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The term “Internationalization at Home” and its definition were first introduced in 2001 (Crowther et al 2001). Since then, strongly related and overlapping concepts and definitions have emerged, notably Internationalization of the Curriculum and Campus Internationalization, which have led to confusion over terminology and risk distracting attention from the main job of implementing internationalized curricula. This chapter focuses on the concept and definition of Internationalization at Home. It first critically explores three accepted definitions: 1. Internationalization; 2. Comprehensive Internationalization; and 3. Internationalization of the Curriculum. This is followed by a discussion of three notions which are more contested: the distinction between internationalization at home and abroad; the OECD definition of an internationalized curriculum; and Campus Internationalization. Their similarities to and differences from Internationalization at Home (IaH) are discussed. Next, recent developments in conceptualizing Internationalization at Home and in its implementation are presented. It will be argued that, while Internationalization of the Curriculum is the overarching term, the concept of IaH within that is still valuable in certain contexts and for certain purposes. On the basis of these arguments, it is maintained that the current definition of IaH does not provide sufficient support for those with an interest in internationalizing domestic curricula. The authors therefore propose a new working definition and identify challenges that await those who want to implement Internationalization at Home.
Redening Internationalization at Home
Jos Beelen and Elspeth Jones
1 Introduction
Internationalization at Home (IaH) may be thought of as a rather narrow concept
when the broader notion of internationalization of the curriculum is becoming
increasingly the focus of attention in universities. This paper will argue that, nev-
ertheless, IaH remains a useful concept in certain contexts and for certain purposes.
For this reason a new denition will be proposed, which the authors hope will
support its implementation.
We begin with a discussion of three concepts and their accepted denitions:
those of internationalization, Comprehensive Internationalizationand interna-
tionalization of the curriculum. We then consider other, more contested issues.
We do not discuss a number of other notions that could be considered elements
within an internationalized curriculum, such as Global education, Global learning,
Education for global perspectives and Education for global citizenship, to name but
a few. Those are subjects for other papers. Another aspect beyond the scope of this
article is discussion of the term curriculumitself, which has been variously
interpreted (e.g. Biggs and Tang 2007; Webb 2005). We use the terms formal and
informal curriculum, and accept that the formal curriculum includes pedagogy
(teaching, learning and assessment) as a vehicle for its delivery.
J. Beelen
Centre for Applied Research on Economics and Management, Amsterdam University
of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands
E. Jones (&)
Internationalisation of Higher Education, Harrogate, UK
©The Author(s) 2015
A. Curaj et al. (eds.), The European Higher Education Area,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_5
2 Accepted Denitions
2.1 Internationalization
The most frequently cited and most widely accepted denition of internationali-
zation is that by Knight: The process of integrating an international, intercultural,
or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary
education.(Knight 2004, p. 11).
Strong elements of this denition are the articulation of internationalization as a
process, and the mention of the international and intercultural dimensions of the
curriculum. These two aspects were important features at the time. The denition is
also sufciently broad as to encompass all activities of a contemporary university.
This paper takes as accepted Knightsdenition, given its frequent and wide-
spread usage.
2.2 Comprehensive Internationalization
Recent debates around comprehensive internationalization (CI) have sought to
make clear the full extent of internationalization if an institution is to take seriously
the challenges it poses. In effect, then, the concept of CI is an extension of Knights
broad-based denition. Hudzik provides an extended denitionof CI which
encapsulates the concept: Comprehensive internationalization is a commitment,
conrmed through action, to infuse international and comparative perspectives
throughout the teaching, research, and service missions of higher education. It
shapes institutional ethos and values and touches the entire higher education
enterprise. It is essential that it be embraced by institutional leadership, governance,
faculty, students, and all academic service and support units. It is an institutional
imperative, not just a desirable possibility. Comprehensive internationalization not
only impacts all of campus life but the institutions external frames of reference,
partnerships, and relations. The global reconguration of economies, systems of
trade, research, and communication, and the impact of global forces on local life,
dramatically expand the need for comprehensive internationalization and the
motivations and purposes driving it.(Hudzik 2011,p.6).
A shorter version is offered by NAFSA: Comprehensive internationalizationis
the planned, strategic integration of international, intercultural, and global dimen-
sions into the ethos and outcomes of higher education (NAFSA 2014, p. 1).
It is clear that CI goes well beyond the curriculum itself, but that this is a key
element of a comprehensive approach, just as it is implied in Knightsdenition of
internationalization in 2004. Whitsed and Green (2013) go so far as to argue that CI
cannot exist without internationalization of the curriculum.
60 J. Beelen and E. Jones
2.3 Internationalization of the Curriculum
Leasks recent work sees curriculum internationalization being enacted not only
through the formal, assessed curriculum, and the teaching, learning and assessment
required to deliver it, but also through the informal curriculum. Formal curriculum
is dened as: The syllabus as well as the orderly, planned schedule of experiences
and activities that students must undertake as part of their degree program.(Leask
2015 in press, p. 8).
While informal curriculum is described as: Various support services and
additional activities and options organized by the university that are not assessed
and do not form part of the formal curriculum, although they may support learning
within it.(Leask 2015 in press, p. 8).
Leasks most frequently cited denition of the process of internationalizing the
curriculum (IoC), concentrates on the formal, assessable curriculum: The incor-
poration of an international and intercultural dimension into the preparation,
delivery and outcomes of a program of study.(Leask 2009, p. 209).
Throughout her work, Leask has stressed the importance of the careful con-
struction of learning environments and made specic reference to teaching, learning
and assessment processes, thus accepting their importance in delivering the inter-
nationalized curriculum. A new denition therefore makes this even more explicit
and updates the 2009 denition: Internationalization of the curriculum is the
incorporation of international, intercultural and/or global dimensions into the content
of the curriculum as well as the learning outcomes, assessment tasks, teaching
methods and support services of a program of study(Leask 2015 in press, p. 9).
This paper takes as accepted Leasks(2015 in press) denition of internation-
alization of the curriculum, as shown here.
3 Contested Denitions
3.1 Internationalization at Home and Abroad
In a later discussion of key concepts, elements and rationales, Knight (2006) dis-
tinguishes Internationalization at Home as one of two streams in internationaliza-
tion, which she sees as interdependent rather than independent. She asserts that
Internationalization Abroad consists of all forms of education across borders,
mobility of students, teachers, scholars, programs, courses, curriculum and projects.
Internationalization at Home, on the other hand comprises activities that help stu-
dents develop international understanding and intercultural skills. This is a prob-
lematic distinction, apparently suggesting, for example, that Internationalization
Abroad does not develop international understanding and intercultural skills, and
that curriculum is not directly included in Internationalization at Home.
Redening Internationalization at Home 61
However, in further explanation, Knight does mention as Internationalization at
Home-related factors: the international/intercultural dimension of the curriculum,
research collaboration and area and foreign language studies (Knight 2006, p. 128).
Elsewhere, she includes curriculum as one of a diversity of activitiesthat constitute
Internationalization at Home: curriculum and programs, teaching/learning processes,
extra-curricular activities, liaison with local cultural/ethnic groups and research or
scholarly activity (Knight 2006, p. 27). The authors feel that this undervalues the
fundamental role of curriculum in the enterprise of Internationalization at Home, and
that it is neither a related factor, nor an activity, but is at the heart of the concept.
3.2 The OECD Denition of an Internationalized
Prior to the denition of IaH (Crowther et al. 2001) and IoC (Leask 2009), an
internationalized curriculum had already been dened by the Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development: A curriculum with an international
orientation in content and/or form, aimed at preparing students for performing
(professionally/socially) in an international and multicultural context and designed
for domestic and/or foreign students.(OECD 1996, p. 6).
There was a prior version of this denition (Bremer and Van der Wende 1995,
p. 10), which included only international content, but it was later modied to this
1996 version which includes the formof the curriculum as well. Having two very
similar versions has led to some confusion, with both denitions being frequently
used until this day.
Rizvi (2007, p. 391) criticizes the OECD denition in its original version
(Bremer and Van der Wende 1995), which he nds represents a neo-liberal
imaginary of global processes. Beelen (2014) considers the OECD denition
unworkable, since it stimulates a very narrow view of an internationalized curric-
ulum, for example that it could be a curriculum with international content for
international students only. Moreover, it does not appear to recognize intercultural
opportunities in a domestic context. The authors believe that the OECD denition is
no longer t for purpose.
3.3 Campus Internationalization
Campus Internationalization, although frequently used in the context of universities
in the United States, is poorly dened. Green and Olson (2003), in a work that bears
the title Internationalization of the campus, discuss a range of terminology without
dening campus internationalization as such. Nevertheless, it continues to be used
often, confusingly, as a synonym for Comprehensive Internationalization. An
example of this is in the online resources for internationalization of the curriculum
62 J. Beelen and E. Jones
by The American Council on Education, which are presented under the heading
campus internationalizationand based on the six interconnected target areas from
CIGEs Model for Comprehensive Internationalization (American Council on
Education 2013).
Campus internationalization focuses on creating a learning environment on
campus that may encompass both the formal and the informal curriculum, but seems
mostly aimed at the latter, i.e. the non-assessed elements, and yet it also includes
Study Abroad. It includes both providing a welcoming environment for international
students as well as stimulating outgoing mobility. This broad focus is demonstrated
by the Andrew Heiskell Awards for Innovation in International Education, which
recognize outstanding initiativesin different categories, including international-
izing the campus. These have been awarded by the Institute of International
Education since 2001. Dutschke (2009, pp. 7072) mentions two winning practices,
one of which involved a year of study abroad, while the other consisted of a
short-term study trip. He therefore concludes that study abroad is still the main
component of internationalization at most American universities and, moreover, that
on-campus activities are often dependent on and linked to study abroad. Recipients
of the 2014 Heiskell awards appear to represent a similar pattern (IIE 2014).
NAFSAs annual Senator Paul Simon awards for Campus Internationalization
reect a similar confusion of terms, as these also include Comprehensive
Internationalization (see NAFSA 2014 for this years recipients). However it is stated
that the awards recognize excellence in integrating international education across all
aspects of college and university campuses, which suggests they are intended to
focus on the domestic campus.
As far as we can ascertain, Internationalization at Home differs from Campus
Internationalization, according to these examples. For Internationalization at Home,
international and intercultural teaching and learning on the domestic campus is the
main aim, irrespective of whether the student experience is enhanced by mobility.
4 Internationalization at Home
4.1 What Internationalization at Home Means
While the context and delivery of Internationalization at Home need to be con-
sidered from organizational and academic viewpoints, the ultimate beneciaries are
the students, in this case all students, not simply those who have a mobility
experience, and it is their perspective which is key in conceptualizing its meaning.
IaH is distinctive through this explicit focus on all students in the core (compulsory)
curriculum. This means that locating internationalization of the home curriculum in
electives alone is insufcient, since such electives do not reach all students. In
addition to the formal, assessed, curriculum, Internationalization at Home is also
delivered through the informal curriculum, the non-assessed elements of the student
experience, which are nevertheless provided by or associated with the institution.
Redening Internationalization at Home 63
Beelen and Leask (2011, p. 5) stress that Internationalization at Home is not an
aim or a didactic concept in itself, but rather a set of instruments and activities at
homethat aim to develop international and intercultural competences in all stu-
dents. Just as with internationalization of the curriculum in general, IaH is specic
to the context of a discipline and, within that, to a program of study in a given
university (Leask 2012).
Internationalization at Home does not require the presence of international
students, although that can be a benet. If a broad concept of cultureis accepted
(e.g. Jones 2013b; Jones and Killick 2013; Loden 1996), then every classroom has a
diverse range of students. This can be the basis for exploration of the international
and intercultural dimensions of the curriculum, whether or not international stu-
dents are present.
Thus in, for example, the western European context, the language of instruction
is not a relevant consideration in understanding or delivering IaH. Simply providing
a program in English is insufcient for it to be considered an internationalized
curriculum. If the program content and learning outcomes are not internationalized,
and remain the same as in the original language, merely changing the language of
instruction will not make them so.
A variety of instruments can be used to internationalize teaching and learning:
comparative international literature, guest lectures by speakers from local cultural
groups or international companies, guest lecturers of international partner univer-
sities, international case studies and practice or, increasingly, digital learning and on
line collaboration. Indeed, technology-based solutions can ensure equal access to
internationalization opportunities for all students.
The same is true for engagement with local cultural and international groups,
which may also be available to all students, and can be considered a distinctive
element of Internationalization at Home. Engagement may be as part of the formal
curriculum through guest lectures and educational activities or part of the informal,
non-assessed curriculum. However, it must be acknowledged that such arrange-
ments may not be possible in all contexts.
Nonetheless, these types of activity are simply pedagogic tools and fundamen-
tally, the internationalization of learning outcomes, pedagogy and assessment are at
the heart of Internationalization at Home, just as for curriculum internationalization
in general.
Internationalization at Home may look different in different contexts. In the geo-
graphical circumstances of Western Europe it operates on the assumption that stu-
dents who do not go abroad for a traditional study period or placement may still travel
to countries with different cultures and languages for personal reasons, which is not
always the case in other parts of the world. Furthermore, in Western Europe, where
distances between countries are small, short (even 23 days) faculty-led study visits to
neighbouring countries are on the increase, facilitated by cheap air travel (Beelen
2014). This means that, geography permitting, universities can add short-term
mobility within the curriculum, although this is not an option for all countries in the
world. In the case of short-term mobility, although the actual time spent abroad may
be relatively limited compared with traditional one or two semester credit mobility
64 J. Beelen and E. Jones
programs, nevertheless it is the foreign country setting (customs, languages, lifestyles
and so on) which provides the opportunity for intercultural learning.
The experience of mobility in general, whether short or long term, can however
make a meaningful contribution to Internationalization at Home by extension into
the domestic curriculum. This may be achieved, for example, through exploration
of what students had learned from the experience, alternative perspectives they had
gained or other dimensions of intercultural competence developed. By sharing their
views with others who had not been mobile, all students can benet, rather than
simply the mobile minority.
Within internationalization, the focus is shifting from input and output to out-
comes and these are not dependent on location (Aerden 2014; Leask 2015 in press).
An example is in the online delivery of education which may cause a student to be
enrolled in a foreign university while remaining at homeor in another location.
A second is that in some western European countries, students may live in one
country and be enrolled in a university across a geographical border. This is the
case, for example when Dutch students study in Belgium or German students study
in The Netherlands.
Transnational education (TNE), dened as Award- or credit-bearing learning
undertaken by students who are based in a different country from that of the
awarding institution(OMahony 2014), is also problematic for traditional distinc-
tions between home and abroad. Specically, it poses questions for
Internationalization at Home, since an international student enrolled in an offshore
university campus may neither be at home, nor in the country of the awarding
university. An example of this would be an Indonesian student studying in
Singapore on an Australian degree program or a Vietnamese student studying in
Malaysia at the campus of a UK university. Such students must not be forgotten in
the drive to internationalize the curriculum.
In reviewing the origins of IaH, Teekens points out that, The main concern of
internationalization at home remains just as relevant today: what do we do with the
vast majority of students who are not exposed to intercultural learning and an
international experience?(Teekens 2013, p. 1).
4.2 Internationalization at Home: The Emergence
of the Concept
The emergence of Internationalization at Home in 2001 can be interpreted as a
response to the dominant practice of equating internationalization with student
mobility, supported by generously funded programs like Erasmus. Yet, the rst
version of the Erasmus program (1987) stimulated individual lecturers to learn
about curricula and teaching methods through meetings with colleagues in other
countries. This enabled the development of curricula, modules, teaching materials
and other educational products, which extended the focus to European and inter-
cultural dimensions in education.
Redening Internationalization at Home 65
With the introduction of Socrates I (1994), responsibility for the administration
of partnerships shifted from academics to administrators, for example in the
International Ofce, which gradually led to the mobility aspect gaining ground over
curriculum. This development was criticized by both administrators and academics
as a top down method, compared to the bottom up approach of the rst phase of
Erasmus (De Wit 2002, p. 56). The shift from collaboration between individual
academics to institutional collaboration and student mobility caused De Wit,
looking back at 25 years of Erasmus, to express the wish that Erasmus would
rekindle its previous focus on curriculum and learning outcomes, which would
also increase the engagement of academics (De Wit 2012). This move away from
viewing the role of mobility as just one element of curriculum internationalization is
particularly important. Lack of engagement by academics, in combination with
skills decits are acknowledged by many as the main obstacles to internationali-
zation (e.g. Egron-Polak and Hudson 2014, p. 68). The more mobility is seen as an
administrative task rather than as part of the academic curriculum, the less focus
there will be on the learning outcomes arising from mobility and, in consequence,
less engagement of academics in the process.
More recently, however, an increasing concentration on internationalizing
learning outcomes is drawing attention to the need for structured and purposeful
delivery of the international and intercultural dimensions of the curriculum (Aerden
2014; Egron-Polak and Hudson 2014; Leask 2015 in press). This means that
academic staff are the key players once more, just as in the days of the rst Erasmus
program. The difference being that the focus is on internationalized learning out-
comes and curriculum internationalization, in contrast to international partnerships.
In the European context, the Bologna process was at the basis of the learning
outcomes approach as a means of making programs more transparent. While
Bologna was specically aimed at structural reform, it may be argued that it has
ultimately had an impact on the content and delivery of programs as well.
Yet, the articulation and assessment of internationalized learning outcomes
remains relatively under-reported. For this reason, Jones (2013a, p. 113) concludes
that the literature only contains a limited number of studies into the achievement of
internationalized learning outcomes, and notices a relative lack of research into the
outcomes of an internationalized curriculum for all students. Another issue that
will require sustained attention in the years to come is the alignment of interna-
tionalized learning outcomes with their assessment in a domestic context and across
the years of a program of study (see Jones and Killick 2013).
4.3 Existing Denition
The only existing denition of Internationalization at Home is fairly short and
narrow. Any internationally related activity with the exception of outbound student
and staff mobility.(Crowther et al. 2001, p. 8).
66 J. Beelen and E. Jones
One of the issues with the denition is that it does not indicate what
Internationalization at Home actually is, concentrating rather on what it is not.
Another is that it does not mention the intercultural dimension or the acquisition of
intercultural skills, while these were intended as key elements of IaH from the
outset (Crowther et al. 2001).
4.4 Critiques and Appreciation
Over the years, Internationalization at Home has been criticized in the literature. It
stands out as a western concept and has therefore been approached with criticism by
African scholars (Brewer and Leask 2012, p. 247), and is not high on the agenda of
universities in Asia.
Internationalization at Home has also been called a movement, criticized for
focusing on means rather than aims, and shifting into instrumental mode
(Brandenburg and De Wit 2010, p. 16); for a tendency to focus on activity and not
results as indicators of quality(Whitsed and Green 2013); or pretending to be
guided by high moral principles, while not actively pursuing them (De Wit and
Beelen 2014, May 2). Rizvi (2007, p. 391) refers to Internationalization at Home as
an activist network.
Yet, on the whole, internationalization of the curriculum at home has positive
connotations, which led the (International Association of Universities 2012, pp. 45)
to call on all universities to afrm internationalizations underlying values, prin-
ciples and goalsthrough pursuit of the internationalization of the curriculum as
well as extra curricula [sic] activities so that non-mobile students, still the over-
whelming majority, can also benet from internationalization and gain the global
competences they will need.
4.5 Continued Relevance of IaH as a Concept
In spite of the imperfect denition of Crowther et al. (2001), the concept of
Internationalization at Home still seems to play a useful role in certain contexts,
particularly where the emphasis of internationalization efforts has traditionally been
on mobility. By including IaH in the recent European Policy statement, European
higher education in the world (European Commission 2013), it might even be said
that IaH has gained momentum, and has moved into the centre of the debate on the
internationalization of higher education. It has made its way into the policy agendas of
many universities, and is also on the way to becoming part of the educational policies
of some member states. For example, in The Netherlands, Nufc has published two
studies (Van Gaalen et al. 2014a,b), which form the basis for a Dutch national policy
for Internationalization at Home. This increased attention is not limited to Europe, but
it is also gaining traction for instance in South Africa and Latin America.
Redening Internationalization at Home 67
The continuing popularity of Internationalization at Home is enough reason in
itself to explore the concept, denition and development in more detail. However,
and more importantly, IaH is still used as a contrast to mobility within the broader
concept of internationalization of the curriculum, particularly in situations where
mobility has been the dominant approach to internationalization. In such cases, IaH
emphasizes the point that internationalization of the curriculum abroadreaches
relatively few students in contrast to the non-mobile majority, who thus need the
opportunity to benet from internationalization of the curriculum at home. All of
this adds weight to the requirement to re-address some of the issues.
It may be seen from the above that Internationalization at Home is essentially a
subset of internationalization of the curriculum in that it shares a focus on both the
formal and informal curriculum. But IaH excludes student mobility across borders,
which is, in contrast, one element of curriculum internationalization.
Internationalization at Home operates on the assumption that not all students will
have mobility opportunities and that, while mobility can bring additional benets
for the mobile few, this should not be at the expense of internationalization for all.
Perhaps one of the key, and as yet unrealized, contributions of
Internationalization at Home lies in framing a context for the development of
employability skills. Many studies have shown that international experiences are
instrumental in developing the kind of transferable skills which employers are
looking for (Black and Duhon 2006; Crossman and Clarke 2010). Jones (2013b)
calls for further exploration of the domestic intercultural context as a vehicle for the
kind of transformational learning evidenced through international mobility(Jones
2013b, p. 8), and argues the need for additional studies which conrm its value. This
is supported by the Erasmus Impact Study (European Union 2014) which drives the
message home that the non-mobile majority of European students depend on the
domestic curriculum for the acquisition of the employability skills that mobile stu-
dents acquire through study, or perhaps more importantly, internship abroad.
Internationalization at Home is thus a concept in need of a good denition,
which may help to support its implementation.
4.6 New Denition of Internationalization at Home
We have argued that IaH offers a valuable reminder that internationalization of the
curriculum is not simply about providing mobility opportunities, but that it is also
crucial in domestic learning environments, emphasizing the need to reach all stu-
dents, not simply the mobile few. At the same time, it provides a framework for
incoming student mobility to support internationalization of teaching and learning,
and also focuses on incorporating local intercultural learning opportunities into
curriculum internationalization. The relevance and popularity of the concept of
Internationalization at Home contrasts with the current denition which is not
particularly enlightening and does not offer much clarication or support for those
wishing to implement it. We therefore propose the following denition:
68 J. Beelen and E. Jones
Internationalization at Home is the purposeful integration of international and intercultural
dimensions into the formal and informal curriculum for all students within domestic
learning environments.
The denition stresses intentional inclusion of international and intercultural
aspects into curricula in a purposeful way. This implies that adding or infusing
random internationalized elements or electives would be insufcient to interna-
tionalize a program. It also emphasizes the role of IaH for all students in all
In talking of domestic learning environments, the denition makes it clear that
these may extend beyond the home campus, and the formal learning context, to
include other intercultural and/or international learning opportunities within the
local community. These may include working with local cultural, ethnic or religious
groups, using a tandem learning system or other means to engage domestic with
international students, or exploiting diversity within the classroom.
It must be highlighted once more that these contexts may be seen as learning
environments, but it is the articulation and assessment of internationalized learning
outcomes within the specic context of a discipline which will allow such envi-
ronments to be used as a means of achieving meaningful international and inter-
cultural learning.
5 Challenges for Policy and Implementation
The process of internationalizing the formal curriculum at home, just as with other
aspects of internationalization, is based on the capability of academic staff to
develop, deliver and assess it. Many studies have identied this as a critical success
factor and have offered ideas to support staff development for internationalization
(e.g. Carroll 2015; Leask 2015 in press).
Additional food for thought is provided by The Erasmus Impact Study
(European Union 2014) which notes that staff mobility can strengthen
Internationalization at Home processes. It found that academics were aware that the
skills they acquired abroad would have an impact when they returned home, so that
the Erasmus effect could be extended to non-mobile participants(European
Union 2014, p. 148). The study showed that 95 % of HEIs and 92 % of staff
consider outgoing staff mobility an effective tool to allow students who do not
have the possibility to participate in a mobility scheme, to benet from the
knowledge(Ibid, p. 149, Tables 46). A limitation of the study, however, is that
academic respondents were those who had taken part in mobility. It is a well-known
phenomenon that mobile staff are limited in number, and that the same academics
repeatedly take part. We also know that staff mobility is only effective when it is
part of a deliberate process of staff development, as noted by Brewer and Leask
(2012, p. 251). Until we have further evidence we cannot be sure of the impact on
home students. The self reported data from the Erasmus Impact Study are thus
inconclusive. The impact of incoming staff mobility is equally unknown.
Redening Internationalization at Home 69
However, it is evident that staff development will be a key factor in making a
success of Internationalization at Home. Even those academics who have studied,
lived or worked in, or come from another country are likely to need support in
adapting what may be limited understanding of internationalization practice to
domestic, intercultural contexts. Staff development will need to focus on interna-
tionalizing existing, discipline specic learning outcomes within the home curric-
ulum for all students, on appropriate pedagogy and associated assessment. Since the
implementation of internationalization of the curriculum takes place at the level of
departments and programs of study, staff development will also need to be delivered
at that level. The implication for institutional policy is therefore that both imple-
mentation and support of academic staff, in relation to internationalization of the
curriculum at home or abroad, will need to be embedded within departments.
6 Conclusion
By comparing the concepts and accepted denitions of internationalization,
Comprehensive Internationalization and internationalization of the curriculum to
those of Internationalization at Home, we have provided context for a new denition
of IaH. It has been afrmed that IaH relates both to formal and informal curriculum,
and aims to develop international and intercultural knowledge, skills and attitudes
for all students, regardless of whether they also take part in mobility opportunities.
In recent discussions on internationalization, the constant introduction of new
terms and denitions has been criticized (e.g. De Wit 2011). Although the authors
are fully aware of this, they consider that the importance of clarifying the still useful
concept of IaH overrides the urge to limit the number of denitions. They have
therefore proposed a new denition of Internationalization at Home. Although
dening it does not guarantee its implementation, since there are fundamental
challenges to be overcome, it is hoped that redenition might bring implementation
a step closer.
Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
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any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
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72 J. Beelen and E. Jones
... Motivations for IoHE include quality improvement, provision of access, competitiveness, growth, and financial profits-resulting in the provision of a Abbreviations: GH, Global Health; GOH, Global Oral Healthcare; IoDE, Internationalization of dental education; IoHE, Internationalization of higher education; IaH, Internationalization "at home"; HICs, High-income countries; LMICs, Low and middle-income countries. professionally relevant education that prepares all students to be interculturally proficient professionals and citizens (7)(8)(9). ...
... IoHE includes comprehensive formats to bring global, intercultural, and international dimensions into higher education-from abroad or from within one's home country (9)(10)(11). IoHE can occur on many levels within academia, including the institutional, faculty, student, and curriculum levels. ...
... Major methods for IoHE can include but are not limited to areas of institutional international partnerships, student inbound and outbound mobility, and internationalization of the curriculum via international faculty, students, global content, and campus internationalization (12)(13)(14). A growing area of investigation is IoHE "at home" (9,14). ...
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Background Internationalization efforts, including global health activities, in dental education can play an important role in preparing future oral healthcare professionals. To date, in the available literature, there is no common understanding of what internationalization of dental education might mean, and there are no agreed upon standards relating to, or a common definition of the term internationalization of dental education. Here, the authors investigate what has been published in the above area from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2020, identifying perceived motivations and formats. A proposed definition and connection to the field of international higher education is provided.MethodsA scoping review of published literature was performed and identified 47 relevant articles. The articles were thematically sorted based on educational formats and concepts (previously established in international higher education) and motivations.ResultsDespite the paucity of articles directly addressing internationalization of dental education, there was a large variety of articles on topics that were identified to correlate with international higher education, ranging from international partnerships, student mobility, and language, to international curriculum at home—with different perceived motivations, including competition, international understanding, and social transformation.DiscussionMore research on internationalization of dental education is needed to provide guidelines and formalize standards for international educational goals to better align formats and motivations for international efforts in dental education.
... This situation has prompted growing scholarly interest in exploring novel ways to sustain international cooperation and exchange among higher education institutions. Internationalization at home (IaH)-the idea of incorporating virtual international and intercultural activities into curricula (Beelen and Jones, 2015)-is frequently at the center of such explorations. For example, Li and Xue's (2021) (2021) recent review of how IaH is perceived by Chinese higher education scholars and policymakers noted that the development of IaH programs is increasingly recognized as necessary for "cultivating students' international vision, international competitiveness, and cross-national feelings" (p. ...
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This perspective article details a semester-long “internationalization at home” project that was piloted during Fall 2021 as part of emergency remote teaching and learning. By presenting the project's components and overall student feedback, I demonstrate how virtual international collaboration contributes to the development of students' intercultural competence. Additionally, I emphasize that one-off faculty initiatives focused on collaborative transcultural learning will not suffice to embed this model into the local institutional matrix. Accordingly, the article concludes by advocating for stronger institutional support to leverage the promise of virtual internationalization.
... In this scenario, this paper aims to review some of the alternatives that have been put forward such as the concept of Internationalization at Home (IaH), proposed by Beelen and Jones (2015) and recently discussed by Robson (2017) and Guimarã es et al. (2019a), and Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) as suggested by Finardi (2019) and Hildeblando Junior and Finardi (2018), to readdress internationalization in the Global South and to offer more opportunities for cooperation rather than competition. Figueiredo and Martinez (2019) suggest the revelation of one's own locus of enunciation as a way to confront epistemological racism, in an attempt to decolonize scholarly knowledge, by making epistemologies of the Global South visible in what Sousa Santos (2014) calls an "ecology of knowledges", thus moving beyond abyssal lines. ...
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The aim of this study is to reflect on how internationalization can take place in these challenging times of the Covid-19 pandemic, from the perspective of researchers of a university in the Global South. So as to foreground the discussion, the locus of enunciation of researchers in a Brazilian university is exposed and a meta-analysis of 10 studies produced there between 2019-2020 is carried out, and contrasted with four virtual conferences held by Brazilian associations between June and July of 2020. Overall results of the study suggest that the Covid-19 pandemic brought about many disruptions for education (in general) and international education (in particular), but also opportunities, as internationalization moves away from academic mobility to virtual mobility, enabling a more active role for universities in the Global South and a more balanced internationalization panorama in the world.
This case study investigated Dutch and Turkish pre-service teachers' pedagogical insights on cultural diversity and critical cultural awareness in a telecollaboration project integrated into practicum. The intercultural communicative competence framework and the positioning theory were the theoretical frameworks. Participants engaged in asynchronous video communication on cultural and critical issues. The data were collected via expectation papers, a reflective project evaluation journal, videotaped interactions, and semi-structured interviews. They were analyzed via content analysis. The findings revealed the favorable impact of participants' project engagement on their perceptions, cultural, diversity and critical cultural awareness. Despite the pre-service teachers' enhanced cultural diversity and critical cultural awareness, the limited duration of the study and the lack of synchronous interaction did not allow for an in-depth exploration of their diverse critical cultural perspectives. The study has implications for teacher educators conducting telecollaboration projects.
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The ongoing trend towards the internationalisation of universities in Europe places English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) for education firmly on institutional agendas. This study carried out at Bordeaux University, France, explores EMI through Virtual Exchange (VE). The combination of both EMI and VE is presented here as a new area of study which we will refer to as EMI-VE. The report evaluates students' perceived linguistic progress and transdisciplinary learning competences through Erasmus VE (EVE). This multi-institutional EMI-VE context provides much needed international interaction lacking in home EMI models. Keywords: English as a medium of instruction; France; French higher education; virtual exchange; Erasmus virtual exchange; internationalisation at home; English as a medium of instruction through virtual exchange.
The internationalization of higher education institutions (HEIs) often focuses almost exclusively on the number of students and staff involved in mobility programs. In contrast, internationalization at home (IaH) is a holistic and inclusive approach that focuses on change in different areas and levels of university structure and life. It considers the entire university community as a system and includes those students who never study abroad. This article analyses the elements of IaH programs described in the literature, identifying seven main areas common to them all and proposing a general IaH framework that may be used when implementing an IaH process.
This chapter investigates how higher education institutions and faculty members at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and non-Historically Black Colleges and Universities have advanced internationalization of the institution through internationalization of the curriculum. The framework for understanding such faculty advancement of internationalization of the curriculum is found in the literature over time and in understanding contexts of instructional design, institutional internationalization, and faculty development. The findings show that Historically Black Colleges and Universities were late in promoting and implementing internationalization of the curriculum; however, publication of their faculty experiences in internationalization of the curriculum is shown to be unique. The conclusions show that faculty who publish their experience in internationalization of the curriculum may serve as disciplinary examples and motivation and provide rationales and guidance for further engagement. Their publications also show that international and global learning goals and outcomes can potentially serve their students in the global employment marketplace.
This chapter brings together key themes from across the institutional, practitioner and student perspectives presented in previous chapters. We argue that their collective perspectives indicate closer alignment with the concept of English Medium Education (EME) than with the more restricted notion of instruction that is inherent in the top-down EMI concept. The chapters also demonstrate that an EME approach can help to address significant issues in the implementation of EMI programs and individual courses. We therefore further argue that a way to move forward with EMI in Vietnamese universities is to actively adopt an EME approach, both in policy and practice. Using the Dafouz and Smit (2016; 2020) ROAD-MAPPING framework for analysing EME in multilingual university settings, we bring together the various EME themes presented and advocated across the chapters. These themes, in conjunction with the principles inherent in the Dafouz and Smit’s (2020) conceptualisation of EME, provide an illustration of what an EME approach might look like in Vietnamese universities and how it could help move Vietnamese tertiary education forward in a sustainable and equity manner.
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Resumen: Este relato de experiencia discute la producción, evaluación y circulación del conocimiento en América Latina enfocándose en el papel de la internacionalización de la educación superior y los idiomas en estos procesos. Con ese objetivo, empiezo la discusión trayendo evidencias bibliométricas de dos trabajos en proceso de publicación para ilustrar y discutir esas relaciones desde la perspectiva de las epistemologías del sur, argumentando a favor de una ecología del conocimiento y de las lenguas en la internacionalización de la educación superior en el Sur Global y en América Latina. La producción académica sobre la internacionalización constituye un área interdisciplinar que aún se encuentra en expansión y cuyo reconocimiento aún es incipiente y fuertemente influenciado por el Norte Global, como se puede ver en el número de citas de autores de esa región. La constitución de una epistemología del sur, evidenciada en las citas de artículos producidos por autores de la región, parece estar obstaculizada ya que la cooperación entre autores latinoamericanos es pequeña y mucho menor que la cooperación entre autores latinoamericanos con el Norte Global, una situación que refuerza y perpetúa el statu quo y la reverberación de teorías y epistemologías ajenas al ecosistema del sur. La discusión concluye que, para permitir la constitución de epistemologías del Sur en una ecología de saberes y lenguas, fomentando una internacionalización más crítica y emancipadora en América Latina, es necesario revisar y descolonizar las estrategias de internacionalización y de la producción, circulación y evaluación del conocimiento en esa región. Palabras-clave: producción del conocimiento, América Latina, internacionalización, epistemologías del sur. Abstract: This experience report discusses the production, evaluation and circulation of knowledge in Latin America, focusing on the role of the internationalization of higher education and languages in these processes. With this objective, I begin the discussion by bringing bibliometric evidence from two works in press to illustrate and discuss these relationships from the perspective of southern epistemologies, arguing in favor of an ecology of knowledge and languages in the internationalization of higher education in the Global South and in Latin America. Academic production on internationalization constitutes an interdisciplinary area that is still expanding and whose recognition is still incipient and strongly influenced by the Global North, as can be seen in the number of citations of authors from that region. The constitution of an epistemology of the South, evidenced in the citations of articles produced by authors from the region, seems to be hampered since cooperation between Latin American authors is small and much smaller than cooperation between Latin American authors with the Global North, a situation that 1Profesora del departamento de lenguajes, cultura y educación y de los programas de pós-grado en Lingüística (PPGEL) y Educación (PPGE) de la Universidad Federal del Espirito Santo (UFES). Investigadora de productividad Cnpq (PQ).
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The world of higher education is changing and the world in which higher education plays a significant role is changing. The international dimension of higher education is becoming increasingly important, complex, and confusing. It is therefore timely to reexamine and update the conceptual frameworks underpinning the notion of inter-nationalization in light of today’s changes and challenges. The purpose of this article is to study internationalization at both the institutional and national/sector level. Both levels are important. The national/sector level has an important influence on the international dimension through policy, funding, programs, and regulatory frameworks. Yet it is usually at the institutional level that the real process of internationalization is taking place. This article analyses the meaning, definition, rationales, and approaches of internationalization using a bottom-up (institutional) approach and a top-down (national/sector) approach and examines the dynamic relationship between these two levels. Key policy issues and questions for the future direction of internationalization are identified.
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There has been much debate recently about the nature and purpose of internationalisation along with the drivers for change. For some universities, success is viewed primarily in terms of institutional performance through global rankings, research collaboration, international partnerships and networks and statistics on international student/staff numbers and exchange programmes. For others, the focus is on student learning outcomes through internationalisation; how can international experiences, global perspectives on one's discipline and cross-cultural capability benefit students in the long term through enhanced personal and employability skills? Such a driver needs more qualitative measures and, as such, may be more difficult or time-consuming to evidence. This paper will identify a range of student learning contexts in international education and will explore some of the research which evidences transformational development through internationalisation. It will be seen that this can arise through study abroad or exchange, work placements or international volunteering. The article will go on to list a number of personal and transferable skills shown in the literature to result from international experiences. It will argue that research is now needed on students who do not travel overseas as part of their programme but are studying domestically through an internationalised curriculum. In order to extend our understanding of the benefits and the means of delivering curriculum internationalisation at home, evidence is required of the achievement of internationalised student learning outcomes for all students, not only those who have studied, worked or volunteered overseas. Evidence of how students take forward these gains into the workplace will further support a student-led, values-based approach to internationalisation through curriculum development.
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Institutions of higher education, national governments and (inter)national organizations have become more proactive, comprehensive, diverse, and innovative in their approaches to internationalization. Critical reflection on their outcomes, and in particular their impact on student learning, has resulted in a search for approaches to internationalization that have deeper meaning and greater impact. However, it is only relatively recently that questions related to the relationship between the internationalization of higher education, the curriculum and the disciplines have been explored in depth. Some of these questions are discussed, such as the relationship between ‘at home’ and ‘abroad’, the role of mobility, the role of contexts and the definition of internationalization of the curriculum.
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Over the last two decades, the concept of the internationalization of higher education has moved from the fringe of institutional interest to the very core. While gaining moral weight, its content seems to have deteriorated. There is an increasing commercialization under the flag of internationalization. This attitude has exacerbated the devaluation of internationalization and the inflation of defensive measures. While in need of more philosophy, we also require a greater sense of reality. We need to rethink and redefine the way we look at the internationalization of higher education in the present time.
Japanese higher education is developing as a part of the knowledge society. An integral part of the knowledge society is internationalization, and accordingly many higher education institutions (HEIs) are incorporating internationalization projects. However, HEIs merely developing internationalization projects, as a response to governmental educational policies, do not equate to an institution being internationalized. Rather, it is a process which requires assessment of different practices in relation to the internationalization project as a whole within an institution, both from the top-down and from the bottom-up, to ensure that change is beneficial to the learning situation. Taking a bottom-up approach, this book addresses how four different HEIs are developing their internationalization projects. This book presents four case studies which address some general effects of internationalization within higher education in Japan, and then will turn to a focus on English and language study. To set the context, this chapter first reviews the literature on internationalization with regards to change within higher education, competition, and rankings. Then, the research setting is contextualized through a review of the internationalization of higher education in Japan. Specifically, we focus on the influences of competition within the internationalization of Japanese higher education and the management system. The chapter ends with an overview of the four case studies presented in this book. From the perspective of non-Japanese teachers, the case studies address the different roles that the internationalization of higher education takes and illuminate the complexities of implementing internationalization projects within higher education.
p>Internationalization of the curriculum has the potential to connect broader institutional agendas focused on internationalization with student learning. However, the focus of internationalization of the curriculum in policy and practice is more on what some students will experience than on what all students will learn. An internationalized curriculum focused on student learning is defined by two main characteristics. First, it will be connected to the different cultures and practices of knowing, doing and being in the disciplines through the active engagement of faculty in the process of internationalizing the curriculum. Second, faculty who do not have the experience, skills or knowledge required to internationalize the curriculum will be supported by expert facilitators in the process of defining intended internationalized learning outcomes and assisting all students to achieve them.</p
This article argues that improved interactions between home and international students are dependant on the way we use both the formal and the informal curricula to encourage and reward intercultural engagement. It draws on the results of several research studies to present some strategies for facilitating meaningful interaction between students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds in and out of the classroom. Principles and guidelines for structuring formal and informal curricular activities and services are proposed. This article concludes that the development of intercultural competencies in students is a key outcome of an internationalised curriculum, which requires a campus environment and culture that obviously motivates and rewards interaction between international and home students in and out of the classroom. This means that a range of people across institutions need to engage with the internationalisation agenda over time to improve interactions between home and international students.