other minority ethnic groups, there is little literature on divorce in South-Asian families. Though traditionally divorce rates within South-Asian communities were low, there is now an upward trend. This is the first book to analyze the experiences of British-Indian adult children of divorce and contextualize their experiences within the larger multi-cultural polity of the UK. It also discusses the value and implications of understanding the divorce phenomenon and how it is experienced within this community to present insights into what multi-cultural social work and knowledge can mean. This can also enhance support provision for all children and enable better coping of family transitions by acknowledging their specific contexts and needs.
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p class="Mainbody">Toni Morrison’s latest novel, God Help the Child , explores the damaging effects of racism on motherhood and the dramatic impact of toxic mothering upon children. The institution of patriarchal motherhood fails to enact the critical tasks of motherwork —preservation, nurturance and cultural bearing, while mothering is a potential site of empowerment of black children and African American culture. African American authoritarian parenting style, associated with patriarchal motherhood, has a correlation with diverse factors, such as the legacy of slavery and its survival strategies, low-income and/or single-parent households and the disruption of the motherline. Motherhood distorted by racism cannot develop a sense of black selfhood in children, thwarting their chances of survival, resistance and subversion of racist ideologies. Keywords: African American, authoritarian parenting, passing for white, single, motherhood.</p
Article
Divorce is an effect of several complicated psychosocial causes. It is an obvious reason for the underlying conflicts, lacking the balance and harmony of a relationship, which lead couples through a decision making process to end up their marriage. In all cultures, divorce has not been welcome. Reviewing statistics and studies on its causes that strived to find solutions for its reduction, indicates the significance of divorce and the traces of its negative effects left on various aspects of the human society. Divorce, either directly or indirectly, affects the mental health of couples, children, relatives and friends. The lack of comprehensive and inclusive studies on this issue urged us to set the aim of this study to identify the consequences of divorce.
Book
Modern Families brings together research on parenting and child development in new family forms including lesbian mother families, gay father families, families headed by single mothers by choice and families created by assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), egg donation, sperm donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. This research is examined in the context of the issues and concerns that have been raised regarding these families. The findings not only contest popular myths and assumptions about the social and psychological consequences for children of being raised in new family forms but also challenge well-established theories of child development that are founded upon the supremacy of the traditional family. It is argued that the quality of family relationships and the wider social environment are more influential in children’s psychological development than are the number, gender, sexual orientation, or biological relatedness of their parents or the method of their conception.
Thesis
The association between parental separation occurring during childhood and adult psychological distress is well established, however the potential mechanisms involved in translating the experience of parental separation into the increased risk of reporting psychological distress is unclear and little investigated. Previous literature indicates that material and relational factors may be involved and that these two pathways are likely to be linked across the life course. The identification of the mechanisms involved in the association between parental separation and psychological distress will offer suggestions as to how families and children who undergo separation can best be supported in order to prevent long-term adverse consequences for psychological health. The diversification of family forms since the mid-20th century and in particular the increased chances that a child experiences parental separation in more recent years stimulated the investigation of whether the association between parental separation and adult psychological distress, and the mediating material and relational pathways, has changed over time. It is thought that as separation becomes more common it will have less of an effect upon the children involved. There are few studies which have investigated this with respect to psychological distress and this thesis extends those which do exist methodologically. Analysis of data from three British birth cohorts finds that parental separation is associated with increased chances of reporting psychological distress and this does not differ by gender, age of child or cohort. Examination of mediating pathways shows that both material and relational factors are involved, although material factors particularly so, and that these differ for men and women, and also by cohort. The inter-linkage of material and relational factors across the life course was found to be complex. These findings suggest a need to support separating families, particularly through their educational careers, in order to minimise the long-term consequences for children.
Chapter
Aus der kulturvergleichenden Forschung ist bekannt, daß sich Unterschiede hinsichtlich des Entwicklungsgeschehens in doppelter Weise äußern können (Feldman, Rosenthal 1994). Einerseits kann sich beispielsweise das Ausmaß delinquenten Verhaltens bei Jugendlichen aus zwei verschiedenen Ländern unterscheiden. Davon unabhängig kann es andererseits Unterschiede in den Entwicklungsbedingungen geben, d.h. delinquentes Verhalten kann je nach Land unterschiedliche Ursachen haben. Häufig wird aber der Standpunkt vertreten, daß Unterschiede im Mittelwert zwischen Kulturen oder Gruppen weitaus verbreiteter sind als solche im Gefüge der Entwicklungsbedingungen innerhalb solcher Kontexte.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine research evidence about effective childrearing in stepfamilies (i.e., parenting practices that contribute to children's physical, cognitive, and emotional well‐being). Stepfamilies are increasingly common. Studies show that children in stepfamilies tend to be at higher risk for negative outcomes than children in first‐married biological‐parent families. As research on stepfamilies has expanded, researchers have made strides in identifying parenting practices that promote positive outcomes for children in stepfamilies. We reviewed 37 studies that contained empirical evidence of effective parenting by biological or adoptive parents of children in stepfamilies. Researchers have identified numerous actions employed by parents that are linked to children's positive outcomes. Effective parenting practices fall broadly into five domains: (a) maintaining close parent–child bonds, (b) establishing appropriate parent–child communication boundaries, (c) exercising parental control, (d) supporting stepparent–stepchild relationship development, and (e) facilitating stepfamily cohesion. Effective childrearing in stepfamilies involves carefully managing competing family needs, such as the need to balance shared family time with one‐on‐one parent–child time or the need to establish open parent–child communication boundaries in some areas but closed boundaries in others. Parents have available to them a number of empirically supported action items linked to child well‐being in stepfamilies.
Article
This study examined whether 124 young adolescents living with 2 biological parents and at least 1 sibling (TP) and 27 young adolescents living with mothers, stepfathers, and at least 1 sibling (SF) differed in the extent to which they agreed that mothers, fathers or stepfathers, and siblings often provided supervision, acceptance, and opportunities for autonomy. Support was obtained for the view that the family systems of TP adolescents, more than the family systems of SF adolescents, are hierarchically organized in terms of which specific family members are involved in socialization processes.
Article
This is the first book to analyze the experiences of British-Indian adult children of divorce and contextualize their experiences within the larger multi-cultural polity of the UK. It also discusses the value and implications of understanding the divorce phenomenon and how it is experienced within this community to present insights into what multi-cultural social work and knowledge can mean. This can also enhance support provision for all children and enable better coping of family transitions by acknowledging their specific contexts and needs.
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