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Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown

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... Le myrcène possède des propriétés sédatives et augmente notamment la durée de sommeil chez la souris. De plus, il potentialise l'action du pentobarbital, (128). ...
... Substances à surveiller : alcaloïdes isoquinoléïques (dont californidine), (106). -son huile essentielle contient également du citral, un aldéhyde monoterpénique aux propriétés sédatives et qui augmente notamment la durée de sommeil chez la souris, (128). (139) En plus des données pharmacologiques concernant les principes actifs précédents, de nombreuses études ont confirmées les propriétés sédatives, hypnotiques ou anxiolytiques d'extraits hydroalcooliques de mélisse. ...
... -du citral, majoritaire dans l'huile essentielle (présent également dans l'huile essentielle de mélisse) : il ralentit l'activité locomotrice, augmente la durée du sommeil et potentialise l'action du pentobarbital chez la souris, (130) (128). Du limonène, un monoterpène sédatif qui possède également des propriétés décontractantes musculaires, (130) (128). ...
Thesis
De tout temps et dans de nombreuses cultures, l’Homme a cherché dans son environnement, et plus particulièrement dans les plantes, les moyens de se soigner. Aujourd’hui, même si notre médecine moderne a permis l’émergence d’un arsenal thérapeutique efficace, la phytothérapie connait un regain d’intérêt. Cette thèse a pour but de constituer une aide utile à l’usage du praticien souhaitant conseiller la phytothérapie comme traitement de l’insomnie. Nous avons ainsi fait un rappel de l’architecture et de la physiologie du sommeil ainsi que des différents types d’insomnies. Rappel suivi d’un retour en arrière sur les usages de drogues végétales dans les médecines traditionnelles. Nous avons abordé le rôle du pharmacien et son conseil, et présenté l’état de nos connaissances sur les principales drogues végétales disponibles et indiquées dans le traitement de l’insomnie. En plus de présenter ces différentes drogues végétales, nous nous sommes efforcés de confirmer les propriétés qui leurs sont traditionnellement attribuées. Nous avons ainsi compilé un grand nombre d’études scientifiques qui ont permis de citer de nombreux principes actifs, mécanismes d’action, et de confirmer l’efficacité de tel ou tel extrait de drogue végétale. Nous avons aussi regroupé les effets indésirables, cas de toxicité, intéractions et contreindications citées dans la littérature. De plus cette étude s’est étendue aux drogues permettant de traiter des facteurs importants souvent associés à l’insomnie : anxiété, dépression ou encore fatigue diurne.
... It is also found in lemon grass, bay leaves, ylang-ylang, wild thyme, parsley, cardamom, and basil. It is claimed to have sedative properties, but there is only very weak support for this to date: in one study [14], it increased barbiturate-induced sleeping time and motor relaxation in mice, but only with doses as high as 200 mg/kg. MYR decreased IL-1b-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein (NF-kB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and the expression of inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and catabolic, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 13 (MMP-1, MMP-13 genes (IC 50 ¼ 37.3 mg/ml)) [15]. ...
... In another study, LIM was found to be a sedative and motor relaxant: a significant effect was detected with LIM (5 mg/ kg) in OFT and muscle relaxation at the dose of 50 mg/kg. It can also increase the duration of sleep [14] and be an antidepressant [138]. Its derivative was found to be an anti-convulsant with GABAergic action [143]. ...
... Even lower effective doses were regularly met in vivo, for instance caryophyllene oxide with the dose of 12.5 mg/kg showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity [65]. Limonene (10 mg/kg/day) exerted anti-hyperalgesic effect on neuropathic pain [138] and it was also a sedative at the dose of 5 mg/kg [14]. 10 mg/kg perillyl alcohol was able relieve stress [140]. 1 mg/kg of terpenen-4-ol decreased blood pressure [210], while a-terpineol induced hypotension and vasorelaxation at 1 mg/kg [211]. ...
Article
Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes-both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence. Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono-and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail. The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes' medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others. Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.
... Beta-myrcene (β-myrcene), or myrcene, is common in lemongrass, basil, bay leaves, wild thyme, parsley, hops, and tropical fruits such as mango. It has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties [314][315][316], and has benefit in muscle relaxation [317], and prominent sedation/hypnotic, helpful in sleep [317,318]. Its analgesic effects were antagonized by naloxone suggesting an opioid-mediated mechanism [315,316]. ...
... Beta-myrcene (β-myrcene), or myrcene, is common in lemongrass, basil, bay leaves, wild thyme, parsley, hops, and tropical fruits such as mango. It has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties [314][315][316], and has benefit in muscle relaxation [317], and prominent sedation/hypnotic, helpful in sleep [317,318]. Its analgesic effects were antagonized by naloxone suggesting an opioid-mediated mechanism [315,316]. ...
... It has analgesic [321], antiinflammatory [320,[322][323][324][325], and antidepressant effects [321,326]. It contributes to muscle relaxation and sleep [317], and is a powerful anxiolytic [327][328][329][330], which extended anxiolytic benefit to patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) [331]. It increases the metabolic turnover of dopamine in the hippocampus and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, suggesting that anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects may occur by the suppression of dopamine activity related to enhanced serotonergic neurons, especially via 5-HT1A [332]. ...
Article
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Background Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis. Methods Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded. Cannabis use for migraine among headache patients was assessed via the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, a validated screen used to predict the probability of migraine. Results Of 2032 patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Pain syndromes accounted for 42.4% (n = 861) overall; chronic pain 29.4% (n = 598;), arthritis 9.3% (n = 188), and headache 3.7% (n = 75;). Across all 21 illnesses, headache was a symptom treated with cannabis in 24.9% (n = 505). These patients were given the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, with 68% (n = 343) giving 3 “Yes” responses, 20% (n = 102) giving 2 “Yes” responses (97% and 93% probability of migraine, respectively). Therefore, 88% (n = 445) of headache patients were treating probable migraine with cannabis. Hybrid strains were most preferred across all pain subtypes, with “OG Shark” the most preferred strain in the ID Migraine™ and headache groups. Many pain patients substituted prescription medications with cannabis (41.2–59.5%), most commonly opiates/opioids (40.5–72.8%). Prescription substitution in headache patients included opiates/opioids (43.4%), anti-depressant/anti-anxiety (39%), NSAIDs (21%), triptans (8.1%), anti-convulsants (7.7%), muscle relaxers (7%), ergots (0.4%). Conclusions Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. The majority of headache patients treating with cannabis were positive for migraine. Hybrid strains were preferred in ID Migraine™, headache, and most pain groups, with “OG Shark”, a high THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), low CBD (cannabidiol)/CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), strain with predominant terpenes β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene, most preferred in the headache and ID Migraine™ groups. This could reflect the potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-emetic properties of THC, with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene. Opiates/opioids were most commonly substituted with cannabis. Prospective studies are needed, but results may provide early insight into optimizing crossbred cannabis strains, synergistic biochemical profiles, dosing, and patterns of use in the treatment of headache, migraine, and chronic pain syndromes.
... For this test, each animal was placed on a 2.5-cm-diameter bar turning at 12 rpm, which was set 25 cm above the floor. For each mouse, the time of permanence on the bar for 1 min was recorded (do Vale et al. 2002). ...
... DZP and BSP did not decrease the locomotor activity of mice, but BIS at the higher doses altered locomotor function of mice and decreased the number of crossing and also the numbers for rearing and grooming. Our results are in line with do Vale et al. (2002) who reported central effects of some terpenoid compounds like citral, myrcene, and limonene in mice open field test which led to decreasing the number of crossings and also numbers for rearing and grooming (do Vale et al. 2002). It is accepted that rearing is a function of the excitability level of Hendriks et al. (1985) have demonstrated the central nervous depressant activity of valerenic acid in the mouse. ...
... DZP and BSP did not decrease the locomotor activity of mice, but BIS at the higher doses altered locomotor function of mice and decreased the number of crossing and also the numbers for rearing and grooming. Our results are in line with do Vale et al. (2002) who reported central effects of some terpenoid compounds like citral, myrcene, and limonene in mice open field test which led to decreasing the number of crossings and also numbers for rearing and grooming (do Vale et al. 2002). It is accepted that rearing is a function of the excitability level of Hendriks et al. (1985) have demonstrated the central nervous depressant activity of valerenic acid in the mouse. ...
Article
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Bisabolol (α-(−)-bisabolol) is a sesquiterpene which is a part of the essential oil of a variety of plants, but its common source is German chamomile. Several bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-tumor effects were attributed to bisabolol. However, the neuropharmacological properties of bisabolol have not yet been reported. The present study evaluated behavioral effects of bisabolol using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), and rotarod test. Moreover, this study also examined whether the 5-HT1A and GABAA–benzodiazepine receptor systems are involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of bisabolol. After acute intraperitoneal treatment with bisabolol at the doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, OFT, EPM, and rotarod were utilized for investigating behavioral effects. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, and WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, were used to determine the action mechanism in the EPM. Bisabolol especially at the dose of 1 mg/kg was effective in increasing the total number of entries and time spent in the open arms of EPM while number of rearing and grooming in OFT was decreased in comparison to the control. In the rotarod, permanence time was decreased in the mice treated with the high doses of bisabolol. Pretreatment with flumazenil, but not WAY-100635, was able to reverse the effect of bisabolol 1 mg/kg in the EPM, indicating that the anxiolytic-like activity of bisabolol occurs via the GABAergic but not serotonergic transmission. The present study supports the idea that bisabolol may mediate its anxiolytic-like and sedative mechanisms involving GABAA receptors.
... Previous studies have shown that 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal possesses a number of pharmacological properties, including antispasmodic [24], anxiolytic [25], and sedative properties [25]. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal has also been listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compound by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ...
... Previous studies have shown that 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal possesses a number of pharmacological properties, including antispasmodic [24], anxiolytic [25], and sedative properties [25]. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal has also been listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compound by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ...
Article
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The bioactivity of the essential oil extracted from Litsea cubeba fruits against tick vectors of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is unknown. In this study, L. cubeba oil and its main constituents, 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal and its similar structures, were evaluated for their acaricidal and repellent activities on the unfed nymphs and adults of Haemaphysalis longicornis . L. cubeba oil displayed both acaricidal and repellent activities against both life stages. Among the constituents of L. cubeba oil, only 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal exhibited both acaricidal and repellent activities against both life stages. In a repellent bioassay, 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal and L. cubeba oil at dose of 0.08 mg/cm ² provided excellent repellence (100%) against the nymphs and adults for over 60 min post-application. When the acaricidal and repellent activities of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal and its similar structures were compared, activities of all tested derivatives were significantly less potent than those of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal. The strong acaricidal and repellent activities of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal in L. cubeba oil suggests that it is a promising natural candidate for developing new sustainable acaricidal and repellent agents.
... β-pinene 4 anti-inflammatory [2], analgesic [6], hypotensive [4], antispasmodic [7] G4 myrcene 4 anti-inflammatory [8], sedative [9], analgesic [10], anticonvulsant [11] G5 α-phellandrene 3 Expectorant [12], analgesic [13], antispasmodic [7] G6 ...
... Analgesic [15], sedative [9], anti-inflammatory [8] Analgesic [46], hypotensive [47], hypothermic [48], anti-allergic [49], anti-inflammatory [50], anticonvulsant [51], sedative [48], antispasmodic [52] G26 elemicin 3 antiplatelet [53], anti-allergic [49], anti-inflammatory [ ...
... After ingestion, systemic handling, and cerebral reuptake, the active constituents of C. citratus affect behavior, pain sensitivity, neurotransmitter signaling, and hormone release [52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71] . While some studies have shown that extracts of C. citratus leaves exhibit sedative, anxiolytic, and hypnotic effects on the central nervous system, these effects are not consistently demonstrated across all studies [52] . ...
... N.E. Brown to elicit potent central nervous effect [61] . Flavonoids, such as 5, 7-dihydroxyflavone, are known to displace ( 3 H)-flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine receptors, suggesting that flavone derivatives possess anxiolytic properties, without inducing sedation and muscle relaxation [62] . ...
... 773 It has been associated with bronchodilator effects in asthma. 760 It has also been shown to cause muscle relaxation and sleep in mice, 697 to be a powerful anxiolytic, [774][775][776][777] and reduced anxiety in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. 778 Limonene has been shown to increase the metabolic turnover of dopamine in the hippocampus and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, suggesting anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects may occur by the suppression of dopamine activity related to enhanced serotonergic neurons, especially via 5-HT1A. ...
... It has antioxidant, 754,919 antibacterial and antifungal, 920 muscle relaxation including gastrointestinal, 921 and sleep benefits. 697 Citronellol is found in roses, geranium, sandalwood, lemongrass, chamomile, basil and lavender. It has shown promotion of wound healing, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant benefits. ...
Article
Background.—Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/ cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described. Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain. Objective.—Review the medical literature for the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of migraine, headache, facial pain, and other chronic pain syndromes, and for supporting evidence of a potential role in combatting the opioid epidemic. Review the medical literature involving major and minor cannabinoids, primary and secondary terpenes, and flavonoids that underlie the synergistic entourage effects of cannabis. Summarize the individual medicinal benefits of these substances, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion.—There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain-specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and diseasetargeted therapies.
... Citral, carvona, linalol (Tavares et al., 2005); limoneno (Zoghbi et al., 1998); mirceno (Vale et al., 2002). Propriedades calmante y antiespasmódica (Vale et al., 2002). ...
... Citral, carvona, linalol (Tavares et al., 2005); limoneno (Zoghbi et al., 1998); mirceno (Vale et al., 2002). Propriedades calmante y antiespasmódica (Vale et al., 2002). ZINGIBERACEAE Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) ...
Article
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The research aimed to study the ethnobotanical evaluation of some medicinal plants of the community of Caruarú, Isla de Mosqueiro-PA, and to search their phytochemical and pharmacological applications. Semi-structured interviews, Shannon-Wiener diversity indices and equity, consensus value techniques, relative Importance, and informant consensus factor were evaluated. Fabaceae was the most representative family. Diversity and equity were 1.61 and 0.95, respectively. Anacardium occidentale, Cinnamomum verum, Eleutherine bulbousa, and Caamembeca spectabilis received the greatest consensus use. The greatest relative importance was for A. occidentale L. and C. spectabilis. The greatest informant consensus factor was for the genitourinary system. The leaf and the tea were the most used. The preparations of the plants and their applications configure essential data for future analysis.
... Caspase deficiency has been identified as a cause of tumor development. Due to the results of the cellular inhibitor performance in tumor cell lines and because of their prominent antioxidant activity, the EO may present aggressive activity on DNA from healthy cells (Vale et al., 2002). Some plants' EO induces cell death through intrinsic (mitochondrial) and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, revealing that ROS accumulation causes the apoptotic activity. ...
... extracts (SOARES; TAVARES-DIAS, 2013).In addition to the use of L. alba in pig farming proposed in the present study, antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects in horses, cattle, and mice have been widely tested in vitro and in vivo.Vale et al. (2002) obtained a highly sedative and relaxing effect in mice using different concentrations of citral, limonene, and myrcene obtained from the essential oil of L. alba.Ribeiro et al. (2012) also confirmed its activity in aquaculture as an anesthetic, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic drug, emphasizing the importance of this and other plants in ...
Article
Animal welfare has become more important as the consumer market is increasingly demanding good conditions of handling production animals, especially in swine farming. There is also scientific evidence of economic losses due to animal stress during growth and before slaughter, reducing body weight, carcass yield and meat quality. Thus, natural and economically viable therapeutic alternatives were researched, such as the use of herbal medicines, aiming to minimize these negative effects on animals. With emphasis on Lippia alba, a plant commonly used in Brazilian medicine with proven efficacy as a relaxant and antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and anti-stress for most animal species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L. alba essential oil supplementation on the reduction of serum cortisol levels in growing pigs and as a welfare parameter to evaluate these animals. Twelve F1 castrated pigs with an average weight of 12.3 kg were divided into two groups of six animals. Control group (A1) received saline solution at a dose of 1 mL.kg-1 and treatment group (A2) 0.5% L. alba essential oil at a dose of 1 mL.kg-1 on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 by gavage. During these time points, blood was collected from the auricular vessel to measure cortisol levels using the radioimmunoassay technique (Kit Cort-CT2). The administration of L. alba essential oil showed a significant anti-stress effect in growing pigs, significantly decreasing blood cortisol levels, an indicator of animal welfare.
... It is also used commercially for production of scents and flavours as starting material 63 . Numerous biological activities including antioxidant 64 antibacterial 65 , anticancer 66 , analgesic 67 , sedative 68 , and anti-diabetic effects 69 are also reported. In our study, the Antioxidant activity of A. graveolens EO, evaluated by FRAP and DPPH assays showed effective results. ...
Article
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Essential oils (EOs) extracted from aromatic plants are a potential source of several bioactive compounds. In the present study, hydro-distillation of Apium graveolens essential oil (AG-EO) was carried out and its chemical constituents were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) followed by examination of its antifungal, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential against human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. Analysis of EO resulted in the identification of nineteen (19) compounds majorly in 1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol (65.2%), 3-butyl phthalide (9.1%), limonene (6.4%), 1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,7,8,9,9a-octahydro-benzocyclohepten-6-one (5.6%). Further, antifungal activity of A. graveolens EO (AG-EO) against three soil borne phytopathogenic fungal strains namely Fusarium oxysporum, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed significant mycelial growth inhibition at a concentration of 500 μg/mL with IC50 value ranging between 966-220.76 μg/mL. The antioxidant potential of EO was evaluated using dedicated spectrophotometric assays such as FRAP and DPPH. Results revealed the free radical scavenging potential of AG-EO with the value of 7.71±0.04 mM AAE/100g (for DPPH assay) and 8.31±0.03 mM AAE/100g (for FRAP assay). Additionally, the percentage of cell survival of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells after treatment with EO was about 68% at 24h showing the cytotoxic effect of AG-EO against breast cancer cells whereas for non-malignant control HEK 293T cells it was about 83%. The present study indicated that the antioxidant, antifungal, and cytotoxic potential of AG-EO, a natural source of bioactive compounds, could be employed in the food, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and cosmetics industries. However, further evaluations on animal models and clinical studies are warranted.
... This suggests that the mechanism of its analgesic effect is to stimulate a2AR to release endorphin (Rao et al. 1990). At high doses, b-myrcene (18) induces skeletal muscle to relax and prolongs experimentally induced barbiturate-induced sleep (do Vale TG et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Cannabis spp. are some of the most controversial medicinal plants in the world. They contain great amounts of biologically active secondary metabolites, including the typical phenolic compounds called cannabinoids. Because of their low toxicity and complex biological activities, cannabinoids can be useful in the therapy of various diseases, but adverse psychological effects (of Δ9-THC in particular) raise concerns. This review summarizes the current knowledge of selected active C. indica compounds and their therapeutic potential. We summarize the main compounds contained in cannabis, the mechanisms of their effects, and their potential therapeutic applications. Further, we mention some of the clinical tests used to evaluate the efficacy of cannabinoids in therapy.
... Anxiolytic and sedative effects have also been shown utilizing a lemon oil vapor, high in limonene content (Komiya et al., 2006), and after inhalation of a-pinene (Satou et al., 2014) or terpinolene (Ito and Ito, 2013). Similarly, b-myrcene and limonene are highly sedative, both impacting Rotarod performance and increasing barbiturate-induced sleeping time (do Vale et al., 2002). However, the evidence is ambiguous, as another study demonstrated no change in barbiturate-induced sleeping time by 116 limonene (do Amaral et al., 2007). ...
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Pain prevalence among adults in the United States has increased 25% over the past two decades, resulting in high health-care costs and impacts to patient quality of life. In the last 30 years, our understanding of pain circuits and (intra)cellular mechanisms has grown exponentially, but this understanding has not yet resulted in improved therapies. Options for pain management are limited. Many analgesics have poor efficacy and are accompanied by severe side effects such as addiction, resulting in a devastating opioid abuse and overdose epidemic. These problems have encouraged scientists to identify novel molecular targets and develop alternative pain therapeutics. Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that cannabis has several beneficial pharmacological activities, including pain relief. Cannabis sativa contains more than 500 chemical compounds, with two principle phytocannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Beyond phytocannabinoids, more than 150 terpenes have been identified in different cannabis chemovars. Although the predominant cannabinoids, Δ9-THC and CBD, are thought to be the primary medicinal compounds, terpenes including the monoterpenes β-myrcene, α-pinene, limonene, and linalool, as well as the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene and α-humulene may contribute to many pharmacological properties of cannabis, including anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about terpene compounds in cannabis and to analyze the available scientific evidence for a role of cannabis-derived terpenes in modern pain management. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Decades of research have improved our knowledge of cannabis polypharmacy and contributing phytochemicals, including terpenes. Reform of the legal status for cannabis possession and increased availability (medicinal and recreational) have resulted in cannabis use to combat the increasing prevalence of pain and may help to address the opioid crisis. Better understanding of the pharmacological effects of cannabis and its active components, including terpenes, may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches and optimizing the use of cannabis and/or terpenes as analgesic agents.
... The root bark contains impact norisoprenoids such as dihydroedulan (6.2 %) and β-ionone (3.4 %). Limo-nene, which is in an appreciable amount in the root wood EO (16.85 %) of the plant is known to have sedative and stimulant effects in Lippia alba 37,38 . Consumption of diets containing fruits and vegetables rich in monoterpenes such as limonene is known to reduce the risk of developing cancer of the colon, mammary gland, liver, pancreas and lung. ...
Article
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The chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated by hydrodistillation from Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub. root wood and root bark were determined for the first time by GC/MS analysis. The EOs gave a percentage yield (w/w) of 0.34 % and 0.31 % for root wood and root bark respectively. A total of 60 compounds accounting for 86.1 % of the root wood EO composition were identified with monoterpenes (45.4 %) and sesquiterpenes (14.7 %) as predominant constituents. Root bark EO gave 53 identified constituents which make up about 78.5 % of the EO dominated by non-terpenes (23.4 %) and alkanes (14.1 %). The EOs are good sources of limonene (16.9 %), γ-terpinene (9.8 %) and p-cymene (6.70 %). The anti-diabetic (α-amylase and α-glucosidase models) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and H2O2 models) of EOs were evaluated in comparison with standard drugs. Alpha-amylase inhibition gave IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.0493 and 0.0471 for root wood and root bark EOs respectively, compared to acarbose the standard anti-diabetic drug (0.0401) while α-glucosidase assay gave IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.0517 and 0.0486 for root wood and root bark EOs respectively, compared with acarbose (0.0418). In the DPPH antioxidant assay, root bark EO showed higher activity (0.157 mg/mL) compared to root wood EO (0.159 mg/mL) while Root wood and root bark EOs had IC50 values (mg/mL) of 0.157 and 0.171 respectively using the H2O2 model. Results revealed the presence of chemical constituents in the EOs which could be responsible for activities expressed by the plant.
... proporciona efeito sedativo e relaxante muscular (Vale et al., 2002). ...
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O controle de qualidade em óleos essenciais é de grande importância para evitar adulterações destes produtos, porém são escassas informações sobre as características físico-químicas. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar análises físico-químicas de óleos essenciais de Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus e Cymbopogon winterianus. Os óleos foram obtidos de dois fornecedores comerciais e codificados como Comercial 1 e 2. Estes óleos foram comparados com óleos extraídos por hidrodestilação de folhas das plantas implantadas no Horto Medicinal da Universidade e codificados como Cultivada. Os óleos foram obtidos pelo processo de hidrodestilação durante 3 horas para o R. officinalis e de 2 horas para C. citratus e C. winterianus. Foram determinados a densidade absoluta (g/mL), o índice de refração e a composição química (CG/EM) dos óleos. Para a densidade e o índice de refração os resultados indicaram não haver diferenças entre as amostras comerciais e cultivada, entretanto na composição química observou-se diferenças entre os compostos majoritários. No óleo de alecrim destacou-se o 1,8-cineol com 5,82% (Cultivada), 17,28% (Comercial 1) e 27,42% (Comercial 2). No óleo essencial de capim limão o mirceno apresentou 8,52% (Cultivada) e ausência nas amostras de ambos os fornecedores comerciais. No óleo essencial de citronela o limoneno encontra-se com 9,55% (Comercial 2), 2,31% (Comercial 1) e 3,62% (Cultivada), indicando que a variação do percentual de compostos entre as amostras podem ter sido ocasionadas principalmente por fatores abióticos e bióticos, pois as amostras provêm de culturas implantadas em locais diferentes, interferindo nas características destes óleos essenciais.
... In fact, one of the side effects in this drug class is hypnosis [35]. Secondary metabolites previously studied, such as limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, and β-pinene have demonstrated hypnoticsedative effects as they enhanced sleeping time in mice [36][37][38][39]. The same metabolites were identified in Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. ...
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The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.
... α-Pinene interacts with the cholinergic system improving memory and learning and counterbalances the toxicity of THC (Lewis et al., 2018). Myrcene has sedative and relaxant effects (Do Vale et al., 2002). ...
Article
The increase of cultivation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) all over the world offers new opportunities for the industry to manufacture innovative products from this multipurpose crop. In this regard, the hemp essential oil represents a niche product with potential interest for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and agrochemical companies. On this basis, in the present work we used the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to get an essential oil enriched in bioactive compounds, especially cannabidiol (CBD), from the dry inflorescences of the Italian variety CS (Carmagnola Selezionata). For this purpose, the operative conditions to increase the essential oil yield and CBD concentration in terms of microwave irradiation power (W/g), extraction time (min) and water added to the plant matrix after moistening (%), were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) approach using a Milestone ETHOS X device. The conventional hydrodistillation (HD) performed for 240 min was used for comparative purposes. The qualitative compositions of essential oils obtained by MAE and HD were analysed by GC-MS, whereas the quantitative detection of CBD and main terpenoids (α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, (E)-caryophyllene, α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide) was achieved by GC-FID. Furthermore, the enantiomeric distribution of the chiral constituents (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, (E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide) was determined using chiral chromatography. Results showed that the MAE treatment, using high irradiation power and relatively long extraction times, increased significantly the content of CBD in the essential oil while maintaining high oil yield values when compared with conventional HD. The enantiomeric excess of three chiral monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene) was determined, with the (+)-enantiomers being predominant, whereas (E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were enantiomerically pure. In conclusion, the MAE was successfully applied to hemp dry inflorescences in order to obtain a CBD-rich essential oil which may be exploited in several industrial applications.
... Limonene Anticancer, anxiolytic and immunostimulating, antiacne [49,50] α-Pinene Acetylcholinesteral inhibitor, memory improvement [51] β-Myrcene Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic, sedative [52,53] Linalool Anxiolytic, anti-leishmanial, analgesic via adenosine [54][55][56] β-Caryophyllene Anti-inflammatory and gastric cytoprotector, CB2-agonist [48,57] Nerolidol Sedative, antimalarial, anti-leishmanial [58][59][60] β-Amyrin Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer [61,62] ...
Chapter
The use and study of medicinal cannabis is growing in accordance with the changes in the laws of many countries, along with the technological advances that allowed expanding the knowledge about its multiple pharmacological properties. Exhaustive studies on the pharmacological effects of the different Cannabis sativa constituents are of great importance due to the high impact that this ancient plant has on biological systems. Besides, the pharmaceutical form used for their administration is one of the relevant factors determining the absorption of phytocannabinoids by the human body, the physiological effects and their behaviour in relation to the nature of the analysed organic matrices, either for medicinal or legal purposes. This chapter summarizes the activity of phytocannabinoids on their specific receptors in mammals and the processes that they undergo in the body. The traditional and novel pharmaceutical formulations and the analytical methodologies to evaluate the organic matrices exposed to cannabis are also reviewed.
... Further LC-MS analysis of CSE showed presence of compounds, which have been previously reported for their anxiolytic activity such as chlorogenic acid (Bouayed et al., 2007), caffeic acid (Takeda et al., 2003), ellagic acid (Girish et al., 2013), tocopherol (Okura et al., 2009), gallic acid (Dhingra et al., 2012;Salehi et al., 2018), quercetin (Bhutada et al., 2010;Vissiennon et al., 2012), reservatol (Ge et al., 2016;Li et al., 2018) and rutin (Hernandez-Leon et al., 2017). The essential oil fraction of C. sativum seeds that contain monoterpenoids such as linalool, limonene, and myrcene has been previously reported for sedative and motor relaxant effects in mice (Do Vale et al., 2002). Linalool, which is the major essential oil component (65%-83%) has shown anxiolytic and sedative effect in mice and neonatal chicks (Souto-Maior et al., 2011;Harada et al., 2018;Gastón et al., 2016). ...
Article
Elevated plus maze mouse model Light and dark mouse model Anxiety index Neurotransmitters A B S T R A C T Medicinal properties of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) are well documented. Its central nervous system related activities are mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine. However, studies evaluating its anxiolytic properties and the underlying mechanisms are lacking. We investigate anxiolytic activity of C. sativum L. seeds aqueous extract (CSE) induced by chronic restraint stress and its effect on the neurotransmitter system. The phytoconstituents were extracted using soxhlet apparatus and identified using LC-MS. The mice were orally administered with the standard drug diazepam/CSE daily and exposed to restraint stress for two weeks. Anxiolytic activity was assessed using elevated plus maze and light/dark transition test models on day 1 and 16. On the 16th day, brain regions were quantitatively assessed for neurotransmitters. CSE treatment improved exploratory activity in the animal models of anxiety, and restored monoamines and GABA levels to the respective baseline levels. Moreover, CSE reduced excitotoxic levels of glutamate in the hippocampus region.
... Regarding the active substances of the studied EOs, literature reports demonstrated central depressor effects for geranial, limonene, and linalool in in vivo and ex vivo rodent models (Vale et al., 1999(Vale et al., , 2002Sousa et al., 2015), and also for linalool in fish (Heldwein et al., 2014). In addition, carveol itself did not induce anesthesia, but enhanced the anesthetic effects of propofol in mice (Lin et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Anesthetic effect of Aloysia triphylla and Lippia alba essential oils (EOs) in the Amazonian fish Serrasalmus eigenmanni was evaluated. The fish were placed in aquaria containing A. triphylla or L. alba EOs (25 to 200 µL L-1). Then, fish were transferred to aquaria containing EO-free water to evaluate their recovery time. In another experiment, fish were transferred to aquaria containing A. triphylla or L. alba EOs (3 to 10 µL L-1) and swimming behavior was analyzed for up to 240 min of exposure. Water samples were collected at 0 and 240 min and blood samples were collected at 240 min. Tested concentrations induced all stages of anesthesia, except 25 µL L-1 A. triphylla EO and 50 µL L-1 L. alba EO, which only induced sedation. Prolonged exposure to both EOs reduced swimming time compared to the control at all evaluated times. The fish exposed to 3 µL L-1 A. triphylla EO showed a lower net K+ efflux compared to ethanol-exposed fish; in those exposed to 5 µL L-1, ammonia excretion was reduced. The blood parameters did not show significant differences between treatments. In conclusion, both EOs can be used as anesthetics and sedatives for transport of S. eigenmanni.
... According to the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, M. officinalis must possess at least 4.0 % of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives, at least 2.0 % of rosmarinic acid and at least 0.6 % of volatile oil (Brasil 2010). Citral, geranial, neral and β-caryophyllene have been suggested as the main compounds responsible for actions of M. officinalis on the CNS (Tagashira & Ohtake 1998;Wake et al. 2000;Vale et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Among the medicinal purposes for which plants have been used is the treatment of “nerves". The objective of this study was to search for species of plants used in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (South Brazil) for the relief of symptoms related to central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Twenty-seven ethnobotanical studies were compiled, in which a total of 94 species were cited. The five most cited species were Cymbopogon citratus (81.5 %), Melissa officinalis (77.7 %), Aloysia citriodora (66.6 %), Matricaria chamomilla (62.9 %) and Passiflora edulis (51.8 %). Scientific studies have corroborated the popular use of these plants as sedatives, but most studies are preclinical and very few have been clinical (M. chamomilla and M. officinalis), and these were mainly exploratory or were performed against placebo. In addition to efficacy data, there are also indications of toxicity for M. chamomilla and P. edulis. In conclusion, there is a great diversity of plant species used in the treatment of symptoms related to CNS disorders, and they are most frequently used as a sedative. Data indicate that M. officinalis possesses clinical efficacy in the treatment of symptoms associated with anxiety without signs of toxicity.
... No tolerance was observed after repeated dosing in rats, which is in contrast to morphine (Lorenzetti et al. 1991). Myrcene was a sedative comparable to phenobarbital at very high doses in rats (Do Vale et al. 2002), an effect increased by simultaneous administration of citral, a mixture of other terpenes. Myrcene was also shown to improve glucose tolerance in alloxan diabetic rats comparable to metformin (Al-Omari 2007), without an effect on glucose levels in normal rats. ...
Chapter
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The use of cannabis for animal species is an area of growing interest, largely due to the therapeutic benefits being observed for humans and animals in the era of cannabis legalization. The close relationship humans have with their pets and other veterinary species has led to a renewed interest in the possibility and promise of cannabis to treat similar health issues in the animal community. This chapter explores the literature available on cannabis, its interactions with the endocannabinoid system, and how animal species interact with various formulations and cannabis treatments. A brief overview of the biology, chemistry, and history of cannabis is discussed with the relevance to veterinary species in mind. The pharmacologically active components are discussed with both anecdotal and objective, evidence-based, and clinical data.
... Group 1 camphene expectorant [64] caryophyllene anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, antidepressant, gastroprotective [47, 65 -69] fenchone antinociceptive activity [70] humulene anti-inflammatory, antitumor [67,71] limonene antioxidant, tumor reduction, sedative [33,34,72,73] β-maaliene sedative [49] β-myrcene sedative, analgesic, antioxidant, [36,74,75] α-pinene antinociceptive activity, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic [35,70,76] β-pinene antidepressant [77] α-terpineol anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, gastroprotective [78,79] valencene anti-melanogenesis activity, UV protectant, anti-inflammatory [80,81] Group 3 caryophyllene oxide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, tumor inhibition [82,83] β-elemene antitumor [55] β-sesquiphellandrene tumor inhibition [84] Group 4 α-bulnesene antiplatelet [85] p-cymene antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant [86,87] β-eudesmol anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, anti-cholangiocarcinoma activity, appetite stimulation, antiangiogenic, gastroprotective, anticonvulsant [88 -92] linalool antidepressant, antinociceptive, sedative [77,93,94] α-phellandrene antinociceptive [65] γ-terpinene antioxidant, antinociceptive [95,96] terpinen-4-ol antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, tumor inhibition [41,42,97,98] terpinolene antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, sedative [37,38] Group 5 alloaromadendrene antioxidant [99] cis-α-bisabolene anticonvulsant [57] guaiol anti-inflammatory [100] sabinene antimicrobial [97] ...
Article
The phytochemical diversity of Cannabis chemovars is not well understood, and many chemovars were created in informal breeding programs without records of parentage or the criteria for selection. Key criteria for selection sometimes included aroma notes and visual cues, which some breeders associated with pharmacological activity. We hypothesized that the process of selection for scents believed to be related to specific tetrahydrocannabinol levels has resulted in modified terpene biosynthesis in these chemovars. Thirty-two cannabinoids, 29 monoterpenes and 38 sesquiterpenes were measured in 33 chemovars from 5 licensed producers. A classification system based on cannabinoid content was used with targeted metabolomic tools to determine relationships in the phytochemistry. Three monoterpenes, limonene, β-myrcene, and α-pinene, and two sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene and humulene, were abundant in the majority of chemovars. Nine terpenes were present in tetrahydrocannabinol-dominant chemovars. Three monoterpenes and four sesquiterpenes were predominantly found in cannabidiol-containing chemovars. Low abundance terpenes may have been the aromatic cues identified by breeders. The medicinal activity of some of the terpenes is likely to contribute to the pharmacological effect of specific chemovars. Together, these data demonstrate the synergy of compounds in Cannabis chemovars and point to the need for additional research to understand the phytochemical complexity.
... Myrcene is a GABA-receptor modulator working in a similar way, with analgesic (Rao, Menezes, & Viana, 1990) and muscle-relaxant properties (Vale, Furtado, Santos, & Viana, 2002) in animal models. Escondido (2015) speculates that "myrcene is the major ingredient responsible for 'flipping' the normal energetic effect of THC into a couchlock [ie. ...
Article
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This article collects evidence from psychopharmacology, scripture, and archeology to explore several preparations for consumption described in the Old Testament: Manna, Showbread, the Holy Ointment, and the Tabernacle Incense. The Ointment and the Incense are herbal preparations used by the priestly caste to facilitate a direct experience of the Israelite God. A wide variety of psychoactive components are found in these preparations, including GABA-receptor agonists and modulators, opioid receptor agonists, and other agents. They are normally broken down by the body’s enzymes, and therefore orally inactive, but the Holy Ointment also contains inhibitors specific to the enzymes in question. The preparations indicate that the ancient Israelites had a profound understanding of synergism, and the way they are consumed and the taboos around them are highly suggestive of their use as psychoactive agents.
... Para tanto, são essenciais estudos agronômicos, que visem obter a melhor relação custo-benefício, considerando-se a produtividade, a qualidade e o rendimento desta planta. Segundo Vale et al. (2002) Nesse contexto, é de extrema importância estudos relacionados a esta planta, pois se cria um banco de informações disponíveis para comunidade científica e para a população, sendo um material de livre acesso e sua eficácia comprovada cientificamente. ...
... Citral is a component of EOs extracted from several plants, including Cymbopogon citratus, Melissa officinalis, Verbena officinalis, Lippia alba, among others. This monoterpenoid presents sedative (Vale et al., 2002), antifungal (Ferreira et al., 2009), anti-inflammatory , and antinociceptive effects . Sousa et al. (2015) found a promising anesthetic effect in rats. ...
Article
The effect of dietary levels of citral in juvenile common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) was evaluated by determining biomarkers of oxidative stress and innate immune system, as well as liver parameters. The fish (2.75 ± 0.03 g) were fed diets containing different concentrations of citral (0, 0.44, 0.88, and 1.76 mg/kg feed) for 45 days. Results indicate that citral does not cause significant hepatic alterations; nevertheless, this monoterpenoid was able to induce lipoperoxidation in the gills in all concentrations tested. In this context, the altered activity of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver and gills (1.76 mg per kg feed), catalase (CAT) in the liver (0.44; 0.88 mg per kg feed) and gills (all groups), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver (0.44 mg per kg feed) and gills (1.76 mg per kg feed) occurred in response to the oxidative damage evidenced. Although dietary levels of citral did not influence the lysozyme activity, we verified that the haemolytic activity of the complement system was excessive in the lowest concentration tested and that the myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) decreased in all groups. Thus, although this monoterpenoid is a diet additive which has already been approved for consumption in other animal species, dietary supplementation with citral for common snook has not improved oxidative parameters and innate immunity of this species.
... Limonene (6) is a naturally occurring substance derived from several Citrus oils (Sun, 2007) plants of the Lippia genus (Verbenaceae) (do Vale et al., 2002) and Cannabis oils (Russo, 2011). This terpene is listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in the US, FDA Code of Federal Regulations as a flavoring agent, and can be found in common food items such as fruit juices, soft drinks, baked goods, ice cream, and pudding ( Nazaroff and Weschler, 2004;Sun, 2007;Zhao et al., 2009). ...
... These oils are rich in terpenes, which appear to hold the pharmacological effect. A number of studies have already been carried out confirming the neuroprotective effect of these compounds on several animal models of seizure [16][17][18][19]21,[36][37][38]. However, there is a lack of works that evaluate/compare the anticonvulsant effect of aand b-pinene. ...
... A number of chemotypes have been characterized based upon their major components; the most prominent components include carvone, limonene and citral (Vale et al., 1999;Hennebelle et al., 2008;Matos et al., 1996). These monoterpenes have been shown to produce sedation or lethality in a broad range of animals: prolonged exposure to citral, carvone or limonene produced lethality in houseflies (Kumar et al., 2014;Rice and Coats, 1994), both citral and limonene were lethal to mosquitoes (Giatropoulos et al., 2012), and citral produced sedation in snails and mice (Price and Berry, 2008;Vale et al., 2002). The physiological actions of citral include altering neuronal firing in the cockroach (Price and Berry, 2006) and reducing nerve membrane excitability and smooth muscle contractions in the rat (Sousa et al., 2015;Sadraei et al., 2003). ...
Article
Lippia alba is a flowering shrub in the verbena family and its essential oil (EO) is known for its sedative, antidepressant and analgesic properties. In the Amazon region of Brazil, it is used in aquaculture to anesthetize fish during transport. Many of the specialized metabolites found in EOs presumably evolved to protect plants from herbivores, especially insects. We used Drosophila to test the behavioral and physiological actions of this EO and its components. We found that 150 min exposure to the EO vapors resulted in immobilization of adult flies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified the major components of the EO as the monoterpenes: citral (59%), carvone (7%) and limonene (7%). Fly immobilization by the EO was due to citral and carvone with citral producing more rapid effects than carvone. We tested whether the EO affected synaptic physiology by applying it to the larval neuromuscular junction. The EO delivered at 0.012% (v/v) produced over a 50% reduction in EPSP amplitude within 3-4 min. When the EO components were applied at 0.4 mM, citral and carvone produced a significant reduction in EPSP amplitude with citral producing the largest effect. Measurement of miniature EPSP amplitudes demonstrated that citral produced over a 50% reduction in transmitter release. Ca-imaging experiments showed that citral produced about 30% reduction in presynaptic Ca influx, which likely resulted in the decrease in transmitter release. Thus, the EO blocks synaptic transmission, largely due to citral, and this likely contributes to its behavioral effects.
... Brown is known as "false-melissa" in Brazil. This plant has been commonly used for its sedative properties, which also have been demonstrated in some rodent studies [36,56,57]. Three main chemotypes obtained from L. alba EO were reported and classified according to their major constituent as citral, carvone, and linalool [56]. ...
Article
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Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.
... There are three different chemotypes reported with essential oil of lime such as Chemotype-I; citral/myrcene, Chemotype-II; citral/limonene and Chemotype-III; limonene/linalool/citronellal. Chemotypes I and II have been vastly studied as antitumor [43], antibacterial, antifungal [44] and antidepressant [45]. Citral, limonene and myrcene are the main chemical constituents of the three chemotypes. ...
Article
To understand the therapeutic application of polyphenols extracted from Kaffir (PolKaf) and Key (PolKey) limes different analytical methods were applied. Based on quantitative analysis by two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) it can be observed that the biggest differences in the contents of selected terpenes of Kaffir and Key limes occur in chemical compounds such as limonene, citral and terpinen-4-ol. Limonene concentration is almost 5 times higher in the volatile fraction of Key lime than in Kaffir lime. In the case of citral, the difference in concentration of this compound in Kaffir is 20 µg/g lower than in Key lime. Higher concentration of terpinen-4-ol was noted in Kaffir lime samples and the content was almost 23 times higher. Terpinen-4-ol is the major chemical compound of volatile fraction of Kaffir lime. Among the determined terpenes, potential markers of aroma were selected: terpinen-4-ol and citral for characterization of Kaffir and Key limes. Antioxidant assays revealed the highest bioactivity of Kaffir lime. Fluorescence studies between the interaction of polyphenols with human serum albumin (HSA) showed relatively high binding abilities in comparison with some antiplatelet drugs. The docking results showed that the hydrophobic residues are responsible for the interaction with the phyto-constituents. Citral is the best scored ADMET descriptor. The antioxidant strong affinity to HSA and synergism in bioactivity are the main indices in health application of citrus fruits.
... About 86% of the plant's ingredients are monoterpenes such as α pinene, β pinene, limonene, caryophyllene and myrcene [4,6]. These compounds, with effects on opioid, cannabinoid and adenosine receptors, can block the pain sensation [7][8][9]. The search for new pain-blockers with the fewest possible side effects is a big part of drug economy. ...
Article
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Investigations on the use of medicinal plants are appealing to researchers. In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula szowitsiana is used as an analgesic. This study investigates the effect of the extract of aerial parts of Ferula szowitsiana on an experimental model of chemical pain induced by subplantar injection of formalin. The Ferula szowitsiana hydroalcoholic extract was prepared with ethanol, Tween 80 and saline at a ratio of 8:1:1 serving as a solvent. Wistar Rats in the weight range of 200-250 g were divided into 10 groups randomly (n=7) according to treatment applied as follows: control; solvent (intraperitoneal, i.p.); solvent (intrathecal, i.t.); extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg i.p.); extract (80 µg/10 µL i.t); naloxone (2 mg/kg i.p.); extract (400 mg/kg) and naloxone (i.p.). To study the chemical pain, subplantar administration of formalin was performed in all groups. The results showed that the extract could reduce chemical pain in the neurogenic and inflammatory phase dose dependently as compared to the control group. The magnitude of the response after intrathecal administration of a dose of 80 µg/10µL was comparable to that observed with 400 mg/kg of extract administered via the intraperitoneal route. The administration of naloxone as an opioid receptor antagonist reversed the analgesic effect of the extract completely. According to the results, it seems that at least a significant part of the analgesic effect of Ferula szowitsiana extract is exerted through its effect on the central nervous system, and the analgesic effect of the extract in acute and inflammatory chemical pain is due to its effect on the opioid system.
... Chemical composition and property of EOs depend on various factors, including the plant species, chemotype, growing conditions, harvesting time, plant storage and the extraction method (Vale et al., 2002). The predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-selinene, E-β-farnesene) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (spathulenol, ar-turmerol, cubenol) in the composition of EOMS were identified. ...
Article
The effects of pre-transport handling and addition of essential oil of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) during transport on stress pathways activation in Rhamdia quelen were investigated. Fish (n = 400, 25.2 ± 2.9 g) were captured in production ponds and transferred to 100-L tank (density 100 g L− 1). After 24 h, 10 fish were sampled (before transport group). The remaining fish were placed in plastic bags (n = 30 or 32 fish per bag, density 150 g L− 1) containing 5 L of water (control), ethanol (315 μL L− 1, vehicle) or EOMS (25 or 35 μL L− 1), in triplicate, transported for 6 h and sampled (n = 10 animals per group). Indicators of stress and metabolism, as well as mRNA expression of brain hormones were evaluated. Previously, full-length cDNAs, encoding specific corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) and proopiomelanocortins (pomca and pomcb), were cloned from whole brain of R. quelen. Crh expression increased after 24 h of capture and handling, whereas cortisol and glucose plasmatics enhanced their values in the control group. Transport with EOMS reduced plasma cortisol and lactate levels, while ethanol and EOMS groups increased Na+/K+-ATPase gill activity compared to control. Gene expression of crh, pomcb, prolactin and somatolactin mRNAs were lower after transport with EOMS compared to control. EOMS was able to mitigate the stress pathways activation caused by transport, maintaining a balance in body homeostasis. Thus, EOMS is recommended as sedative in procedures as transport and the pre-transport handling requires greater attention and use of tranquilizers.
... Results β-Myrcene is far and away the most prevalent terpene in modern Cannabis chemovars in the USA [21] and in Europe [16], and is likely responsible for the narcotic-like sedative effects [33] (colloquially termed "couch-lock" [17]) of many common preparations in commerce, particularly in Type II and III chemovars. Such myrcene predominance is exemplified in the chemovar "Harlequin", one of the first commercial North American Type II plants bred to emphasize CBD content, which in testing displayed a THC : CBD ratio of 1 : 2.2 with a concentration of 0.45 % myrcene out of a low total of 1.1 % terpenoids. ...
Article
An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis. While high-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and high-myrcene chemovars dominate markets, these may not be optimal for patients who require distinct chemical profiles to achieve symptomatic relief. Type II Cannabis chemovars that display cannabidiol- and terpenoid-rich profiles have the potential to improve both efficacy and minimize adverse events associated with Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure. Cannabis samples were analyzed for cannabinoid and terpenoid content, and analytical results are presented via PhytoFacts, a patent-pending method of graphically displaying phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content, as well as scent, taste, and subjective therapeutic effect data. Examples from the breeding program are highlighted and include Type I, II, and III Cannabis chemovars, those highly potent in terpenoids in general, or single components, for example, limonene, pinene, terpinolene, and linalool. Additionally, it is demonstrated how Type I – III chemovars have been developed with conserved terpenoid proportions. Specific chemovars may produce enhanced analgesia, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects, while simultaneously reducing sequelae of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol such as panic, toxic psychosis, and short-term memory impairment.
... Other essential oils, such as Chrysopogon zizanioides [39] and Croton sanderianus [40], also have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity without sedative properties. Myrcene and linalool, which are components of the breu essential oil, have sedative and motor system depressant activities at high concentrations [53,54]. However, it appears that their concentrations in the nebulized and inhaled air fractions were not enough to trigger such effects. ...
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Background Breu is an aromatic oleoresin which has been used by Amazonian traditional communities as a remedy for headaches and migraines by burning and inhaling the smoke produced during its combustion. This study evaluated the antinociceptive and sedative activities of formulations containing breu essential oils administered by inhalation. Methods Five different formulations (A–E) containing breu essential oils were evaluated for their sedative and antinociceptive activities in mice. They were delivered for 20 minutes using an inhalation chamber coupled with a nebulizer and the air inside was collected by static headspace and analyzed by GC-FID. Results All nebulized formulations had similar chemical compositions and major compounds as the original essential oils. None of them resulted in significant increase in response time during the hot plate test. In the formalin test, Formulation E showed a significant inhibition of licking responses in the early (46.8%) and late (60.2%) phases. Formulation B was effective (36.9%) in the first phase and Formulation D (37.9%) in the second. None of the formulations presented sedative effects. Conclusion Breu essential oils, when inhaled, may present antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties without sedation. Additionally, nebulization proved to be an efficient method for administration of formulations containing these essential oils.
... The essential oil of C. aurantium L. var. amara possess antianxiety and motor relaxant effects in rats and mice [100,101]. The main flavonoids occurring in cultivated citrus species are flavanone glycosides, hespiridin and naringin, accounting for 5% of dry weight of leaves and fruits. ...
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Aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial and inherent pharmacological properties. Looking into natural resources, particularly products of plant origin, has become an exciting area of research in drug discovery and development. Aromatic plants are mainly exploited for essential oil extraction for applications in industries, for example, in cosmetics, flavoring and fragrance, spices, pesticides, repellents and herbal beverages. Although several medicinal plants have been studied to treat various conventional ailments only a handful studies are available on aromatic plants, especially for radioprotection. Many plant extracts have been reported to contain antioxidants that scavenge free radicals produced due to radiation exposure, thus imparting radioprotective efficacy. The present review focuses on a subset of medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity.
... Studies have demonstrated that monoterpenes have important properties in relation to inflammatory (Oliveira et al., 2012, de Santana et al., 2015, orofacial pain (Brito et al., 2013), cancer pain (Guimaraes et al., 2014, neuropathic pain and chronic musculoskeletal pain (Nascimento et al., 2014, Nascimento et al., 2015. D-limonene (LIM), a monocyclic monoterpene, is a major constituent in several Citrus oils (orange and lemon) (Sun, 2007), many plants of the Lippia genus (Verbanaceae) (do Vale et al., 2002) and Cannabis oils (Russo, 2011). In clinical trials, LIM has been shown to be safe with low toxicity after single and repeated dosing for up to one year (Vigushin et al., 1998). ...
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Chronic musculoskeletal pain is one of the main symptoms found in Fibromyalgia with unclear etiology and limited pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to complex LIM in β-cyclodextrin (LIM-βCD) and then evaluate its antihyperalgesic effect in an animal model of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy was used for the characterization of the inclusion complex. Male Swiss mice were used for experimental procedures where mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, muscular strength, Fos immunofluorescence was studied after induction of hyperalgesia. Mechanism of action was also investigated through tail flick test and capsaicin-induced nociception. Endothermic events and morphological changes showed that the slurry complex method was the best method for the complexation. After induction of hyperalgesia, the oral administration of LIM-βCD (50 mg/kg) significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold compared to uncomplexed limonene. Fos immunofluorescence showed that both compounds significantly decreased the number of Fos positive cells in the dorsal horn. In nociceptive tests, FLU was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of LIM-βCD. After intraplantar administration of capsaicin, LIM was able to significantly decrease time to lick. LIM-βCD has antihyperalgesic action superior to its uncomplexed form, with possible action in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These results suggest the possible applicability of LIM, uncomplexed or complexed with βCD, in conditions such as FM and neuropathic pain, for which there are currently only limited pharmacological options.
... This is less surprising recognizing that myrcene is one sedative agent of hops (Humulus lupulus) (Bisset & Wichtl, 2004). Additionally, it produces muscle relaxant effects in mice, and prolonged barbiturate sleep time (do Vale, Furtado, Santos, & Viana, 2002). These findings seem to explain the phenomenology of " couch-lock " commonly attributed to modern cannabis chemovars by its consumers. ...
Chapter
The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive. Medical and recreational consumers alike have long believed in unique attributes of certain cannabis chemovars despite their similarity in cannabinoid profiles. This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas. Additional parts of the cannabis plant provide a wide and distinct variety of other compounds of pharmacological interest, including the triterpenoid friedelin from the roots, canniprene from the fan leaves, cannabisin from seed coats, and cannflavin A from seed sprouts. This chapter will explore the unique attributes of these agents and demonstrate how cannabis may yet fulfil its potential as Mechoulam's professed “pharmacological treasure trove.”
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Myrcene is an aromatic volatile compound that is commercially well-known as a flavor ingredient in the food industry and a fragrance in the soap and detergent industry. Given the worldwide interest in natural antiphotoaging products, we investigated the protective effects of myrcene in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). NHDFs were subjected to 144[Formula: see text]mJ/cm(2)of UVB irradiation. The expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor (TGF-[Formula: see text]1) and type I procollagen were examined. We showed that myrcene decreased the production of ROS, MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6, and increased TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and type I procollagen secretions. Furthermore, myrcene treatment (0.1-10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) dramatically reduced the activation of MAPK-related signaling molecules such as p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK and AP-1 including p-c-Jun and p-c-Fos. Our data indicate that myrcene has a potential protective effect on UVB-induced human skin photoaging. Therefore, myrcene might have applications in the skincare industry.
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