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Classification Schemes for Visualization of Uncertainty in Digital Hypothetical Reconstruction

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Abstract

The chapter presents the methodology that has been adopted to develop a process for acquiring knowledge that is able to note and make the analysis of preliminary data and interpretation criteria used through a 3D modeling reconstructive process understandable. The classification schemes and criteria adopted aimed to validate the entire process, giving us the ability to visually assess the proper level of knowledge related to the reconstructive process, with its flaws and lacunae, and to carry out comparative operations on the set of data and information held.

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... Both documents suggest guidelines to avoid weaknesses and inconsistencies related to the use of computer-based visualisation introducing the necessity to document processes using metadata and paradata (Apollonio and Giovannini, 2015). Others authors focus their research to establish criteria to make the reconstructive process understandable (Apollonio, 2016;de Kramer, 2020;Demetrescu et al., 2016) and objectively quantifiable (Niccolucci and Hermon, 2010). Regarding the reconstruction processes, documentary heritage and historic images are usually the only sources used to model no more extant objects (Münster, 2013). ...
... The pyramid roof of the ciborium is deducted by a typological comparison and was probably shaped like a cusp (Porta, 2014). To scientifically validate the virtual reconstruction, this project started identifying reference sources gathered and classifying them using the linear scale proposed by Apollonio (2016). This scale can be considered as a classification scheme for visualisation of uncertainty and its colours can be used to label 3D elements in the reconstruction. ...
... r.c. based on reference to coeval building systems 8. reconstructive conjectures failing references Figure 8. Uncertainty gradient colour code (Apollonio, 2016) The uncertainty of a source differs from the accuracy of the information and explicit or implicit knowledge that can be derived from it. For example, sometimes it is possible to have archaeological or architectural evidence that is not conserved enough well to be useful in the geometric reconstruction of the artefact. ...
Article
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The paper presents a practical approach to define a hypothetical virtual reconstruction of the ciborium and pergola of Monte Sorbo's Church. The high accuracy of archaeological fragments, digitally acquired, allowed to hypothesize the entire sequences of decorations of architectural elements and to define their geometrical rules. Starting from the acquisition to the 3d modelling phase, the proposed virtual reconstruction combines original fragments with their lost parts modelled in a digital environment.Digital technologies offer nowadays the great possibility to visualize and understand cultural heritage in a new and attractive way. Digital models and virtual reconstructions have a key role in encouraging and promoting the development of good practices for recording, documenting, and making accessible scientific processes beyond visual appearance. The term virtual reconstruction, within the project, is used to describe a procedure that consists of making a 3D model that reproduces a digital copy of the original, assembling digitally acquired fragments with elements philologically reconstructed following the evidence-based geometrical rules. This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring possibilities on digital integration of different 3d models to re-define a visual appearance of lost architectural elements.
... Accordingly, in order not to mislead the learners, the visualization of the reconstructions should indicate where archeological finds end and reconstruction begins (Sifniotis et al., 2007). Therefore, various techniques have been developed to indicate uncertainties in architectural reconstructions, including grayscale, geometric abstraction or geometric contrast (Lengyel & Toulouse, 2011van der Wel et al., 1994), thickness and style (dotted or solid) of lines (Boukhelifa et al., 2012;Gershon, 1998;Griethe & Schumann, 2005;Strothotte et al, 1999), and also stop light colors (Apollonio, 2016;Apollonio & Giovannini, 2015;Danielová et al., 2016). Apollonio (2016) posits that among the methods to visualize uncertainty in 3D reconstructions, the use of color is the most efficient method because it allows for understanding in a clear manner and according to widely shared semantic codes. ...
... Therefore, various techniques have been developed to indicate uncertainties in architectural reconstructions, including grayscale, geometric abstraction or geometric contrast (Lengyel & Toulouse, 2011van der Wel et al., 1994), thickness and style (dotted or solid) of lines (Boukhelifa et al., 2012;Gershon, 1998;Griethe & Schumann, 2005;Strothotte et al, 1999), and also stop light colors (Apollonio, 2016;Apollonio & Giovannini, 2015;Danielová et al., 2016). Apollonio (2016) posits that among the methods to visualize uncertainty in 3D reconstructions, the use of color is the most efficient method because it allows for understanding in a clear manner and according to widely shared semantic codes. Correspondingly, MacEachren et al. (2012) showed that attribute trustworthiness was best represented by stop light colors, leading to the highest assessment accuracy values compared to other visualizations. ...
... In line with Boukhelifa et al. (2012), the three uncertainty levels represented by stop light colors could easily be discriminated and understood by the learners. The findings also confirm the assumptions and results of previous research by Apollonio (2016) as well as MacEachren et al. (2012) emphasizing the potential of stop light colors for interpretability. The present study additionally showed-to the best of our knowledge for the first time-that the ability to interpret and understand stop light colors as representations of uncertainty values was also transferred to new learning content. ...
Article
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Based on the knowledge generation model for visual analytics including uncertainty propagation and human trust building (Sacha et al. 2016), the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2014), the multimedia principle (Butcher, 2014), and previous studies on the effects of different uncertainty visualization styles, an integrated theoretical approach is proposed to examine the influence of different degrees of information uncertainty and different uncertainty visualization styles on processing pictures of two archeological reconstructions with accompanying audio explanations presented in a multimedia learning environment. A 4 × 3 design with condition (without uncertainty visualization vs. stop light colors vs. geometric contrast vs. both uncertainty visualizations) as the between-subjects factor and uncertainty value (uncertain vs. medium vs. certain) as the within-subject factor was used. The results showed that appearance of certain content, its uncertainty values, and their verbal scientific justifications were remembered better than uncertain ones. Furthermore, stop light colors enhanced the memory of uncertainty values compared to no uncertainty visualization and were better understood, discriminated, and transferred than geometric contrast. Geometric contrast decreased the memory of the appearance of uncertain architectural elements compared to no uncertainty visualization and was better than stop light colors regarding the memory of the appearance of certain architectural elements. The study integrates and extends existing theories by showing that certain contents are processed with higher priority than uncertain contents and that the multimedia effect is also valid for metainformation such as the uncertainties of contents. Finally, recommendations for designing learning material including uncertainty visualizations are given.
...  Much research about the visualization of different degrees of certainty [528][529][530] has led to a multitude of visual strategies for heritage content [531]. Current approaches can be roughly categorized into enrichment of representations by explanatory elements [532] and adaptation of representation quality, e.g., LoD or visual styling [522,530,[533][534][535][536][537].  Scaling has been frequently assessed as an important parameter for perceiving architecture [522,538]. ...
... Therefore, a suggestion for improving estimation and recognizability may be to focus on modelling surrounding objects, rather than on higher level of detail. There is also a long discourse about the visual representation of different degrees of hypothesis, from enrichment of representations by explanatory elements to adaptation of representation quality [535]. In the context of architectural visualization, however, viewer effect has rarely been empirically tested. ...
Article
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Digital 3D modelling and visualization technologies have been widely applied to support research in the humanities since the 1980s. Since technological backgrounds, project opportunities, and methodological considerations for application are widely discussed in the literature, one of the next tasks is to validate these techniques within a wider scientific community and establish them in the culture of academic disciplines. This article resulted from a postdoctoral thesis and is intended to provide a comprehensive overview on the use of digital 3D technologies in the humanities with regards to (1) scenarios, user communities, and epistemic challenges; (2) technologies, UX design, and workflows; and (3) framework conditions as legislation, infrastructures, and teaching programs. Although the results are of relevance for 3D modelling in all humanities disciplines, the focus of our studies is on modelling of past architectural and cultural landscape objects via interpretative 3D reconstruction methods.
... Unfortunately, from an epistemological point of view, a fixed definition of uncertainty/reliability/ambiguity does not exist. There is not a standard and shared method to visualize this kind of uncertainty [Kensek, 2007;Strothotte et al., 1999;Pang et al., 1997;Zuk et al., 2005;Perlinska, 2014;Bakker et al., 2003;Borghini, and Carlani, 2011;Apollonio et al., 2013;Vico Lopez, 2012;Georgiou, and Hermon, 2011;Demetrescu, 2015;Apollonio, 2016;Lulof et al., 2013]. There is a wide range of definitions with reference to the various fields of knowledge and different approaches, some less generic than others, concerning both the uncertainty and the ways of representing it. ...
... Such types of information may be used and elaborated in order to define a structured modeling procedure based on different levels of interpretation, characterized by a progressively increasing ordinal scale of uncertainty [Apollonio et al., 2013;Apollonio, 2016]: 1) reconstruction based on archaeological/architectural evidence 2) reconstruction based on original drawings 3) reconstruction based on design data related to stylistic/coeval similarities 4) reference to treatises, books, journals, articles or architectural guidelines written by the author (architect/artist) of the artifact studied 5) reference to treatises, books, journals, articles or the manual that the author (if known) has or could have used as his own reference 6) interpretative hypotheses related to a specific architectural style and/or historical period 7) interpretative hypotheses based on static analysis, referring to coeval construction systems, constructively plausible and compatible with the project ...
Article
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Among the many cases concerning the process of digital hypothetical 3D reconstruction a particular case is constituted by never realized projects and plans. They constitute projects designed and remained on paper that, albeit documented by technical drawings, they pose the typical problems that are common to all other cases. From 3D reconstructions of transformed architectures, to destroyed/lost buildings and part of towns. This case studies start from original old drawings which has to be implemented by different kind of documentary sources, able to provide - by means evidence, induction, deduction, analogy - information characterized by different level of uncertainty and related to different level of accuracy. All methods adopted in a digital hypothetical 3D reconstruction process show us that the goal of all researchers is to be able to make explicit, or at least intelligible, through a graphical system a synthetic/communicative level representative or the value of the reconstructive process that is behind a particular result. The result of a reconstructive process acts in the definition of three areas intimately related one each other which concur to define the digital consistency of the artifact object of study: Shape (geometry, size, spatial position); Appearance (surface features); Constitutive elements (physical form, stratification of building/manufacturing systems) The paper, within a general framework aimed to use 3D models as a means to document and communicate the shape and appearance of never built architecture, as well as to depict temporal correspondence and allow the traceability of uncertainty and accuracy that characterizes each reconstructed element.
... This means, that in this model, there will be different categories from 'existing currently' to 'can be determined with a low probability' (cf. [1], [10]). In order to realize such a model, we have to create its basements in a 3D computer graphics system (eg. in Autodesk 3ds Max) and to create the final version in MaxWhere based on that. ...
... There are many approaches, how to index and visualize uncertainty, re- spectively reliability. The methods reach from transparency, wireframe rendering [73], and different levels of details to color-coding the elements [74]. A combination of mul- tiple methods is also possible [75]. ...
Chapter
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Due to the ongoing digitization, digital libraries are used more and more by art and architectural historians. Nevertheless, the design of those platforms does not necessarily meet the expectations and user requirements of the scholars. This is especially valid for digital libraries dedicated to historic media such as photography. In this article, we aim to analyze the user community in a first step, in order to see from which fields of interest they come and how far developed their computer affinity is. In a second step, the user requirements of the scholars will be examined, specifically with regard to research questions of architectural history. Based upon those observations, in a third part a possible technical solution will be proposed that could facilitate the work with digital libraries as well as the research process. A case study on the question of the correlation between urban development and the perception of the city will give a further validation of the analytical parts, showing the deficits of yet existing digital libraries and highlighting starting points of further research support.
... Despite the fact that the practice of virtual reconstruction has a long tradition [17] (see Sect. 3.1) and that different digital tools and approaches to record the data provenance have been proposed in the last few years 1 [1,[14][15][16], there is not a shared standard for the documentation of the re-constructive record in archeology. There is an approach based on CIDOC-CRM that uses the Cultural Heritage Modeling Language (CHML) [9,10]: unfortunately the CIDOC-CRM has some limitations because it is implemented to describe physical objects and is not intended to describe more abstract and fuzzy concepts like in the case of virtual reconstruction. ...
Chapter
The focus of this paper is to highlight what are the major theoretical issues of virtual reconstruction in archeology (black-box effect, palimpsest-effect, role of accuracy) and explain how the Extended Matrix approach was designed to respond to these specific needs. The Extended Matrix (EM) is a tool that extends the stratigraphic approach to the recording and managing of the re-constructive record: one of the goals of this research is to prove that the stratigraphic method, intended as chronological reading of a spatial context, is able to compose a complete and multidimensional re-constructive record through the EM. This approach can improve the quality of virtual reconstructions non only for scientific purposes but also in the industry of Virtual Museums and Digital Libraries.
... Despite the fact that the practice of virtual reconstruction has a long tradition [17] (see Sect. 3.1) and that different digital tools and approaches to record the data provenance have been proposed in the last few years 1 [1,[14][15][16], there is not a shared standard for the documentation of the re-constructive record in archeology. There is an approach based on CIDOC-CRM that uses the Cultural Heritage Modeling Language (CHML) [9,10]: unfortunately the CIDOC-CRM has some limitations because it is implemented to describe physical objects and is not intended to describe more abstract and fuzzy concepts like in the case of virtual reconstruction. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The focus of this paper is to highlight what are the major theoretical issues of virtual reconstruction in archeology (black-box effect, palimpsest-effect, role of accuracy) and explain how the Extended Matrix approach was designed to respond to these specific needs. The Extended Matrix (EM) is a tool that extends the stratigraphic approach to the recording and managing of the re-constructive record: one of the goals of this research is to prove that the stratigraphic method, intended as chronological reading of a spatial context, is able to compose a complete and multidimensional re-constructive record through the EM. This approach can improve the quality of virtual reconstructions non only for scientific purposes but also in the industry of Virtual Museums and Digital Libraries.
... Within visualization research, the question of how to deal with uncertain data already belongs to one of the standard exercises of the field [156]. When dealing with CH data, the question of uncertainty is often discussed in the context of digital reconstruction of CH sites and 3D visualization [157]. When it comes to InfoVis of CH collections, we see a lack of discussion on the same level. ...
Article
Full-text available
After decades of digitization, large cultural heritage collections have emerged on the web, which contain massive stocks of content from galleries, libraries, archives, and museums. This increase in digital cultural heritage data promises new modes of analysis and increased levels of access for academic scholars and casual users alike. Going beyond the standard representations of search-centric and grid-based interfaces, a multitude of approaches has recently started to enable visual access to cultural collections, and to explore them as complex and comprehensive information spaces by the means of interactive visualizations. In contrast to conventional web interfaces, we witness a widening spectrum of innovative visualization types specially designed for rich collections from the cultural heritage sector. This new class of information visualizations gives rise to a notable diversity of interaction and representation techniques while lending currency and urgency to a discussion about principles such as serendipity, generosity, and criticality in connection with visualization design. With this survey, we review information visualization approaches to digital cultural heritage collections and reflect on the state of the art in techniques and design choices. We contextualize our survey with humanist perspectives on the field and point out opportunities for future research.
... e.g. 29,30]. However, in the context of architectural visualization a viewer effect has rarely been empirically tested. ...
Conference Paper
Digital 3D modelling methods have been widely applied to support research in the humanities since the 1980s. Since an academic discourse on these methods is still highly applicationoriented, this article reports both completed and planned investigations that are part of an ongoing postdoc thesis work intending to draw a “big picture” of digital 3D modelling methods for humanities research on EU level. As part of this endeavor, this paper presents research approaches and findings from four investigations particularly about the perception of visualizations generated from 3D architectural models. The focus of these studies is on the recognisability of 3D content and on the estimation of properties of the visualized architecture as well as aesthetics and plausibility of a visualization.
... Within visualization research, the question of how to deal with uncertain data already belongs to one of the standard exercises of the field [156]. When dealing with CH data, the question of uncertainty is often discussed in the context of digital reconstruction of CH sites and 3D visualization [157]. When it comes to InfoVis of CH collections, we see a lack of discussion on the same level. ...
... It will be difficult to decide whether an object changed so much that any metric information generated with photogrammetric methods is invalid. Furthermore, it is still discussed how to represent this error-prone data (Apollonio, 2016), (Kensek et al., 2004). It could be possible in a first step to categorize historical images using content-based image-retrieval on a very accurate scale and only use feature matching methods on image pairs of clearly the same building in the same state. ...
Article
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This contribution shows the generation of a benchmark dataset using historical images. The difficulties when working with historical images are pointed out and structured in three categories. Especially large viewpoint differences, image artifacts and radiometric differences lead to weak matching results with classical feature matching approaches. The necessity of publishing an own benchmark dataset is emphasized when comparing to existing datasets which are partly using synthetic data, well-known orientation or strictly categorized image differences. The presented image dataset consists at the moment of 24 images which are oriented in image triples using the properties of the Trifocal Tensor as a more stable image geometry. In the following, three different feature detectors and descriptors that have already been proven well on historical images (MSER, ORB, RIFT) are evaluated using the new benchmark dataset. Then, several outlier removal methods were applied on the detected features. The tests show that for the entirety of image pairs RIFT performs slightly better than the other two methods. Nonetheless, for some image pairs MSER significantly improves the matching score but even so, historical image pairs are difficult to be matched with the presented methods due to challenging outlier removal. Still, the estimated projective relative orientation could be used in an autocalibration approach to place the images in a metric scene.
... As stated before, the necessity to show complete models creates the challenge of depicting the different levels of likelihood of each part of the reconstructed scene (Favre-Brun, 2015; Apollonio, 2016;Gellert & Haas, 2016;Statham, 2019). There are many options for this: on the one hand, resorting to textual documentation, either that which can be displayed over the model -something that is becoming increasingly easier now that the systems for including annotations on 3D models or the generation of models connected to databases are more common-or the one accessible in attached documents (such as the report of the intervention work); on the other hand, visual resources such as changes in colour, thickness, transparency, level of detail of the geometries, the overlay with the remaining parts of the building, etc. can be also employed ( Figure 6). ...
Article
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p class="VARAbstract">The concept of mock-up, which share with the drawing the expressive synthesis for the analysis of the architectural form and evolution, is an invaluable asset for the preservation of the heritage. To mark the 175<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the Práxedes Mateo Sagasta’s secondary school of Logroño (Spain), an exhibition about the history of the institution was organized at the premises of La Rioja Library. The current school building became operational in 1900 and was built on the former site of a Carmelite convent. In fact, the convent rooms were the first location for the school, after the expropriations of religious communities during the mid-19th century. For the benefit of the aforementioned exhibition, it was considered interesting to generate a three-dimensional (3D) virtual reconstruction of the convent buildings to show how it would have looked. However, the lack of sufficient contemporary graphic information was a challenge, so it was decided that an efficient solution would be to generate the virtual reconstruction from a paper craft model, which had been created by the librarian of the secondary school as a result of his research on this matter. This text describes the 3D modelling of that cut-out element by means of monoscopic photogrammetry (perspective drawing) and the use of non-realistic rendering based on the appearance of the paper mock-up (and not trying to recreate the real image of the buildings) so as to provide a suggestive view of the convent and create interactive exhibition items. Moreover, the text deals with the long-term preservation and the improvement of the re-use of the 3D models. The former by resorting to institutional repositories —from which users can download the full detailed versions— and the latter employing versions able to be visualized in 3D warehouses (such as Sketchfab) and augmented reality (AR) applications. Highlights: A significant part of the architectural heritage is represented by mock-ups of different materials (paper, wood, metal and so on). Virtual modelling and augmented reality (AR) can be appropriate tools for materializing, recovering and disseminating scale models to the public. Techniques for geometric documentation and visual representation need to be adapted in order to tackle the peculiar features of these elements (size, materials, fragility, etc.). </ul
... For instance, in the cultural heritage reconstruction domain, where 3D reconstructed models are visualised, and a colour code is used to define the level of uncertainty. Each level of interpretation of the known evidences is associated with a colour, which visualises the uncertainty level of the performed reconstruction (Apollonio, 2016). ...
Article
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The digital twin (DT) incorporates measured data from the physical domain to create as-built or as-manufactured and as-operated product models. To comprehend some implications of creating a DT, this work provides a holistic review of the uncertainty of measured data and of the data flow context where they must be integrated. This work is based on the review of a selected group of publications and standards. The emphasis is on the as-built or as-manufactured 3D models and the showed uncertainty values refer to dimensional measurement data. The uncertainty ranges for different geometric data capture techniques are compare against the international dimensional tolerance grades. The alternative of predicting as-manufactured models is also discussed. Considering that parts must be manufactured within tolerances, the need to create as-manufactured 3D models, only for simulation purposes, is questioned. The uncertainty representation was also reviewed in three main groups of standards, and their location within the main data flow of the DT is illustrated.
... For instance, in the cultural heritage reconstruction domain, where 3D reconstructed models are visualised, and a colour code is used to define the level of uncertainty. Each level of interpretation of the known evidences is associated with a colour, which visualises the uncertainty level of the performed reconstruction (Apollonio, 2016). ...
Article
The digital twin (DT) incorporates measured data from the physical domain to create as-built or as-manufactured and as-operated product models. To comprehend some implications of creating a DT, this work provides a holistic review of the uncertainty of measured data and of the data flow context where they must be integrated. This work is based on the review of a selected group of publications and standards. The emphasis is on the as-built or as-manufactured 3D models and the showed uncertainty values refer to dimensional measurement data. The uncertainty ranges for different geometric data capture techniques are compare against the international dimensional tolerance grades. The alternative of predicting as-manufactured models is also discussed. Considering that parts must be manufactured within tolerances, the need to create as-manufactured 3D models, only for simulation purposes, is questioned. The uncertainty representation was also reviewed in three main groups of standards, and their location within the main data flow of the DT is illustrated.
... Therefore, a suggestion for projects with a focus on estimation and recognisability may be to rather focus on a modelling of surrounding objects than on higher level of detail. There is also a long discourse about the visual representation of different degrees of hypothesis which can be roughly distinguished with regard to an enrichment of representations by explanatory elements as well as an adaptation of a representation quality [47]. However, in the context of architectural visualization a viewer effect has rarely been empirically tested. ...
Chapter
Since more than 30 years digital 3D modelling methods have been used to support research and education about heritage and history. While an investigation on these topics is usually done from a perspective of digital humanities and cultural heritage, I investigate this topic by employing information studies methods from scientometrics, user behaviour research, and information practices. This article shows research questions and key findings from 15 completed studies that are part of an ongoing postdoc thesis work. Incorporated studies report about scholarly communities, usage practices, methodologies, technologies as well as design implications and educational strategies.
... Historically accurate 4D content is of disperse visual quality and visualization strategies are rarely empirically proven (section 5): Since historical sources are potentially biased, incomplete, and low-quality [e.g., 87] they cannot provide a comprehensive image of consistent quality -e.g., due to parts of buildings not being shown in images or impossible to read. Beside the issue for 4D content creation, various visual strategies have been tried to deal with uncertainty and incomplete information[e.g., 3,53,68,71]. The next challenge is to deploy a coherent visual strategy on a large scale and then to evaluate its effect and understandability for the viewer. ...
Conference Paper
The Kulturerbe4D project aims at making the diversity and change processes of architectural monuments in the urban context virtually visible and experienceable, especially for children and young people, but also for residents and tourists. A virtual city tour providing cultural and historical information is to be combined with the transfer of knowledge about monuments, anthropogenic factors of influence, and protective measures. This article focusses on three main challenges in producing city-scale mobile 4D applications: (a) 4D content creation specifically for historical purposes is highly labour intensive, (b) web applications are better accepted by users but require more adoption to cope with technical limitations, (c) historically accurate 4D content is of disperse visual quality and visualization strategies are rarely empirically proven. Within this article we present our research and development work to overcome those issues.
... In the last few years an increasing number of experts have been paying attention to data provenance in (3D) virtual reconstruction (see recent introduction of classification proposals: Münster et al. 2016a, Münster et al. 2016b, Apollonio 2016. A common approach used to represent the thought processes behind the creation of a (3D) reconstruction is to annotate them using meta-data descriptions. ...
Article
The goal of this paper is to present original methods and visual tools able to formally document the scientific processes behind an archaeological virtual reconstruction, namely a new version of the Extended Matrix (EM 1.1) and the Extended Matrix Framework (EMF 1.1). The proposed approach aims to improve the EM as well as methods and tools for 3D query, visualization, and inspection of extended matrices in order to solve current bottlenecks and issues with the integration of 3D virtual environments and rich semantic descriptions (EMF). A real case scenario is provided to present the steps involved in a reconstruction project using EM/EMF: the Great Temple of the ancient Roman town Colonia Dacica Sarmizegetusa.
Article
A evolução das tecnologias digitais e os episódios recentes de destruição de bens da herança cultural, estão sendo determinantes para a larga produção de modelos de reconstrução digital de monumentos, sítios e artefatos históricos. O posicionamento dos órgãos de proteção, muitas vezes têm encorajado a reconstrução como forma de reafirmação política contra extremistas e de fortalecimento da resiliência das comunidades. Este fato é uma das principais justificativas para a ampla utilização dessas reconstruções digitais. Menos polêmico e reversível, este tipo de modelo digital, tem como objetivo representar monumentos e objetos desaparecidos, restaurando-os visualmente a um dado momento da sua história. A reconstrução de monumentos sempre foi um tema polêmico para a ciência da Conservação e do Restauro, considerada por Viollet-le-Duc como uma ferramenta corretiva importante para o restauro, mas também como prática condenável por Ruskin e Riegl, mas tida como inaceitável para Brandi, pois: "[...] a reconstrução tenta remodelar o antigo com o novo sem distingui-los e reduzir ao máximo o intervalo de tempo que separa esses dois momentos, enfim, tenta fazer com que um lapso de tempo desapareça." Apesar disto, a reconstrução digital é difundida como prática aceitável atestada por recomendação internacional. Na reconstrução digital assim como no restauro real, o aspecto de autenticidade do objeto é respaldado em pesquisas científicas e históricas, contudo nisto também reside um problema fundamental: a das muitas interpretações possíveis dos dados históricos, que é influenciada pela própria noção de valor histórico. Assim sendo, como deveriam ser tratadas as reconstruções digitais uma vez que se pretende delas a condição de documento histórico e de modelo de informação histórica? Constata-se em alguns trabalhos que a reconstrução digital pode se apresentar sob diferentes aspectos, como a de obra artística cuja função é predominantemente estética ou de entretenimento, normalmente utilizados em jogos eletrônicos e marketing turístico. Outro aspecto, varia de documento histórico à ilustração científica, sendo caracterizado pelo seu valor científico. Pesam sobre esses valores aspectos como autenticidade, integridade e rigor científico onde, a forma de reconstrução tende a seguir as recomendações oficiais e de manuais de boas práticas em salvaguarda e proteção da herança cultural. Nesse contexto, este artigo propõe refletir sobre a tese de que estas reconstruções digitais não devem ser vistas apenas como mera recuperação visual, mas também como a materialização (em meio digital) da herança cultural e isto implica na construção de modelos digitais capazes de representar e transmitir valores tanto do patrimônio material como imaterial, apresentando as diferentes versões da história, sem obliterar seu par real e seus significados. Palavras-chave: Herança Cultural, Autenticidade, Reconstrução Digital.
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On the occasion of the recent restoration of the sixteenth century Neptune’s Fountain in Bologna, promoted by the municipality in 2015 to preserve one of the major town’s landmark, high-quality imagery has been acquired for documenting the current state of preservation of the marble and bronze surfaces before and during the restoration phases. Starting from this available detailed photographic campaign and using new tools developed to solve problems linked with some limitations of the captured imagery, authors produced a photogrammetry-based 3D model of the monumental sculpture group, reliable for both geometric features and colour reproduction consistency, in order to be used to support the supplementary activities not foreseen in the original project. The paper presents methods and techniques implemented to produce the 3D model of the fountain, besides its main actual applications as a basic tool to support different restoration activities: (i) reliable documentation of the actual state; (ii) high-quality visualization and rendering; (iii) technical outcomes and graphical representation extraction; (iv) study of original and current water supply system and simulation of the new project for the jets system and watergames; (v) new lighting design simulation; (vi) structural analysis; (vii) support to preliminary analysis and design studies related to hardly accessible areas; (viii) surface cleaning analysis; (ix) base for filling gaps or missing elements through 3D printing; (x) support for data modelling and semantic-based diagrams.
Chapter
This chapter gives an overview of the new families of applications that have emerged or that have undergone massive development in the past over few years. It first analyzes the manufacturing industry, exploring the development of virtual reality (VR), the emergence of augmented reality (AR) and the question of return on investment. The chapter looks at recent results in the field of training and in the field of heritage. It discuss the AR techniques that can potentially visually enrich information through a fusion of intraoperative images and preoperative data (e.g. images, virtual 3D models), which help guide the surgeon during the operation. The chapter further presents a few examples of VR being used in the context of learning in the field of surgery. It examines applications related to city life, architecture and urbanism and focuses especially on developing mobility.
Chapter
The paper presents a critical analysis regarding the methodological approach useful to produce 3D digital contents of Cultural Heritage artifacts in context of Digital Archives. The structure of 3D model and the reconstruction process are analyzed in order to elaborate and formalize semantic knowledge concerning the work of art, object of study. Some experiences recently carried-out can show the development of some web-based platform able to allow the use of contents properly related to the characteristics of the case study.
Chapter
The virtual (re-)construction of architectural artefacts that never existed or were destroyed is a research topic that currently presents several problems. This study, starting from a state of the art briefly described, tries to answer various questions: describe what a Critical Digital Model (CDM) is and what qualities it must fulfil to be scientifically constructed, visualized and evaluated. The qualities described are the followings: constructive aspects, the geometric accuracy and qualification of the 3D models; Traceability, use of sources and documentation, and the quality of historical (re-)construction; Accessibility and interoperability, compatibility with the publication on platforms/repositories and Data model Exchange formats; Visualization, graphic output to communicate scientific content throughout the 3D models. In particular, the latter quality is thorough, and some case studies are presented. Among these case studies, particular attention is given to the diplomatic representation and to the representation of the degree of uncertainty of the historical reconstruction of the model.
Chapter
The text presents theoretical considerations of the character and role of visual representations in the process of virtual modeling for architectural heritage. These images of the past are analyzed in different contexts, including contemporary culture with its visual character and the modeling process itself, treated as a simulation of the past, with references to modeling and the simulation theory. Terminology aspects regarding the commonly used term “reconstruction” are discussed in the light of the character of virtual models of architectural heritage, their provenance and usage. The role of images as meta-representations of the possible modeled reality visual representations of models is also considered. The need for standards and best practices in the area of visual language and image production for architectural heritage is discussed. The emphasis is put on the methods to neutralize the seductive character of computer-based visualizations. Finally, a postulate for interactivity to be focused more on creating user-based scenarios based on research hypotheses rather than concentrated on the walkability of an immersive environment is formulated.
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he Swedish Pompeii Project started in 2000 as a research and fieldwork activity initiated by the Swedish Institute in Rome. The aim was to record and analyze an entire Pompeian city-block, Insula V 1. Since autumn 2011 a new branch of advanced digital archaeology, involving 3D reconstructions and documentation methods, was added to the project agenda. The insula was completely digitized using laser scanner technology and the raw data were employed to develop different research activities in the area of digital visualization. This paper presents the recent results of the 3D interpretation of the house of Caecilius Iucundus. This research activity was developed employing a large variety of historical and archaeological sources such as: archaeological reports, historical image documentation (printed as well as in edited material) and analysis of the in situ structures. This work was characterized by the experimentation of a new workflow of data development, where the elaboration of the interpreted structures took place directly in virtual space, using the scanned model as geometrical reference. This method easily connected all the historical and archaeological sources collected for the interpretation, opening a new discussion about different possible interpretation of the house. Moreover, a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) was used in different occasions as platform where the different hypotheses could be discussed in the context given by the actual state of the archaeological structures. The use of an accurate and resolute replica of the site as a backdrop for the virtual reconstruction allowed a high level of control on the proposed hypotheses during the interpretation process. This study enabled the acquisition of new and important information about the house, thus, bringing a significant contribution to the archaeological analysis of Insula V 1, suggested as pilot project for wider use.
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