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Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital

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... Bourdieu (1986) defined social capital as an individual or group's possession of the sum of resources within a durable network of "institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition" with the potential to empower marginalized groups (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992, p. 119). Coleman (1988) specified that social capital "comes about through changes in the relations among persons that facilitate action" and allows for the "achievement of certain ends that in its absence would not be possible" (p. 100). ...
... Further, it has been suggested that there is a differential impact of bridging versus bonding capital on youth educational outcomes (Menahem et al., 2011). Extra-familial social networks (like the aspirational peer mentoring program in our study) have the potential to provide more diverse resources to members as well provide the foundational social network support particularly for youth from families with limited social capital and/or school involvement (Coleman, 1988;Jeynes, 2016). Menahem et al. (2011) found positive effects of bridging social capital to be especially salient in communities with fewer socioeconomic resources and attributes this to benefits from "a more diverse range of educational role models, guidance, and advice" than that available in homogenous networks (p. ...
... The near-peer aspect also contributed to the symbiotic nature of the relationship noted by both mentors and mentees as "a win/ win relationship." This is aligned with Putnam's (2000) concept of social capital in that social networks provide associated norms of reciprocity through multiple channels where information flows (e.g., exchanging ideas about college) amongst the social network members as well as with Coleman's (1988) acknowledgment that social capital "inheres in the structure of relations" between and among people (p. 98). ...
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This qualitative study examined the perspectives of Black and Latino high school and undergraduate students involved in an aspirational peer mentoring program for college access. Our findings identified five central themes that contributed to the development of social capital for participants: program expectations and experiences, sustaining relationships, near-peer network support, connecting through symbiotic roles, and keeping the legacy going. Findings contribute to an understanding of the relationship among factors that facilitate social network development.
... This study emphasizes the structural aspects of social networks and their relationship to the concept of social capital. This network-based approach to measure social capital with a theoretical approach is applied based on the works of leading network theorists (Borgatti, Jones, & Everett, 1998;Burt, 1980;Granovetter, 1982) and social capital authors (Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988;Putnam, 1995). ...
... The fundamental elements of social capital are social structures and social networks (Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988;Lin, 1999;Pretty & Ward, 2001;Putnam, 1993;Uphoff & Wijayaratna, 2000). Therefore, social network theory is being invoked to define and measure social capital. ...
... Two different approaches of understanding the creation of social capital have existed within social network theory. The first approach is that of an open network, which was first coined by Granovetter (1973) and further extended by Burt (1992), while the second approach is a closed network concept popularized by authors such as Bourdieu (1986) and Coleman (1988). ...
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Federal funding agencies that administer financial support in the form of program grants to non-profit organizations (NPOs) that provide child and family services increasingly require NPOs to formalize inter-organizational partnerships in order to receive this vital source of funding. That is, by mandate NPOs must participate in inter-organizational collaboration networks to receive these essential federal funds. Therefore, there is a need to understand the collaboration behavior of NPOs in a policy-mandated environment. This study considers collaboration behavior as information sharing and advice-seeking between the organizations who are part of a collaboration network as a result of a policy mandate. Drawing on collaboration theory, social capital theory, and social network theory, this study examines the evolution of a collaboration network by assessing how NPOs in a policy-mandated context chose to engage in information-sharing behaviors and how these behaviors changed over time as NPOs developed a working history together. This research examined the production and distribution of social capital as the primary mechanism for motivating collaboration (i.e., information exchange) as the network evolved. Using Louisiana’s Project Linking Actions for Unmet Needs in Children’s Health (LAUNCH) as a case study, this study analyzed five years of self-reported organization-level data on collaboration behaviors and information exchanged among NPOs within the LAUNCH network. A social network approach was used to analyze the evolution of collaboration practices and found that existing ties play a pivotal role in facilitating information exchange behaviors among the NPOs in the study. That is, organizations are more likely to create information-sharing partnerships with other organizations that have been endorsed and vouched for by an existing partner, or they share information with organizations that have already shared information with them in the past. This showed a tendency towards bonding social capital wherein organizations are provided security against the high levels of risk within a policy-mandated collaboration by the convenience and accessibility offered by maintaining existing relationships. Results of this study were consistent throughout the different model specifications employed in the analysis, and reveal key implications for organizations engaged in policy-mandated partnerships, as well as for funders who require collaboration.
... Chapter 7 focuses on issues of social order (Muncie 1996) and self government. In particular it examines the part played by the local community and it highlights notions of social capital (Coleman 1988;Field 2003;Putnam 2000). It looks at social control and how changes in government policy and in particular the CDA (1998) in particular, the disjuncture between international conventions such as the United Nations Convention for the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and the requirements of the Acts. ...
... The notion of citizenship, giving full participation in society, offers an opportunity to re-envisage understandings of youth. It leads to greater inclusion and co-recognition within communities, enhancing social capital (Coleman 1988;Field 2003;Putnam 2000). It throws light on the process of becoming a citizen and also inequalities in the access to rights through, for example, gender, or disability, though these may be mitigated somewhat by social rights. ...
... To this end, I look first at the Eastleigh community and the way in which it sought to control its young. Using the concept of social capital (Coleman 1988 ...
Thesis
p> This thesis considers the way the young people of Middle England Eastleigh are located in narratives of the ‘other’ and defined in opposition to the adult population. This categorisation is reinforced through their experiences of subordination in many spheres. Eastleigh , ‘the town that’s too good to be true’, gives off the aura of well-enough-off contentment and presents itself as a good place to live and bring up children. There is a good community feeling where much is seen to be done for the marginalized, especially its young people. The Council prides itself with funding provisions for and consulting with young people. Statutory and voluntary organisations work constantly to provide what they deem is necessary to enable the young to take their (conforming) place within Eastleigh society, so that the good image is perpetuated. The young people, however, have a different story to tell. Using the voices of some of those young people this thesis explores the processes whereby young people become subordinated in a community where the portrayal is of cohesiveness. Central to the study are the programmes designed to divert young people from crime and integrate them into the community. The young people, who become involved, however, often meet attempts to mould, contain or control them in their formative years in directions they do not seek. This study found that young people increasingly have to learn to negotiate their way through the ambiguity of their position but that the initiatives provide useful support for some young people some of the time. The young people of Eastleigh have views and values which seldom fit with those of their elders, who tend to see all young people as non-conforming, and there is constant friction between the two. An uneasy fermentation continues to highlight areas where all is not as it seems. There is an intergenerational divide promoting the physical distancing of young people from adults and emphasizing a lack of communication and trust. The model image by which Eastleigh is portrayed is far from the reality experienced in the lives of its young people. </p
... The social capitalist may be an individual or a collectivity such as a group, business unit, or entire organization. Like other forms of capital (e.g., human, financial, structural, customer, and relationship), social capital is productive, in that it facilitates action (Adler & Kwon, 1999;Coleman, 1988). One approach to accessing resources outside the firm is via inter-organizational alliances. ...
... The first dimension of social capital is organizational trust. The social capital literature often notes trust between actors (e.g., a supplier and its preferred customers) as an indicator of social capital (Coleman, 1984(Coleman, , 1988Adler & K won, 1999). In general, the typical discussion of trust and trustworthiness corresponds to the economic nature of trust (Deutsch, 1958), in which trust . ...
... Organizations that have increased relational capital, as evidenced by being committed to relationships with other organizations, tend to be willing to forego short-term losses for long-term gains as well as constrain opportunism (i.e., the principle of reciprocity) (Chung, Singh, & Lee, 2000). Organizational commitment facilitates the creation of organizational trust (Coleman, 1988), which has significant empirical support in organizational relationships in the marketing literature (e.g., Morgan & Hunt, 1994), community relationships in the sociology literature (e.g., Putnam, 1-993), and strategic alliances in the management literature (e.g., Ring & Van De Ven, 1992). Additionally, long-term, committed relationships with other organiza tions increase a firm's ability to compete because they are the firm's resources that lead to competitive advantage (Arnett, German, & Hunt, 2003;Hunt, 1997Hunt, ,2000Hunt & Morgan, 1995). ...
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This chapter introduces the term ''interpreneurship'' to refer to entrepreneurship that occurs through inter-organizational alliances, which represent a salient vehicle for combining complementary resources and capabilities across firms in order to gain a competitive advantage. The interpreneurship concept implies the integration of internal (firm) and external (network) resources through alliance formation and management. The purpose of this research is to introduce social structure to the rational action paradigm by examining the complementarity of $
... The tendency to feature human capital as a source of economic growth has increasingly continued in the 1960s, especially under the leadership of Becker (1968), Schultz (1961), andMincer (1962). Famous sociologist J. Coleman (1988) expressed that just as physical capital is created by changes in materials to form tools that facilitate production, human capital is created by changes in persons that bring about skills and capabilities that make them able to act in new ways. Human capital is defined as the aggregation of investments in such areas as education, health, on-the-job-training, and migration that enhance an individual's productivity in the labour market, and also in non-market activities (Sharpe, 2001:3). ...
... The expected result of a strong human capital stock is the health, welfare, happiness, and peace of the society. As a matter of fact, as expressed by Coleman (1988), social capital in both the family and society plays an active role in the creation of human capital for future generations. Again, according to Coleman, if the gains of human capital can be completed with the components of social capital representing social relations, it can become effective (Coleman, 1988:109). ...
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Human capital is a one of the essential components in the economic growth and development. Also, the belief that education and health level, which are the main components of human capital, are main features of a happy and healthy society, is getting stronger. But there is a fact that crime is a destructive notion that affects a society's human capital. In this context, this study aims to create an alternative social welfare measurement method that includes crime rates as a component to human capital on 35 European countries. In this regard, first, a general crime index was generated by using 13 different crime categories of the 35 European countries, and then this index was adapted to the Human Capital Index. As a result, the Crime-Adjusted Human Capital Index (CAHCI) was obtained. It was observed that the country rankings we obtained based on the CAHCI differ significantly from the rankings made based on the Human Capital Index. Significant number of countries, which ranks high in the Human Capital Index, ranks lower when crime rates are considered, indicates that the reliability of social welfare measures based on human capital should be questioned.
... Social capital is also defined as the total resources derived from possession of a network of relationships of mutual acquaintance and association (Bourdieu, 1986), further, stating that the volume of social capital is determined based on the size of the network connections and the volume of capital generated from networks. Others have defined social capital as "something extra" greater than the individual contributions in a network (Coleman, 1988). It is also described as a measure of synergies networks create and/or network value which is the net utility after costs of forming links or ties (Wills-Johnson, 2008). ...
... Symbolic capital is also referred to as symbolic power, reputation, capital of recognition or credit of renown (Bourdieu, 1986) and is similar to social identity (Lin, 1999). Symbolic capital is also equated to trust (Putman, 1993) and is reflected by mutual reciprocity in voluntary associations and/or non-intended consequence of behaviours among actors (Coleman, 1988). Symbolic capital is also defined as the individual actor's legitimized distinction and classification in society (Siisiainen, 2000;Zott & Huy, 2007). ...
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This research examined the firm level factors that contribute to competitiveness of international new ventures (INVs). Specifically, the study investigated the extent to which entrepreneurial and branding resources and capabilities contribute to competitiveness of INVs in Uganda.
... Buna zayıf bağlar yaklaşımı, aktörler arası görece az sıklıkta meydana gelen ilişkiler neticesinde ortaya çıkan ilişkilere atıfta bulunurken (Granovetter, 1983) güçlü bağlar, aktörler arası güvene dayalı ve daha sık etkileşimlerden oluşmaktadır (Sözen ve Gürbüz, 2012). Kapalı ağlar ise sosyal etkileşimlerin, ağ düzeneğine üye aktörlerin sadece kendi ağları ile sınırlı oldukları, oldukça güçlü ilişkilere atıfta bulunduğu belirtilmektedir (Coleman, 1988). Son olarak aktarılan yapısal boşluklar ve aracılık rolleri ise, bazı aktörlerin ağ düzenekleri içerisinde yapısal boşlukları tamamlayarak, köprü görevi görerek aracılık rolleri üstlenmeleri olarak açıklanmaktadır (Burt, 1997). ...
... Güçlü bağların oluşabilmesinin en temel belirleyicisinin ise güven olgusu olduğu ve güven çerçevesinde geliştirilen ilişkilerin ticari ilişkileri de kolaylaştırdığı aktarılmaktadır. Bahse konu ağ yapılarında yüksek seviyede gelişen güven ilişkilerinin, norm ve davranış kalıplarının varlığı son derece önemli bir husustur (Coleman, 1988). Üçüncü olarak aktarılan 'Zayıf Bağların Gücü' ise, güçlü bağların tam tersine ağ düzeneği içerisinde aktörler arası gelişen zayıf/uzak ilişkileri ele almaktadır. ...
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Many behaviors of human being, who is a social being, in the organization are affected by the social network connections. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the social network connections of the actor in the organization have an effect on individual performance, which can be considered as the antecedent of many behavioral variables in the management and organization
... Thus, if a family member is focused on radical goals, ignoring other aspects of life including the family, these important resources can be lost. Social capital has been defined by Coleman (1988) as social structures that facilitate certain actions within the structures, making it possible to achieve certain goals. ...
... Based on 6 studies and 12 effect sizes, they found that the relation between negative parenting and radicalization was not statistically significant. Again, this systematic review provided valuable information on risk factors for radicalization, but this (Coleman, 1988;Hoffmann & Dufur, 2018). ...
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This systematic review focuses on family-related risk and protective factors for radicalization, the impact of radicalization on families, and family-based interventions against radicalization. The review finds that parental ethnic socialization, having extremist family members and family conflict increase the risk of radicalization, whereas high family socio-economic status, bigger family size, and high family commitment are protective factors.
... Place-based 'deprivation', for example, can be interpreted as a paucity of embodied social and cultural capital, which deprives places of the capacity and means to overcome economic stagnation (Pinxten & Lievens, 2014). Similarly, development narratives are explained by the presence of objectified common goods (land and property) and embodied community resources (skills and knowledge) that are available to socio-spatial communities (Coleman, 1988). Forms of (collective) social and cultural capital, alongside access to critical assets (built and land-based capital), determine different development pathways (Lee & Shaw, 2016) and can be unlocked and promoted by different forms of planning, which can protect assets, make them available to communities, or promote their sustainable management. ...
... It has become aligned with a broader community development agenda, with many authors viewing capitals as community resources or public goods (e.g. Coleman, 1988). This has also shifted the development discourse from the resources that communities are lacking or are impossible to acquire, to more positive ways to realise their development potential through mobilising existing assetssee for example Sen's (1992) and Nussbaum's (2000) Capability Approach. ...
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Set in the context of debates over the future of rural areas, and the role of planning in co-delivering a sustainable, inclusive and resilient countryside, this article considers the value of a place capitals perspective for unpacking, firstly, ‘what makes’ rural places and, secondly, the ways that planning can ensure the protection, enhancement and sensitive use of those capitals. Rural places are presented as composites of built, economic, land-based and socio-cultural capitals and as possessing a ‘spatial energy’ that inheres in the linkages between capitals. Harnessing that ‘spatial energy’ is critical to co-producing better rural places. The paper aims towards a theorisation of rural places and planning that transcends jurisdictional boundaries and the peculiarities of planning systems. Building on existing scholarship, a ‘capitals framework’ is developed that has general applicability: it can be deployed flexibly as a means of understanding the ‘inner workings’ of rural place and as a guide for planning intervention.
... Unlike physical and financial capital, social capital is a public good. Making or breaking ties produces external benefits or losses throughout the social structure; in other words, social capital affects everyone, not just the individual (Coleman, 1988). As such, the effects of social capital are far-ranging. ...
... As such, the effects of social capital are far-ranging. Studies have concluded that differing levels of social capital affect educational attainment (Coleman, 1988;Putnam, 2000;Rupasingha, et al., 2006), economic outcomes (Putnam, 2000;Rodríguez-Pose & Stroper, 2006), crime levels (Putnam, 2000), physical and mental health (Putnam, 2000), and politics (Putnam, et al., 1993;Putnam, 2000;Fieschi & Heywood, 2004;Satyanath, et al., 2017;Rodríguez-Pose, et al., 2020;Giuliano & Wacziarg, 2020). ...
Article
Across the United States, recent waves of populism have disrupted existing political institutions and fueled the rise of figures like Donald Trump on the right and Bernie Sanders on the left. Myriad research has been conducted to examine the reasons behind this surge; underlying much of the literature is the story of a population who is deeply unsettled by how global changes threaten the social and economic fabric of their communities. This thesis will test many of the possible drivers of populism, including economic wellbeing, income inequality, social capital, and community breakdown. Using data from the 2016 Democratic presidential primary and the 2016 general election, we investigate the inputs of contemporary populism in the United States. Although the results were somewhat mixed, we find that close-knit counties were more likely to turn to populism, especially when those counties were economically stressed.
... Social capital is a wide term that has received extensive work in sociology, starting from seminal studies, such as that of Coleman (1988). The literature on how social capital facilitates economic decision making is extensive (see, e.g., Coleman, 1988;Fukuyama, 1996;Putnam et al., 1994). ...
... Social capital is a wide term that has received extensive work in sociology, starting from seminal studies, such as that of Coleman (1988). The literature on how social capital facilitates economic decision making is extensive (see, e.g., Coleman, 1988;Fukuyama, 1996;Putnam et al., 1994). On the note of default, social capital has been inversely correlated to consumer bankruptcy (Agarwal et al., 2011;Clark et al., 2021), whilst empirical studies of microfinance, such as that of Karlan (2007) find delinquency to be lower in groups with greater social capital. ...
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Over the past years, studies shed light on how social norms and perceptions potentially affect loan repayments, with overtones for strategic default. Motivated by this strand of the literature, we incorporate collective social traits in predictive frameworks on credit card delinquencies. We propose the use of a two-stage framework. This allows us to segment a market into homogeneous sub-populations at the regional level in terms of social traits, which may proxy for perceptions and potentially unravelled behaviours. On these formed sub-populations, delinquency prediction models are fitted at a second stage. We apply this framework to a big dataset of 3.3 million credit card holders spread in 12 UK NUTS1 regions during the period 2015–2019. We find that segmentation based on social traits yields efficiency gains in terms of both computational and predictive performance compared to prediction in the overall population. This finding holds and is sustained in the long run for different sub-samples, lag counts, class imbalance correction or alternative clustering solutions based on individual and socio-economic attributes. Graphical abstract
... Social capital, a resource of resilience, is a type of capital developed around shared values and trust, reciprocity and collective action [7,[40][41][42][43]. As defined by Adger [7], social capital describes relations of trust, reciprocity, and exchange; the evolution of common rules; and the role of networks. ...
... The scale includes indicators of social capital as reciprocity, trust and co-operation [40,42] and indicators of a community's capacity to become resilient or develop resilient approaches [66,85]. This is particularly relevant for the types of contexts that have inspired, but not limited to, the development of this scale. ...
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The purpose of this article is to present the development and validation of a Community Resilience Scale for Youth (CRS-Y) among a Portuguese sample of nearly 4000 young people growing up in regions on the border with Spain. The scale was developed for young people to assess their perception of the resilience of regional communities in terms of positive development and purposeful experiences for young people. Resilient communities, under a social ecological approach, are those able to move forward on social change and transformation. This concept is especially remarkable in more challenging contexts such as border regions of mainland Portugal which are characterised by economic, social, educational, and cultural disadvantages while discovering possibilities of resilience through promising local dynamics. A multi-step approach was used to develop this scale of 12-item scale. Items were generated based on an in-depth literature review and research previously conducted with young people in these contexts. The overall sample was randomly divided into two subsamples of 1828 and 1735 young people each. Principal component analysis was performed with one of the subsamples and yielded a three-factor structure, explaining 61.5% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis performed on the second showed good fit indexes. Furthermore, internal consistency of the three proposed components, gauged either by Cronbach’s alpha or McDonald’s omega, indicated good reliability. Given the results, the CRS-Y is a valid and reliable tool showing adequate psychometric properties. This scale will be useful for schools and policy makers at the local level. Indicators such as the promotion of opportunities to participate and be recognised, collective trust and the promotion of shared values and protection are relevant in assessing regional communities’ resilience and informing youth policies.
... Social capital is defined as "the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit'' (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). Likewise, social capital literature also suggests that individuals perceive their networks as potential resources and opportunities for their own benefit (Coleman, 1988). Social capital can be explained by structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions (Bolino et al., 2002;Chang and Chuang, 2011;Chiu et al., 2006), and is manifested in both offline and/or online environments (Williams, 2006). ...
... The relational dimensions of social capital refer to the values present in personal relationships such as reciprocity, friendship, and trust developed by individuals with each other (Chang and Chuang, 2011;Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). This perspective focuses on the links built on top of these connections based on individuals' norms, preferences, and attitudes (Coleman, 1988;Westlund, 2006). In the context of this study the relational dimension is measured as the perceptions of reciprocity and trust amongst members of the SNS. ...
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The use of online social networking sites has become part of everyday life for more than three billion people worldwide. However, its use may go beyond being a habit, leading to compulsive use behaviours that jeopardize the well-being of an individual and the whole society. This study proposes and evaluates a theoretical model that examines the four dimensions of social capital, mediated by bonding and bridging social capital, as drivers of compulsive use of online social networks in the context of civil unrest. We evaluate the model using partial least squares structural equation modelling with data collected from a developing country. We found that reciprocity is the most important driver for bonding and bridging social capital with online members. Whereas trust, contradicting most of the literature in the field, was not statistically significant over bonding and bridging social capital. Bonding social capital shows a significant association with compulsive use behaviour. On the other hand, the effect of bridging social capital on compulsive use behaviour, although not significant, may become significant in the presence of a strong usage habit.
... Structural social capital refers to the structure of ties between family members that can be utilized by the family firm (Arregle et al., 2007). In other words, the social structure of the family members can be transferred to the firm, allowing the appropriation of those ties by the firm (Coleman, 1988;Pearson et al., 2008). Regarding relational social capital, interactions between family members improve their relationships, establishing trust over time (Arregle et al., 2007). ...
... In this way, family members within family firms are able to take advantage of their own family ties and build upon their existing patterns of relationships to benefit the family firm (Arregle et al., 2007). This ability to leverage the family structure in order to help the organization happens because the relationships in one social structure can easily be transferred to another (Coleman, 1988). Through the interaction in this structure, the family builds trust, which may provide the development of the principles of reciprocity and exchange (Bubolz, 2001). ...
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The special features displayed by family firms characterize and shape their family social capital and make them unique. The participation of both the family and the firm creates distinctive resources and capabilities in the family firm. As new generations arrive, opposing forces begin to shake the firm, and while some embrace change others expect the continuity of the family influence. Likewise, the influence of the family in the firm conditions its performance. In this study, we empirically address how family influence promotes the development of family social capital that, in turn, impacts on the organizational effectiveness of family firms. Furthermore, we observe the moderating role of generational involvement by considering generations an important source of heterogeneity in family firms. We test the hypotheses on a sample of Spanish family firms, analyzing the data using partial least squares (PLS). Results indicate that the family influence positively affects the development of family social capital and, therefore, the organizational effectiveness of the family firm. However, generational involvement can moderate both relationships in a negative way, by reducing the development and exploitation of the family social capital.
... Recent research suggests that a strong tie benefits in receiving of useful knowledge (Wang et al., 2006;Hansen, 1999;Szulanski, 1996). A strong tie facilitates people to establish mutual trust and subsequently increase knowledge sharing (Coleman 1988;Tsai and Ghoshal, 1998;Wang, et al., forthcoming). In addition, corporeal proximity facilitates frequent interaction among team members and fin-ther produces interpersonal attraction which also facilitates sharing each other's tacit knowledge (Koskinen et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
p>This thesis focuses on how knowledge management activities are undertaken in innovation processes. The research adopts Snowden’s perspective of context management to refer to knowledge management in technological innovation. In particular, the research investigates knowledge management activities within a team context, rather than focusing on organisational knowledge management systems. Hence, this research raises the overall research question ‘how are knowledge management activities initiated and undertaken to enhance innovation activities,’ which were then broken down into three sub-questions. This research investigates four IT R&D teams in an IT institute in Taiwan to explore how knowledge management related activities take place within technological innovation contexts. A case study approach was adopted and through semi-structured interviews, team observation and documentary review data was collected to identify key themes, that aid in our understanding of knowledge management related processes within innovation teams. The literature review and the analysis of the data generated a conceptual model for team knowledge management which comprises eight elements, namely, project characteristics, R&D processes, R&D context, team operation, information systems, individual and team learning knowledge management in practice and innovation practice and performance. The model evidences that on initiation of a project, specific project characteristics, a team’s R&D process and context, and a team’s operation are determinants of how information systems are used, how individual and team learning takes place, and how and what knowledge management activities are performed. By understanding these processes, teams are able to improve their innovation capabilities which may result in better innovation practice.</p
... Trust is a belief that other agents will act in a predictable way and fulfil their obligations without special sanctions (Coleman, 1988). It is an attitude directed towards people in general as well as groups of people or institutions. ...
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This paper investigates rationality and its relationship to trust in science in the context of three proposed spaces of science education: the formal, informal and casual. It begins with the place of science as a trusted institution and its role in formal and informal education across the world. Through educational systems, we have come to trust that students are being educated about science and its trustworthiness. However, formal and informal education spaces are not the only spaces in which individuals and society seek science understanding. While the science education literature has long concerned itself with science education in these spaces, this paper proposes a third space, the casual space. The casual space is decentralised and provides access to a range of norms and explanations about the world. We investigate how each of the formal, informal and casual spaces privileges particular forms of rationality as a means for understanding trust in science in each of these spaces. This paper considers the implications for education’s response to the challenge of equipping students to make rational judgements about science.
... Young people in conflict with their parents may suffer poorer outcomes because they are less likely to receive help (Parcel and Menaghan 1994) and those in post-transition families are found to be more likely to be in conflict with their residential parent than those in original families (Biblarz and Raftery 1993). Secondly, children in posttransition families may be disadvantaged if they have lost contact with a parent or other relatives who could have helped them through informal contacts in the labour market (Coleman 1988;Mclanahan and Sorensen 1985) or, equally, children living with a lone mother may be at a potential disadvantage in their connection to the labour market if their mother does not have a good occupational position (McLanahan and Sandefur 1994). However, social capital can also be gained from a good relationship with a school or involvement in the community (Caspi et al. 1998), both of which can buffer potentially negative effects of family conflict. ...
Thesis
p>This thesis explores the implications of parental divorce, or separation, and stepfamily formation in childhood for a cohort of young adults. It uses the 1970 British Cohort Study, which has followed up since those born in British in a week in April 1970. The age 26 survey is used to examine outcomes according to the number, type and timing of family transitions up to age 16. A regression based weighting scheme compensates for the effects of differential non-response at later stages of the study and the potential for bias in the reported date of parental separation is addressed. Over one in four of the cohort members experienced family disruption. Using discrete-time logistic regression hazards models, the research identifies the characteristics of families more likely to undergo transitions by the time the cohort member is 16. The thesis then focuses on three outcomes: achieving fewer than five Ordinary Level examination passes; experiencing unemployment; and, for women, teenage or young motherhood. In the chapters examining educational attainment and early childbearing, the analysis controls for family characteristics from birth onwards to examine whether associations between family disruption and later outcomes are the product of the selection of certain families into disruption, a result of the environment around the time of transitions, or the effect of post disruption circumstances. The chapter considering unemployment evaluates whether certain family transitions continue to be associated with labour market experiences over and above any association with educational attainment. Outcomes vary according to the sex of the cohort member, the type of disruption and their age at the last transition. Compared to children who grew up living with both natural parents, those who experienced the most common types of family disruption, into a lone mother or stepfather family (without ever living with stepsiblings) are not generally found to have a higher probability of more disadvantaged outcomes after taking early socio-economic circumstances into account. However, late childhood transitions seem to be associated with lower educational attainment for women, while an early move into a lone mother family may place men at a disadvantage in the labour market. Children who experienced less common transitions, such as those who lived in stepfamilies that ever contained stepsiblings or were ever taken into statutory or foster care, have poorer outcomes.</p
... Contemporary theoretical developments have largely been based on social capital theory (Coleman 1988), and particularly on Sampson and colleagues' refinement of social capital as a theory of collective efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls, 1997;Sampson, Morenoff and Earls, 1999). Collective efficacy is clearly linked to social cohesion, since the concept is defined as social cohesion among neighbours combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good (Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls, 1997). ...
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After release in early 2009 of an initial set of two volumes in the GofS Research Paper Series, the editorial board is proud to issue a set of two more volumes, comprising papers (again all reviewed by international peers, the list of which is set out in the appendix) clustered around two well-profiled research axes. Volume 4 focuses on topical issues in EU and International Crime Control. Its table of contents is provided below the brief description of the papers comprised in the current book, which constitutes Volume 3, providing new empirical data, theories and analyses on Safety, Societal Problems and Citizens’ Perceptions. Some articles in Volume 3 focus especially on issues of conceptualisation and measurement of key constructs in the study of security in its broadest meaning (from fear of crime to corruption) some articles present tests of theoretical models derived from theoretical criminology, and finally some articles focus on different institutional reactions towards crime and drug-related problems (e.g. policing, the conflict of interests between private companies and authorities and restorative justice).
... According to Coleman (1988), effective norms that are a kind of social capital require the individual to act in such a way to protect the interest of the group leaving his own interest aside. In the absence of effective norms, social networks are effective in directing relationships. ...
Chapter
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Social capital is productive like any other types of capital, provides certain results to be realized that cannot be achieved in its absence and can only be improved by changing relationships between actors (Coleman, 1988: 98–100). Since ensuring this change means investing in relationships, besides its incomes, social capital has also cost just like any other capital type. In contrast to discussions on this matter in the literature, all of these features constitute evidence that social capital is a type of capital. Thanks to its “capital” qualification, while contributing to the effectiveness of other types of capital owned by the organizations, social capital also provides strategic advantages. Thus, while it may be possible to ensure continuity of companies, it will play an active role so that many advantages can be obtained by organizations along with sustainability whose importance and contributions have been voiced in recent years. The critical relationship between these two variables will also help to overcome many vital problems that organizations face. Therefore, in this section social capital will be introduced, which will be useful to shed light on sustainability and sustainability of economic units in particular and can provide valuable and remarkable contributions that cannot be ignored. However, the main purpose of writing this section is to explain how social capital can be used and how it contributes to overcome the problem of sustainability.
... The evolution of political parties tends to be specific to a country's socio-political history. Public trust is also specific to a country's socio-political history and can perhaps best be explained by the concept of social capital (Madison, 1788;de Tocqueville, 2003;Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1986Coleman, , 1988. Fukuyama (2002, p. 27) defines social capital as 'shared norms or values that promote social co-operation'. ...
Book
This book re-examines the ways in which parliamentary committees can enhance democratic governance. Revisiting a report first published 10 years ago, this volume looks at the ways in which Public Accounts Committees (PACs) work in practice, and considers whether they continue to fulfil expectations as important guarantors of good governance. Noting that PACs themselves, and our knowledge about them, have evolved substantially in the intervening decade, this volume examines the original concept of public financial accountability, noting its origins in the nineteenth century; evaluates the findings of the original study; analyses research data produced in the aftermath of the first report and considers the practices and challenges facing PACs in the second decade of the twenty-first century, such as capacity building, independence and information exchange.
... This theory clarifies that businesses can improve their performance by building strategic alliances and by improving relationships with stakeholders. (Coleman, 1988;Groza et al., 2020;Zheng et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Purpose: This contribution evaluates key theoretical bases that were used in previous research, to investigate the use of crowdfunding platforms by small businesses and startups. It presents the findings from a systematic review to better explain the pros and cons of utilizing these disruptive technologies for crowdsourcing or crowd-investing purposes. Method: The researchers adopt PRISMA's methodical protocol to search, screen, extract and scrutinize seventy-two (72) articles that were indexed in both Scopus and Web of Science. They examine their research questions, describe their methodologies. Afterwards, they synthesize the findings from previous literature, outline the implications of this contribution and discuss about future research avenues. Findings: A thorough review of the relevant literature suggests that there are opportunities as well as challenges for project initiators as well as for crowd-investors, if they are considering equity crowdfunding, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending and rewards-based crowdfunding platforms, among others, to raise awareness about their projects, and to access finance from crowd-investors. Research limitations/implications: Further research is required on this timely topic. There are a number of theories relating to technology adoption and/or innovation management, strategic management, accounting and financial reporting, and normative/business ethics, among other research areas, that can be utilized as theoretical bases, to explore this topic. Practical implications: Crowd-investors are striving in their endeavors to find a trade-off between potential rewards and a number of risks that are associated with crowd-financing. Originality: Currently, there are few systematic reviews and conceptual articles focused on the crowdfunding of small businesses and startups. Hence this contribution closes this gap in the academic literature. Moreover, it links the extant theory to practice. It clarifies that the resource-based view theory of the firm, the theory of planned behavior, the diffusion of innovations theory, as well as the signaling theory, among other conceptual frameworks, can be used to investigate different facets of crowdfunding/crowdsourcing and crowd-investing.
... In this study, we are especially interested in the concept of the Beanpole family structure, whose members come from various generations, but with few members in each generation (Bengtson, Rosenthal, & Burton, 1990). Such configurations show strong intergenerational connections (Coleman, 1998) that commonly include grandparents, aunts and uncles. Therefore, the youngest generation receives care and attention from a large number of interconnected family members, including prior generations (Furstenberg & Hughes, 1995). ...
Article
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This study attempts to deepen knowledge of roles in two different social contexts which share similar cultural roots. Changes at both the demographic and social level have contributed to grandfathers playing an increasingly important role in the lives of their grandchildren, but little attention has been paid to date to this area of research. The primary data analysis developed, based on the data collected through 170 in-depth interviews, reveals generational idiosyncratic characteristics among the grandfathers studied here and their own grandfathers, in Mexico and Spain, as well as a change in traditional gender roles, with certain country-specific nuances. The results suggest the presence of different models of grandparents which suggested that the 'patriarchal' grandparent model is obsolete.
... En nuestro ámbito de estudio se considera como un posible factor que condiciona el desarrollo. No obstante, se trata de un concepto utilizado con mucha ambigüedad, lo que requiere de una observación detallada dependiendo del lugar y las condiciones en las que ocurre (Coleman, 1988;Portes, 1998). ...
Preprint
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Manuscrito para la editorial Tirant lo Blanch (Córdoba, abril de 2022). La publicación del libro puede variar respecto a los contenidos de este documento. Este libro realiza una investigación sobre los procesos de colaboración y transferencia de conocimiento entre las empresas de un sistema local de innovación y la universidad. Estudia en detalle la situación de las empresas del entorno en lo referido a los mecanismos de intercambio y adquisición de conocimiento con agentes u organismos especializados en la producción y diseminación de tecnología y otros conocimientos y sus implicaciones en la innovación empresarial. Para ello se parte del hecho de que el principal agente relacionado con el conocimiento en un sistema local de innovación suele ser la universidad. La investigación se inspira en las discusiones en la literatura especializada sobre transferencia de conocimiento e innovación, si bien se adapta a las condiciones reales que existen en la mayor parte de los entornos que rodean a las universidades en lugares relativamente periféricos en el contexto global de la ciencia y la tecnología, como es el caso sistema español de I+D y educación superior y su configuración en la mayoría de nuestras regiones y ciudades. Esta es una característica no sólo de España, sino también del Sur de Europa y de muchas áreas de la Unión Europea y otros países de nivel de desarrollo medio-alto. La investigación se realiza en clave comparativa a partir de las oportunidades que ofrece realizar observaciones detalladas de una realidad acotada en un territorio. La metodología se dirige a resaltar las implicaciones que este estudio puede tener para instituciones similares y para el conjunto del sistema universitario, habida cuenta de que la gran mayoría de las universidades se ubican en entornos distintos a los hubs tecnológicos globales y a las grandes áreas metropolitanas.
... The survey was designed to create a medium for comparative analysis of most world economies, which means it is a reliable indicator for analysis (Albaity et al., 2020;Cao & Xia, 2021;Ng et al., 2015). As trustworthiness rises, people tend to respect obligations, avoid opportunistic human behaviour, and enhance mutual respect and societal cooperation (Albaity et al., 2020;Coleman, 1988;Jha & Chen, 2015). ...
Article
This paper aimed to understand the effect of investor sentiment, trust, and uncertainty on bank stock returns. Also, the research highlighted the effects of the interaction between uncertainty and trust. The sample covered 173 banks in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) and used data between 2010 and 2020. This study employed the Two-steps system Generalized Method of Moments estimator. The baseline findings of the MENA region revealed that market sentiment, uncertainty, and trust had positive effect on bank stock returns, while individual sentiment negatively influenced bank stock returns. Similarly, Gulf Cooperation Council Region's (GCC) shows almost same results as MENA region except individual sentiment was found positive and significant. The MENA and the GCC regions' interaction variables results found a negative effect on bank stock returns. While monarchy countries show asymmetry effects and found positive link between interaction of trust and uncertainty on the bank stock returns. Overall, the banking sectors of the MENA region were sensitive to investor sentiment, uncertainty, and trust. The limitation of this paper was the lack of weekly, monthly, or quarterly availability of data for all variables.
... In the course of exploring urban crime influences and changes in those influences over time, the majority of criminological or sociological theories have focused on changes in the amount and types of crime and the importance of such variables (varying over time and between places) as poverty, changes in economic inequality, criminal opportunities, cultural conflicts, weakened social control and social disorganization (Durkheim, 1897, Cloward and Ohlin, 1960, Kim and Pridemore, 2005. Theories that include institutional anomie theory (Messner and Rosenfeld, 1997) and social capital theory (Coleman, 1988;Sampson et al., 1999), place emphasis on the mediating role of social cohesion and the strength of cultural values that do not equate "success" with "money". They are consistent with viewpoints from Chicago School theorists in emphasising neighborhood structure and its links to levels of crime. ...
Chapter
The three-dimensional (3D) structure of forests has long been recognized to have profound effects on forest ecosystems. However, the use of spectral and radar remotely sensed data for forest structure quantification is insensitive to changes in forest vertical structure. LiDAR has emerged as a robust means to measure forest structures. Numerous studies have been devoted to accurately quantifying forest structures from LiDAR data at various scales (from tree branches level to global level) and revolutionized the way we consider forest structure in ecosystem studies. In this chapter, we outline how LiDAR sheds light on forest ecosystem studies and discuss current challenges and perspectives of LiDAR applications.
... Social capital was originally developed in sociology and deals with individuals' social relations as well as possible benefits or drawbacks resulting from these relations [40][41][42]. Regarding entrepreneurship, social capital is important because it 1) helps nascent entrepreneurs to overcome substantial resource constraints [43] and 2) provides access to novel information and granted feedback about business strategies, which is particularly important to shape entrepreneurial intentions and behavior [44][45][46]. ...
Article
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Given that skill variety is widely regarded a key component of entrepreneurial human capital, gender differences in entrepreneurship could be rooted in the formation of such skill variety. Analyzing 12-year longitudinal data following 1,321 Finnish adolescents into adulthood, we study whether gender differences in skill variety open up early in the vocational development of entrepreneurs vs. non-entrepreneurs, thereby contributing to the persisting gender gap in entrepreneurship in adulthood. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test and compare the mediating effect of early skill variety in adolescence vs. education- and work-related skill variety in early adulthood on the gender gap in entrepreneurial intentions in adulthood. We find that education- and work-related skill variety indeed operate as an obstacle for women entrepreneurship, despite women outperforming men in early skill variety in adolescence. Hence, we identify a critical turning point in early adulthood where women fall behind in their development of entrepreneurial human capital.
... In short, in addition to working on a stronger social climate and reduction in disorder, it remains important to invest in the social capital of people. At the individual le-vel, networks and resources represent an important weapon in the fight against insecurity (Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988, Putnam, 2000. For example, governments can opt to set up a neighbourhood-oriented approach that focuses on specific individual needs. ...
Article
This study examines whether residential stability and neighbourhood SES, two key neighbourhood structural characteristics from Social Disorganisation Theory (SDT), have a contextual effect on perceived social trust, perceived informal social control, and perceived social disorder and whether these contextual structural and perceptual measures are related to three measures of fear of crime, independent of population composition. Attention is paid to three well-known dimensions of fear of crime: risk perception (cognitive), fear (emotional) and avoidance behaviour (behavioural). The results demonstrate that neighbourhood residential stability is strongly related to perceptual measures of collective efficacy (perceived social trust and perceived informal social control) and perceived social disorder, controlling for demographic background characteristics and individual level social capital. The implications of these findings and avenues for future studies are discussed.
... "抖音"使用强度(Tictok intensity),是信息时代下社交媒体依赖的一种典型表现。 作为众多短视频的代表,抖音短视频平台因其内容时尚性、社交便利性等特点,深受普罗大 众的喜爱。由于互联网公司开发者针对抖音平台所编制的预设算法,让用户无时无刻不置身 于符合自我价值认同的"社交信息茧房"之中,自我控制水平较低的青少年学生群体极易出 现抖音依赖、网络成瘾等问题 [14][15][16][17] 的显著预测因子。媒介效果理论(Media Effect Theory) 指出,相较于电视、报纸等传统媒体,频繁的新媒体使用会给用户,特别是青少年个体,带 来高强度的压力体验与焦虑 [18] 。研究表明,焦虑的产生与个体在社交媒体环境中的不同行 为模式有关,诸如网上冲浪、追剧等漫无目的等线上行为或习惯与个体的社会焦虑感有显著 正向关系 [19] 。由此不难看出,短视频使用在低自我控制与青少年社交媒体焦虑之间扮演了 重要的中介角色。综上,基于前述理论与文献依据,本研究提出以下两项假设,H2:低自 我控制对大学生群体的抖音使用强度具有显著正向影响;H3:抖音使用强度对大学生产生 社交媒体焦虑具有显著正向影响; 社会资本(Social capital),是指个体通过和他人之间的交往关系而积聚的各种资源 [20] 。 作为一项跨学科的普遍概念,社会资本被不同学者差异化地界定为外生变量或内生变量 [21][22] 。Putnam 将社会资本划分为两类,即桥梁式(bridging)和纽带式(bonding) [23] ,分 别指个体与其家人或社交网络之间的弱联结与强联结。情绪调节理论认为,个体的社会资本 力量构建了情绪调节的外部资源 [24] ,能够缓冲负向生活事件的影响,并对其心理健康起到 一种正向调节作用 [25] 。研究表明,青少年的朋友支持力量会显著降低个体的手机过度依赖 与其焦虑之间的正向效应值 [26] ,并显著提升个体的各项心理健康指标 [27][28] ...
Article
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Objective: The current study aims to explore the relationship among low self-control, Tiktok intensity, and social media anxiety and test the moderating effects of bridging social capital and bonding social capital on the mediation paths. Methods: A sample of 743 university students were recruited in the study to complete the questionnaires of low self-control, Tiktok intensity, social anxiety of social media, and social capital, and the study using structural equation model and Johnson-Neyman analysis to test hypothesis. Results: Low self-control has a significant and direct effect on social media anxiety (β = 0.381, P<0.001) and a significant indirect effect through Tiktok intensity (β = 0.101, P<0.05; β = 0.157, P<0.001). Bridging social capital and bonding social capital could significantly and negatively moderate the effect of Tiktok intensity on social media anxiety. Conclusions: Tiktok intensity acts as a mediator between low self-control and social anxiety of social media, while bridging social capital and bonding social capital play protective roles in the effects of Tiktok intensity on social media anxiety.
... Between human capital and social capital there is an important theoretical connection. In his seminal paper, Coleman (1988) argues that social capital is an important factor for explaining educational outcomes. He differentiates between two sources of social capital, the family and the community. ...
... e crossover innovation of emerging technologies is a process of deep fusion and effective coupling among different technologies and knowledge as well as the creation of new knowledge and technologies. e higher level of the network clustering, the deeper the interaction between network members [32], which promotes the dissemination and sharing of knowledge in different technological fields among the major innovation-driven entities. e cross-boundary and cross-field interaction, fusion, and reorganization between emerging technologies and the original ones create new knowledge, resulting in crossover innovation [33]. ...
Article
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The crossover innovation springing up in emerging technologies has drawn wide attention from scholars. Innovation network, as an effective way for major innovation-driven entities towards less relevant risks and higher efficiency, can significantly affect the crossover innovation performance. This paper analyzes the evolution law of the innovation network of autonomous driving technology based on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) and by using the data on joint applications for invention patents of such technology during 2006–2020. Furthermore, the structural eigenvalues of the network evolution are calculated for the regression analysis of the relationship between network structure and crossover innovation performance. The empirical results show that network centrality, structural hole, and relationship intensity have a positive effect on crossover innovation performance of emerging technologies, while network clustering has a negative effect. Emerging technology enterprises should constantly improve their technological innovation ability, improve their status and influence in the innovation network, establish cooperation with appropriate innovation partners, further expand their own technical knowledge fields, and obtain innovation resources by optimizing the network structure so as to enhance the crossover innovation performance.
... Many theoretical studies have shown how the structure of social networks can shape a variety of outcomes, from the formation of human capital to the degree of adherence to social norms 33,48,49 . These studies of social capital conceptualize the cohesiveness of networks in two ways: (1) the cohesiveness of a given individual's personal network (measured, for example, by the extent to which their friends are in turn friends with each other), and (2) the cohesiveness of the whole community (measured by the degree of fragmentation into subcommunities). ...
Article
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Social capital—the strength of an individual’s social network and community—has been identified as a potential determinant of outcomes ranging from education to health1–8. However, efforts to understand what types of social capital matter for these outcomes have been hindered by a lack of social network data. Here, in the first of a pair of papers9, we use data on 21 billion friendships from Facebook to study social capital. We measure and analyse three types of social capital by ZIP (postal) code in the United States: (1) connectedness between different types of people, such as those with low versus high socioeconomic status (SES); (2) social cohesion, such as the extent of cliques in friendship networks; and (3) civic engagement, such as rates of volunteering. These measures vary substantially across areas, but are not highly correlated with each other. We demonstrate the importance of distinguishing these forms of social capital by analysing their associations with economic mobility across areas. The share of high-SES friends among individuals with low SES—which we term economic connectedness—is among the strongest predictors of upward income mobility identified to date10,11. Other social capital measures are not strongly associated with economic mobility. If children with low-SES parents were to grow up in counties with economic connectedness comparable to that of the average child with high-SES parents, their incomes in adulthood would increase by 20% on average. Differences in economic connectedness can explain well-known relationships between upward income mobility and racial segregation, poverty rates, and inequality12–14. To support further research and policy interventions, we publicly release privacy-protected statistics on social capital by ZIP code at https://www.socialcapital.org. Analyses of data on 21 billion friendships from Facebook in the United States reveal associations between social capital and economic mobility.
... les, al ser el grado más alto en cualquier sistema, deberían aportar tanto al desarrollo económico como a la retribución de quienes ostentan ese título. Retribuir a los individuos influye positivamente en el conjunto (Coleman, 1998). Esta idea se replica en la economía de la ciencia, pues: 1) la investigación y desarrollo económico tienen una relación indiscutible; y 2) hay un sistema de premios e incentivos individuales que no es contradictorio con la idea de la ciencia y la investigación como un bien público (Partha & David, 1994;Stephan, 1996), por lo que la mejora individual se traduce en una mejora general (Stephan, 1996;Stephan et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta un panorama descriptivo y explicativo sobre el crecimiento del número de profesores con título de doctorado en el sistema ecuatoriano de educación superior, desde el año 2013, así como los incentivos para la titulación y su impacto en la investigación. Se hace una revisión general de la literatura que considera el impacto positivo de un mayor número de doctores en la educación superior y se evalúa la evolución de su número a partir de las obligaciones legales y los incentivos creados por el marco legal de la formación superior. Se presenta una descripción general, tomando en cuenta su procedencia, las universidades en las que trabajan y en las que estudiaron, y los títulos obtenidos. Se analiza además la oferta según campos de estudio y se propone un modelo de regresión para explicar y evaluar su impacto en la investigación. Finalmente, se concluye que las políticas públicas han creado un medio favorable (incluyendo incentivos perversos) para la titulación doctoral y la recepción de profesores de varios países, al tiempo que se evidencia una relación positiva entre el número de doctores y la investigación con impacto internacional.
... This underlines the proposition that those living within a context of social deprivation (geographical location or socioeconomic status), may also lack the personal attributes, social position, or opportunity to engage in coproducing relationships (Bovaird, 2007, Bovaird and Loeffler, 2012, Bovaird, Van Ryzin, Loeffler et al., 2015, Nairn, Dring, Aubeeluck et al., 2019. Bourdieu suggested that how individuals' perceive their capital is greatly influenced by their "habitus" (Webb, Schirato and Danaher, 2002, p. xii) or socialisation; their way of thinking and feeling, their cultural influences, their "collective" and "individual" class (Ferlander, 2007); the social networks and relationships trust and reciprocity which evolve through their interaction with others (Coleman, 1988, Lane, 2000, Jenkins, 2002, Putnam, 2004, Szreter and Woolcock, 2004, Ferlander, 2007, Grenfell, 2012, Cockerham, 2013a, Collyer, Willis, Franklin et al., 2015; and that individuals' lives are socially constructed through their interactions and experience with others. Whilst other authors have also written prolifically about the concept of social capital as a: ...
Article
Introduction Coproduction is a term which refers to how customers and service-users contribute to the planning, design, delivery, and implementation of goods and services, with service providers. Contemporary coproduction literature reflects a paternalistic perception of service-users with lower socioeconomic status and their interactions and relationships with specialist and non-specialist health professionals. Background Within the contemporary coproduction literature there is a suggestion that that individuals living within a context of socioeconomic deprivation are less equipped to coproduce care. Whilst service-users living with LTCs may have the knowledge, skills to manage their LTC despite socioeconomic disadvantage, there is a lack of research exploring these experiences. This study explored how coproduction is operationalised, and the impact of socioeconomic position and social capital, within the context of ongoing care across hospital and home settings. Theories of coproduction were applied, to explore shared-decision making, the implementation of care “at home”, and the dynamics of power between service-providers and service-users living with long-term conditions (LTC). Methods A mixed methods study was undertaken using, in-depth, face-to-face interviews of service-users from two Lymphoedema Clinics (City and rural) within a regional service; overt non-participant observations within the clinics, to observe the dynamic between the service-users and specialist health professionals. Service-users, partial postcodes and the addresses of General Practitioner” (GPs) were documented to identify the distribution of service-users attending the clinic 1, and to contextualise socioeconomic position of the study setting. NHS ethical approval for the study was obtained through the Regional Ethics Committee, and permission was gained to access all study Sites within the NHS organisations. Findings The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic status does not prevent service-users from coproducing their care, in terms of their skills and knowledge or the “operant resources” they uses to engage in shared-decision making. However, a lack of economic resources and social capital, or “operand resources”, makes the coproduction of care more challenging for service-users; especially when treatment options are limited, and the implementation of care is within the “home”. In addition, service-users often perceived that non-specialist health professionals lacked the skills, knowledge and expertise to meet their care needs. Care was described by the participants as based upon a traditional, hierarchical and often biomedical model of care. This approach did not always align with the daily life of the participants, which involved balancing condition management against the desire to maintain normality, and achieve the goals that they identified as important The mitigating factor for many of the participants was the social capital and network of support they developed with the SHPs and their significant others; this evolved as an “operand resource”, in terms of trust and reciprocity and the tangible effect of co-implementing and co-delivering care. Conclusion This study addresses the research gaps related to exploration of coproduction for people with LTC, between hospital and home, and the need for more research to empirically evidence service-users’ experience. Social capital, trust, accountability, responsibility, and reciprocity are perceived as essential to operationalise the coproduction of care and actualise a more equitable partnership between service-users and service-providers.
... Neste sentido, a análise da formação, constituição e manutenção das redes pessoais é fundamental para compreender processos de fortalecimento e solidariedade entre indivíduos e grupos, uma vez que esses vínculos possuem impacto em diferentes dimensões da vida cotidiana, a saber: emocional, financeira, social, informacional, instrumental, etc. e não necessariamente estão relacionados com os grupos biológicos de um indivíduo (Frost, Meyer & Schwartz;2016). As redes pessoais carregam um aspecto relevante para o pensamento sociológico, no que se refere ao conceito de capital social (Putnam, 2000;Coleman, 1988 Salienta-se que a relevância das redes pessoais está não somente no suporte individual que podem prover, mas também na dimensão coletiva, uma vez que se integram em uma diversidade de processos que variam desde redes pessoais informais até relações institucionais que podem ou não, favorecer um sentimento de pertencimento, suporte e reconhecimento (Gracia & Herrero, 2006). A suposição de experiências em comum de discriminação, estigma e preconceito entre pessoas LGBT serve como um mecanismo para o estabelecimento de senso de solidariedade e conexão entre esses indivíduos (Formby, 2017), para além disso, a identidade étnica também serve como um fator de solidariedade, como apontado por Hardwick (2003) os sistemas de suporte e solidariedade intra grupos é comum nas experiências de imigrantes, uma vez que ao chegar num país estrangeiro, a educação formal e as habilidades profissionais adquiridas no país de origem, tendem a ser desvalorizadas, causando uma flutuação no capital social que aquele indivíduo possui. ...
Thesis
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O crescente fluxo imigratório para Portugal evidencia o contexto das sociedades globalizadas. Especificamente, observa-se a forte presença de pessoas brasileiras no território português, perfazendo a maior comunidade imigrante neste contexto. Tendo isso por base, a presente dissertação buscou compreender as percepções de pessoas imigrantes LGBT brasileiras em Portugal, acerca de suas redes pessoais e agência. De modo a alcançar uma compreensão interseccional das experiências partilhadas, este trabalho levou em consideração os diferentes marcadores identitários de raça, classe, gênero e orientação sexual. A partir da conjugação de três eixos teóricos distintos, nomeadamente, teoria da interseccionalidade, estudos da imigração queer e sociologia relacional, buscou-se uma compreensão pormenorizada a partir da escuta das experiências das pessoas participantes desta pesquisa, que se constituiu por entrevistas individuais em profundidade com 15 pessoas autoidentificadas como brasileiras LGBT residentes em diferentes zonas de Portugal continental. Adicionalmente, optou-se pelo uso do mapa dos círculos concêntricos, como um recurso visual, a fim de caracterizar as redes pessoais das pessoas participantes. A nível de resultados, foram observadas experiências de xenofobia (de ordem verbal), e percepção de maior segurança no contexto português. Ademais, foi possível compreender o acesso de capital social disponível através das redes pessoais. Embora tenha sido identificada predominância do sentimento de não pertencimento e do constrangimento da capacidade de ação por situações estruturais, observou-se ao nível micro, estratégias de fortalecimento coletivo, homofilia como base das relações de suporte e criação de novos significados de família a partir das experiências em contexto transnacional. Palavras-chave: LGBT, brasileiros, redes pessoais, agência, portugal, imigração.
... 2. Social Capital (SC) emphasises the importance of shared norms, values and understandings that balances societal and individual interests and facilitate co-operation within or among groups [8] and endogenous bottom-up development processes [29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. In this context the social capital includes the territorial "relational capital" as the solidarity and active citizenship, associated with a higher propensity to work together toward shared goals [19,20,[36][37][38][39][40][41]). ...
Thesis
p>Putnam’s version of social capital, and the main problems with it, are outlined in Chapter One of this thesis. In Chapters Two and Three alternative conceptual approaches are examined to see whether they might resolve any of the difficulties in Putnam’s work. The six problems arising from Putnam’s work identified in Chapter One are: 1) the lack of a developed conceptual framework; 2) whether macro-level analysis is appropriate; 3) how the concept fits with considerations of structure and agency; 4) whether the negative aspects of social capital are fully taken into account; 5) what the relative merits of “bonding” and “bridging” social capital are; and; 6) whether social capital is only ever a by-product of other activities or can also be consciously created. In Chapter Two, Coleman and Ostrom’s separate work in social capital is analysed. They use the concept as part of an attempt to add broader social considerations to theories of rational and collective action. In Chapter Three, the main authors examined are Bourdieu and Lin. Bourdieu uses social capital to complement his concept of cultural capital in looking at the reproduction of inequality. Lin develops a theory of social capital that focuses on individuals’ action in pursuing resources in networks. It emerges that the other authors can contribute various elements that help to address some of the problems in Putnam’s work. Yet the most appropriate level of analysis and the full implications of bridging social capital remain points of contention. In Chapter four the future of Putnam’s use of social capital is debated and it is concluded that he will have to abandon his macro-level analysis if the full conceptual intricacies of social capital are to be realised.</p
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In Italia si sta registrando una diminuzione del numero degli immigrati, ma al tempo stesso anche un aumento di quello delle seconde generazioni. Molti di questi giovani sono nella delicata fase dell'adolescenza, per cui stanno affrontando due sfide importanti: essere adolescenti e avere un'origine straniera. Il modo in cui questi due fattori vengono affrontati e gestiti, parallelamente al modo in cui convivono dentro di loro i riferimenti culturali del paese di origine e quelli italiani, sono strategici e predittivi di come struttureranno la loro identità. Poiché il percorso di crescita e di struttura identitaria è condizionato dal livello di accoglienza dell'ambiente circostante e in Italia c'è un buon grado di diffidenza verso gli immigrati, è legittimo domandarsi se questi giovani potranno sviluppare un sentimento di ostilità verso l'Italia e quali sono i percorsi identitari che stanno intraprendendo. A questi quesiti si è cercato di rispondere - ponendo un'attenzione particolare alle dinamiche familiari - attraverso una ricerca svolta nella regione Marche nella quale sono stati intervistati sia giovani di seconda generazione che i loro genitori. Dai racconti emerge un quadro con luci e ombre. Le persone intervistate hanno vissuto le difficoltà legate alla diffidenza, ma non hanno dichiarato di sentirsi in contrasto con la società italiana. I genitori, infatti, cercano di non instillare sentimenti di ostilità nei figli, che a loro volta sono consapevoli che il territorio marchigiano, nonostante un'iniziale diffidenza, abbia sostanzialmente accolto gli immigrati. Il libro si rivolge a studiosi e accademici, insegnanti, operatori sociali, decisori politici e a chi a vario titolo si occupa di migrazioni, famiglie e adolescenti
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