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Ecotourism in Costa Rica: A conceptual framework

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... Adapted from Cheung and Jim (2006) 155 Studies of ecotourism date back to the early 1990s in the Western world (Ziffer, 1989;Boo, 1990;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Kretchaman and Eagles, 1990;Ceballos-Lascurian, 1991;Boo, 1992). However, relevant ecotourism studies in Hong Kong could only be identified ten years later (Jim, 2000). ...
... The majority of Hong Kong's ecotourists suggested that higher quality tourist information, which is comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date, should be provided regarding ecotourism activities. This finding is consistent with previous studies, which indicated that high quality information is very important to ecotourists (Boo, 1990;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Saleh and Karwacki, 1996). Boo's (1990) study of North American ecotourists reported that a lack of accurate and up-to-date educational materials was the main source of dissatisfaction among ecotourists. ...
... Ecotourists in Hong Kong share this preference with overseas ecotourists, and they tend to be more concerned than other tourists about the environmental impact of tourism activities (Boo, 1990;Holden and Sparrowhawk, 2002;Reynisdottir et al., 2008). Previous research on the habits of ecotourists in overseas countries, particularly in North America and Europe, reported that participation in activities with low environmental impact is one of the most important factors influencing the decisions of ecotourists (Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Saleh and Karwacki, 1996;Wearing and Neil, 1999). Saleh and Karwacki's (1996) found that Canadian ecotourists prefer to select more environmentally friendly products, despite the higher price of the products. ...
... Los investigadores, que coinciden en señalar la importancia del papel de los ecoturistas, son numerosos, de hecho, indican que el ecoturista participante se distingue de otros turistas por la diferente forma de visitar un mismo área, en base de la motivación, de la educación, de la participación y del comportamiento (Ingram y Durst, 1989;Ziffer, 1989;Fennel y Eagles, 1990;Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996;Wallace, 1992; Ecoturismo en las reservas de bioesfera: análisis del ecoturismo en Bañados del Este y Cabo de Gata-Níjar Williams, 1991). Aún así, no se debe generalizar, ya que es posible distinguir diferentes tipos de ecoturistas según el grado de implicación de los mismos (Lindberg, 1991), desde el ecoturista ocasional, que visita espacios naturales porque son una oferta añadida a un paquete de vacaciones; el ecoturista de hitos naturales, que busca la naturaleza como lugar de descanso y disfrute y como huida de los viajes habituales; el ecoturista interesado, que tiene como objetivo concreto la naturaleza y sabe exactamente lo que busca de ella; hasta el ecoturista científico, que tiene un objetivo más profesional que turístico. ...
... En general, los ecoturistas son individuos altamente motivados, que quieren una experiencia directa con el medio natural, físicamente activos, se conducen por una ética medioambiental, y no dan mucha importancia a las comodidades y facilidades de las áreas de destino (Fennel y Eagles, 1990;Ceballos Lascurain, 1996;Williams, 1991;Wearing y Neil, 2000). Por consiguiente, se trata de un tipo de turista, que busca actividades y experiencias turísticas distintas de las tradicionales, compatibles con el medio ambiente y donde la naturaleza tiene un papel primordial. ...
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El objetivo de este artículo es doble: en primer lugar, exponer la problemática teórica y práctica que plantea el ecoturismo en la actualidad, y en segundo lugar, presentar los resultados empíricos de la investigación llevada a cabo sobre el ecoturista en las Reservas de Biósfera de los Bañados del Este en Rocha (Uruguay) y de Cabo de Gata-Níjar en Andalucía (España) mediante una encuesta. La investigación se centra en el análisis de las motivaciones, los comportamientos, las valoraciones y las expectativas de los ecoturistas que visitan determinados espacios naturales, concretamente las Reservas de Biósfera. En este sentido, se exponen resultados y conclusiones de numerosos aspectos, entre los que destacan: identificación y caracterización de la evolución del turismo ecológico; caracterización sociodemográfica de los practicantes de ecoturismo y estudio comparativo de los ecoturistas en las reservas de la biósfera indicadas.
... 7-11). Another approach has been to present several distinct definitions without explicitly comparing or contrasting their character (Fennel and Eagles 1990;Lindberg 1991). Yet another alternative has been to describe ecotourism and nature tourism as part of a continuum of tourism experience, such as Ashton and Ashton's (1993) spectrum of pure ecotourism, specialty nature tourism, and mass nature-based tourism. ...
... This working article iden tified customers, travel agents, outbound tour operators, inbound land operators, and local entrepreneurs as five key actors in the nature and adventure travel market industry. An abbreviated conceptual framework that distinguished between three distinct components --visitors, the resource tour, and the service industry --was offered by Fennel and Eagles (1990). Finally, the most detailed framework for this private sector was Ashton and Ashton's (1993) unpublished examination of nature travel in Central America, which also distinguished between customers, outbound tour operators, inbound land operators, and local tourism entrepreneurs. ...
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Nature tourism and ecotourism are rapidly growing components of the international tourism industry. Although a substantial research literature has developed on this topic, few works have systematically examined the increasing number of nature tour operators or the global business structure of the nature tourism industry. In response, this article reviews the literature regarding the global dimensions of the nature tourism industry, outlines a more comprehensive framework for understanding the global business organization of this sector, and sketches a geography of nature tour operators based within the United States.
... Attractiveness : Fennell, 2003;Fennel and Eagles, 1990) ...
... Así, la actividad ecoturística ha sido objeto de investigación por numerosos autores y académicos (Stronza y Gordillo 2008, Jing y Fucai 2011 Stepchenkova 2012, Castellanos Verdugo y Orgaz Agüera, 2013). En este sentido, para diversos autores, el ecoturismo está compuesto por diferentes componentes, que sin los cuales no podría desarrollarse: a) La demanda ecoturística, que son aquellos turistas que desarrollan actividades en contacto con la naturaleza (Ingram y Durst, 1989;Fennell y Eagles, 1990;Eagles, 1992). b) Las actividades ecoturísticas, como son las observación de aves o birdwatching, la observación de ballenas y tortugas marinas, recorridos por la selva, safaris fotográficos, buceo y snorkeling, entre otras (Pérez de las Heras, 2003). ...
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Ecotourism is configured as a type of tourism that it is developing in contact with the nature. This tourism also helps to improve the socio-economic development of local communities and promotes the conservation of natural resources and respect for the environment. Although, ecotourism also generates significant negative impacts. The objective of this research is to analyze different economic, social and environmental impacts that ecotourism can cause on the destination. The methodology has consisted of a review of the scientific literature. The results show that ecotourism can generate various negative impacts on the destination.
... Foreign researches on eco-tourism began in the 1980s, special adviser Ceballos Lascurain of IUCN firstly put forward the concept of "eco-tourism" in 1983 [59]. At that time, this term was not used extensively, and some scholars still used natural ecosystem tourism or green tourism to express [60][61]. In 1987, WWF done a special study on five countries involved in Ecuador and published the research report on Eco-tourism: the Potential and Pitfalls. ...
... Thus, the psychological benefits gained by ecotourists are deemed more relevant and important in this context. The ecotourism literature documents rich evidence relating to the management and development of ecotourism, ecotourists' profiles, characteristics and motivations (Boo, 1990;Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Palacio & McCool, 1997;William, 1992) as well as the ranges of experiences sought by ecotourists (Eagles, 1992;Ryan, 1997). However, there is little empirical evidence in the literature with regard to ecotourists' perception of ecotourism experience and their understanding of quality experiences in ecotourism locations which may have an impact upon quality improvements in ecotourism. ...
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This paper presents the empirical findings of an exploratory qualitative study which looks at ecotourists' perceptions of ecotourism experiences in Sabah, Malaysia in order to identify the expressive dimensions that describe the quality of their experience. In-depth interviews were conducted with European ecotourists who stayed at two ecolodges in Sukau. Positive and negative experiences were identified from an analysis of the expressive dimensions of their service experience. The findings show that the ecotourists' experience is multidimensional. Respondents place particular emphasis on the ecotourism activities in which they physically engage at the sites and the natural environment in which they are located; their interaction with the site service staff; socialisation with other ecotourists, and the information acquired during the visit. The six expressive dimensions describing the positive experience are consistent with previous research. The study explores understanding of ecotourists' experience in the ecotourism environment – an under-researched area. The paper points out that the evaluation of quality of experience appears to involve both attributes – functional elements that are provided by the service suppliers and affective/emotional elements that are brought about by the ecotourists themselves.
... Given the growth in nature-based tourism, which is 10% to 15% annually, this is an important question (Luzar et al. 1995). Various authors have described nature-based tourists as individuals who are interested in experiencing wilderness and undisturbed nature; seeing lakes, streams, and mountains; being physically active; and engaging in outdoor activities (Eagles 1992;Fennell and Eagles 1990;Kretchman and Eagles 1990;Leones, Colby, and Crandall 1998;Meric and Hunt 1998;Silverberg, Backman, and Backman 1994;Wight 1996). They also may be socially and environmentally conscious. ...
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This study focused on pleasure travelers’ perceived constraints to nature-based tourism. Eleven constraint statements were identified through a literature review and were chosen a priori to represent three types of constraint as outlined by Crawford, Jackson, and Godbey. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the three types of constraints (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) existed in the context of nature-based tourism. A confirmatory factor analysis using the EQS program was used to “confirm” that the data fit the three-constraint model. MANOVA was then employed to identify whether respondents differed in their perception of constraints based on demographic variables. The findings indicated that differences existed with regards to age and family life cycle stage.
... Ecotourism, protected area visitation and related visitor activities are becoming increasingly popular in developing countries, particularly in Central and South America (Boo, 1990;Boyd & Butler, 1996;De Groot, 1983;Fennel & Eagles, 1990). These activities have resulted in ecological impacts to protected areas, such as the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador, Monteverde Cloudforest Reserve in Costa Rica, and Ambergris Caye in Belize (Boo, 1990;Epler-Wood, 1998;Norris, 1994;Wallace, 1994). ...
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Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resultedin ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objec-tivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.
... Many researchers have explored concepts and definitions relating to the general theme (Adventure Travel Society 1994;Blamey 1995;Boo 1992;Ceballos-Lascuráin 1996;Epler Wood 1993;Fennel and Eagles 1990;Merlino 1993;Scace, Grifone and Usher 1992). The strong focus on tourists evident in the initial definitions has formed the basis for many subsequent definitions of nature-based tourism, though a change of emphasis has become increasingly evident towards an environment-centered orientation (Valentine 1992;Commonwealth Department of Tourism 1994;Wall 1994). ...
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As nature-based tourism grows, protected areas will witness increasing pressure from tourists, with the quality of destination attributes exerting a considerable influence over their experience. An evaluation and rating system may help tourists to select sites, enhance their satisfaction, and encourage them to act responsibly. Managers may also gain a better understanding of how to operate such sites. The paper proposes a hierarchical structure for the assessment of protected areas by the assignment of priorities to the various elements of the structure. By applying the Standard Deviation Method, the research categorized Victorian parks in Australia into four levels, which were found to correlate closely with prevailing visitation levels and with park popularity.RésuméL'évaluation des sites naturels pour le tourisme. Au fur et à mesure que le tourisme basé sur la nature augmente, les zones protégées seront confrontées à une pression croissante de la part des touristes, et la qualité des attributs des destinations aura une influence considérable sur l'expérience des touristes. Un système d'évaluation et d'indices pourrait aider les touristes à sélectionner des sites, augmenter leur satisfaction et les encourager à agir de façon responsable. Les administrateurs comprendraient mieux comment faire valoir de tels sites. L'article propose une structure hiérarchique pour l'évaluation des zones protégées par l'attribution de priorités aux différents éléments de la structure. En applicant la méthode de l'écart type, la recherche a classé les parcs victoriens en Australie dans quatre niveaux qui correspondaient étroitement aux niveaux d'affluence et à la popularité des parcs.
... The establishing of a mutualistic relationship between touri sm, indigenous, and natural areas is the goal of ecotourism. In an idealized form of ecotourism, preservation, and growth unification takes place where businessmen, elected authorities, and visitors try to establish equitable ties with the ecosystem while enhancing the prosperity of the local people (Kutay, 1989;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Lee and Snepenger, 1991;Wallace, 1992). ...
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1) What kind of tourists is more inclined to ecotourism? 2) Which motivational factors influence the decision of ecotourists?
... Our results indicated that site facilities and accessibility were not as important as ecological value and site management in choosing ecotourism destinations (Table 4). Other studies found ecotourists to be less concerned than the average travellers with luxury accommodation facilities, food and nightlife (Fennell and Eagles 1990;Saleh and Karwacki 1996). Pearce and Wilson (1995) indicated that wildlife viewers would spend more time in modest accommodation with limited facilities. ...
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The nascent ecotourism market in Hong Kong has much potential for development which could benefit from research findings. This study evaluated the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for ecotourism activities in protected conservation areas and assessed the potential for ecotourism development in Hong Kong. Our questionnaire surveys gathered data from 960 general tourists at four popular tourism hotspots and 456 nature tourists at four ecotourism hotspots. Both groups were willing to pay more for ecotourism activities in the protected areas. Nature tourists would pay 40% more than general tourists and preferred high-quality products. The mean WTP of general tourists and nature tourists was, respectively, HK$167.3 and HK$223.6 (US$1.00 = HK$7.80) to participate in ecotourism activities, being 39% and 86% above the average price of a general tour (HK$120) offered by travel agents. Younger tourists, better education, and higher income raised the WTP for ecotours. The results were compared and contrasted with cognate overseas studies. The findings highlighted the need to improve service quality, pricing structure, and product differentiation. They allowed ecotourism operators to understand the market, formulate development strategies, and optimize the service to meet divergent and changing client expectations. The income generated by ecotourism services could enhance protected area management and conservation.
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Tourism is a major source of earnings, supplemental to and possibly replacing those of agriculture and extractive industries in many regions of the world. Fish stocks and the recreational fishing opportunities they afford are one of many natural resource based attractions that lure tourists to various destinations. Billfish species (blue marlin, black marlin, white marlin, striped marlin and sailfish) are a major tourism attraction worldwide for recreational fishing enthusiasts. Increasingly, billfish anglers are attempting to act responsibly toward billfish resources. Many have practised catch and release philosophy and conservation techniques for some time. Many billfish anglers contribute money and time to fisheries conservation organisations and efforts. Can fishing be considered as a form of ecotourism? This paper reviews definitions of ecotourism to distil six criteria: natural resource based, specific clientele, evidence of responsibility toward the resource, economic support for resource conservat...
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Increasing usage of the term ecotourism has done little to clarify the concept. Indeed, a wide range of definitions now exist, with much of the debate in the field occurring at a conceptual or semantic level. This paper presents a new approach to operationalising the concept, one based on classification using a set of measurable key elements covering the participant, operator and resource management perspectives. The approach is illustrated by a survey of 22 nature‐based tourism operators in British Columbia. Less than a quarter of the operations surveyed were subsequently classified as ecotourism, the majority of the ventures being excluded on the protected area criterion. Classification in this way enables the importance of specific key elements to be assessed and highlights the sorts of issues, both conceptual and methodological, which systematic field testing generates.
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The issue of scale in ecotourism is addressed, with specific reference to the relative costs and benefits of large versus small-scaled development, tour groups, and tour operators. A case study of two small ecotour businesses operating in the Mundo Maya region of Central America provides pertinent insights through comparison of their organisation, tours, owners opinions, impacts and issues pertaining to the Mundo Maya business environment. Results shed light on important policy, planning and marketing questions relating to ecotourism and sustainable development in this destination, and on the general issue of scale. A framework for research and evaluation of the issue of scale in ecotourism is advanced.
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Ecotourism has been used successfully in many countries to promote economic well-being, conserve natural resources, and promote community development. A thorough examination of the factors that make a successful and unsuccessful ecotourism program was conducted in this paper. This analysis was performed in order to formulate recommendations for the development of an ecotourism program in the Panama Canal Watershed that will meet these objectives. A careful look at the conservation of natural areas, community development, and the economics of ecotourism fleshed out the good and the bad of existing programs. Case studies from other developing countries were used in order to set up criteria that should be used in Panama's blossoming ecotourism industry. Panama has a vast array of natural and cultural resources that can benefit from a carefully planned ecotourism program. When planning this initiative it is very important to take the politics of the country and communities into consideration, make sure the project is scaled to the carrying capacity of the natural resources and community involved, use existing infrastructure, train a skilled local work force, and maintain monitoring programs that ensure that an unsuccessful program be either improved or terminated.
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در اقتصاد عواملی وجود دارند که به عنوان عوامل کشنده شناخته می شوند. این عوامل با توسعه و پیشرفت خود دیگر حوزه ها را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار داده و به دنبال خود می کشند. صنعت گردشگري نیز به عنوان یک عامل کشنده بیش از هر فعالیت اقتصادي و صنعتی دیگر در جهان موجب حرکت سرمایه ها شده است، مصارف و درآمدهاي حاصل از جهانگردي به مراتب بیش تر و سریع تر از تولیدات ناخالص ملی و صادرات جهانی کالا و خدمات رشد می یابد. مطالعات سازمان جهانی گردشگري 3 نشان می دهد که صنعت گردشگري فرامرزي در پنج دهه اخیر از نرخ رشد بالاتري نسبت به نرخ رشد صنایع تولیدي و تجارت برخوردار بوده است. گردشگري به عنوان یک منبع درآمد و ایجاد اشتغال در سطح ملی، می تواند راهی براي توسعه اقتصادي در قلمرو ملی باشد. برآوردهاي موجود نشان می دهد که در برخی کشورها، صنعت گردشگري سهم قابل ملاحظه اي از تولید ناخالص داخلی را به خود اختصاص 8 درصد و / می دهد. براي نمونه در کشور مکزیک سهم درآمد ناشی از گردشگران بین المللی حدود 2 87 درصد از تولید ناخلص داخلی است. وجه دیگري از اثرات مثبت / در کشور مالدیو این سهم برابر 7 گردشگري در حوزه اقتصادي ایجاد اشتغال است. بر اساس تخمین هاي شوراي جهانی سفر و 10 درصد یا / گردشگري 4، سهم صنعت گردشگري از کل اشتغال در دنیا در سال 2002 میلادي برابر 7 255 میلیون نفر بوده است. این سهم بالاي صنعت گردشگري از کل اشتغال بدان سبب است که این صنعت در مقایسه با تولید صنعتی و تجارت نسبتا کاربر 5 است. موارد مذکور معطوف به تاثیرات مستقیم صنعت گردشگري است. اما این صنعت می تواند به عنوان یک عامل کشنده نقش ارزنده اي در رشد ملی کشورها داشته باشد زیرا این صنعت با ایجاد یک سلسله فعالیت هاي جدید در جامعه، موجب فعال شدن سایر بخش هاي اقتصادي خواهد شد. به عبارت دیگر این صنعت آثار غیرمستقیم و القائی 6 نیز در اقتصاد هاي ملی دارد. با توسعه صنعت توریسم، تقاضا براي سایر تولیدات و خدمات بخش هاي دیگر اقتصادي مانند بخش هاي حمل و نقل، مواد غذایی، سوخت و انرژي، صنایع دستی و بخش هاي ساختمانی نیز افزایش پیدا می کند که به اثرات غیرمستقیم توریسم تعبیر شده است. همچنین ارز حاصل از جذب گردشگران که به شکل دستمزد در اختیار خانوارها قرار می گیرد، بصورت هزینه هاي خانوار خود رامجددا در اقتصاد نشان می دهد که از آن تحت عنوان اثرات القائی توریسم تعبیر می گردد. بنابراین صنعت گردشگري با مجموعه اثرات مستقیم، غیر مستقیم و القائی خود بر توسعه اقتصاد کشورها هم موثر است و سبب تحول در ساختار اقتصادي این کشورها می شود. از این رو در این مقاله با استفاده از تحلیل دینامیکی سیستم ها که یک شیوه تفکر مبتنی بر مدلسازي است و هدف آن، مطالعه سیستم هاي پیچیده اقتصادي - اجتماعی است سعی در ترسیم مدل علت و معلولی اثرات صنعت گردشگري به عنوان یک عامل کشنده بر اقتصاد و اشتغال داریم تا از این طریق حلقه هاي تقویت کننده که موجب رشد اقتصادي و حلقه هاي تعادلی که موجب ثبات و پایداري اقتصادي می شوند را شناسایی نمائیم و راه کارهایی جهت بهره برداري هر چه بهتر از این صنعت ارائه نمائیم.
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As a supplier of ecotourism, local people are vital for its successful development of ecotourism in Less Favored Mountainous Area(LFMA). A survey was carried on to investigate the residents' attitudes toward ecotourism development. In addition, an Importance-Performance Analysis(IPA) of resources for ecotourism was carried out. Major results are: First, cognition of residents fur environmentally friendly approach in tourism development, was very high (76.1 %). And appreciations of residents towards ecotourism were also high(more than 50%), Recently, the understanding of ecotourism is highly increasing. Second, ecotourism development was highly accepted(63%) as a desirable tourism development. And 65% of respondents showed willingness of participation to ecotourism development. Third, valleys were cognized as major ecotourism resources, and as a result of IPA, (unique) plant community, eco-villages, and habitats of wildlifes were in the category of 'Concentrate Here'.
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The objective of this report produced for the French Agency for Development and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs is to analyze different forms of responsible tourism in several areas: Madagascar, Namibia, Tunisia, Argentina and Costa Rica. This is to identify the effects of different forms of responsible tourism in light of the requirement of sustainability (environmental and socio-economic). The aim is also to present some recommendations after analyzing the factors of success and failure of different experiences in the different areas studied.
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Ecotourism has been used successfully in many countries to promote economic well-being, conserve natural resources, and promote community development. A thorough examination of the factors that make a successful and unsuccessful ecotourism program was conducted in this paper. This analysis was performed in order to formulate recommendations for the development of an ecotourism program in the Panama Canal Watershed that will meet these objectives. A careful look at the conservation of natural areas, community development, and the economics of ecotourism fleshed out the good and the bad of existing programs. Case studies from other developing countries were used in order to set up criteria that should be used in Panama's blossoming ecotourism industry. Panama has a vast array of natural and cultural resources that can benefit from a carefully planned ecotourism program. When planning this initiative it is very important to take the politics of the country and communities into consideration, make sure the project is scaled to the carrying capacity of the natural resources and community involved, use existing infrastructure, train a skilled local work force, and maintain monitoring programs that ensure that an unsuccessful program be either improved or terminated. If these steps are taken, an ecotourism program in Panama could be very successful.
Chapter
Modern tourism uses natural environments increasingly for the growth basis of the industry. This has created a variety of positive and negative effects for the environment. In order to reduce the negative and optimize the positive impacts, new modes and forms of tourism utilizing nature have been developed. These new nature-based forms of tourism include terms such as ecotourism, aiming at sustainable development in tourism. However, at the same time other forms of nature-based tourism have emerged, including adventure tourism and safari tourism, which may not always have explicit practices aiming towards sustainability. This chapter takes an overview of the role of natural environments for tourism and tourists. The special focus is on tourism in national parks and wilderness contexts. In addition, the chapter discusses the changing modes and forms of tourism in nature and existing and emerging issues of conflicts in nature-based tourism.
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Thesis (M. Sc.)--University of Manitoba, 1998. Includes bibliographical references.
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