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The expression of the emotions in man and animals

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... English naturalist and biologist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) set the stage for the modern debate over the reflex arc with his theories on emotional behavior (Darwin, 1872). He spent the latter part of his career pondering the separate effects of cardiac reflexes and the brain on instinctive behavior and emotions. ...
... On the origin of emotional behavior, Darwin accepted that emotional behavior arises from reflex actions in the body (i.e., bodily impulses). Summarizing the accumulated knowledge about reflexes at the time, Darwin wrote: "Reflex actions, in the strict sense of the term, are due to the excitement of a peripheral nerve, which transmits its influence to certain nerve cells, and these in their turn excite certain muscles or glands into action; and all this may take place without any sensation or consciousness on our part…" (Darwin, 1872). ...
... Darwin drew special notice to the teachings of the French physiologist Claude Bernard, who repeatedly insisted that the sequence of events ending in emotional behavior begins with action on the heart. "…when the heart is affected it reacts on the brain; and the state of the brain again reacts through the pneumo-gastric [vagus] nerve on the heart; so that under any excitement there will be much mutual action and reaction between these, the two most important organs of the body" (Darwin, 1872). ...
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We have previously proposed that mothers and infants co-regulate one another’s autonomic state through an autonomic conditioning mechanism, which starts during gestation and results in the formation of autonomic socioemotional reflexes (ASRs) following birth. Theoretically, autonomic physiology associated with the ASR should correlate concomitantly with behaviors of mother and infant, although the neuronal pathway by which this phenomenon occurs has not been elucidated. In this paper, we consider the neuronal pathway by which sensory stimuli between a mother and her baby/child affect the physiology and emotional behavior of each. We divide our paper into two parts. In the first part, to gain perspective on current theories on the subject, we conduct a 500-year narrative history of scientific investigations into the human nervous system and theories that describe the neuronal pathway between sensory stimulus and emotional behavior. We then review inconsistencies between several currently accepted theories and recent data. In the second part, we lay out a new theory of emotions that describes how sensory stimuli between mother and baby unconsciously control the behavior and physiology of both. We present a theory of mother/infant emotion based on a set of assumptions fundamentally different from current theories. Briefly, we propose that mother/infant sensory stimuli trigger conditional autonomic socioemotional reflexes (ASRs), which drive cardiac function and behavior without the benefit of the thalamus, amygdala or cortex. We hold that the ASR is shaped by an evolutionarily conserved autonomic learning mechanism (i.e., functional Pavlovian conditioning) that forms between mother and fetus during gestation and continues following birth. We highlight our own and others research findings over the past 15 years that support our contention that mother/infant socioemotional behavior is driven by mutual autonomic state plasticity, as opposed to cortical trait plasticity. We review a novel assessment tool designed to measure the behaviors associated with the ASR phenomenon. Finally, we discuss the significance of our theory for the treatment of mothers and infants with socioemotional disorders.
... A S far back as Darwin, researchers have studied the subjectivity and universality of human emotions [1]. While such research was primarily limited to academic discussions in university psychology departments, with the rise of in-home social robots and other intelligent machines (e.g., Alexa, Astro), has expanded this subject matter into the field of affective computing where developing an accurate model of human emotion is a stepping stone toward artificial emotional intelligence (AEI) [2]. ...
... We then generate the heatmaps using the maximum log cosine similarity between the FastText word vectors for the model and our emotion-concepts list. 1 This step allows us to visualize the coverage of each emotion model in relation to our emotion concepts list. More details will be provided later. ...
... We propose a new emotion model, named the HIgh-Coverage Emotion Model (HICEM), to provide higher coverage with fewer components compared with existing emotion models popular in psychology used for affective computing. Using two separate evaluation metrics, 1. Since the distribution of the maximum cosine similarity across the entire list is exponential, the log of this distribution is taken to assist in visualization. ...
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As social robots and other intelligent machines enter the home, artificial emotional intelligence (AEI) is taking center stage to address users' desire for deeper, more meaningful human-machine interaction. To accomplish such efficacious interaction, the next-generation AEI need comprehensive human emotion models for training. Unlike theory of emotion, which has been the historical focus in psychology, emotion models are a descriptive tools. In practice, the strongest models need robust coverage, which means defining the smallest core set of emotions from which all others can be derived. To achieve the desired coverage, we turn to word embeddings from natural language processing. Using unsupervised clustering techniques, our experiments show that with as few as 15 discrete emotion categories, we can provide maximum coverage across six major languages--Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. In support of our findings, we also examine annotations from two large-scale emotion recognition datasets to assess the validity of existing emotion models compared to human perception at scale. Because robust, comprehensive emotion models are foundational for developing real-world affective computing applications, this work has broad implications in social robotics, human-machine interaction, mental healthcare, and computational psychology.
... It is well known that the face plays an important role in expressing emotions [7,8]. Facial expressions are often considered to be rather involuntary manifestations of an individual's emotion (e.g., fear upon seeing a spider) and they have been distinguished from more voluntary facial gestures [5,9,10] [see also "conversational facial signals" and "facial displays", 11,12]. ...
... In the emotion domain, eyebrow raises have been associated with positive emotions like surprise, and eyebrow furrows with negative emotions like anger [8]. In terms of nonemotional signaling, eyebrow movements have been thought to occur in requests for information from a conversational partner [7,11,[22][23][24]. Indeed, eyebrow position is a grammaticalized facial question marker in many sign languages [25][26][27][28]. ...
... Darwin [7] proposed in his principle of antithesis that two opposed movements are likely to develop distinct communicative functions. Eyebrow raises and furrows are formally opposed, constituting two maximally contrastive extremes of how eyebrows can move. ...
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Repair is a core building block of human communication, allowing us to address problems of understanding in conversation. Past research has uncovered the basic mechanisms by which interactants signal and solve such problems. However, the focus has been on verbal interaction, neglecting the fact that human communication is inherently multimodal. Here, we focus on a visual signal particularly prevalent in signaling problems of understanding: eyebrow frowns and raises. We present a corpus study showing that verbal repair initiations with eyebrow furrows are more likely to be responded to with clarifications as repair solutions, repair initiations that were preceded by eyebrow actions as preliminaries get repaired faster (around 230 ms), and eyebrow furrows alone can be sufficient to occasion clarification. We also present an experiment based on virtual reality technology, revealing that addressees’ eyebrow frowns have a striking effect on speakers’ speech, leading them to produce answers to questions several seconds longer than when not perceiving addressee eyebrow furrows. Together, the findings demonstrate that eyebrow movements play a communicative role in initiating repair in spoken language rather than being merely epiphenomenal. Thus, they should be considered as core coordination devices in human conversational interaction.
... Steiner et al (2001) defined affective reactions as 'distinctive, species-typical patterns of responses that have been claimed to reflect emotional 33 responses'. Although largely ignored at the time, Darwin (1872) was one of the first researchers to claim that affective reactions in animals and humans reflect emotional impact. More recent researchers (Steiner 1974;Grill and Berridge 1985;Berridge 1996) have argued that affective reactions primarily reflect liking or palatability. ...
... This is the region that lifts the upper lip and wrinkles the nose. The purpose of this being to close the nose and open the mouth in order to expel oral substances, as first observed by Darwin (1872 Evidence from imagery studies shows that responses in the corrugator and levator labii regions are associated with negative images and responses in the zygomatic region are associated with positive images. These studies have also demonstrated that differences in affective responses to unpleasant and pleasant images can be measured reliably. ...
Thesis
p>The Incentive-Sensitisation Theory (IST) posits that reward is composed of distinct systems of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ that are mediated by separate neurobiological systems. The IST therefore claims that under certain conditions, wanting and liking can become dissociated. One of these conditions is repeated drug use. The IST claims that drug use results in a progressive and selective sensitisation of wanting but not liking. The current research sought to explore this dissociation between wanting and liking in humans using alcohol. Seven experiments tested the proposed dissociation using three methods of investigation. Method one (Experiments one and two) compared liking (facial electromyography (EMG), subjective ratings) for alcohol in groups of drinkers (heavy/light) that differed in wanting for alcohol. Method two (Experiments three to five) used a priming dose of alcohol to increase wanting (consumption, choice) independently of liking (facial EMG, subjective ratings) for alcohol. Method three (Experiments six and seven) decreased liking (ratings) independently of wanting (consumption) for alcohol by adulterating drinks with Tween. The results indicated a dissociation between wanting and liking for alcohol using all three methods. Liking could not explain the differences in wanting between light and heavy drinkers. Priming with alcohol resulted in increases in wanting but not liking for alcohol. Finally, adulterating an alcoholic beverage was found to decrease liking but not wanting for that alcoholic beverage. The results therefore provided support for the IST.</p
... The argument here is two-pronged. Firstly, following Darwin's (1872) facial feedback hypothesis, there is a lot of evidence that facial muscle activity (or the lack thereof) affects emotional states (e.g., Cupchik & Leventhal, 1974;Finzi & Rosenthal, 2016;Strack et al., 1988) and the ability to judge emotional expressions of others (e.g., Storbeck et al., 2019). Second, the corrugator supercilii muscle is not only activated during anger but also when people are puzzled (Darwin, 1872), during the exertion of mental effort (Van Boxtel & Jessurun, 1993), and during states of reduced mental fluency (e.g., Topolinski & Strack, 2009). ...
... Firstly, following Darwin's (1872) facial feedback hypothesis, there is a lot of evidence that facial muscle activity (or the lack thereof) affects emotional states (e.g., Cupchik & Leventhal, 1974;Finzi & Rosenthal, 2016;Strack et al., 1988) and the ability to judge emotional expressions of others (e.g., Storbeck et al., 2019). Second, the corrugator supercilii muscle is not only activated during anger but also when people are puzzled (Darwin, 1872), during the exertion of mental effort (Van Boxtel & Jessurun, 1993), and during states of reduced mental fluency (e.g., Topolinski & Strack, 2009). In addition, there seems to be a link between the rostral cingulate zone, which is involved in cognitive control and upper muscles of the face, such as the corrugator (Shackman et al., 2011). ...
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The deliberate control of facial expressions is an important ability in human interactions, in particular for mothers with prelinguistic infants. Because research on this topic is still scarce, we investigated the control over facial expressions in a Stroop-like paradigm. Mothers of 2-6 months old infants and nullipara women produced smiles and frowns in response to verbal commands written on distractor faces of adults or infants showing expressions of happiness or anger/distress. Analyses of video recordings with a machine classifier for facial expression revealed pronounced effects of congruency between the expressions required by the participants and those displayed by the face stimuli on the onset latencies of the deliberate facial expressions. With adult dis-tractor faces this Stroop effect was similar whether participants smiled or frowned. With infant distractor faces mothers and non-mothers showed indistinguishable Stroop effects on smile responses; however, for frown responses , the Stroop effect in mothers was smaller than in non-mothers. We suggest that for frown responses in mothers when facing infants, the effect of mimicry or stimulus response compatibility, leading to the Stroop effect, is offset by a caregiving response or empathy.
... The central idea is that all species have an evolutionarily based predisposition to acquire fears and phobias to objects (e. g. spiders) and situations (e. g. social groups) that may have been sources of threat to their evolutionary ancestors. As a result, individuals who easily acquire fears to these so-called 'fear-relevant' ob ects and situations j (Ohman et al., 1985) are likely to have a selective advantage and improved evolutionary fitness (Darwin, 1872). ...
... In addition to an increase in self-focussed attention Clark and Wells (1995;Wells & Clark, 1997) highlight several safety behaviours and avoidance strategies in which social anxious individuals maladaptively engage. Avoidance of eye contact is an established clinical observation in social phobia (e. g. Darwin, 1872) and a strategy commonly used by individuals with social phobia to feel less vulnerable and more in control of a feared social interaction. As discussed earlier, avoidance of other people's faces may have an evolutionary origin as an appeasement gesture triggered by unwanted attention from a conspecific perceived to be dominant (Trower & Gilbert, 1989). ...
Thesis
p>Recent cognitive models propose a variety of information processing biases considered to play a key role in the etiology and maintenance of social phobia (e.g. Clark and Wells, 1995; Rapee and Heimberg, 1997). The present thesis examined high and low socially anxious individuals’ biases in attention, appraisal, interpretation and judgement, when processing external social cues (facial expressions). Experiments 1 and 2 monitored eye-movements to pictures of faces and objects in high socially anxious and low socially anxious individuals. Under no-stress conditions (Experiment 1), high socially anxious individuals initially directed their gaze towards neutral faces, relative to objects, more often than low anxious individuals. However, under social-evaluative stress (Experiment 2), high socially anxious individuals showed reduced biases in initial orienting and maintenance of gaze on faces (cf. objects), compared with the low anxious participants. High socially anxious individuals were also relatively quicker to look at emotional faces than neutral faces, but looked at emotional faces for less time, compared with low socially anxious individuals. In a third experiment (Experiment 3, task 1), participants’ general tendency initially to orient towards and maintain attention for longer on a variety of social cues (angry, happy and neutral faces) relative to non-social cues (objects) was unaffected by social anxiety group. However, reduced maintenance of attention on face cues in general, relative to non-social cues was demonstrated in high compared to low socially anxious individuals in Experiment 4. Results from a modified visual probe task (Experiment 5 task 1) provided no evidence of selective attention in either social anxiety group. In Experiments 3 and 4, explicit (valence and arousal ratings) and implicit (EAST, startle magnitude, skin conductance) measures of stimulus appraisal for social relative to non-social cues were unaffected by social anxiety group (Exp. 3,4). However, high socially anxious individuals negatively rated and produced greater startle amplitude in response to all face/object cues compared to low anxious individuals in Experiment 4. Using a modified illusory correlation paradigm (Experiment 5, task 2), low socially anxious individuals demonstrated a relatively persistent tendency to over-associate positive social cues with pleasant outcomes. High socially anxious lacked this positive bias, and instead were biased in selectively recalled negative social cues. Finally, in a novel emotion classification paradigm (Experiment 5, task 3), high socially anxious individuals tended to interpret ambiguous (computer manipulated) emotional facial expressions in a negative fashion. Results provide evidence of biases in various aspects of processing in social anxiety: reduced attention to external social cues; enhanced detection and recall of negative social cues; and negative inferential processes. These findings provide some support for recent cognitive models that emphasise the role of these biases in maintaining the concerns of individuals with social phobia.</p
... Outside of music, the detection of mood and affect in human language use more generally has been the object of systematic computational study since the first AAAI Symposium on the topic (Qu, Shanahan, and Wiebe 2004) and traces its modern beginnings to the study of human emotional expression by Charles Darwin (1872) and others (James 1884, e.g.). ...
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In this work, we study the association between song lyrics and mood through a data-driven analysis. Our data set consists of nearly one million songs, with song-mood associations derived from user playlists on the Spotify streaming platform. We take advantage of state-of-the-art natural language processing models based on transformers to learn the association between the lyrics and moods. We find that a pretrained transformer-based language model in a zero-shot setting -- i.e., out of the box with no further training on our data -- is powerful for capturing song-mood associations. Moreover, we illustrate that training on song-mood associations results in a highly accurate model that predicts these associations for unseen songs. Furthermore, by comparing the prediction of a model using lyrics with one using acoustic features, we observe that the relative importance of lyrics for mood prediction in comparison with acoustics depends on the specific mood. Finally, we verify if the models are capturing the same information about lyrics and acoustics as humans through an annotation task where we obtain human judgments of mood-song relevance based on lyrics and acoustics.
... The relationship between sound and emotion has amazed and haunted us since the very beginning of the human race. According to Charles Darwin's "Evolutionary Theory of Emotion", in (Darwin & Prodger 1998), we might have learned what different scenarios sound like. From danger to comfort, there are sets of acoustic cues that aid as a part of emotion's adaptive role in our evolution. ...
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The goal of this dissertation is to make a qualitative assessment of the various phenomena and interrelationships that shape our emotional connections with timbre. By better understanding this concept and its intricate contours, we believe that we can contribute to the ability of greater effectiveness in sonic and artistic expression. Through an approach based on the Grounded Theory methodology, we gathered information in collaboration with a group of 12 artists and professionals with proven relevance in the field of timbre design. This approach allowed us to combine pre- existing literature and quantitative evidence with the missing qualitative and empirical knowledge. From the interviews we were able to identify the key factors contributing to the artist’s emotional relationship with timbre. As a result from the practitioners group, the research was guided by the construct that timbre is a sound property that conveys a large amount of sonic information, or clues as we called them, that completes a timbral message. It is suggested that this timbral message is further modulated by a number of personal and general paradigms. These, which we have termed "shifting paradigms," are simultaneously social, cultural, generational, and economic in nature. As these paradigms evolve over time, the ones we focus on are relevant to the present era. We also contribute with a contextualization of our relationship to timbre in different artistic contexts. The contextual variables on which our perception of timbre depends and how different artistic contexts are prone to liberate or constrain our mostly visceral relationship to timbre are tentatively explained. In this dissertation we will also list a number of acoustic and psychoacoustic factors that contribute to shape our emotional relationship to timbre. By first understanding how the cognitive process tends to imprint innate and acquired knowledge into the interpretation of a timbral message, we will be able to bridge the gap between what is physically felt and what is psychologically relevant. This paves the way for the practical exploration of acoustic and psychoacoustic phenomena such as sound gesture, timbral dynamics and temporal exposure, soundstage, reverberation and spatialization as the group of aspects that most influence the perception of the emotional valence of timbre. Keywords: timbre, emotion, psychoacoustics, sound design, grounded theory, art
... In contrast with the widespread conception of the universal nature of a few basic emotion expressions (e.g. Darwin, 1872;Ekman & Friesen, 1971), the influence of cultural factors has been acknowledged -though minimized -from the beginning of this field of research (e.g. Ekman & Friesen, 1969;Klineberg, 1938) and cross-national differences have been reported many decades ago (e.g. ...
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Measures of social cognition have now become central in neuropsychology, being essential for early and differential diagnoses, follow-up and rehabilitation in a wide range of conditions. With the scientific world becoming increasingly interconnected, international neuropsychological and medical collaborations are burgeoning to tackle the global challenges that are mental health conditions. These initiatives commonly merge data across a diversity of populations and countries, while ignoring their specificity. Objective: In this context, we aimed to estimate the influence of participants’ nationality on social cognition evaluation. This issue is of particular importance as most cognitive tasks are developed in highly specific contexts, not representative of that encountered by the world’s population. Method: Through a large international study across 18 sites, neuropsychologists assessed core aspects of social cognition in 587 participants from 12 countries using traditional and widely used tasks. Results: Age, gender, and education were found to impact measures of mentalizing and emotion recognition. After controlling for these factors, differences between countries accounted for more than 20% of the variance on both measures. Importantly, it was possible to isolate participants’ nationality from potential translation issues, which classically constitute a major limitation. Conclusions: Overall, these findings highlight the need for important methodological shifts to better represent social cognition in both fundamental research and clinical practice, especially within emerging international networks and consortia.
... A whole host of different stimuli are elicited through the face and perceived by others, who constantly monitor faces in others to decode facial stimuli in terms of cues of various nature and having different meanings (Ekman 1978). Identity, gender, age, skin pigmentation, health, basic emotions (Darwin (1965) [1872]), micro-expressions, intentions, and much more information is displayed and expressed -either willingly or unwillingly, inferred and decoded -accurately or less accurately by those who engage in social settings. ...
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The present study investigates and thematizes the interrelation between face masking, concealment, and deceit. It starts from the premise that the significance of disguise and deceit in the history of ideas should be reversed as these methods of the management of human appearance are not only regarded as coercive methods to manipulate and exert power over others but also as tactics skillfully used by the weak in order to outmaneuver those who are in a position of power. The study traces the matrix of simulation and dissimulation as forming the structure of deceit, it reviews some of the main theories of disguise within the field of semiotics, and it singles out two main dimensions of disguise, one geared upon dynamism and the other based on the static features of the face. This study suggests that classifications of masks elaborated in semiotic theory hitherto are useful but insufficient to encompass the full scope of such phenomenon. For this reason, the study provides a new typology of masks.
... Although there is no question that smiles are biological in origin (Darwin, 1872), it is important not to get stuck interpreting "expressive behavior" (whether DSs or other types of smiles) exclusively in an affective framework focused on the individual. Instead, we need to appreciate the complex ecological reality in which expressions occur. ...
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We comment on an article by Sheldon et al. from a previous issue of Perspectives (May 2021). They argued that the presence of positive emotion (Hypothesis 1), the intensity of positive emotion (Hypothesis 2), and chronic positive mood (Hypothesis 3) are reliably signaled by the Duchenne smile (DS). We reexamined the cited literature in support of each hypothesis and show that the study findings were mostly inconclusive, irrelevant, incomplete, and/or misread. In fact, there is no single (empirical) article that would unanimously support the idea that DSs function solely as indicators of felt positive affect. Additional evidence is reviewed, suggesting that DSs can be—and often are—displayed deliberately and in the absence of positive feelings. Although DSs may lead to favorable interpersonal perceptions and positive emotional responses in the observer, we propose a functional view that focuses on what facial actions—here specifically DSs—do rather than what they express.
... This was probably due to a high arousal generated by bubbles, as indicated by the increased fish activity during bubbles compared with neutral periods for a signal we initially thought to be a neutral stimulus. Darwin 26 argues that the strong link between stimuli and the emotion states they could elicit can either be inherited or learned by habit. From the first bubble diffusion, fish were immediately attracted to bubbles, and this remained true after 12 days of conditioning, potentially claiming for an inherent positive emotion-like state. ...
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Occupational enrichment emerges as a promising strategy for improving the welfare of farmed animals. This form of enrichment aims to stimulate cognitive abilities of animals by providing them with more opportunities to interact with and control their environment. Predictability of salient daily events, and in particular predictability of feeding, is currently one of the most studied occupational enrichment strategies and can take several forms. In fish, while temporal predictability of feeding has been widely investigated, signalled predictability (based on a signal, such as light or sound) has received little attention. Depending on the type of predictability used and the ecology of the species, the effects on fish welfare often differ. The present study aimed to determine which feeding predictability would be most appropriate for rainbow trout, the main continental farmed fish in Europe, and what the consequences might be for their welfare. We tested four feeding predictability conditions: temporal (based on time of day), signalled (based on bubble diffusion), temporal + signalled (based on time and bubble diffusion), and unpredictable (random feeding times). Behavioural and zootechnical outcomes recorded were swimming activity, aggressive behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps, emotional reactivity, and growth. Our results showed that rainbow trout can predict daily feedings relying on time and/or bubbles as predictors as early as two weeks of conditioning, as evidenced by their increased swimming activity before feeding or during feed omission tests, which allowed to reinforce their conditioned response. Temporal predictability alone resulted in an increase in pre-feeding aggressive behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps, suggesting that the use of time as the sole predictor of feedings in husbandry practices may be detrimental to fish welfare. Signalled predictability with bubbles alone resulted in fewer pre-feeding agonistic behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps than in the temporal predictability condition. The combination of temporal and signalled predictability elicited the highest conditioned response and the level of pre-feeding aggression behaviours, burst of accelerations and jumps tended to be lower than for temporal predictability alone. Interestingly, fish swimming activity during bubble diffusion also revealed that bubbles were highly attractive regardless of the condition. Rainbow trout growth and emotional reactivity were not affected by the predictability condition. We conclude, therefore, that the use of bubbles as a feeding predictor could represent an interesting approach to improve rainbow trout welfare in farms, by acting as both an occupational and physical enrichment.
... when the heart is affected, it reacts on the brain; and the state of the brain again reacts […] on the heart; so that under any excitement there will be much mutual action and reaction between these-Charles Darwin [40]. ...
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Continuous interactions between physiological body–brain rhythms influence how individuals act, perceive, and evaluate their environment. Despite increasing interest, the intricate interface between breathing, cardiac, neural rhythms, and cognitive function remains poorly understood. By evaluating current theoretical and empirical implications, we derive an integrative framework of a ‘body–brain dynamic system’ that combines a hidden hierarchical structure with dynamical state transitions. We propose that body–brain signals can interchangeably drive state- and task-specific coupling mechanisms which influence cognitive functions. The dynamical nature of this framework parallels the intrinsic variability of human behavior, and ultimately aims at better understanding how individuals act in and adapt to a dynamically changing environment.
... For centuries, researchers have examined the human ability to perceive others' emotions through their facial expressions. The origin of these studies can be traced back to Charles Darwin's book "The Expression of the Emotion in Man and Animal" (Darwin, 1965). Since then, cultural similarities, as well as cultural differences, in displaying facial expressions and perceiving facial expressions have been extensively investigated (e.g., Tomkins, 1962Tomkins, -1963Ekman and Friesen, 1971;Izard, 1971;Russell and Fernández-Dols, 1997;Elfenbein and Ambady, 2002). ...
Article
Previous studies in cultural psychology have suggested that when assessing a target person's emotion, East Asians are more likely to incorporate the background figure's emotion into the judgment of the target's emotion compared to North Americans. The objective of this study was to further examine cultural variation in emotion perception within a culturally diverse population that is representative of Canada's multicultural society. We aimed to see whether East-Asian Canadians tended to keep holistic tendencies of their heritage culture regarding emotion perception. Participants were presented with 60 cartoon images consisting of a central figure and four surrounding figures and were then asked to rate the central figure's emotion; out of the four cartoon figures, two were female and two were male. Each character was prepared with 5 different emotional settings with corresponding facial expressions including: extremely sad, moderately sad, neutral, moderately happy, and extremely happy. Each central figure was surrounded by a group of 4 background figures. As a group, the background figures either displayed a sad, happy, or neutral expression. The participant's task was to judge the intensity of the central figures' happiness or sadness on a 10-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 9 (extremely). For analysis, we divided the participants into three groups: European Canadians (N = 105), East Asian Canadians' (N = 104) and Non-East Asian/Non-European Canadians (N = 161). The breakdown for the Non-East Asian/Non-European Canadian group is as follows: 94 South Asian Canadians, 25 Middle Eastern Canadians, 23 African Canadians, 9 Indigenous Canadians, and 10 Latin/Central/South American Canadians. Results comparing European Canadians and East Asian Canadians demonstrated cultural variation in emotion judgment, indicating that East Asian Canadians were in general more likely than their European Canadian counterparts to be affected by the background figures' emotion. The study highlights important cultural variations in holistic and analytic patterns of emotional attention in the ethnically diverse Canadian society. We discussed future studies which broaden the scope of research to incorporate a variety of diverse cultural backgrounds outside of the Western educational context to fully comprehend cultural variations in context related attentional patterns.
... Социалната интелигентност е личностен конструкт, изследван от началото на 20-ти век и исторически свързан с труда на Ч. Дарвин през 1872 г. върху значението на емоционалната експресия за оцеляването и адаптацията (Darwin, C., 1965). Самото понятие е въведено от Е. Л. Торндайк през 20-те години на миналия век. ...
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Първа глава. Теоретични основания на социално-емоционалното учене. Втора глава. Глобален статут на социално-емоционалното учене. Трета глава. Социално-емоционалното учене в българското училище. Модел за социално-емоционалното учене на ученици /12-14 години/ и техните родители с подкрепата на училището. Четвърта глава. Методика на модела за социално-емоционално учене на ученици /12-14 години/ и техните родители с подкрепата на училището
... The counterargument that this does not capture the "category prototype" emotion of anger denies that anger is primarily "a statistical abstraction (…) and not a biological essence" (Barrett et al., 2017, p. 98). Individuals can experience anger differently, also between instances, such as in terms of facial movements, autonomic nervous system activation, intensity, feeling colour, and duration (Barrett, 2017;Darwin, 1872), among others. Perhaps the best remedy to these problems would be a multi-method approach in which ESM is combined with other-reports (e.g., parents, peers, teachers), observation, or auxiliary variables such as physiological measures. ...
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Research on emotion dynamics as indices of emotion functioning has become muddled by conceptual confusion, methodological heterogeneity, and seemingly conflicting results. One way to address this chaos is the study of profiles of emotion dynamics across 12 emotions and how they differ between 246 adolescents. The interpretation of these dynamic profiles was guided by auxiliary variables including age, personality, depressive symptoms, and social experiences. Method: During 6 days, 246 adolescents (Mage=14.20, 65% female) rated 9 times daily the intensity of 12 emotions (cheerful, happy, energetic, joyful, content, relaxed, anxious, worried, irritable, insecure, down, and guilty), and their social experiences with family, friends, and classmates. Additional baseline measures included neuroticism, extraversion (JEPQR-S), and depressive symptoms (CES-D). A three-mode principal component analysis (3MPCA Tucker3-based) model was estimated on the person-specific dynamic parameters of emotional intensity (mean), variability (standard deviation), instability (mean squared successive difference), and inertia (autocorrelation). Results: The 3MPCA identified three emotion-mode components (positive affect, negative affect, and irritability), three dynamic-mode components (emotional intensity, lability, and inertia). Five individual-mode components captured interactions between these modes, of which positive affect explained most variation in the data. These emotion dynamic profiles correlated differently with social experiences. Additional 3MPCA model structures based on imputed data (correcting missing autocorrelations) and affect scale composites (low and high arousal positive and negative affect) showed strong resemblance. Conclusion: The identified emotion dynamic profiles capture meaningful interpersonal differences in adolescents’ emotional experiences and change. Future work should focus on irritability and positive affect as these were uniquely informative in adolescents’ emotional experiences.
... Emotional states ubiquitously impact action, perception and learning. Through these influences and others, emotions are thought to have played a crucial role throughout evolution in increasing the survivability of our specie (Darwin, 2015;Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009). Conversely, when emotions malfunction, they can have debilitating consequences for the individual. ...
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Emotions ubiquitously impact action, learning, and perception, yet their essence and role remain widely debated. Recent progress in computational cognitive accounts of emotion promises to answer these questions with greater conceptual precision informed by normative principles and neurobiological data. We analyze this literature using the formalism of reinforcement learning and find that emotions may implement three classes of computations, concerning expected reward, evaluation of actions, and uncertain prospects. With regards to each of these computations, we offer modifications of previous formulations that better account for existing evidence. We then consider how these different computations may map onto different emotions and moods. Integrating extensive research on the causes and consequences of different emotions suggests a parsimonious one-to-one mapping, according to which emotions are integral to how we evaluate outcomes (pleasure & pain), learn to predict them (happiness & sadness), use them to inform our (frustration & content) and others’ (anger & gratitude) actions, and plan in order to realize (desire & hope) or avoid (fear & anxiety) uncertain outcomes.
... More precisely, it has been proposed that, when exposed to threat, a Central Fear Generator composed of cortical and subcortical brain regions triggers an emotion episode which is composed of (Fanselow & Pennington, 2018): (i) internal autonomic physiological modulations to prepare the body to react (heart rate & respiration (Cannon, 1915;Carrive, 2000;Garfinkel & Critchley, 2016;Lang, Davis, & Öhman, 2000), glycogenolysis (Nirupama, Rajaraman, & Yajurvedi, 2018), pupil dilatation (Van Steenbergen, Band, & Hommel, 2011), (ii) defensive motor actions (Davis, 1992;Fendt & Fanselow, 1999;Perusini & Fanselow, 2015) and (iii) a subjective reportable experience in humans (Panksepp, 1998(Panksepp, , 2011. Darwin (Darwin, 1872) argued that emotion episodes play a key role under threat as they prompt improvement of the perception of information inside the surrounding environment and as they interact with motor processes. Aversive emotion stimuli such as snakes, spiders or angry faces are perceptually prioritized (Öhman, 2009): they orient saccadic movements faster and yield more accurate detection than control or non-aversive emotion stimuli (Calvo, Avero, & Lundqvist, 2006;Eastwood, Smilek, & Merikle, 2001;Fox, Griggs, & Mouchlianitis, 2007;Öhman, Flykt, & Esteves, 2001). ...
Thesis
Individual reactions to threat are very often thought as individualistic and antisocial. However, more than fifty years of work in sociology and social psychology indicate that humans favor social strategies when confronted with threat. Indeed, cases of cooperation and mutual aid are often reported in the literature on disasters. To implement such strategies, psychological mechanisms that allow us to process social signals conveyed by others in order to act with them must be in place and these mechanisms must be maintained and even optimized in situations of intense anxiety. Understanding how danger reconfigures how we perceive our social environment and how we represent others and their actions, as well as the incentives of such strategies, is an important theoretical challenge. To tackle this issue, we led 3 studies. In the first one, we validated a within-subject method to induce anxiety in a sustained manner: the threat-of-scream paradigm, which consists in alternating blocks in which participants are at risk of hearing aversive distress screams at any time (threat blocks) with blocks in which they are not exposed to aversive stimuli at all (safe blocks). In a second study, we used this procedure to investigate how co-representation of action (i.e. the ability to automatically integrate the actions of other individuals into our own action plans to facilitate action coordination) is impacted under threat. Results showed that co-representation (assessed by measuring the magnitude of the classical Social Simon Effect) is maintained under threat contexts, and seems to be particularly boosted when participants are exposed to danger near safe partners. Our results suggest that the potential function of co-representing others’ actions could be to promote social strategies essential for one’s own survival. Finally, the third study addressed how facial displays of fear are perceived under threat. Indeed, depending on their associated gaze direction, they can either be appraised as signaling the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment (averted gaze), or as a signal of distress and potential need of help (direct gaze). Using a categorization task, we investigated if danger-related or distress-related signals were prioritized under the threat-of-scream procedure. We observed that the appraisal of danger-related signals transmitted by facial displays of fear is increased under threat contexts, with no impact on the appraisal of distress signals. Altogether, our results suggest that while social strategies are maintained under threat, they might be sustained by self-preservatives motives.
... Despite the huge (and increasing) body of work on emotions in animals, there is still no common agreement be-tween researchers even on the most basic questions. For instance, already Darwin suggested that some emotional cues (such as facial expressions) may have visual similarity across different species, and even bear the same meaning ' [10]; however, recent research applying objective tools (such as AnimalFACS) for measuring facial expressions has begun to question this assumption [12]. ...
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Similarly to humans, facial expressions in animals are closely linked with emotional states. However, in contrast to the human domain, automated recognition of emotional states from facial expressions in animals is underexplored, mainly due to difficulties in data collection and establishment of ground truth concerning emotional states of non-verbal users. We apply recent deep learning techniques to classify (positive) anticipation and (negative) frustration of dogs on a dataset collected in a controlled experimental setting. We explore the suitability of different backbones (e.g. ResNet, ViT) under different supervisions to this task, and find that features of a self-supervised pretrained ViT (DINO-ViT) are superior to the other alternatives. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to address the task of automatic classification of canine emotions on data acquired in a controlled experiment.
... Solomon behaviors which used by them to communicate and nonverbal behaviors "are human actions that have the potential to rbal communication is defined as the process of one person creating meaning in the mind of another person through nonverbal behaviors" (Solomon, D. and Theiss, J. 2013) 8 . According to Birdwhistell, on come from words, which means that as much as 65% of meaning comes from nonverbal behaviors but some scholars have argued that nonverbal behavior constitutes an even Solomon Animals" (Darwin, 1874). 10 In social sciences a new wave of systematic research into nonverbal communication was kicked off by Ray Birdwhistell's work on Kinesics in the 1950s and Edward Hall's work on Proxemics in the 1960s, which in turn led to a surge of public interest in "body language" with sensationalist works like Julius Fast's Body Language promising to teach readers "how to penetrate the personal secrets of strangers, friends and lovers by interpreting their body movements, and to make use of powers (Fast, 1970). ...
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Communication is the essential part of our life. In every process, communication plays an important role. These days technology totally changes our communication ways and the environment. They provide us a different platform for communication such as conversation through the phone call, instant messaging, mail, chat, blogs, social media sites etc. Social media has become a very attractive medium for conversation because of their digital pictograms based Non-verbal communication. Digital Pictogram Non-verbal refers to term electronic-mediated graphics for communication which is frequently used by people through smart phones and social networking sites. Through this type of communication pattern, we can express our feeling, emotion etc with attractive digital pictograms such as face to face communication. Now a day's people are very busy in their life, they don't have much time to interact with each other. Digital pictograms help them to express their feelings and sentiments to others. As we know "a picture is worth a thousand words", if someone sends pictogram in place of words, receiver feels the actual feeling behind this. Especially in the element of Kinesics, Vocalics and chronimics will be reviewed and further defined to see if these elements translate to the digital pictograms. In this study, researcher examine how digital non-verbal pictogram changing our communication environment of interpersonal and group communication and taking place of texts and face to face communication. The methodology which has been used in this study is Descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis based on different Social media where digital pictogram has been used frequently for communication. Primary data also have been used to explore objective of this study.
... Darwin also dealt with the expression of emotions in humans and animals. He found that certain expressive movements could be explained through protective functions or deterrence [17]. Later theories emphasized the role of central nervous processes and regarded emotional excitement or arousal as a function and interaction of cortical and subcortical processes. ...
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We study the statistical properties of facial behaviour altered by the regulation of brain arousal in the clinical domain of psychiatry. The underlying mechanism is linked to the empirical interpretation of the vigilance continuum as behavioral surrogate measurement for certain states of mind. We name the presented measurement in the sense of the classical scalp based obtrusive sensors Opto Electronic Encephalography (OEG) which relies solely on modern camera based real-time signal processing and computer vision. Based upon a stochastic representation as coherence of the face dynamics, reflecting the hemifacial asymmetry in emotion expressions, we demonstrate an almost flawless distinction between patients and healthy controls as well as between the mental disorders depression and schizophrenia and the symptom severity. In contrast to the standard diagnostic process, which is time-consuming, subjective and does not incorporate neurobiological data such as real-time face dynamics, the objective stochastic modeling of the affective responsiveness only requires a few minutes of video-based facial recordings. We also highlight the potential of the methodology as a causal inference model in transdiagnostic analysis to predict the outcome of pharmacological treatment. All results are obtained on a clinical longitudinal data collection with an amount of 100 patients and 50 controls.
... Human-computer interaction (HCI) system aims at providing systematic interaction between humans and machines. Charles Darwin [15] has firmly placed facial expressions in an evolutionary context, and has marked the origin of a study on facial expressions. In 1872, he first suggested that, facial expressions revealing basic emotions are universal and his ideas have been a centerpiece for the theory of evolution [34]. ...
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Emotion recognition has opened up many challenges, which lead to various advances in computer vision and artificial intelligence. The rapid development in this field has encouraged the development of an automatic system that could accurately analyze and measure the emotions of human beings via facial expressions. This study mainly focuses on facial expression recognition from visual cues, as visual information is the most prominent channel for social communication. The paper provides a comprehensive review of recent advancements in algorithm development, presents the overall findings performed over the past decades, discusses their advantages and constraints. It explores the transition from the laboratory-controlled environment to challenging real-world (in-the-wild) conditions, focusing on essential issues that require further exploration. Finally, relevant opportunities in this field, challenges, and future directions mentioned in this paper assist the researchers and academicians in designing efficient and robust facial expression recognition systems.
... Emotions are an essential part of who we are, but they complicated, and perplexing sometimes, hence identifying the emotions is a cumbersome process for any individual. In fact, the most primary signal to understand the feelings of others is through recognition of facial expressions [13,14]. This problem (recognition) even becomes more challenging for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) [6]. ...
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Individuals suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder find it challenging to perceive basic human emotions, which deters their communication capabilities. Given this difficulty, we proposed a Kawaii-engineered framework for Individuals with Autism by developing a Machine Learning pipeline using multilabel classification algorithms to identify the emotions from a video. We experimented on two datasets OMGE and DIAEMO. Both datasets have videos of the duration of approximately one minute. After pre-processing, facial expressions and audio content-based features were extracted. Multilabel Classification algorithm like Instance Based Learning by Logistic Regression for Multi-Label Learning, Multi Label k- Nearest Neighbour, Binary Relevance k- Nearest Neighbour, Random k- Label Sets, and Calibrated Label Ranking were used and for sampling, 5-fold Cross-Validation and Leave One Out Cross Validation were employed for both the datasets. We observed that LOOCV based sampling strategy gave the best results for both the datasets with CLR classifier using Gaussian kernel.
... Moreover, humans share three of the most important neuromodulation systems (dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems) behind the affective properties of the sensory system with other animals, notably mammals (Rial, Nicolau, Gamundí, Akaârir, Garau, & Esteban, 2007). Together, they provide the bases for emotional expressions (Panksepp, 2011;Darwin, 1872). In fact, the tendency to automatically process the emotional content of expressions with a similar appearance in other species, has been already documented using brain imaging techniques. ...
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The attribution of mental states ( MS ) to other species typically follows a scala naturae pattern. However, “simple” mental states, including emotions, sensing, and feelings are attributed to a wider range of animals as compared to the so-called “higher” cognitive abilities. We propose that such attributions are based on the perceptual quality ( i.e. imageability) of mental representations related to MS concepts. We hypothesized that the attribution of highly imaginable MS is more dependent on the familiarity of participants with animals when compared to the attribution of MS low in imageability. In addition, we also assessed how animal agreeableness, familiarity with animals, and the type of human-animal interaction related to the judged similarity of animals to humans. Sixty-one participants (19 females, 42 males) with a rural (n = 20) and urban (n = 41) background rated twenty-six wild and domestic animals for their perceived similarity with humans and ability to experience a set of MS : (1) Highly imageable MS : joy, anger, and fear, and (2) MS low in imageability: capacity to plan and deceive. Results show that more agreeable and familiar animals were considered more human-like. Primates, followed by carnivores, suines, ungulates, and rodents were rated more human-like than xenarthrans, birds, arthropods, and reptiles. Higher MS ratings were given to more similar animals and more so if the MS attributed were high in imageability. Familiarity with animals was only relevant for the attribution of the MS high in imageability.
... Evolutionary theories of emotion are based on Darwin's Theory of Evolution about the presence of facial emotional expressions across species, and its adaptive value to overcome environmental and social challenges [28]. Therefore, emotions are suggested to be evolved in response to adaptive issues, such as threats and the need for reproduction [29]. ...
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This paper presents an Artificial Intelligence approach to mining context and emotions related to olfactory cultural heritage narratives, particularly to fairy tales. We provide an overview of the role of smell and emotions in literature, as well as highlight the importance of olfactory experience and emotions from psychology and linguistic perspectives. We introduce a methodology for extracting smells and emotions from text, as well as demonstrate the context-based visualizations related to smells and emotions implemented in a novel smell tracker tool. The evaluation is performed using a collection of fairy tales from Grimm and Andersen. We find out that fairy tales often connect smell with the emotional charge of situations. The experimental results show that we can detect smells and emotions in fairy tales with an F1 score of 91.62 and 79.2, respectively.
... This is a main novelty with respect to other associative learning paradigms that typically use pictures or videos to induce the acquisition of emotional connotations in words or pseudowords. Facial expressions are effective channels (Darwin, 1872) for communication and expressing emotions (Ekman, 1992a(Ekman, , 1993Russell et al., 2003). They also serve as the first source for children to acquire emotional concepts when they interact with their caregivers (Denham, 1998;Izard, 1971). ...
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The present study investigated how acquired disgusting and sad connotations affect neural activity in word processing. Participants completed a learning session in which pseudowords were paired with faces showing disgusted, sad, and neutral expressions, followed by an event-related potential (ERP) recording session involving a lexical-semantic decision task. ERP results revealed that sad pseudowords reduced the early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes compared to disgusting and neutral pseudowords in the early time window whereas disgusting pseudowords reduced the late positive component (LPC) amplitudes compared to neutral pseudowords. Importantly, the source localization in the EPN time window dissociated the three emotional conditions: disgusting pseudowords elicited the largest activation in the right insular cortex, sad pseudowords elicited more activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex, and neutral pseudowords increased activation in the occipital lobe. These results suggested that faces are effective sources for acquiring words’ emotional connotations, revealing corresponding distinctive neural signatures.
... In addition, The Emotion Module connects all neurons in the Motor Module except M1 neurons. We set these fixed synapse weights because the different emotion overt actions are determined by hereditary genetic factors (Darwin, 2015). Different emotion neurons' firing will lead to different motor neurons' firing. ...
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Affective empathy is an indispensable ability for humans and other species' harmonious social lives, motivating altruistic behavior, such as consolation and aid-giving. How to build an affective empathy computational model has attracted extensive attention in recent years. Most affective empathy models focus on the recognition and simulation of facial expressions or emotional speech of humans, namely Affective Computing. However, these studies lack the guidance of neural mechanisms of affective empathy. From a neuroscience perspective, affective empathy is formed gradually during the individual development process: experiencing own emotion—forming the corresponding Mirror Neuron System (MNS)—understanding the emotions of others through the mirror mechanism. Inspired by this neural mechanism, we constructed a brain-inspired affective empathy computational model, this model contains two submodels: (1) We designed an Artificial Pain Model inspired by the Free Energy Principle (FEP) to the simulate pain generation process in living organisms. (2) We build an affective empathy spiking neural network (AE-SNN) that simulates the mirror mechanism of MNS and has self-other differentiation ability. We apply the brain-inspired affective empathy computational model to the pain empathy and altruistic rescue task to achieve the rescue of companions by intelligent agents. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first one to reproduce the emergence process of mirror neurons and anti-mirror neurons in the SNN field. Compared with traditional affective empathy computational models, our model is more biologically plausible, and it provides a new perspective for achieving artificial affective empathy, which has special potential for the social robots field in the future.
... Studies that used explicit ratings of color-emotion or color-valence associations found more cross-cultural similarities than differences (e.g., Adams & Osgood, 1973;Barchard et al., 2017;Hupka et al., 1997;Jonauskaite et al., 2020a;Volkova et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2014). Such universal color-valence or color-emotion associations could reflect communalities between globally shared knowledge (i.e., a global or globalized culture) but they could also be of an evolutionary origin (for the logic, see Darwin, 1872;Ekman & Friesen, 1975). ...
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Cultural differences—as well as similarities—have been found in explicit color-emotion associations between Chinese and Western populations. However, implicit associations in a cross-cultural context remain an understudied topic, despite their sensitivity to more implicit knowledge. Moreover, they can be used to study color systems—that is, emotional associations with one color in the context of an opposed one. Therefore, we tested the influence of two different color oppositions on affective stimulus categorization: red versus green and red versus white, in two experiments. In Experiment 1, stimuli comprised positive and negative words, and participants from the West (Austria/Germany), and the East (Mainland China, Macau) were tested in their native languages. The Western group showed a significantly stronger color-valence interaction effect than the Mainland Chinese (but not the Macanese) group for red-green but not for red–white opposition. To explore color-valence interaction effects independently of word stimulus differences between participant groups, we used affective silhouettes instead of words in Experiment 2. Again, the Western group showed a significantly stronger color-valence interaction than the Chinese group in red-green opposition, while effects in red–white opposition did not differ between cultural groups. Our findings complement those from explicit association research in an unexpected manner, where explicit measures showed similarities between cultures (associations for red and green), our results revealed differences and where explicit measures showed differences (associations with white), our results showed similarities, underlining the value of applying comprehensive measures in cross-cultural research on cross-modal associations.
Thesis
Amidst the contemporary ‘War on Woke’ in the UK and elsewhere, increasing concern has been focussed on the ‘offendability’ or ‘sensitivity’ of students on university campuses – a concern that has largely been captured in the notion of an ongoing ‘culture war’. Critical voices within the media and in government – as well as in academia – claim there has been a rise of a culture of “toxic victimhood” (Fox, 2016), and a creeping “crusade of conformism” (Hume, 2016) whereby students currently seek “freedom from speech” in the name of “intellectual comfort” (Lukianoff, 2014). This ‘conformity’ to the principles of ‘wokeness’ is considered to have an “infantilizing” effect on a generation of young people, producing pathologically vulnerable subjects, jeopardising academic freedom, and endangering freedom of expression more broadly (O’Neill, 2015; Furedi, 2017). However, largely absent from such diagnoses of the ‘problem’ of taking offence ‘too easily’ is any empirical analysis of how offence is experienced, understood, and responded to by those social subjects who describe themselves as ‘offended’. This thesis seeks to remedy that absence by demonstrating the disconnect between what such contemporary criticism describes and participants’ own accounts of the experience and impact of being offended. In this thesis, understood as an archive of offence, I map out and interrogate the phenomenon, materiality, feeling, and experience (the texture) of offence. This archive is primarily composed of 38 semi-structured personal interviews conducted between March 2015 and June 2017, conducted in the context of the University of Cambridge, in which participants were asked to reflect on a time in which they were offended. By interrogating the complexity and nuance of how participants describe their own experiences, and their strategic responses to offensive behaviour in the context of everyday routine university activities, I generate new models and concepts that contribute to a sociology of offence. Through unpacking participants’ accounts of feeling offended, I explore both the affective and analytical dimensions of such encounters – which I argue are powerfully indexical of under- described dimensions of ‘the politics of everyday feeling’ in contemporary society. I explore, for example, that interviewees were able to clearly describe vulnerability to offence as a historical and materially produced relation rather than a product of individual pathology, and I argue such testimony from the study participants can help to reveal the highly patterned and repetitive nature of offence. Furthermore, through an exploration of how participants themselves analysed and deconstructed their own experiences of feeling offended, as well as their accounts of strategies deployed to respond or resist such injuries, I provide a critical and sociological language of becoming and being ‘woke’ as a particular incarnation of being or acting ‘politically correct’. Using my participants’ descriptions of how they manage and navigate the feeling of being offended in relation to others, I describe being ‘woke’ as a prefigurative horizon politics legible through underlying guiding principles that aim to transform conditions of livability for marginalized subjects. Yet, importantly, these accounts also demonstrate that understanding ‘wokeness’ as a prefigurative horizon politics means that it is necessarily replete with tensions, failures, and strategic dilemmas. Being and becoming ‘woke’, from this perspective, is thus revealed as an ongoing project rather than something that can be mapped or known in advance. Furthermore, this politics, in seeking to extend comfort to others, often comes at a personal cost. However, I conclude by suggesting that these operations of ‘wokeness’ are a means of practicing more inclusive and radical transformation through a politicization and transformation of everyday interaction. As such, this thesis utilizes queer, feminist, and anti- racist scholarship to further understanding of classical sociological issues such as identity formation, belonging, and institutional, social, and interpersonal violence through the “keyhole issue” (Hochschild, 2016) of offence and aims to provide an initial intervention into a subfield of the sociology of emotions in its own right – the sociology of offence.
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Due to the effect of emotions on interactions, interpretations, and decisions, automatic detection and analysis of human emotions based on EEG signals has an important role in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. However, the low spatial resolution of EEG recorders poses a challenge. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper we model each emotion by mapping from scalp sensors to brain sources using Bernoulli–Laplace-based Bayesian model. The standard low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) method is used to initialize the source signals in this algorithm. Finally, a dynamic graph convolutional neural network (DGCNN) is used to classify emotional EEG in which the sources of the proposed localization model are considered as the underlying graph nodes. In the proposed method, the relationships between the EEG source signals are encoded in the DGCNN adjacency matrix. Experiments on our EEG dataset recorded at the Brain-Computer Interface Research Laboratory, University of Tabriz as well as publicly available SEED and DEAP datasets show that brain source modeling by the proposed algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of emotion recognition, such that it achieve a classification accuracy of 99.25% during the classification of the two classes of positive and negative emotions. These results represent an absolute 1–2% improvement in terms of classification accuracy over subject-dependent and subject-independent scenarios over the existing approaches.
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Motivated by a long standing interest in improving my own pedagogical practice, in facilitating deeper learner engagement and bringing tools that could assist learners in their process of collaboration, this action research project looked into the areas of learner engagement, collaborative learning and motivation through the use of online tools in a synchronous remote classroom. Nine participants enrolled in lower-secondary grades 7th, 8th and 9th in a remote classroom spent five weeks carrying out various activities using four collaborative tools in the classroom (Google Docs/Slides, Kialo, Easelly and Padlet). The tasks were designed to aid in student collaboration, developing greater autonomy in the classroom and determining which tool(s) were more effective in facilitating that. Using the action research cycle, each week’s lesson plans were carefully implemented in context and guided by students’ participation as well as the researcher’s observations. The participants answered one questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, and participated in in-class oral reflections that revolved around the tasks and tools explored thus far. The questionnaire was designed to set the tone of the study; it gave them time to reflect on their role as students in an online, remote environment. It also had a set of open-ended questions that allowed them to describe in detail how they felt about remote learning, collaboration and online activities. The same questionnaire was given to them at the end of the study to see whether there were changes. The in-class oral reflections concerned their perception on the different tools used and were aimed at gaining a greater understanding of their needs; this information was then recorded in the teacher observation journals and used in deciding the tasks, tools and activities to be done in subsequent lessons . The data collected helped identify specific online collaborative tools that increased engagement and motivation, as well as those that did not.
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Depression is a mental psychological disorder that may cause a physical disorder or lead to death. It is highly impactful on the social-economical life of a person; therefore, its effective and timely detection is needful. Despite speech and gait, facial expressions have valuable clues to depression. This study proposes a depression detection system based on facial expression analysis. Facial features have been used for depression detection using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). We extracted micro-expressions using Facial Action Coding System (FACS) as Action Units (AUs) correlated with the sad, disgust, and contempt features for depression detection. A CNN-based model is also proposed in this study to auto classify depressed subjects from images or videos in real-time. Experiments have been performed on the dataset obtained from Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, as per the patient health questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8); for inferring the mental condition of a patient. The experiments revealed 99.9% validation accuracy on the proposed CNN model, while extracted features obtained 100% accuracy on SVM. Moreover, the results proved the superiority of the reported approach over state-of-the-art methods.
Chapter
The internal economic geographical structure of China, the fastest growing emerging economy, is also changing. In the first 20 years of the twenty-first century, two of the top ten economic output provinces have changed their seats, which leads to a series of scientific questions: why and how has China’s regional development advantage changed? What guides regional development? This book analyzes the changes of regional development advantages from the dynamic perspective of regional innovation process and emphasizes the importance of regional innovation model analysis from the perspective of evolution. The literatures about the regional innovation and evolutionary economic geography are reviewed. This chapter describes the innovation from zero to one to agglomeration and specialization. The phenomena of industrial clusters, knowledge spillover, and path dependence are explained based on evolutionary economics.
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Objective: Facial affect recognition is associated with neuropsychological status and psychiatric diseases. We hypothesized that facial affect recognition is associated with psychological status and perception of other affects. Methods: A total of 80 images depicting facial affect, including 20 Neutral, 20 Angry, 20 Fear, and 20 Sad, were screened for use in our research. A total of 100 healthy individuals were asked to rate these images using a 10-point Likert scale and complete psychological scales assessing the emotional statuses and cognitive functions. Results: The participants' emotional state of aggression, attention, and impulsivity may have been associated with their interpretation of the Angry facial expressions. The participants often rated the Angry facial expressions as Fear. The participants rated Fear images as Angry or Sad. In response to a Sad facial expression, the participants reported psychological statuses of attention and impulsivity which were associated with the facial expression rating. The participants rated the Sad expression as Angry or Fear. Conclusion: The psychological statuses of the participants were significantly correlated with their interpretation of facial affects. In particular, a psychological state of attention was often correlated with incorrect affect ratings. Attention and impulsivity could affect the rating of the sad facial expressions.
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One of the great puzzles of behavioral science has been people's frequent temporary preferences for alternatives that usually seem inferior, a pattern that can be called impulsiveness. Three explicit candidates for the basic mechanism have each gathered substantial backing in the literature of motivation: visceral learning-in effect the classical conditioning of appetite; the hyperbolic discounting of expected events; and shifts in the cognitive framing of the incentives. The visceral learning theory has been distinguished by its apparent ability to explain how stimuli can occasion sudden surges of appetite without predicting the greater probability or proximity of their objects. However, on closer examination none of the three kinds of mechanism accounts for such surges if applied linearly. Recursive self-prediction can amplify appetite sufficiently to do so. It probably requires discount curves to be hyperbolic, and appetite to be a reward-seeking process.
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The ICML Expressive Vocalizations (ExVo) Multi-task challenge 2022, focuses on understanding the emotional facets of the non-linguistic vocalizations (vocal bursts (VB)). The objective of this challenge is to predict emotional intensities for VB, being a multi-task challenge it also requires to predict speakers' age and native-country. For this challenge we study and compare two distinct embedding spaces namely, self-supervised learning (SSL) based embeddings and task-specific supervised learning based embeddings. Towards that, we investigate feature representations obtained from several pre-trained SSL neural networks and task-specific supervised classification neural networks. Our studies show that the best performance is obtained with a hybrid approach, where predictions derived via both SSL and task-specific supervised learning are used. Our best system on test-set surpasses the ComPARE baseline (harmonic mean of all sub-task scores i.e., $S_{MTL}$) by a relative $13\%$ margin.
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Through the paradigm of sensory evaluation, knowledge related to the individual-food relationship has been obtained and developed through the use of tasting rooms and laboratory settings. However, the neutralising effects of social factors have inspired further research into the context of eating behaviours moving past the traditional methods implemented in the social sciences. Experimental observation platforms have emerged as a way to study social interactions and interactional context effects related to eating habits. Experimental platforms allow for the substantial enrichment of observational strategies through the use of technical devices for automatic capture and processing thanks to recent technological advances in the computer sciences. Several food-related experimental platforms were constructed, which are further analysed in this article. An overview of the second-generation platforms, consisting of two quasi-similar observational platforms in both France and Malaysia are discussed. The objectives and potential contributions are highlighted, featuring interdisciplinary cooperation and innovations from the realms of social science, nutrition, and information technology. The theoretical underpinnings that provide the basis of the experimental platform project framework are also discussed, highlighting avenues for future research.
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Addiction appears to contradict expected utility theory and has therefore been the subject of many re-examinations of motivation. Addiction is variously said to arise from and/or be maintained by conditioning, habit learning (as distinct from the goal-directed kind), the elicitation of counterfeit reward in the midbrain, accelerated delay discounting, hyperbolic delay discounting, and unspecified sorts of disease or compulsion that imply addiction is not motivated at all. Each of these models has some roots in observation but each has problems, particularly in accounting for addictions that do not need a neurophysiologically active agent, such as to gambling or video games. I propose that an implication of hyperbolic delay discounting-recursive self-prediction-adds necessary mechanisms for addiction within a motivational framework. An addict's "force of habit" may be motivated by what amounts to accumulated consumption capital within an endogenous reward process. In a recursive motivational model the addict's impaired responsibility is more like bankruptcy than disease.
Thesis
p>Little research has been carried out on the subject of memory, dementia and emotion. However, there is a growing literature on the relationship between cognition and emotion (Izard, 1991), and between emotion and memory (Williams et al, 1988). The importance of emotion has been identified within the study of ageing (Bromley, 1990), including that of dementia care (Kitwood, 1990a). Emotional memories in dementia, therefore, seem worthy of investigation. A small sample of moderately to severely demented elderly people who live in the community, and use psychogeriatric day services, were investigated to see if they could recall emotional memories with the help of interviewer counselling skills. Background information, including details of significant past life experiences and interests of informants, was given by relatives and staff in the settings. The investigation took place over a two year period. Informants were normally seen, individually, each week. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The number of recorded and transcribed individual interviews with each informant were between thirteen and twenty five. The data is presented in the form of longitudinal case-studies, and methods, (Bromley, 1986), and a grounded analysed using quasi-judicial theory approach. Analysis of the data indicated that all informants recalled emotional autobiographical memories. Over time, it became apparent that these emotional memories formed fragmented pieces of the informant's personal narratives. The emotions associated with their narratives appeared to be a strong aid to recall. These partial narratives gradually cohered into whole stories and provided aH informants with a sense of narrative identity. This sense of narrative identity began to dissolve for some informants as their illness progressed and their stories faded from memory. For other informants, who were not so devastated by their illness, their stories and narrative identity remained with them. Although outcomes varied for all informants, all experienced varying levels of increased well-being through the recall of their narrative. Possible therapeutic benefits are suggested by this approach. Reminiscence work, combined with carer/interviewer counselling skills, may lead to the maintenance of the narrative in dementia and, thus, an increase in personhood. Topics of further investigation, suggested by this research, include premorbid personality traits and preventative counselling for those identified as at risk. Further studies should take into account the relationship between memory, dementia and emotion.</p
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The 5th International Open Science Conference MODERN PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. THE VIBRAIMAGE TECHNOLOGY ISSN 2949-3692
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The topic of the human face is addressed from a biocultural perspective, focusing on the empirical investigation of how the face is represented, perceived, and evaluated in artistic portraits and self-portraits from the XVth to the XVIIth century. To do so, the crucial role played by the human face in social cognition is introduced, starting from development, showing that neonatal facial imitation and face-to-face dyadic interactions provide the grounding elements for the construction of intersubjective bonds. The neuroscience of face perception is concisely presented and discussed, together with the psycho-physics of face perception and gaze exploration, introducing the notions of the left visual field advantage (LVFA) and the left gaze bias (LGB). The results of experiments on the perception and the emotional and aesthetic rating of artistic portraits and self-portraits are reported, showing that despite participants' inability to tell self-portraits and portraits apart, greater emotional, communicative-social, and aesthetic ratings were attributed to self-portraits. It is concluded that neuroscience and experimental aesthetics can contribute to better understand the human face, hence to better understand ourselves.
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This chapter provides an overview of perspectives on how the “old brain” affectively and physiologically responds to “new” digital media. A summary of the dominant theories of emotion involved in studying psychophysiological responses to media is presented including the dimensional perspective of emotion followed by the notion of biological motivation as put forth by the evaluative space model. Next, a conceptual and operational review of physiological measures of arousal and emotional valence is provided including a summary of studies examining physiological responses to using digital media technologies, platforms, and affordances. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the advantages and limitations that come with the measurement of emotion via physiological measures as applied to the study of digital media, as well as considerations for future research.
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In this paper, we report on an experiment with The Walking Dead (TWD), which is a narrative-driven adventure game where players have to survive in a post-apocalyptic world filled with zombies. We used OpenFace software to extract action unit (AU) intensities of facial expressions characteristic of decision-making processes and then we implemented a simple convolution neural network (CNN) to see which AUs are predictive of decision-making. Our results provide evidence that the pre-decision variations in action units 17 (chin raiser), 23 (lip tightener), and 25 (lips part) are predictive of decision-making processes. Furthermore, when combined, their predictive power increased up to 0.81 accuracy on the test set; we offer speculations about why it is that these particular three AUs were found to be connected to decision-making. Our results also suggest that machine learning methods in combination with video games may be used to accurately and automatically identify complex decision-making processes using AU intensity alone. Finally, our study offers a new method to test specific hypotheses about the relationships between higher-order cognitive processes and behavior, which relies on both narrative video games and easily accessible software, like OpenFace.
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The affective experience shows a particular level of subjectivity in animals, which is expressed in the interested condition that leads them to search the outside world with yearning. It could be defined as feeling something when looking at one’s landscape. In their dialogue with the context, animals are enveloped, as it were, within a fluctuating succession of feelings resulting from the transitory nature of the various emotions. At the same time, they are shaken by the tide of passions, when the appetites of the various innate motivations transform the environment into a space of possibility. Affective systems translate experience into bodily states, because the hedonic characterisation of feeling something in the encounter with a phenomenon inevitably produces somatisation. Experience, therefore, is never something neutral or external to the subject, but takes place in terms of internalisation of experience and personalisation. Affectivity therefore produces a state of self-ownership. We have seen that a primordial form of Self-referred subjectivity can already be found in the basic mechanisms of organised locomotion, since, as Giorgio Vallortigara points out, the difference between a self and a non-self becomes fundamental “when the organism moves actively with some form of locomotion mediated by cells that are separate from those in charge of receiving stimuli”. Indeed, to move it is crucial to be able to distinguish “the sensory signals that come from the outside world and those that result from the organism’s own movements in the world” (2021, 107). We can say, then, that the affective condition produces a second level of subjectivity, which can be defined as for-Self or referred to the condition of pleasure. The affective subjectivity of animality speaks not only of the dispositional character of the individual’s coming into the world, but also of two other things. First, (i) the aesthetic translation of sensory reports, whereby windows onto the world provide not only a landscape but also more or less pleasant sensations. Second, (ii) the hedonic consequences of homeostatic mechanisms, whereby needs become sources of pleasure (if fulfilled) or of suffering (if denied). At the heart of this level of subjectivity, which I have defined as for-Self, there is undoubtedly the condition of pleasure, which in some ways subsumes the Benthamian principle of “Can they suffer?” or Jacques Derrida’s inverted version of exposure to pain—as well as the Freudian principle of the Es. Affective subjectivity leads animals to constantly gauge their actions against the pleasure they may derive from them, so the individual’s fundamental compass is the search for pleasure, which can originate from various sources and is never predetermined. This brings us back to the principle of animal peripateticism, the act of “strolling” through the world seeking small sprinkles of pleasure deriving either from mitigating situations of need or from achieving gratifying objectives. One of the most important principles of learning, although overemphasised by the behaviourist school, is the law of effect developed by Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949) in the first decades of the twentieth century. According to this law, learning is affirmed by a mechanism analogous to Darwinian selection, whereby a behaviour becomes more and more likely in the individual—just like a character within a population—the more its consequences are able to bring pleasure (positive reinforcement) or alleviate suffering (negative reinforcement). The hedonic system, constituted by the dialectic between pleasure and suffering, undoubtedly induces a given behaviour, for example when an animal wishes to escape from an unpleasant situation or to alleviate a particular yearning or restlessness. Talking about motivational dynamics, we have seen how (i) the appetitive phase gives rise to a condition of exuberance which, however, is also unrest that seeks expressive possibilities. We have also seen how, (ii) in consummation, the subject reaches a sense of fulfilment that extinguishes the restlessness and sometimes adds a hedonic supplement through the gratification resulting from achieving an objective. However, while being central in inducing or confirming behaviour, pleasure has so many sources that it is more of an orientation tool, a sort of rough indicator, than a predictive factor of behaviour. Pleasure is certainly the final goal of any action for-Self, but affective subjectivity presents a very wide range of potential hedonic returns. In other words, except for situations of expressive cogency, when for example there is a peak of motivational appetence or an urgent need, in most situations the animal finds itself at a table set with many courses, where some require a certain amount of effort while others are easily accessible snacks. This means that the plurality of options, even if marked by the hedonic meaning, leaves room for the ownership of choice. Thus, attributing a “for-Self” dimension to animals means no longer considering them as puppets passively driven by pleasure, but rather as subjects who, precisely by virtue of the affective condition, have reason and power of choice. Hence an aspect of subjectivity that is marked by complexity, indeterminacy, state singularity and above all creativity. Affectivity lays the foundations for choosing one’s behaviour at any given point in time, and this always involves a creative component. The factors of affective influence are multiple, the situations encountered in the world are variable and indeterminate, and the mixture of emotions and motivations experienced by the individual in the here and now is always unique: these are the reasons why the animal is able to choose. The complexity of affective influences leaves open a space of freedom that the animal fills through its choices, whether conscious or not. We could say, then, that the more plural the interests and influences in the subject’s present, the greater the space of existential ownership, because it is precisely in ambivalence that the subject needs to be able to make decisions. I shall return to this topic when speaking of the instruments of knowledge—the third level of subjectivity. For now, let’s just say that the greater the number of determining and influencing factors, the wider the scope of subjectivity. We must not, therefore, imagine the subject as an entity managing the different indications that come from the body, the mind or the environment, but rather as a space of superintendence that emerges from the plurality of factors at play. For this reason, the affective condition does not produce a cascading directionality of behaviour, but enables the ownership of choice in arranging a multiplicity of pleasant conditions.
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In the present study we investigated the influence of positive and negative arousal situations and the presence of an audience on dogs’ behavioural displays and facial expressions. We exposed dogs to positive anticipation, non-social frustration and social frustration evoking test sessions and measured pre and post-test salivary cortisol concentrations. Cortisol concentration did not increase during the tests and there was no difference in pre or post-test concentrations in the different test conditions, excluding a different level of arousal. Displacement behaviours of “looking away” and “sniffing the environment” occurred more in the frustration-evoking situations compared to the positive anticipation and were correlated with cortisol concentrations. “Ears forward” occurred more in the positive anticipation condition compared to the frustration-evoking conditions, was positively influenced by the presence of an audience, and negatively correlated to the pre-test cortisol concentrations, suggesting it may be a good indicator of dogs’ level of attention. “Ears flattener”, “blink”, “nose lick”, “tail wagging” and “whining” were associated with the presence of an audience but were not correlated to cortisol concentrations, suggesting a communicative component of these visual displays. These findings are a first step to systematically test which subtle cues could be considered communicative signals in domestic dogs.
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