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Abstract

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill which belongs to the family Apiaceae is a bright green plant, which is cultivated widely in the tropic, subtropic, and temperate regions. It is a biennial plant which is widely cultivated as an annual plant. Traditionally, roots of P. crispum has been used as a powerful diuretic, seeds have been used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, and in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, halitosis, kidney stones, and amenorrhea. Leaves of P. crispum have been employed in the treatment of hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal disorders, diuretic, and as a food-flavoring agent in addition to its common usage as vegetable. P. crispum has been found to possess many pharmacological effects including, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, and gastroprotective properties. Hence this section reviews the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of P. crispum.
Chapter 25
Petroselinum crispum: A review
Christian Agyare1, Theresa Appiah1, Yaw Duah Boakye1, John Antwi
Apenteng2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,
Kumasi, Ghana
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central University College, Accra, Ghana
Short title: P. crispum
Abstract
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill which belongs to the family Apiaceae is a
bright green plant, which is cultivated widely in the tropic, sub-tropic and temperate regions.
It is a biennial plant which is widely cultivated as an annual plant. Traditionally, roots of P.
crispum has been used as a powerful diuretic, seeds have been used as antimicrobial,
antiseptic, antispasmodic and in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation,
halitosis, kidney stones and amenorrhea. Leaves of P. crispum have been employed in the
treatment of hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal disorders, diuretic and as a food flavouring agent
in addition to its common usage as vegetable. P. crispum has been found to possess many
pharmacological effects including, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective,
anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant and gastroprotective properties.
Hence this section reviews the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of
P. crispum.
Keywords: Petroselinum crispum; Apiaceae; pharmacological activities; chemical
composition; parsley
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1. Introduction
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill belongs to the family Apiaceae or
Umbelliferae and the genus Petroselinum. It is commonly called parsley/garden parsley in
English, ‘patraseli’, ‘patrasoli’ or ‘potrasoli’ in Indonesia, ‘phakchi-farang’ in Thailand,
‘vannsuy baraing’ in Cambodia, ‘paseri’ in Japan, ‘pietersielie’ in Africa, ‘persil’ in France
and ‘bagdouness or ‘maadnous’ in Arab (Ipor and Oyen, 1999; Quattrocchi, 2012).
Synoymons of P. crispum are Apium crispum Mill., Apium petroselinum L., Petroselinum
hortense Hoffm. and Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.
Petroselinum crispum is believed to be originally grown in Sardinia (Mediterranean area) and
was cultivated from circa 3rd century BC. Linnaeus stated its wild habitat to be Sardinia,
whence it was brought to England and apparently first cultivated in Britain in 1548; Bentham
considered it a native of the Eastern Mediterranean regions; De Candolle of Turkey, Algeria
and the Lebanon. Since its introduction into these islands in the sixteenth century it has been
completely naturalized in various parts of England and Scotland, on old walls and rocks.
In ancient times, parsley was not only used for culinary and medical purposes, it was
subjected to wide variety of superstitious beliefs by the Greeks and ancient Romans.
The ancient Greeks mainly used parsley as a form of decoration for funeral wreaths and
crowns of parsleys to honour the winners of Nenena and Isthmain sport games (Tucker, and
DeBaggio, 2009). The ancient Roman used parsley for deodorizing the corpse and cover up
the alcohol on their breath. Parsley was used in Hebrew celebration of Passover as the symbol
of spring and rebirth. It was rumoured that Catherine de'Medici (Queen consort
of France) was responsible for popularizing parsley in the 16th century, when she brought it
back to France from Italy. Later, Christianity carried on this tradition by associating parsley
with the Apostle Peter because of his designation as warder of the gates of heaven. The
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ancient Greeks and Romans did not commonly eat parsley. However, they did grow it in their
gardens as a border, and it was thought to be wonderful fodder for chariot horses.
Parsley was appreciated for its medicinal properties long before it became accepted as a food
or spice. It was probably first commonly eaten in Europe in the Middle Ages. The flat leafed
variety was not initially eaten because it was easily confused with false-parsley (a noxious
weed). However, the curly leafed variety soon found its way to plates and dishes since it has
the ability to cleanse the breath and the palate (Yanardag et al., 2003). It was soon commonly
used as a garnish (Grieve, 2014). Today parsley is found in a wide variety of dishes. It is
commercially sold in both fresh and dried forms (Rayment, 2016).
2. Plant Description
Petroselinum crispum is a bright green, annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas. In
temperate climates, it grows as a biennial, where in the first year, it forms a
rosette of tripinnate leaves with numerous leaflets and a taproot used as a food store over the
winter. In the second year, it grows as a flowering plant with sparser leaves and flat-topped
diameter umbels with numerous yellow to yellowish-green flowers (Simon, 1990).
It is an erect copiously branched, herb that can grow up to 30 to 100 cm tall, aromatic in all
parts and smooth. The stem is cylindrical, grooved and hollow. The leaves are arranged
alternately, 1-3-pinnately compound, dark green, glossy, flat or curled and with sheath at the
base. The petiole is longest in the lower leaves. The pinnae are long-stalked, with obovate-
cuneate to finely linear leaflets, which are divided into acute segments. The higher leaves are
gradually less divided while the topmost leaf consists of a few acute segments only.
The inflorescence is a terminal or axillary compound umbel. The 1-3 foliolate bracts are
rather short. There are 3 to 15 secondary rays (pedicels) which are 2 to 5 mm long. The
flowers are small, yellow-green and bisexual. The sepal is obscure. The petal consists of 5
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petals which are sub-orbicular to obovate, measuring up to 1 mm x 0.5 mm and sub-
marginate with an inflexed apical lobe. There are 5 stamens. The pistil is with an inferior and
2-carpelled ovary where each carpel is with a thickened stylopodium, a style and a spherical
stigma.The fruit is a schizocarp, measuring 2 to 3 mm long, ovoid and it splits into 2
mericarps when ripen with each having 5 narrow ribs.
The root system is slender, fibrous with taproot measures up to 1 m long, sometimes
thickened and with a radical rosette of leaves when young (Ipor and Oyen, 1999).
The seeds are ovoid, 2 to 3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. The plant
normally dies after seed maturation (Huxley, 1992).
Though several cultivated varieties exist, the three main varieties of P. crispum are; P.
crispum var. neapolitanum, P. crispum var. tuberosum and P. crispum var. crispum. P.
crispum var. crispum-curled-leaf parsley and P. crispum var. neapolitanum-flat-leafed
(Italian) parsley. Flat-leafed parsley is generally harder than the curled-leaf (Herbst, 2001). P.
crispum var. tuberosum is grown as a root vegetable (Grin, 2008). It is commonly known
as ‘Hamburg parsley’ or ‘turnip-root parsley’. This type of parsley produces much thicker
roots than types cultivated for their leaves, with a root as much as six times the size as that of
garden parsley (Hanrahan and Frey, 2005). Many cultivars exist for both the curled-leaf and -
flat-leaf types. The curly leaf and plain leaf types are cultivated for their foliage, whereas root
parsley is grown as a root vegetable (Tuckerand DeBaggio, 2009)
3. Geographical distribution
Petroselinum crispum probably originated in the Western Mediterranean. It occurs naturally
in most Mediterranean and many temperate countries. It is an old crop, which was already
well-known in classical Greece and Rome. It is now widely grown in many tropical areas
including East and West Africa. P. crispum is widely grown for its leaves in most
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Mediterranean countries, Europe and North America. In the tropics, including South East
Asia, it is cultivated on a small scale. Varieties with thickened, edible taproot are of recent
origin and probably developed around 1500 AD in Northern Germany. Their cultivation is
concentrated in North-Western and Eastern Europe and among North Americans. Parsley is
widely distributed in Turkey, and grown in gardens and fields (Yanardag et al., 2003).
In Africa, P. crispum is occasionally found as an escape or relic of cultivation. Itis cultivated
in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mozambique, South Africa, Morocco and Tunisia as a medicinal herb
used in treating cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension (Gadi et al., 2009). In
most African countries, P. crispum is usually grown on small plots for market gardening,
though no statistical information on areas under production or market volumes are available
(Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1988). The plant prefers a sunny to half-shady
environment on fresh to moist soil. The substrate used is usually sandy loamy soil with a pH
between 6.5 and 7.5. P. crispum tolerates temperatures down to -29°C.
4. Ethnomedicinal uses
Petroselinum crispum has been used as a medicinal plant for ailments and complaints of the
gastro-intestinal tract, as well as the kidney and lower urinary tract, and for stimulating
digestion (Blumenthal et al., 2000). The root of P. crispum is used as a powerful diuretic
(Pharmacopoeia Jugoslavica, 1951). Furthermore, it is used for the treatment of dyspepsia,
cystitis, dysmenorrhea, functional amenorrhea and myalgia (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). P.
crispum is used for the management of menstrual disorders, and as emmenagogue,
galactagogue and stomachic. It is also applied externally against head lice (Wichtl and Bisset,
1994).
Apart from it wide usage as a green vegetable and garnish, P. crispum is used for different
medicinal purposes in traditional and folklore medicine of different countries. Seeds have
been used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic and sedative agents and in the treatment
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of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, halitosis, kidney stones and amenorrhea, and also
as carminative, astringent and gastrotonic in Iran (Behtash et al., 2008; Moazedi, et al., 2007;
Aghili et al., 2009; Tonkaboni et al., 2007; Avicenna, 1983). It is used as diuretic in Turkey
(Marczal et al., 1997) and carminative as well as treatment for gastritis in Peru (Rehecho et
al., 2011).
Leaves of P. crispum have been employed as food flavour, antitussive and diuretic
and also in the treatment of kidney stones, hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal disorder, blurred
vision and dermatitis (Aghili et al., 2009; Tonkaboni et al., 2007; Avicenna, 1983). The
leaves are also used to manage bleeding, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic disorders and
diabetes in Turkey. Leaves serve are employed as food flavor (Wong and Kitts, 2006) and for
treatment for skin diseases (Aljanaby, 2013) in China and Iraq, respectively. In Moroccan
traditional healing system, the leaves are used in arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac
disease, renal disease, lumbago, eczema and nose bleed (Ziyyat et al., 1997; Eddouks et al.,
2002; Jouad et al., 2001; Merzouki et al., 1997). The leaves are also used for the treatment of
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhea, kidney stones, prostatitis, diabetes, halitosis, anaemia,
hypertension, hyperuricaemia, constipation, odontalgy, pain, baldness and induction of
abortion in Spain (Benítez et al., 2010) and urinary tract diseases and management of fluid
retention in Serbia (Savikin et al., 2013). Its aerial parts are used as abortifacient in Italy
(Montesano et al., 2012).
5. Pytochemical constituents
The healing properties and medical use of P. crispum are mostly related to a wide range of
active biomolecules present in the plant. Phytochemical constituents and compounds have
been isolated from seeds, roots, leaves or petioles through bioassay-guided separation,
essential oils obtained by methods such as simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) and
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analyzed by techniques such as multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MCCC), gas
chromatography (GC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, gas chromatography-
mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) or high
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These phytochemical constituents can be
grouped into the flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oils and other miscellaneous
compounds.
5.1. Essential oil components
Seeds of P. crispum produce high amount of essential oils. Root and leaf also contain
essential oils (Bruneton, 1999). Myristicin (phenylpropene) (1) and apiol (phenylpropanoid)
(2) are the two main components of P. crispum essential oil which are responsible for its
antioxidant activity (Zhang et al., 2006). α-pinene (sesquiterpene hydrocarbon) (3),
monoterpene hydrocarbons [(sabinene (4), β-pinene (5), ρ-cymene (6), limonene (7), β-
phellandrene (8) and γ-terpinene (9)], phenylpropenes [1-allyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-methoxy-benzene
(10), eugenol (11) and elemicin (12)] have also been isolated from seeds of P. crispum
(Zhang et al., 2006; Wagner and Bladt, 1996). Zhang et al. (2006) and Wagner and Bladt
(1996) also reported the presence of carotol (alcohol sesquiterpene) (13), myristicin and apiol
in P. crispum seeds. Roots of P. crispum has been found to contain two C17 polyacetylenic
alcohols [heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol (14) and heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyn-
3,8-diol (15)] (Nitz et al., 1990; Christensena and Brandtb, 2015).
Essential oil obtained from the leaves of P. crispum have been revealed to contain
sesquiterpene hydrocarbons [β-caryophyllene (16), γ-elemene (17) and β-elemene (18)],
aldehydes [phenylacetaldehyde (19), benzaldehyde (20) and hexanal (21)], monoterpene
hydrocarbons [β-pinene, sabinene, 3-carene (22), camphene (23), α-thujene (24), myrcene
(25), α-phellandrene (26), β-phellandrene, α-terpinene (27), cis-β-ocimene (28), trans-β-
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ocimene (29), α-terpinolene (30) and ρ-1,3,8-menthatriene (31)], monoterpene alcohols [α-
terpineol (32) and 2-(ρ-Tolyl) propan-2-ol (33)], aromatic compounds [toluene (34) and m-
xylene (35) and/or ρ-xylene (36)], sesquiterpene hydrocarbons [α-cubebene (37), α-copaene
(38), β-bisabolene (39) and α-elemene (40)], 2-pentylfuran (ether) (41), cis-Hex-3-en-1-ol
(alcohol) (42), cryptone (ketone) (43), δ-cadinol (sesquiterpene alcohol) (44), elemicin, α-
pinene, limonene, γ-terpinene and ρ-cymene (Macleod et al., 1985).
Analysis of volatile oil from P. crispum plant, cell culture and callus showed that
monoterpenes were the main constituent. ρ-1,3,8-menthatriene was the most abundant
compound among the monoterepenes followed by β-phellandrene and apiol. Aldehydes
[nonanal (45) and decanal (46)] and also fatty acids (Free and bound) were found in the
volatile oil (López et al., 1999). The triacylglycerol, tripetroselinin (47) has been isolated
from the seeds of P. crispum (Destaillats et al., 2009). Guieta et al. (2015) showed that seeds
of P. crispum containsthe fatty acid and petroselinic acid (48). The chemical structures of
compounds from essential oils are shown in Figure 1-25.
[Figure 1-25]
5.2. Other constituents
The most dominant compounds of P. crispum are the flavonoids (Pápay et al., 2012).
Flavonoids (Figure 2-25); isorhamnetin (49) , apigenin (50), quercetin (51), luteolin (52) and
chrysoeriol (53) were identified in cell suspension cultures of P. crispum (Kreuzaler and
Hahlbrock, 1973; Hempel et al., 1999). Gadi et al. (2012) isolated kaempferol (54) and
apigenin in P. crispum leaf extract. Flavonoids apigenin and flavonoid glycosides [apiin (55)
and cosmosiin (56)] were obtained from aqueous leaf extract of P. crispum (Chaves et al.,
2011). A flavone glycoside, 6-acetylapiin (57) and petroside (58), its monoterpene glucoside,
8
the furanocoumarin cnidilin (59) and the flavone glycosides [diosmetin 7-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside (60) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (61)] have been isolated from
the methanol aerial part of P. crispum (Yoshikawa et al., 2000). However, the main reported
flavonoids in P. crispum are apiin and luteolin (Fejes et al., 1998; Nielsen et al., 1999; Fejes
et al., 2000).
Apiose (62) is a sugar detected in the stem, seed and leaf of P. crispum (Hudson,
1949). Apiose and D-glucose (63) (Figure 2-25) have also been identified in cell suspension
cultures of P. crispum (Kreuzaler 1973). These sugars mostly contribute to the structure of
flavonoid glycosides (Farzaei et al., 2013).
Furocoumarins (Figure 2-25) including oxypeucedanin hydrate (64) oxypeucedanin
(65), psoralen (66), isopimpinellin (67), 8-methoxypsoralen (68), 5-methoxypsoralen (69)
and imperatorin (70) have been isolated from the leaves and roots of P. crispum.
Oxypeucedanin is the major furocoumarin of P. crispum and is reported to be mainly
responsible for contact photodermatitis induced by this plant (Chaudhary et al., 1986).
Davey et al. (1996) isolated ascorbic acid (71) (Figure 2-25) from the whole aerial
parts of P. crispum. Leung and Foster (1996) reported high levels of vitamins A, C, some
vitamins of the B complex, calcium and iron in P. crispum. It is a well-known herb used to
give fragrance to different food products. The use of P. crispum as a natural deodorant is
related to the presence of a high amount of chlorophyll (Leung and Foster, 1996). The
sesquiterpenes; crispane (72) and crispanone (73) have been isolated from the ethanol seed
extract of P. crispum (Spraul et al., 1992). Carotenoids such as neoxanthin (74), β-carotene
(75), lutein (76) and violaxanthin (77) were isolated from the leaf and stem acetone extracts
of P. crispum (Francis and Isaksen, 1989). The oxygenated derivative of monoterpens, 1-
methyl-4-(methylethenyl)-2,3-dioxabicyclo [2.2.2] oct-5-ene (78) and 4-methyl-7-
(methylethenyl)-3,8- dioxatricyclo [5.1.0] octane (79) (Behtash et al., 2008; Moazedi, et al.
9
2007; Aghili et al., 2009) were isolated from ethanol leaf extract of P. crispum (Nitz et al.,
1989).
[Figure 2-25]
6. Pharmacological properties
P. crispumhas been found to possess various pharmacological activities such as antibacterial,
antifungal, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hypotensive, hepato-protective, neuroprotective,
analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-coagulant, anti-ulcer, and estrogenic
properties (Table 1-25).
6.1. Antimicrobial activity
The antibacterial and antifungal activities of some isolated compounds and extracts from P.
crispum have been reported (Manderfield et al., 1997; Wong and Kitts, 2006; Aljanaby,
2013; Kim et al., 1998; Holton and Basset, 2005). Seyyednejad et al. (2008) reported that 0.1
and 0.2 g/mL of ethanol seed extract of P. crispum exhibited antibacterial activity against
Brucella melitensis.Hot-water extract of P. crispum leaves (250 mg/mL) has been shown to
possess antimicrobial activity against P. Aeruginosa (Aljanaby, 2013). Furocoumarins 65-69
isolated from aqueous extracts of P. crispum leaves (0.12 to 8.0%) have been found to exhibit
inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Erwinia carotovora and
Listeria innocua (Manderfield et al., 1997) using a media-modified and photobiological assay
(Table 1-25).
6.2. Antioxidant activity
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Using the 2,2,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and potassium
ferricyanide-ferric chloride assay, Marín et al. (2016) reported that essential oils extracted
from parsley flowers by hydrodistillation exhibited antioxidant activity at 500, 1000, 2000
and 5000 mg/mL with the highest concentration exhibiting inhibition of DPPH radical at
64.28% and ferric reducing power of 0.93 mmol/L Trolox. Haidari et al. (2011) by means of
the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), lipid peroxidation and spectrophotometry (high
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and bicinchoninic acid kit) assay reported that
aqueous extracts of P. crispum leaves and its isolated flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol)
at a concentration of 5 mg/g significantly (p<0.001) increased the total antioxidant capacity
and decreased malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats.
Leaf and stem aqueous and methanol extracts of P. crispum have been identified to
possess antioxidant activity in vitro via the DPPH radical-scavenging, ion-chelating and
hydroxyl radical assays (Wong et al., 2006). Methanol-derived leaf extracts exhibited
significantly (p<0.05) greater radical-scavenging activity towards both lipid-and water-
soluble radicals, which was attributed to the total phenolic content. Ferrous ion-chelating
activity was significantly (p<0.05) greater in the stem methanol extracts.
Sęczyk et al. (2015) using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay reported that wheat pasta
fortified with powdered P. crispum leaves [1 to 4% (w/w)] exhibited antioxidant activity in
vitro. Essential oil from seeds of P. crispum exhibited antioxidant activity using beta-carotene
bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging and Fe2+- metal chelating assays. The EC50 values of
the b-carotene bleaching assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay of the crude P.
crispum oil dissolved in methanol were 5.12 and 80.21 mg/mL, respectively (Zhang et al.,
2006) (Table 1-25).
6.3. Anti-diabetic activity
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Tunali et al. (1999) reported that aqueous extract of P. crispum leaves (2 g/kg) prevented an
increase in blood glucose level in rats by using the o-toluidine and 2-thiobarbituric acid
assays. Aqueous extract of P. crispum leaves (2 g/kg) was identified to increase lipid
peroxidation and decrease glutathione levels in hyperglycemia-induced heart and aorta
oxidative damage in rats via its antioxidant activity in the heart and aorta tissue (Sener et al.,
2003). Using the o-toluidine and two point assay, Bolkent et al. (2005) reported that aqueous
extract of P. crispum leaves (2 g/kg) demonstrated significant hepato-protective effect in
diabetic rats. Yanardağ et al. (2003) showed that experimental rats administered with 2 g/kg
of P. crispum extract by intragastric intubation containing water for 28 days, significantly
(p<0.0001) reduced blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using the o-
toluidine assay (Table 1-25).
6.4. Cardiovascular activity
Crude aqueous extract of P. crispumhas been identified to exhibit anti-platelet activity in
experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo, and on bleeding time in
vivo. The crude extract which contained aglycone flavonoids 50, 54 and 56 as the active
compounds significantly (p<0.001) inhibited platelet aggregation at 3g/kg body weight ex
vivo and prolonged bleeding time (p<0.001) without changes in the amount of platelet (Gadi
et al., 2009; Gadi et al., 2012).
Chaves et al. (2011) reported that flavonoids including 50 and 56 isolated from
aqueous extracts of P. crispum leaves in the platelet aggregation model exhibited strong in
vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity (IC50 of 0.036 mg/mL for 50 and IC50 of 0.18 mg/mL
for 56). Though the aqueous P. crispum extract showed no inhibition on clotting activity
when compared with the control, it exhibited strong antiplatelet aggregation activity (IC50 of
1.81 mg/mL).
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6.5. Immuno-modulating activity
Essential oil from seeds of P. crispum at concentrations of 0.01 to 100 μg/mL blocked
humoral and cellular immune response by inhibiting splenocytes and macrophages function
in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay (Yousofi et
al., 2012).
6.6. Gastrointestinal activity
Aqueous seed extract of P. crispum showed laxative activity in rat by reducing the absorption
of sodium and water on net fluid absorption from rat colon using a perfusion technique. The
extract also enhanced Na-KCl2 transporter activity in the rat colon (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001).
Ethanol leaf extract of P. crispum at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight has been reported to
exhibit beneficial effects on different peptic ulcer models in rats via its anti-secretory and
cyto-protective activities using the cold-restraint ulcer (CRU) technique (Al-Howiriny et al.,
2003).
6.7. Genitourinary activity
Methanol aerial parts extract of P. crispum (1.0 and 10 mg/mL) showed proliferative activity
in estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-
2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay. This estrogenic activity was related to these
isolated compounds including aglycones of compound 60, compounds 50 and 54. The EC50
values of these aglycones were as follows, 50 (1.0 mM), aglycone of 60 (2.9 mM) and 54
(0.56 mM). The methanol extract and compound 50 restored the uterus weight in
ovariectomized mice when orally administered for consecutive 7 days (Yoshikawa et al.,
2000).
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P. crispum oil (0.6 mL/kg body weight.) showed protective activity against
zearalenone-induced reproductive toxicity and improved testosterone levels in matured male
mice (Abdel-Wahhab et al., 2006). Ethanol seed extract of P. crispum (5 mg/kg) reduced the
dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion via immuno-histochemical
and immune-fluorescent staining and biochemical analysis (Rezazad and Farokhi, 2014).
6.8. Analgesic activity
Ethanol seed extract of P. crispum showed significant (p<0.001) analgesic activity by
reducing KCl and CaCl2-induced contractions on rat isolated ileum (Moazedi et al., 2007) via
the pressure transducer test. The ethanol leaf extract of P. crispum at doses of 100, 150 and
200 mg/kg body weight has been found to exhibit analgesic effects on mice by formalin and
acetic acid tests (Eidi et al., 2009).
6.9. Spasmolytic activity
Ethanol seed extract of P. crispum has been found to exhibit relaxation effect on isolated ilea
from adult male Wistar rat in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.01) by measuring
contractions of the isolated ilea, induced by 60 mM potassium chloride (KCl) in the presence
of two antagonists' of α - and β-adrenoceptors (Damabi et al., 2010). Brankovic et al. (2010)
reported that aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of P. crispum in dose dependent manner
decreased the tonus of spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum by 62.22% and 79.16%
respectively, thereby exhibiting antispasmodic activity on rat ileum in the pressure transducer
test.
6.10. Anti-cancer activity
The ethanol seed extract and oil of P. crispum in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-
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biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays showed that seed
extract and oil of P. crispum significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular
morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Cell viability at 50, 100,
250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL of seed extract was recorded as 81, 57, 33, 8 and 5%, respectively,
whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL of seed oil values were 90, 78, 62, and 8%,
respectively. Concentrations of 50 μg/mL and above of P. crispum seed extract, and above
100 μg/mL of P. crispum seed oil were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells (Farshori et al.,
2013).
Compound 1, an essential oil constituent isolated from P. crispum through glutathione
S-transferase (GST) assay-guided fractionation inhibited (65% inhibition of the tumor
multiplicity in the lung) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced tumor formation in female mice
(Zheng et al. 1993).
6.11. Nutraceuticals
P. crispum has been used as a nutraceutical intervention in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
via multi-omics evaluation using dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Seven-
week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed either 2% P. crispum leaves or basal diet and drank
normal-drinking-water for 1 week after which colitis was induced by administering 1.5%
(w/v) DSS-drinking-water for 9 days. P. crispum supplementation improved colon shortening
and increased disease activity index (Huijuan et al., 2014).
Al-Daraji et al., 2012 reported that supplementing the ration of geese with different
levels of fresh parsley (P. crispum) leaves (control diet + 80, control diet + 160 and control
diet + 240 g/d parsley) resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in most of the blood
plasma traits (concentrations of glucose, total protein, albumen, globulin, uric acid, total
cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL),
15
very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), calcium, phosphorus and creatinine and blood plasma
activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase) of Iraqi geese
using various biochemical assays.
6.12. Neuroprotective effect
P. crispum leaf juice (10 g/kg body weight per day) has been found to exhibit significant
effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to cadium exposure during
pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress and brain neurons
morphology of newborn mice using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, grip-
strength meter, rota-rod, acetylcholine determination, lipid peroxidation, glutathione and
peroxidase assays (Allam et al., 2016).
7. Toxicity
The toxicity of P. crispum and its essential oil has not been thoroughly investigated. In
ethnomedicine, it has been claimed that P. crispum is abortifacient. Photodermatitis due to
furocoumarins particularly 55 are responsible for its contact photodermatitis activity in pigs
exposed to P. crispum (Chaudhary et al., 1986). Eighteen sows of mixed age from an outdoor
herd of 400 sows and boars were put in a field of parsley for 4 to 5 days and after this period,
vesicles were noted on the snouts with erythema and skin fissures. In an adjoining paddock of
parsley, 14 out of 18 gilts were affected with lesions, principally on their ears. In other
paddocks, up to 16 out of 18 sows showed similar lesions; suckling sows and those about to
furrow were most severely affected. History, clinical signs and pathology were consistent
with phytophotodermatitis (Griffiths and Douglas, 2000). Awe and Banjoko (2013) reported
that ethanol leaf extract of P. crispum exhibited hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities
determined by colorimetric method using bromocresol green and urease cleavage Berthelot’s
16
reaction) at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000 mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity
when used at lower doses (Awe and Banjoko, 2013).
[Table 1-25]
8. Clinical trials
Randomized crossover clinical trial involving seven men and seven women was carried out to
study the effect of intake of parsley (P. crispum), containing high levels of the flavone
apigenin, on the urinary excretion of flavones and biomarkers for oxidative stress (Nielsen et
al., 1999).
The subjects received a strictly controlled diet low in flavones and other naturally
occurring antioxidants during the 2 weeks of intervention. This basic diet was supplemented
with parsley providing 373 to 449 mg apigenin/megajoule in one of the intervention
weeks. Urinary excretion of apigenin (50) was 159 to 40909 µg/MJ per 24 h during
intervention with parsley and 0 to 11227 µg/MJ per 24 h on the basic diet (p<005). The
fraction of apigenin intake excreted in the urine was 0.58% during parsley intervention.
Erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase activities increased during
intervention with parsley (p<0005) as compared with the levels on the basic diet, whereas
erythrocyte catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not change. No significant
changes were observed in plasma protein 2-adipic semialdehyde residues, a biomarker of
plasma protein oxidation.
Nielsen et al. (1999) also observed an overall decreasing trend in the activity of
antioxidant enzymes during the 2-week study. The decreased activity of SOD was strongly
correlated at the individual level with an increased oxidative damage to plasma proteins.
17
However, the intervention with parsley seemed, partly, to overcome this decrease and
resulted in increased levels of GR and SOD.
9. Patents
The following are some patents secured on P. crispum.The patented products contain either
P. Crispum alone or in combination with other pharmacologically active agents. The products
are; Composition for the treatment of halitosis; Good living tea; Breath scent camouflage
spray; Formulation for alleviation of kidney stone and gallstone symptoms; Nutraceutical for
the prevention and treatment of cancers and diseases affecting the liver; Skin care product;
Parsley Variety 'Fidelio'; Caffeoyl-coa3-O-Methyltransferase genes from parsley (P. crispum)
(Table 2-25).
[Table 2-25]
Conclusion
P. crispum has several traditional uses including anti-inflammatory, treatment of
gastrointestinal disorder, hypertension, cardiac disease, urinary disease, diabetes and various
dermal disease in traditional and folklore medicines. Phytochemical constituents; flavonoids
and phenolic compounds especially apiin, apigenin and 6-acetylapiin; essential oil including
myristicin and apiol as well as coumarins have been isolated from P. crispum. It has several
pharmacological activities such as antibacterial and antifungal, antioxidant, hepatoprotective,
anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-platelet, gastroprotective and
estrogenic effects in in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo models. Several patents have been secured
on P. crispum, which is either used alone or in combination with other pharmacologically
18
active agents. It can be concluded that P. crispum is a useful and important medicinal plant
with wide range of proven medicinal activity.
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Ziyyat, A., Legssyer, A., Mekhfi, H., Dassouli, A., Serhrouchni, M., & Benjelloun, W.(1997).
Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 58(1), 45-54.
29
Table 1-25. Pharmacological properties of P. crispum
Plant part Extractive solvent Pharmacological activity
Hot and cold water Antimicrobial (Aljanaby, 2013)
Water Antimicrobial (Manderfieldet al., 1997)
Ethanol Antimicrobial (Kim et al., 1998)
Methanol Antimicrobial Ojalaet al., 2000)
Methanol and water Antioxidant (Fejeset al., 1998)
Water Hyperuricemia and antioxidant (in vivo)(Haidari et al.,
2011)
Ethanol Brain protective (in vivo) (Vora et al., 2009)
Water Antidiabetic and skin damage (in vivo) (Tunaliet al., 1999)
Water Antidiabetic (in vivo) (Yanardağet al., 2003)
Water Antidiabetic and heart damage (in vivo) (Seneret al., 2003)
Water Antidiabetic and hepato-protective (in vivo) (Bolkentet al.,
2005)
Water Anti-platelet (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) (Gadiet al.,
2009)
Water Anti-platelet (in vitro) (Gadiet al., 2012)
Water Anti-platelet (in vitro) (Chaveset al., 2011)
Ethanol Peptic ulcer protection (in vivo) (Al-Howirinyet al., 2003)
Leaf and stem Methanol and water Antioxidant (in vitro) (Wong and Kitts, 2006)
Diethyl ether extract Antioxidant (in vitro) (Al-juhaimi and Ghafoor, 2011)
Leaf and root Methanol Antioxidant (in vitro) (Popovićet al., 2007)
Seeds Essential oil Antioxidant (in vitro) (Zhang et al., 2006)
Ethanol Antimicrobial (Seyyednejadet al., 2008)
Essential oil Antioxidant and Hepato-protection (in vivo) (Ozsoyet al.,
2006)
Essential oil Immunosuppressant (in vitro) (Yousofiet al., 2012)
Ethanol Spasmolytic (in vitro) (Moazedi and Mirzaie, 2007)
Hydroalcoholic extract Analgesic (in vivo) (Behtashet al., 2008)
Water Laxative (in vitro and in vivo) (Kreydiyyeh and Usta,
2001)
Water Diuretic (in vitro and in vivo) (Kreydiyyeh and Usta,
2001)
Alcohol and oil Anti-cancer (Farshori et al., 2013)
Aerial part Methanol Estrogenic function (in vitro) (Yoshikawa et al., 2000)
Water and ethanol Spasmolytic (in vitro) (Brankovićet al., 2010)
Hot water Cytotoxic (in vitro) (Lanttoet al., 2009)
Flowers Essential oil Antimicrobial (Marín et al., 2016)
Essential oil Antioxidant (in vitro) (Marín et al., 2016)
Table 2-25. Patents secured on P. crispum
Patent
Application
Publication
Number
Product Name Composition
30
Number
WO99/39686 US 6350435 B1 Composition for the
treatment of
halitosis
Mixture of olive oil (Oleaeuropea L.) and
parsley oil (P. crispum) (Hernandez, 2002)
US 10/726,146 US 20050118324
A1
Good living tea Dried bitter melon leaves, ground fenugreek,
ground cinnamon, dried parsley (P. crispum)
flakes and pathimukham(Anna and Mathew,
2005)
US 10/771, 063 US 20050169854
A1
Breath scent
camouflage spray
Chlorophyll, parsley (P. crispum) and
dandelion extracts (Carlos, 2005)
US 13/605,602 US 20130064912
A1
Formulation for
alleviation of
kidney stone and
gallstone symptoms
Chancapiedra (Phyllanthusniruri), gravel root,
hydrangea root, marshmallow root, juniper
berry, corn silk uvaursi, parsley (P. crispum)
root, agrimony dandelion leaf, horsetail,
orange peel, peppermint and goldenrod extract
(Barron, 2013)
US 10/560, 558 US 8012510 B2 Nutraceutical for
the prevention and
treatment of cancers
and diseases
affecting the liver
Brassica oleracea, Daucuscarota, P. crispum,
SpinaciaoleraceaL, Beta vulgaris, aloe vera
and honey (Can, 2011)
US 13/723, 906 US 8790720 B2 Skin care product Camellia and feverfew serum fractions and/or
kelp and parsley (P. crispum) serum fractions
(Richards et al., 2011)
US 61/974,900 US 20150282449 Parsley Variety
'Fidelio' (Schieder
and Ladenburg,
2015)
US 08/988, 054 US 6160205 A Caffeoyl-coa3-O-
Methyltransferase
genes from parsley
(P. crispum)
(Matern et al.,
2000)
31
... Indeed, the pharmacological properties of P. crispum are mainly discussed by a wide range of active biomolecules present in this plant. Phytochemical constituents of P. crispum were isolated from seeds, roots, leaves or petioles through different separation methods [184]. These phytochemical constituents can be grouped into flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oils and other various compounds. ...
... These phytochemical constituents can be grouped into flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oils and other various compounds. A literature review conducted by Agyare et al. (2017) shows that flavonoids are the most dominant compounds of P. crispum such as isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, diosmetin 7-O-D-Glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ( Figure 9) [184]. These phytochemicals may be at the origin of the pharmacological activities of P. crispum against the kidney disorders mentioned above. ...
... These phytochemical constituents can be grouped into flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oils and other various compounds. A literature review conducted by Agyare et al. (2017) shows that flavonoids are the most dominant compounds of P. crispum such as isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, diosmetin 7-O-D-Glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ( Figure 9) [184]. These phytochemicals may be at the origin of the pharmacological activities of P. crispum against the kidney disorders mentioned above. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kidney disease is one of the most common health problems and kidney failure can be fatal. It is one of the health disorders associated with extreme pain and discomfort in patients. In developing countries, such as Morocco where socioeconomic and sanitary conditions are precarious , medicinal plants are considered the primary source of medication. In the present work an eth-nobotanical survey was conducted in a remote area of NorthEastern Morocco and we focused on (1) establishing a record of medicinal plants used traditionally by local people to treat kidney diseases and (2) correlate the obtained ethnomedical use with well-studied pharmacological evidence. From February 2018 to January2020, information was gathered from 488 informants using semi-structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using three quantitative indices: The use value (UV), family use value (FUV), and informant consensus factor (ICF). A total of 121 plant species belonging to 57 botanical families were identified to treat kidney diseases. The families most represented were Asteraceae (14 species), followed by Lamiaceae (12 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). The most commonly used plant parts were leaves, followed by the whole plant and they were most commonly prepared by decoction and infusion. The highest value of the (UV) index was attributed to Herniaria hirsuta L. (UV = 0.16), and the highest family use value (FUV) was assigned to Caryo-phyllaceae with (FUV = 0.163). Regarding the informant consensus factor (ICF), this index's highest values were recorded for kidney stones (ICF = 0.72). The use of 45% of the selected plants were validated based on literature review. This study helped document and preserve crucial traditional plant knowledge of 121 plant species used to treat kidney problems that can be used in the search for new biologically active compounds through more upcoming pharmacological studies.
... Indeed, the presence of a wide spectrum of active biomolecules in this plant mostly confirms its pharmacological activities. Different methods of separation have been used to isolate phytochemical elements of P. crispum from seeds, roots, leaves, and petioles (Agyare et al., 2017). These compounds can be classified into flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarin, essential oils, and several compounds. ...
... According toAgyare et al. (2017), flavonoids such as isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside are the most prominent components in P. crispum (Appendix 1 and 2)(Agyare et al., 2017). These phytochemicals could be the source of P. crispum pharmacological activity against the aforementioned renal diseases.R. officinalis:This herb has long been used to treat a variety of ailments, as indicated above. ...
... According toAgyare et al. (2017), flavonoids such as isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside are the most prominent components in P. crispum (Appendix 1 and 2)(Agyare et al., 2017). These phytochemicals could be the source of P. crispum pharmacological activity against the aforementioned renal diseases.R. officinalis:This herb has long been used to treat a variety of ailments, as indicated above. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Renal disease is a significant public health concern that affects people all over the world. The main limitations of conventional therapy are the adverse reaction on human health and the expensive cost of drugs. Indeed, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies that are less expensive and have fewer side effects. As a consequence of their natural compounds, medicinal plants can be used as an alternative therapy to cure various ailments including kidney diseases. Objective of the study: This review paper has two principal goals: (1) to inventory and describe the plants and their ancestral use by Moroccan society to cure renal problems, (2) to link traditional use with scientific confirmations (preclinical and clinical). Methods: To analyze pharmacological effects, phytochemical, and clinical trials of plants, selected for renal therapy, a bibliographical search was undertaken by examining ethnobotanical investigations conducted in Morocco between 1991 to 2019 and consulting peerreviewed papers from all over the world. Results: Approximately 290 plant species, spanning 81 families and 218 genera have been reported as being utilized by Moroccans to manage renal illness. The most frequently mentioned species in Morocco were Herniaria hirsuta subsp. cinerea (DC.), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The leaves were the most frequently used plant parts, followed by the whole plant. Decoction and infusion were the most popular methods of preparation. A record of 71 plant species was studied in vitro and/or in vivo for their therapeutic efficacy against kidney disorders, including 10 plants attempting to make it to the clinical stage. Twenty compounds obtained from 15 plants have been studied for the treatment of kidney diseases. Conclusion: Medicinal herbs could be a credible alternative therapy for renal illness. However, additional controlled trials are required to confirm their efficiency in patients with kidney failure. Overall, this work could be used as a database for future exploration.
... Parsley is used to improve appetite and alleviate indigestion, flatulence and spasms, and may prevent stomach ulcers [31]. Stem and leaf extracts of Petroselinum crispum have been identified to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities, and have protective effects against hyperuricemia and hyperglycemia, brain, heart, and liver diseases [32]. ...
... According to Zhang et al. [36], parsley essential oil exhibits antioxidant activity due to the compounds myristicin (phenylpropene) and apiol (phenylpropanoid). The flavonoids isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, and chrysoeriol represent the predominant compounds in cell suspension cultures of parsley [32]. Parsley apigenin (yellow color) can be used as a pigment in human and animal nutrition [1]. ...
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Aromatic and spicy plants are an important factor that contributes not only to improving the taste of meat, meat products, and meat analogues, but also to increasing the nutritional value of the products to which they are added. The aim of this paper is to present the latest information on the bioactive antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the most commonly used herbs and spices (parsley, dill, basil, oregano, sage, coriander, rosemary, marjoram, tarragon, bay, thyme, and mint) used in the meat and meat analogues industry, or proposed to be used for meat analogues.
... On contrary, Stankevićius et al. (2011) found fewer amounts of TPC in celery roots in comparison to our results. Most relevant literature data reports that flavone glycosides, mostly those of apigenin are major flavonoids that occurred in parsley (Agyare, Appiah & Apenteng, 2017) while kaempferol, genkwanin and quercetin glycosides were major phenolic compounds in celery roots (Nikolić, Cvetković & Todorović, 2011). Results of our study revealed that celery root extracts were rich in apigenin and apiin, as major flavonoids. ...
... Besides the already reported furanocoumarins in parsley and celery: psoralen, imperatorin, pimpinellin and isopimpinellin, bergapten in this research we have found significant amounts of umbelliferon, and scopoletin in both plant species. There is a huge number of publications dealing with antioxidant activities of parsley and celery roots, leaves, seeds etc. Agyare, Appiah & Apenteng, 2017;Arsenov et al., 2021a). The naturally present apiin from celery is known as flavonoid which can exhibit high total antioxidant activity (TAOC) and promote the activity of antioxidant enzymes to provide additional protection for the heart, liver and kidney (Peng et al., 2004). ...
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Full-text available
Randomly collected samples of parsley and celery from different localities were analysed to determine their quality based on arsenic concentrations, phenolic constituents and the antioxidant capacity of their edible parts. Arsenic concentrations were found in the range: parsley root (0.16 μg/g d.m.) < celery root (0.19 μg/g d.m.) < parsley leaf (0.35 μg/g d.m.) < celery leaf (0.45 μg/g d.m.). Total phenolic contents in roots were similar in both species and varied significantly depending on the cultivation site: 5.03-9.18 mg eqGA/g DE in parsley and 5.04-8.50 mg eqGA/g DE in celery. Lower total flavonoids content was recorded in celery. Among the phenolic acids, ferulic, chlorogenic and several cinnamic acids dominated. Apigenin and its glucosides dominated among flavonoids. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA) it can be concluded that the As content varied depending on the geographical origin of the samples. Also, phenolic compounds showed a significant contribution on PCA clustering, indicating that the cultivation site has a clear significant impact on the metabolites profile, while As content in plants did not significantly affect phenolic compound profile.
... On contrary, Stankevićius et al. (2011) found fewer amounts of TPC in celery roots in comparison to our results. Most relevant literature data reports that flavone glycosides, mostly those of apigenin are major flavonoids that occurred in parsley (Agyare, Appiah & Apenteng, 2017) while kaempferol, genkwanin and quercetin glycosides were major phenolic compounds in celery roots (Nikolić, Cvetković & Todorović, 2011). Results of our study revealed that celery root extracts were rich in apigenin and apiin, as major flavonoids. ...
... Besides the already reported furanocoumarins in parsley and celery: psoralen, imperatorin, pimpinellin and isopimpinellin, bergapten in this research we have found significant amounts of umbelliferon, and scopoletin in both plant species. There is a huge number of publications dealing with antioxidant activities of parsley and celery roots, leaves, seeds etc. Agyare, Appiah & Apenteng, 2017;Arsenov et al., 2021a). The naturally present apiin from celery is known as flavonoid which can exhibit high total antioxidant activity (TAOC) and promote the activity of antioxidant enzymes to provide additional protection for the heart, liver and kidney (Peng et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Randomly collected samples of parsley and celery from different localities were analyzed to determine their quality based on arsenic concentrations, phenolic constituents and the antioxidant capacity of their edible parts. Arsenic concentrations were found in the range: parsley root (0.16 μg/g d.m.) < celery root (0.19 μg/g d.m.) < parsley leaf (0.35 μg/g d.m.) < celery leaf (0.45 μg/g d.m.). Total phenolic contents in roots were similar in both species and varied significantly depending on the cultivation site: 5.03-9.18 mg eqGA/g DE in parsley and 5.04-8.50 mg eqGA/g DE in celery. Lower total flavonoids content was recorded in celery. Among the phenolic acids, ferulic, chlorogenic and several cinnamic acids dominated. Apigenin and its glucosides dominated among flavonoids. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA) it can be concluded that the As content varied depending on the geographical origin of the samples. Also, phenolic compounds showed a significant contribution on PCA clustirng, indicating that cultivation site has a clear significant impact on the metabolites profile, while As content in plants did not significantly affect phenolic compound profile.
... crispum) extract is due to biochemical compounds in this plant. 28 Liberal et al. (2020) stated that parsley contains bioactive compounds such as flavonoids which have been shown to have the ability to inhibit fungal growth. 19,29 According to Alcamo, flavonoids are a class of phenolic compounds with fungistatic properties which support the previous statement. ...
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Full-text available
Background: Denture stomatitis is a type of Candida-associated infection that mainly affects the palatal mucosa. Candida albicans is one of the normal flora that is considered to be the primary etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. Denture decontamination is necessary to prevent denture stomatitis. One method of decontamination is by immersing removable dentures in an antifungal solution. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a medicinal plant showing antifungal activity. Objectives: To determine the effectivity of immersion of acrylic resin Plate in parsley extract on inhibition of growth of Candida albicans. Methods: The effectivity of immersion of heat-cured acrylic resin plates in parsley extract on inhibition of C. albicans growth was tested using an experimental laboratory study with a post-test-only control group design. Thirty samples were divided into 5 groups as 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.05% parsley ethanol extract, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, and sterile aquadest. The number of colony forming units per mL was obtained after calculating the colonies on SDA media, allowing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained according to the formula. Results: 0.01% parsley ethanol extract is MIC with a mean of 7.4 CFU / ml, which inhibited the growth of C. albicans by 31.05%. The Kruskal Wallis test (p<0.001) results indicate that there is an effectivity of immersion of acrylic resin plate in parsley extract on inhibition of growth of C. albicans. Conclusions: The immersion of acrylic resin plates in parsley ethanol extract with a concentration of 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.04% has effectivity on the inhibition of growth of C. albicans.
... The severity of these poisonings depends on certain factors: the nature of the plant, the part consumed, the quantity, whether taken on an empty stomach or not, the age and the circumstances (Hafidi, 2014). In addition to its wide use as a green vegetable and garnish, P. crispum is used for different medicinal purposes in traditional medicine in different countries (Agyare et al., 2017). Petroselinum crispum is a plant used as a medicinal plant for gastrointestinal tract, kidney, lower urinary tract, and digestive stimulation (Blumenthal et al., 2000;Tucker & DeBaggio, 2009). ...
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Full-text available
The present study is part of a vast program of the valorization of the medicinal flora and to help the populations to make a real profit from the use of plants in order to avoid any problem of poisoning. Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Apiaceae) is a plant, whose therapeutic virtues are diverse. The toxicological aspect of the aqueous extract of Petroselinum crispum leaves in male and female rats was investigated. The acute toxicity study with the single dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight shows that the aqueous extract from the leaves of Petroselinum crispum is not toxic orally. According to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline 423, the oral LD50 for this extract is greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. In addition, the sub-acute toxicity study (OECD 407) showed that the aqueous extract from the leaves of Petroselinum crispum did not show any toxic effects at doses 50,100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and would have an orexigenic effect after 28 days of treatment. The different histological sections showed that the aqueous extract of Petroselinum crispum is not toxic on the vital organs and appears to be hepatoprotective.
... The presence of a broad range of active compounds detected in this plant allows the application of parsley as medicinal plant with various proven pharmacological properties including antioxidant, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective [2][3][4]. Parsley leaf, stem and roots are rich in minerals and bioactive metabolites such as vitamins (vitamin C being the most abundant), essential oils, pigments, polyphenols and fatty acids [5,6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important aromatic herb that has gained importance in food and cosmetic industry, and it is used as medicinal plant due to the presence of compounds with biological activity. Several studies have demonstrated antioxidant, antimicrobial or cancer chemopreventive activity of different parts of parsley plants. We showed that the nutritional value of parsley leaves can be improved by treatments with beneficial microorganisms on the field crop. Streptomyces fulvissimus strain AtB-42 and Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 were applied, as singly or in combination (microbial consortium), at transplanting and two weeks later. After harvesting, plants were subjected to metabolomic analysis by LC and GC-MS. Spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of seven polar metabolites. Results showed a significant difference in relative abundance of these metabolites among treatments. The AtB-42 application, alone or in combination with T22, induced the accumulation of petroselinic acid, while T22, alone or in combination, induced the accumulation of xanthotoxol/bergaptol and its derivative xanthotoxin/bergapten. The microbial consortium increased the accumulation of capsanthone compared to single treatments. No statistically relevant differences were found for the volatile fraction. It can be concluded that S. fulvissimus and T. harzianum significantly induced metabolic profile change of parsley and the accumulation of metabolites with nutraceutical value.
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The incidence of hypertension is very high in human societies and its treatment is the most important priority in many countries. Knowledge of the plants that are used may provide insight on their properties, for further exploration. This study aimed to collect the knowledge on traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension in different regions of Morocco. We reviewed 145 research publications based on data from the six explored regions of Morocco published until August 2021 in various journals. This was achieved using literature databases: Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Science Direct and Researchgate. The findings of this study indicated that 23 plants have been reported to possess antihypertensive activities in in vivo / in vitro experiments, while 81 plants had not been studied for such an activity. Plants from the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families were used most often. Leaves were the plant parts used most often. Decoction was the main preparation method. Twenty three plants have been explored experimentally for their antihypertensive activity. This review provides baseline data for plant species used to treat hypertension in Morocco and provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of these plants.
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Thrombotic complications occur in many cardiovascular pathologies and have been demonstrated in COVID‐19. The currently used antithrombotic drugs are not free of adverse reactions, and COVID‐19 patients in particular, when treated with a therapeutic dose of an anticoagulant do not receive mortality benefits. The clinical management of COVID‐19 is one of the most difficult tasks for clinicians, and the search for safe, potent, and effective antithrombotic drugs may benefit from exploring naturally bioactive molecules from plant sources. This review describes recent advances in understanding the antithrombotic potential of herbal drug prototypes and points to their future clinical use as potent antithrombotic drugs. Although natural products are perceived to be safe, their clinical and therapeutic applications are not always apparent or accepted. More in‐depth studies are necessary to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of plant‐derived, bioactive compounds. In addition, holistic approaches in systematic investigations and the identification of antithrombotic mechanisms of the herbal bioactive molecule(s) need to be conducted in pre‐clinical studies. Moreover, rigorous studies are needed to compare the potency of herbal drugs to that of competitor chemical antithrombotic drugs, and to examine their interactions with Western antithrombotic medicines. We have also proposed a road map to improve the commercialization of phytopharmaceuticals.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate, by use of the agar well diffusion method, the ability of cold-water and hot-water extracts of Petroselinum crispum leaves to inhibit bacteria isolated from patients with burns infections. The results revealed that 250 mg/ml of the hot-water extract was the more effective inhibitor of the growth of P. aeruginosa. The inhibition zone diameter of 29.667 mm was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that for nitrofurantoin, chosen as positive control. From the overall results obtained it is evident that the plant screened has anti-bacterial activity against some bacteria associated with burns infections.
Article
The application of droplet counter current chromatography to the separation of the carotenoids of parsley, β-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, is described. The solvent system consists of petroleum spirit bp 40–60°C: acetonitrile: methanol in the proportions 50∶10∶40. The upper layer is used as the mobile phase and the lower layer as the stationary phase.
Article
Parsley is one of the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. It has been reported to reduce blood glucose levels. In this study the effects of feeding parsley on diabetes-induced free radical mediated injury in rat aorta and heart tissues were investigated. Swiss albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, diabetic, parsley, diabetic + parsley, glibornurid, and diabetic + glibornurid. Rats were subjected to i.p. streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg) to induce diabetes. On the fourteenth day of the study, either parsley (2 g/kg) or glibornurid (5 mg/kg) were given for 28 days to the diabetic rats. Aorta and heart tissue lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels as well as blood glucose levels were determined. The results of the present study indicate that lipid peroxidation was increased and glutathione levels were decreased in both aorta and heart tissue of the diabetic rats. However, treatment of the diabetic rats with either parsley or glibornurid reversed the effects of diabetes on blood glucose, and tissue lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels.
Article
The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of different extracts of leaves and root of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill, Apiaceae) were studied. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated measuring the scavenging activity on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and OH radicals. Also, the effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) were evaluated. The results obtained showed that all examined extracts act as good scavengers of DPPH and OH radicals and reduce the intensity of LP. The in vivo effects were evaluated on some antioxidant systems (activities of LPx, GSH-Px, Px, CAT and XOD, and GSH content) in the mice liver and blood after treatment with the examined parsley extracts, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts exhibited a certain protective effect. However, combined treatments with CCl(4) and the examined extracts showed both positive and negative synergism, inducing or suppressing the influence of CCl(4) alone.
Article
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is one of the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey and it has been reported to reduce blood glucose. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effect of feeding parsley on diabetes induced impairments in rat skins. Uncontrolled induced diabetes caused significant increases in nonenzymatic glycosylation of skin proteins, lipid peroxidation and blood glucose. Administration of parsley extract did not inhibit these effects except for the increase in blood glucose. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed no significant differences in any protein bands between any of the groups.
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The antilipoperoxidant activity of Anthriscus cerefolium L. (Hoffm.), chervil, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill., parsley extracts were evaluated with ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation on rat brain homogenates. These results are completed by the antiradical potential of these extracts against a solution of OH. radical. In all cases luteolin-7-O-glucoside was used as a reference material.
Article
Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.