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The Antislavery Movement as an Expression of the Eighteenth-Century Affective Revolution in England: An Ethnic Hypothesis.

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to place the affective revolution that occurred in England beginning in the eighteenth century within a perspective based on evolutionary psychology and a conflict theory of culture. It focuses on the movement to abolish the slave trade (which culminated in 1807) and slavery (1833) as motivated by empathy for African slaves beginning among dissenting religious movements (Quakers, Puritans) and extending ultimately to the Church of England. This movement was made possible because of the decline of aristocratic culture and the rise of egalitarianism beginning with the religious wars of the seventeenth century. This revolution is theorized to be a consequence of the rise to prominence of an egalitarian-individualist culture rooted in the hunter-gatherer cultures of Northern Europe. In such individualist cultures, social cohesion is maintained not by kinship relations (as occurs in clan-type social structures) but by moral reputation within the group. Over evolutionary time, individuals not conforming to the moral perspective of the group were ostracized, with major negative consequences on fitness. The anti-slavery movement created an ingroup based on moral attitudes toward the institution of slavery, excluding and ostracizing those who accepted slavery.

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Temperament and evolution The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture: Applications to Moral Idealism and Political Philosophy
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Kevin B. MacDonald, " Evolution, the Five Factor Model, and Levels of Personality. " Journal of Personality 63 (1995) 525–567; Kevin B. MacDonald, " Temperament and evolution. " In M. Zentner and R. L. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of Temperament (New York: Guilford Press, 2012), 273–296. 24 C. K. De Dreu, et al.. The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans. Science.;328(5984) (June, 11, 2010) 1408-11. doi: 0.1126/science.1189047. 25 James Ramsay, An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies (London: James Phillips, 1784), 2–3. http://books.google.com/books?id=Zf9AAAAAcAAJ&pg=PR1&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=3#v=onepag e&q&f=false 26 Clarkson, Thomas (1830). Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament, Vol. 1., (Augusta, GA: P. A. Brinsmade, 1830), 24.. http://books.google.com/books?id=YHwNAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=clarkson+slaves&hl=en&sa= X&ei=N82cUYOULpC40AHQ3oD4CQ&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=clarkson%20slaves&f=false 27 Kevin B. MacDonald, " Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture: Applications to Moral Idealism and Political Philosophy, " Politics and Culture (Issue, #1, April, 2010); see also Kevin B. MacDonald, " Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture. " Evolutionary Psychology, 7(2) (2009), 208–233.
The Quakers in Puritan England); Fischer, Albion's Seed. 179 Fischer, Albion's Seed, 448
  • Alone
Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy) (Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse, 2002), xxix–xlii. 178 Hugh Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964); Fischer, Albion's Seed. 179 Fischer, Albion's Seed, 448. 180 Ibid. 181 Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England, 75.
Stone, The family, sex and marriage in England 1500-1800. 162 Christopher H. Boehm, Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior (Cambridge: Cambridge
  • Richard Alexander
Richard Alexander, Darwinism and Human Affairs (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979); Stone, The family, sex and marriage in England 1500-1800. 162 Christopher H. Boehm, Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior (Cambridge: Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999). 163 Fischer, Fairness and Freedom, 386. 164 Ibid., 486–487.
Keith Stanovich The Robot's Rebellion: Finding Meaning in the
Keith Stanovich The Robot's Rebellion: Finding Meaning in the Age of Darwin (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004).
New Estimates Raise Civil War Death Toll http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/03/science/civil-war-toll-up-by-20-percent-in-new- estimate.html?pagewanted=all 176 In Ibid
  • In Ibid
174 In Ibid., 260. 175 " New Estimates Raise Civil War Death Toll, " New York Times, April 2, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/03/science/civil-war-toll-up-by-20-percent-in-new- estimate.html?pagewanted=all 176 In Ibid., 265. 177 Kevin MacDonald, " Diaspora Peoples, " (Preface to the paperback edition of A People That Shall Dwell
An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies
  • James Ramsay
James Ramsay, An Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies (London: James Phillips, 1784), 2-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=Zf9AAAAAcAAJ&pg=PR1&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=3#v=onepag
Effortful Control, Explicit Processing, and the Regulation of Human Evolved Predispositions
  • Macdonald
MacDonald, "Effortful Control, Explicit Processing, and the Regulation of Human Evolved Predispositions." 31 MacDonald, "Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture."
Jones is implying not allegiance to any particular religious dogma, but a tendency toward an effort "to live their lives in punctilious conformity to Christian teaching
  • Macdonald
MacDonald, "Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture." 37 Brown, Moral Capital, 398. In linking these tendencies to Puritanism, Jones is implying not allegiance to any particular religious dogma, but a tendency toward an effort "to live their lives in punctilious conformity to Christian teaching." Such people could be found in all the religious sects, including the Church of England. "They were united not by a specific form of Church constitution, but by a pietism, or precisianism, which aimed at promoting by an austere personal discipline the glory of God and 134 Ibid., 127-128.
The Charity School Movement
  • Jones
Jones, The Charity School Movement.
Fairness and Freedom, 386. 164 Ibid
  • Fischer
Fischer, Fairness and Freedom, 386. 164 Ibid., 486-487.
The Quakers in Puritan England
  • Hugh Barbour
Hugh Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964);
Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture
  • Macdonald
MacDonald, "Evolution and a Dual Processing Theory of Culture." 37 Brown, Moral Capital, 398.