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Women and Leadership: Selection, Development, Leadership Style, and Performance

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Abstract

Despite the proliferation of leadership research in the past 75 years, investigating the ways in which women and men leaders enact and experience leadership continues to surface unanswered questions. Through the framework of selection, development, leadership style, and performance, we report gender-related findings from a broad survey of existing literature from the past three decades. Findings include differential rates of selection for women and men leaders; leader development considerations that vary by gender; evidence in favor of general similarities in leadership style (with noted exceptions) between women and men leaders; and similar performance outcomes between women and men leaders. The importance of context, be it job type, group composition, organizational culture, or industry/sector, was also revealed. Implications for practitioners and academics alike are offered throughout this report.

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... Female executives lead differently than male executives (for example, see [5,30,31]). Female executives tend to be collaborative and enhance participative decision making (for example, see [32,33]). ...
... Although there is social pressure for gender equality and promotion for a diverse gender board, the empirical evidence on the relationship between board gender diversity and firm performance is inconsistent and the results ambiguous (for a meta-analysis, see [5,30,31,63]). This section discusses various potential causes of these mixed results. ...
... The literature shows that the effects of board composition on firm performance vary among different environmental conditions [30]. In the context of weaker investor protection, board diversity has higher influence on firm performance. ...
Chapter
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Gender diversity in the workplace has been an issue receiving a tremendous amount of attention both in academia and in the popular press. The research to date has tended to focus on the obstacles to promotion of women at lower and middle management levels, often referred to as a glass ceiling effect. However, most research on the subject has been mainly restricted to the definition of gender, by biological determination, that is, male and female, rather than by social construction. This chapter addresses the impact of gender diversity leadership and firms’ performance. In addition, it offers a synopsis of selected research examining the LGBT-supportive workplace policies and firms’ outcomes. Further, the chapter identifies priorities for future research that can advance our understanding on this research area, and the broader field of financial studies, encompassing the growing interest in the boundaries between the economic, the psychological and the social areas.
... Institutes of Higher Education foster leadership among students in their pursuits to create cohorts of citizens with "leading-edge capabilities" with skills that make them more appealing to employers across different work environments and disciplines (Jones et al., 2012). However, women have traditionally received less preparation for career advancement (Gipson et al., 2017;Probert, 2005;Gregor and O'Brien, 2015). Career development literature shows that psychological and attitudinal attributes are important for one's career growth irrespective of gender; women in particular face societal and organizational barriers during their progress upwards (Bain and Cummings, 2000;Akpinar-Sposito, 2013;Kim and Beehr, 2017;O'Neil, 2004). ...
... There are established indications of challenges faced by employed women through their career path and concerning leadership roles in organizations (Agiler and Szafarz, 2013;Rast et al., 2018;Glass and Cook, 2016). The barriers to their growth and hence their underrepresentation in leadership positions are evident and have been in the apparent frame of attention (Gipson, et al., 2017;Christofides et al., 2013;Ezzedeen et al., 2015). Among the several indicative factors that hold employed women back from leadership positions are the male stereotype (Davidson and Cooper, 1992;Simon and Schuster, 1992), family characteristics (Cotter et al., 2001), the paper floor effect with the tendency of top-earning women to fall out of board-level management positions (Guvenen et al., 2014;Gipson et al., 2017), societal, organizational and institutional barriers (Bain and Cummings, 2000; and detrimental notions of one's abilities (Smith et al., 2012a). ...
... The barriers to their growth and hence their underrepresentation in leadership positions are evident and have been in the apparent frame of attention (Gipson, et al., 2017;Christofides et al., 2013;Ezzedeen et al., 2015). Among the several indicative factors that hold employed women back from leadership positions are the male stereotype (Davidson and Cooper, 1992;Simon and Schuster, 1992), family characteristics (Cotter et al., 2001), the paper floor effect with the tendency of top-earning women to fall out of board-level management positions (Guvenen et al., 2014;Gipson et al., 2017), societal, organizational and institutional barriers (Bain and Cummings, 2000; and detrimental notions of one's abilities (Smith et al., 2012a). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of barriers to career progression among female university students. While significant literature has examined career enhancement in the context of employed women, little work has explored the perceptions of future career challenges of females about to enter the workforce and embark on their careers. This study derives its motivation from research findings that confirm that women need additional focused preparation for career advancement opportunities. Design/methodology/approach The study used a sample of 484 Indian female university students located in the United Arab Emirates and India. The study uses the established Career Pathways Survey scale (Smith et al. , 2012a) to measure the four dimensions Denial, Acceptance, Resignation and Resilience to career progression. Structural equation modeling was used to model the four constructs as indicators of perceived barriers to progress. Findings The study finds that among the female students about to embark on their career journey, there is a strong desire toward achieving career success. The model is validated by the use of a structural equation model, and findings indicate that there is a strong sense of Resilience and an element of uncertainty about whether perceived career progression will be satisfying overall. No significant differences were observed in the perceptions across the two geographical locations. The findings suggest that continued efforts in preparing female graduates for career success are warranted. Practical implications The Career Pathways Survey may be a useful method to assist young women in identifying their career goals prior to entering the workforce. Interventions through training programs during their higher education may be beneficial in addressing perceptions that might hinder their later career growth. Originality/value This paper contributes to the understanding of the perceived barriers to career progression for women. Prior research has concentrated on career progression in the context of employed women. This study extends that work to understand the perceptions of women about to embark on their career journey.
... De acordo comLazzaretti et al. (2013) e Gipson et al. (2017, a sub-representatividade feminina em cargos de liderança é recorrente em todo o mundo, nos mais variados contextos.Mas essa problemática é ainda mais complexa. Além de receberem menos oportunidades profissionais, as mulheres costumam ser mais lembradas para assumirem cargos de liderança sênior nas situações em que há um elevado risco de insucesso ou quando há um estado de crise iminente(GIPSON et al., 2017). É válido salientar, portanto, que o reconhecimento dos desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres para ascenderem em suas carreiras é o primeiro de vários passos que deverão ser dados para a instituição de melhores práticas de gestão direcionadas à seleção, desenvolvimento e avaliação de líderes(GIPSON et al., 2017).Conforme argumentamGipson et al. (2017), o caminho a ser percorrido é longo, dado que muitas organizações só passam a conceder oportunidades para as mulheres ocuparem cargos de liderança quando se convencem do impacto positivo -ou ao menos não prejudicial -dessa prática. ...
... Além de receberem menos oportunidades profissionais, as mulheres costumam ser mais lembradas para assumirem cargos de liderança sênior nas situações em que há um elevado risco de insucesso ou quando há um estado de crise iminente(GIPSON et al., 2017). É válido salientar, portanto, que o reconhecimento dos desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres para ascenderem em suas carreiras é o primeiro de vários passos que deverão ser dados para a instituição de melhores práticas de gestão direcionadas à seleção, desenvolvimento e avaliação de líderes(GIPSON et al., 2017).Conforme argumentamGipson et al. (2017), o caminho a ser percorrido é longo, dado que muitas organizações só passam a conceder oportunidades para as mulheres ocuparem cargos de liderança quando se convencem do impacto positivo -ou ao menos não prejudicial -dessa prática. Ademais, mesmo nos casos em que existe uma política voltada para o desenvolvimento de mulheres líderes, se a estrutura organizacional não estiver alinhada a este propósito, o acesso feminino aos níveis mais elevados da hierarquia das empresas continua restrito (CARLI; EAGLY, 2016).2.2 MULHERES EM CARGOS DE CHEFIAA participação feminina no universo corporativo gerou uma série de alterações nas organizações, entretanto, a carreira da mulher executiva apresenta discrepânciasem comparação à do homem (LIMA, 2011; PALMA; QUINTERO, 2020), já que o mercado de trabalho ainda conserva o tradicional viés de gênero, caracterizado pela visão de que comandar, chefiar e liderar são tarefas relacionadas aos homens (SILVA; CARVALHO; SILVA, 2017), persistindo, com isso, uma inconsistência entre o papel socialmente aceito para as mulheres e o papel que é atribuído à figura do líder (LIMA, 2011). ...
... Além de receberem menos oportunidades profissionais, as mulheres costumam ser mais lembradas para assumirem cargos de liderança sênior nas situações em que há um elevado risco de insucesso ou quando há um estado de crise iminente(GIPSON et al., 2017). É válido salientar, portanto, que o reconhecimento dos desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres para ascenderem em suas carreiras é o primeiro de vários passos que deverão ser dados para a instituição de melhores práticas de gestão direcionadas à seleção, desenvolvimento e avaliação de líderes(GIPSON et al., 2017).Conforme argumentamGipson et al. (2017), o caminho a ser percorrido é longo, dado que muitas organizações só passam a conceder oportunidades para as mulheres ocuparem cargos de liderança quando se convencem do impacto positivo -ou ao menos não prejudicial -dessa prática. Ademais, mesmo nos casos em que existe uma política voltada para o desenvolvimento de mulheres líderes, se a estrutura organizacional não estiver alinhada a este propósito, o acesso feminino aos níveis mais elevados da hierarquia das empresas continua restrito (CARLI; EAGLY, 2016).2.2 MULHERES EM CARGOS DE CHEFIAA participação feminina no universo corporativo gerou uma série de alterações nas organizações, entretanto, a carreira da mulher executiva apresenta discrepânciasem comparação à do homem (LIMA, 2011; PALMA; QUINTERO, 2020), já que o mercado de trabalho ainda conserva o tradicional viés de gênero, caracterizado pela visão de que comandar, chefiar e liderar são tarefas relacionadas aos homens (SILVA; CARVALHO; SILVA, 2017), persistindo, com isso, uma inconsistência entre o papel socialmente aceito para as mulheres e o papel que é atribuído à figura do líder (LIMA, 2011). ...
... According to some research, women have advantages over men in their unique, inherently "female" approaches to leadership, yet sometimes give others credit for their own success (Hoyt 2010, 302). Other researchers contend the assumption that all women have the same transformational leadership style is false and essentializes women, reiterating the tired tropes of acceptable gendered behavior and sexist expectations for women leaders (Gipson et al. 2017). Nevertheless, transformational and servant leadership styles have been shown to be more effective than a transactional approach, and, since women are more likely to adopt these approaches, they have an advantage over men who lead autocratically (Gipson et al. 2017;Eagly and Carli 2003, 200). ...
... Other researchers contend the assumption that all women have the same transformational leadership style is false and essentializes women, reiterating the tired tropes of acceptable gendered behavior and sexist expectations for women leaders (Gipson et al. 2017). Nevertheless, transformational and servant leadership styles have been shown to be more effective than a transactional approach, and, since women are more likely to adopt these approaches, they have an advantage over men who lead autocratically (Gipson et al. 2017;Eagly and Carli 2003, 200). Despite these alleged advantages many women leaders surprisingly cite other people for their success. ...
... Whereas theory tends to essentialize women's leadership, among individual women's accounts of their leadership roles, there are vast differences in approach, style, and practice, illustrating diversity among women leaders. Their behaviors are changeable and are influenced by gender role identity, societal expectations, and/or organizational culture (Gipson et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Women based in the U.S. often succeed in leading dance organizations by employing unique leadership practices. By examining national statistics to note the complex contexts of funding and support in dance and the diverse leadership styles of women artistic directors and choreographers as described in public scholarship, this article highlights major issues facing women in dance leadership roles and their particular strengths and success strategies. Women in the U.S. exhibit important leadership abilities, styles, and practices in response to their organizations’ unique needs and in the context of U.S. culture and funding requirements; these women leaders have influenced change in society and in dance since the 20th century.
... However, Hansen and Pihl-Thingvad (2019) highlight that in the research of leadership and its relationship with innovative organizational behavior there is still a gap in studies that combine the effect of both transformational and transactional leadership styles on innovative organizational behavior. It is also added that the investigation of adapted leadership styles between men and women continues to generate inconclusive responses (Gipson et al., 2017). One study establishes the need for more research that looks at innovative behavior and gender-dominant leadership style (Bamiatzi et al., 2015). ...
... Gender-based studies state that there are beliefs based on stereotypes that lead to thinking that women will perform poorly in leadership positions by being kind, caring and relationship-oriented. These characteristics are part of transformational leadership, which has been the dominant leadership style to explain their organizational success in the businesses they operate (Lyness and Heilman, 2006;Vinkenburg et al., 2011;Druskat, 1994;Zenger and Folkman, 2012;Ayman et al., 2003;Gipson et al., 2017;Martin, 2015;Bamiatzi et al., 2015;Ruiz, 2016;Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001;Cuadrado and Molero, 2002;Carri on et al., 2018;Martín et al., 2015). Giritli and Oraz (2004) and Pullen and Vachhani (2021) comment that part of the differences that have been established between genders respond to the fact that high masculinity tends to highlight a "macho" type of leadership while femininity tends to a more relationship-oriented leadership. ...
... Giritli and Oraz (2004) and Pullen and Vachhani (2021) comment that part of the differences that have been established between genders respond to the fact that high masculinity tends to highlight a "macho" type of leadership while femininity tends to a more relationship-oriented leadership. Pounder and Coleman (2002) and Gipson et al. (2017) agree and clarify that leadership style will be related to qualities concerning gender characteristics. The male gender is more oriented to the impersonal and task-oriented, an approach characteristic of transactional leadership. ...
Article
Purpose The innovative mentality, it has been found that it is poorly addressed, which in turn does not provide clear delineations in academic literature. The innovative mentality is an opposition to the traditional innovative culture and that this is observed indirectly through the new forms of action of the younger generations. The purpose of this study aims to seek to provide answers by analyzing how the innovative mentality of leaders 40 years of age and under impacts the transformational or transactional leadership styles. Second, this research analyzes whether the leadership style used in the “40 Under 40” impacts an innovative organizational behavior that positively drives toward organizational success. Design/methodology/approach The partial least squares structural equations method (PLS-SEM) is used to analyze a set of hypotheses to 103 professionals awarded the 40 under 40 of Caribbean Business Magazine in Puerto Rico between 2012 and 2016. The unit of analysis were young professionals recognized as the “40 Under 40” by the Caribbean Business Magazine in Puerto Rico between 2012 and 2016. Findings The study results contribute a novel theory about a new style of leadership, based on innovative mentality as a central axis, when combining different leadership styles. The second study examined whether there are significant differences between male and female gender through the proposed research model. The results reflect when the organizational innovative behavior is analyzed, the transactional leadership role used by women is highlighted. Originality/value This study distinguishes the “40 Under 40” from other leaders and has allowed their enterprises to be successful is their innovative leadership style, which is executed through their innovative mentality.
... Due to personal choices and societal norms, the burden of child rearing is mostly on women and Page 6 of 24 they tend to have more career interruptions due to domestic responsibilities (Bianchi, Milkie, Robinson, & Sayer, 2000;Eagly & Carli, 2003;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017). Kelly et al (2008) identify four aspect of psychological work environment to be associated with work-family conflict -perceived supportiveness of one's supervisor, perceptions of the organizational culture, perceived control over work time, and perceived overload. ...
... The basic purpose of networking is different between men and women. While men use networking to advance their career, women are inclined to use their network for both, emotional support and relationship building (Gipson et al., 2017;Ibarra, 1993). Women's presence in upper echelon can enhance social networking and mentoring opportunities of other women in the organization (Ibarra, 1993;Stainback et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
This article explores the role of women in Top Management Team (TMT) in reducing women turnover in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) industry. The focus is on STEM industries because women turnover is problematic for organizations on two fronts, one there already exists a shortage of skilled labor , therefore failure to identify and utilize talented women reduces effectiveness by inhibiting greater innovation and creativity, and second, stakeholders are demanding greater diversity in workplace and organization may not be able to meet equal employment opportunity (Cheryan, Ziegler, Montoya, & Jiang, 2016; Noe, 1988). The study attempts to establish a causal relationship between the actions of two different sets of actors in an organization by focusing on the implicit effect of TMT composition on the career advancement opportunities of women employees like access to challenging roles, access to social networks, mentoring, and supportive HR policies.
... Walker & Aritz, 2015); a systemic lack within the organization regarding mentoring, sponsorship, and support, that is, development, of women (cf. Gipson et al., 2017); the glass cliff phenomenon (selecting women predominantly for high-risk leadership roles with the likelihood to fail, cf. Glass & Cook, 2016;Gipson et al., 2017); procedural insufficiencies expressed in unequal remuneration and unequal performance standards (cf. ...
... Gipson et al., 2017); the glass cliff phenomenon (selecting women predominantly for high-risk leadership roles with the likelihood to fail, cf. Glass & Cook, 2016;Gipson et al., 2017); procedural insufficiencies expressed in unequal remuneration and unequal performance standards (cf. Chamorro-Premuzic, 2019); exclusion practices such as no access to informal networks and male gatekeeping; and, worse, discrimination and even workplace harassment. ...
... Have views of women and leadership changed? Traditionally, males have dominated in organizational leadership roles and have been preferred for such roles (Gipson et al., 2017). In 1973, Virginia Schein presented now-classic work showing that people's expectations of managers overlapped considerably with expectations of men, but not of women, suggesting that rising into managerial roles presents difficulties for women. ...
... Recent work on ILTs shows that Masculinity is still associated with naı €ve perceptions of leadership (Offermann and Coats, 2018), suggesting that deep prejudices may remain. Similarly, other work suggests that biases against women in selection and access to development are still a problem (Gipson et al., 2017). Work by the Pew Research Center (2013) suggests that the public has mixed views on women in the workplace, seeing economic value in women's work and not seeking a return to traditional at-home-only roles for women but also having concerns about the effects of women working on children. ...
Article
Purpose Given continuing gender inequality in the upper echelons of organizations, women's leadership aspirations and orientations are of significant research interest. Controversy remains as to whether today's “Millennial” college women approach work with different leadership aspirations and attitudes than previous generational cohorts. This study compares the leadership and achievement orientations of college women leaders from 1985 to 2015, along with peer comparators from 2015. Design/methodology/approach Data were obtained from attendees at a conference for college women leaders in 1985 and 2015; male and female comparators were surveyed in 2015. Findings Comparing 1985 and 2015 cohorts of college women leaders suggests both similarity and change, as well as differences between women leaders and their male and female peers. Women leaders from 2015 demonstrated no differences in intrinsic direct achievement, lower self-esteem and higher power apprehension and lower levels of leadership motivation compared to the 1985 cohort. Millennial women leaders reported higher intrinsic direct and power direct achievement than male and female peers, with men higher on competitive achievement than either female group. Millennial women were more concerned about workplace gender equity, about sharing household responsibilities and were more favorable toward using external childcare while working compared to male peers. Practical implications Implications for developing young women with leadership potential are discussed. Originality/value These results make a strong contribution to understanding the leadership aspirations, achievement orientations and work–life expectations of the next generation of organizational leaders.
... Although some recent studies found evidence that companies with higher proportions of women on top level management perform better (Erhardt, Werbel, & Shrader, 2003;Carter, Simkins, & Simpson, 2003;Campbell & Mínguez-Vera, 2008;Vieito, 2012;Zhang & Qu, 2016;Khan & Vieito, 2013;Elsaid, 2014;Anderman, 2018), other researchers find the opposite result (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995;Randøy, Thomsen, & Oxelheim, 2006;Mínguez-Vera & Martin, 2011;Daunfeldt & Rudholm, 2012). Moreover, other studies found no significant relationship between the proportions of women in top-level management and firms' performance (Du Rietz & Henrekson, 2000;Smith et al., 2006;Rose, 2007;Gondhalekar & Dalmia, 2007;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017). ...
Chapter
Using a sample of 47 Portuguese and Spanish firms for the period 2010 to 2017, the authors study the relationship between female presence on board and firm's accounting (ROA and ROE) and market-based (MTB and Tobin's Q) performance. They find that women on the board of directors is positively related to firm's performance, as well as the gender of the CFO and the proportion of women on the listed key professionals, when we consider the market measures of performance, not being so consistent for accounting performance measures. Results were sensitive to the performance measure used. The results reinforce the political options of European Commission gender established quotas, revealing that in the Iberian countries these quotas are not being effectively implemented, even if results suggest that women on board in fact exert positive influence over market performance. This also led us to think that financial markets may also react in a positive way when the CFO of the company is a woman instead of a man, despite the sample limitations both in terms of gender and number of firms.
... Prior research based on a meta-analysis suggests that the leadership style of women may be different than that of men (Terjesen et al., 2009;Gipson et al., 2017;Kirsch, 2018). Past literature also suggests the advantages and disadvantages of board gender diversity. ...
Article
Purpose Theory suggests that the market for corporate control, which constitutes an important external governance mechanism, may substitute for internal governance. Consistent with this notion, using a novel measure of takeover vulnerability primarily based on state legislation, this paper aims to investigate the effect of the takeover market on board characteristics with special emphasis on board gender diversity. Design/methodology/approach This paper exploits a novel measure of takeover vulnerability based on state legislation. This novel measure is likely exogenous as the legislation was imposed from outside the firm. By using an exogenous measure, the analysis is less vulnerable to endogeneity and is thus more likely to show a causal effect. Findings The results show that a more active takeover market leads to lower board gender diversity. Specifically, a rise in takeover vulnerability by one standard deviation results in a decline in board gender diversity by 10.01%. Moreover, stronger takeover market susceptibility also brings about larger board size and less board independence, corroborating the substitution effect. Additional analysis confirms the results, including propensity score matching, generalized method of moments dynamic panel data analysis and instrumental variable analysis. Originality/value The study is the first to explore the effect of the takeover market on board gender diversity. Unlike most of the previous research in this area, which suffers from endogeneity, this paper uses a novel measure of takeover vulnerability that is probably exogenous. The results are thus much more likely to demonstrate causality.
... Prior research based on a meta-analysis suggests that the leadership style of women may be different than that of men (Terjesen et al., 2009;Gipson et al., 2017;Kirsch, 2018). Past literature also suggests the advantages and disadvantages of board gender diversity. ...
... Despite the stereotypes, Gipson (2017) suggested that there is actually lack of significant difference in style and performance (contribution) between men and women. According to Gipson, while there are differences between men and women leadership style, these differences do not result in a clear advantage of either gender across contexts. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to investigate the impact of transformational & transactional leadership style towards employee engagement mediated by talent management practices among subordinates with a woman as their direct superiors. As the research was conducted during pandemic Covid-19, questionnaires were distributed online. The method of purposive sampling was adopted to make sure that certain criteria were met before the respondents were deemed to be eligible in filling up the questionnaires. In the end, 117 questionnaires were returned, in which 64% came from manufacturing and mineral industries (majority in oil and gas), while another 36% came from service industries (majority from public sector and trading). The analysis of multiple regression was performed towards the data in addition to use the mediation analysis proposed by Baron & Kenny. The study found that both leadership styles was indeed practised by women leaders. However, results suggested that partial mediation exists in the relationship between transformational leadership style towards employee engagement. While full mediation was supported in the relationship between transactional leadership style towards employee engagement.
... Out of the 48 who served as heads or directors of community engagement programs of their respective HEIs, only 42% are females (n = 20) and 58% are males (n = 28). This difference might reflect the observation that gender inequality still persists in leadership positions, with males favored over females (Gipson et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Even though community engagement is an important function of higher educational institutions (HEIs), many HEI personnel across the world are in need of training in this area. In the extant literature, trainings for community engagement in an HEI context are well studied in countries of the Global North. However, there seems to be a dearth of literature about this field in the Philippines. Our research addresses this gap by delving into the certificate course on community engagement and organizing offered by the University of Santo Tomas (UST) in Manila. Specifically, this study describes the content and conduct of the course, presents the satisfaction evaluation results of course participants, and examines their learnings and insights. This study contributes to the literature by documenting efforts made by HEIs in the Philippines in mainstreaming community engagement in the fabric of academic life.
... Although some recent studies found evidence that companies with higher proportions of women on top level management perform better (Erhardt, Werbel, & Shrader, 2003;Carter, Simkins, & Simpson, 2003;Campbell & Mínguez-Vera, 2008;Vieito, 2012;Zhang & Qu, 2016;Khan & Vieito, 2013;Elsaid, 2014;Anderman, 2018), other researchers find the opposite result (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995;Randøy, Thomsen, & Oxelheim, 2006;Mínguez-Vera & Martin, 2011;Daunfeldt & Rudholm, 2012). Moreover, other studies found no significant relationship between the proportions of women in top-level management and firms' performance (Du Rietz & Henrekson, 2000;Smith et al., 2006;Rose, 2007;Gondhalekar & Dalmia, 2007;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017). The mixed evidence obtained so far may be explained for several reasons, such as the different countries and the differing periods, the legal and institutional context that differ across time, and the distinct methodologies used in the different studies (Campbell & Mínguez-Vera, 2008). ...
Chapter
Using a sample of 47 Portuguese and Spanish firms for the period 2010 to 2017, the authors study the relationship between female presence on board and firm's accounting (ROA and ROE) and market-based (MTB and Tobin's Q) performance. They find that women on the board of directors is positively related to firm's performance, as well as the gender of the CFO and the proportion of women on the listed key professionals, when we consider the market measures of performance, not being so consistent for accounting performance measures. Results were sensitive to the performance measure used. The results reinforce the political options of European Commission gender established quotas, revealing that in the Iberian countries these quotas are not being effectively implemented, even if results suggest that women on board in fact exert positive influence over market performance. This also led us to think that financial markets may also react in a positive way when the CFO of the company is a woman instead of a man, despite the sample limitations both in terms of gender and number of firms.
... Although the labyrinth may exist regardless of whether women have access to leadership development opportunities or not, having access to these opportunities could at the very least prepare women for navigation through the labyrinth. Literature exploring women's experiences developing their leadership capacities and how to effectively develop women leaders remains scarce (Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017); it is a central focus of our inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to describe and examine a social learning initiative framed to develop the leadership skills and capacities of 10 women leaders in sport. ...
Article
The following qualitative study examines a social learning initiative to support the leadership development of women in sport. Specifically, a Community of Practice (CoP) of femininity was cultivated to inspire women (and male allies) to develop their leadership capacities in the male-focused and dominated field of sport. Data were generated from 12 sport leaders (10 women and two men) over a year and a half to collect their experiences of participating in this initiative. Data collection included interviews, observations, surveys, and informal discussions. Subsequently, the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes discussed include: supports to develop confidence, improved leadership skills, self-awareness of leadership capacity and influence, increased leadership opportunities, men supporting women in leadership development, and the value of social learning. The findings provide steps that can be used to nurture women leaders in other fields where masculinity is dominant. This may allow other CoPs of femininity to emerge to support women in their leadership development.
... No momento há um esforço considerável no sentido de aumentar a participação de mulheres em posições de liderança das organizações (ver, por exemplo, Instituto Ethos e Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, 2016;Kossek, Su e Wu, 2017;Lean In e McKinsey, 2015), embora não haja evidência concreta de que a presença de profissionais do sexo feminino no, por exemplo, board aumente o desempenho financeiro das empresas (ver, a propósito, Gipson et al., 2017). Há igualmente um intenso discurso em favor da igualdade de gênero e do empoderamento da mulher, especialmente por parte de scholars feministas (Kark e Eagly, 2010;Carli e Eagly, 2016), mesmo quando certos estudos indicam que as elas aceitam o saudável desafio de crescer profissionalmente por mérito (Kakabadse et al., 2015) ou por desejar apenas ter uma vida mais equilibrada, ainda que em detrimento da carreira, de modo a dar mais atenção à família (Cross, Linehan e Murphy, 2017; Socratous, Galloway e Kamenou-Aigbekaen, 2016). ...
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Entre as muitas mudanças e transformações em curso está o franco envelhecimento da população mundial. O Brasil, por sua vez, se deparará com o mesmo problema, já que as projeções demográficas indicam que haverá a aceleração dessa tendência em nosso país a partir de 2030. Dada a importância do assunto, é fundamental que políticas sociais preemptivas sejam colocadas em ação – algo, aliás, com o qual não estamos culturalmente acostumados. Mas é forçoso reconhecer que uma mudança de tal magnitude vem acompanhada de outros efeitos como, por exemplo, o envelhecimento da força de trabalho. Assim sendo, a minha intenção inicial ao escrever essa obra era de pura e simplesmente desvendar o universo do trabalhador mais velho (o talento maduro) e conhecer a sua realidade, já que ele deverá ocupar um papel-chave doravante. Afinal de contas, os avanços da medicina e o consequente aumento da longevidade favorecem a obtenção de carreiras profissionais mais longevas. Entretanto, cumpre destacar que a literatura mundial sobre o tema revela a existência de mitos e pressupostos infundados que, no geral, tendem a tornar a vida desse grupo particularmente difícil. E tal constatação não deixa de ser um já que estamos diante de um fenômeno social e demográfico praticamente generalizado, bem como o fato de que se trata de algo inerente às nossas existências. Em suma, pode-se afirmar que a velhice não é bem recebida. De alguma forma, ela evoca lembranças ou sinais indesejáveis – e o mesmo raciocínio vale para a esfera do trabalho. Como seres ainda imperfeitos, nós somos moldados por preconceitos e percepções estereotipadas decorrentes dos valores que abrigamos em nossos selfs. Embora possamos (e devemos) controlá-las, elas estão lá em algum lugar da nossa personalidade. Os ambientes de trabalho não estão imunes aos efeitos deletérios de tais visões e opiniões pessoais. Do contrário, nós viveríamos num mundo absoluta-mente perfeito – condição essa ainda inconquistada, como mostra a realidade. Mas ao escrutinizar a situação do trabalhador mais velho acabei, por exten-são, esbarrando numa problemática tão ou mais complexa, ou seja, o imperativo de promover a diversidade em nossas empresas e de desenvolver ambientes mais inclusivos. De fato, os primeiros estudos sobre diversidade no Brasil datam dos anos 1990. No entanto, ainda persistem muitas perguntas a ser respondidas e, sobre-tudo, ações a ser implementadas no âmbito das organizações. Dito de outra forma, os assuntos tratados nesse livro ainda não foram adequadamente assimilados. Dessa forma, portanto, os meus objetivos ao escrever essa obra foram consideráveis – ou seja: analisar criticamente três relevantes aspectos referentes à realidade dos ambientes de trabalho da atualidade. Ao encetar tal empreendimento, procurei deixar de lado as minhas próprias impressões e convicções construídas aprioristicamente e fundamentar as minhas conclusões em evidências empíricas (e aí reside a maior contribuição dessa obra). Por outro lado, escrever para públicos-alvos distintos é sempre muito desa-fiador dado que as necessidades são singulares. Nesse sentido, na medida do pos-sível busquei abastecer os praticantes de gestão da diversidade e líderes organiza-cionais com informações criteriosamente embasadas, ricos insightse conclusões fundamentadas, livrando-os da superficialidade observável em muitas obras do gênero. Por isso, os leitores pertencentes a esse grupo encontrarão subsídios para alicerçar suas decisões e projetos, assim como aspectos para confrontar e ponderar. Não há aqui, a rigor, uma receita adrede preparada. Em contrapartida, aos colegas acadêmicos e estudantes, especialmente os liga-dos aos campos da Administração de Empresas, Psicologia Social e Organizacional, assim como Sociologia, apresento farto material para reflexão já que empreendi ampla revisão literária, buscando coligir o estado da arte dos citados campos, bem como os resultados de pesquisas internacionais e nacionais. Nesse sentido, os leitores desse grupo encontrarão a análise de uma ampla gama de estudos abrigados em diferentes tópicos e cobrindo variados enfoques, metodologias e realidades investigadas. Eventualmente, forneço sugestões para futuros estudos.
... Women leaders view work as an integral part of their lives that is connected and intertwined with other elements (Klanke, 2017). Self-awareness is important for authentic women leaders and the following factors are crucial for them: meaning, purpose, motivation, connection with colleagues and the balance between business and private life (Gipson et al., 2017). In this research, self-awareness is a characteristic that is most prevalent in authentic women leaders in Serbia. ...
Article
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Authentic leaders are people who are aware of themselves and own capabilities, who respect other people's opinions, perspectives and attitudes (about business and them as leaders), who are guided by high moral principles and practice transparency in business and communication with other employees. The aim of this research is to show are the women leaders in Serbia belong to the authentic type of leader and which of the characteristics of the authentic leader is the most common among them. In the research 113 women leaders from various activities from the territory of the Republic of Serbia participated. Of the total number of respondents, 31 results show an authentic leadership style, while only 3 results show a strong authentic style. Self-awareness is a dimension that stands out in relation to the other three and characterizes the largest number of women leaders. Further analysis showed that the greatest leadership potential in terms of authentic leadership has women who deal with services, have between 36-45 years and 10-15 years of work experience in the business in which they are engaged and have Bachelor's degree. The society in Serbia is such that it prefers male leaders, the goal of this research is to show that women are excellent leaders based on their characteristics and to have the predisposition to become great authentic leaders.
... Bennouri et al. 2018;Conyon and He 2017;Isidro and Sobral 2015;Nguyen, Locke, and Reddy 2015), although mixed results are also found in several studies (e.g. Abdullah, Ismail, and Nachum 2016;Gipson et al. 2017;Gregory-Smith, Main, and O'Reilly 2014). Other aspects of board gender diversity impact have also been studied, e.g. the relationship between board diversity and firm business risk appetite (Hillier, Korczak, and Korczak 2015;Huang and Kisgen 2013;Marquardt and Wiedman 2016), corporate governance (Elstad and Ladegard 2012), board composition (Elsaid and Ursel 2011), choice of accounting method (Francis et al. 2015), etc. ...
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We hypothesise bi-directional causality between gender diversity on boards and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI). Firms exposed to CSI incidents are likely to increase their board gender diversity for reputational purposes. Simultaneously, gender diversity adds skills and networks to boards which supports their monitoring function and should reduce CSI incidents. Econometrically, this relationship is plagued with reverse causality. Consequently, we propose a Granger-style reverse causality minimisation procedure. Our procedure involves three steps. Firstly, we regress board diversity (BD) on lagged CSI to separate diversity into two components, one driven by CSI (BDDCS) and another unrelated to CSI (BDUCS), with the latter being the sum of the intercept and the disturbance term. Secondly, we confirm that BDUCS experiences a near-zero correlation to CSI and that a Granger causality F-test for CSI affecting BDUCS is clearly insignificant. Thirdly, we regress CSI on lagged BDUCS, lagged CSI and its interaction term. Applying our procedure to 2,880 US firms between 2007 and 2016, we find that boards with higher diversity, for reasons other than CSI, were significantly better than their lower diversity counterparts in reducing CSI incidents once encountering them. This effect is economically stronger for diversity unrelated to CSI than for overall diversity.
... Supporting the professional context argument,Wu et al. (2018) find female and male executives do not differentially impact bank's risk-taking. Overall prior research concludes that male and female have only a few differences that separate them and those tend to be quite small(Dobbins & Platz, 1986;Donnell & Hall, 1980;Eagly & Johnson, 1990;Gipson et al., 2017;Powell, 1990).12 In our pilot test on students, we confirm that equity analysts are perceived as stereotypically male. ...
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We examine whether an unsophisticated investor’s own gender interacts with gender of a sell-side equity analyst to affect the investor’s judgment. Prior research shows two potential sources of gender-based discrimination that affect female investors. First, female investors’ advisors offer less risky hence lower return portfolios to female investors than to male investors with similar risk preferences as female investors are perceived as more risk adverse. Second, female equity analysts are subject to greater barriers to enter and advance in investment firms that act as if they believe clients prefer male investment advisors in a male stereotypical occupation. Using two experiments, we use the judge-advisor framework to predict and find that investor’s gender and analyst’s gender jointly influence investor’s judgment. Specifically, female-female analyst-investor pair generates the strongest reaction to analyst’s advice compared to any other analyst-investor pair, everything else equal. Further, we find that efforts to highlight equal gender performance activates gender stereotypes that reduce female investors’ receptivity to female analysts’ advice. By linking the two previously different sources of discrimination we show that they reinforce each other and find that attempts to “level the playing field” by emphasizing gender performance parity may have unexpected results.
... There is extensive research on barriers to women in STEM [1], [2], [11] and, separately, to women in leadership [12], [13], [14], however, there is little research on both topics [7], [8], and most studies focus on developed countries. Few studies address both of these issues for women in Latin American countries [15]. ...
Conference Paper
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Gender inequalities and underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) continue to be a reality, as several barriers affect women throughout their career development and in leadership positions. Little is known about those barriers for women in developing countries. This two-stage study aims to explore them and analyze how women leaders in STEM in Mexico have overcome them, from their education to the science and engineering workforce. This work in progress focuses on stage one, where a survey was conducted to obtain sex-disaggregated data on drivers and barriers to STEM careers in Mexico. Preliminary results showed the lack of equal opportunities for women when pursuing and advancing in a career in STEM, additional barriers they face compared to men, as well as the importance of women role models for representation and retention of women in these fields. The second stage of the study is planned to analyze the career development of women leaders in STEM in Mexico.
... Our findings facilitate evidence-based recommendations for how organizations can recruit more women and, thereby, increase gender equality (Ely et al., 2011;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017;Heilman & Caleo, 2018;Shore, Cleveland, & Sanchez, 2018). While much has been written about the subject of achieving gender equality in leadership, not all recommendations are equally evidence-based, and some guidance can even harm progress (Caleo & Heilman, 2019;Chrobot-Mason, Hoobler, & Burno, 2018;Dobbin et al., 2015;Dobbin & Kalev, 2016). ...
Article
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Following calls for research to increase gender equality, we investigated women's intentions to pursue career opportunities, in the form of career development programs. We built on lack of fit and signaling theory to argue that women's but not men's pursuit of career opportunities would be influenced by recruiter gender and gender‐stereotypical wording in recruitment advertisements. We conducted two studies in Germany. In Study 1 (video‐based experiment with 329 university students), we found that when a male recruiter used stereotypically masculine compared to feminine wording, female students anticipated lower belongingness, expected lower success of an application, and indicated lower application intentions for career opportunities. These differences in female students’ evaluations disappeared when the recruiter was female. While Study 2 (experimental vignette study with 545 employees) replicates the negative effects of masculine wording for female employees; the buffering effect of female recruiters was only replicated for younger, but not for older female employees. Women's anticipated belongingness mediated the relationship between advertisement wording and application intentions when the recruiter was male. Recruiter gender and wording had no effects on men. Our work contributes to a better understanding of when and why contextual characteristics in the recruitment process influence women's pursuit of career opportunities.
... Previous research studies give an appreciative understanding to the existing literature regarding women's leadership (Hejase et al., 2013;Kattan et al., 2016;Gipson et al., 2017). Both researcher and senior management are trying to account for the factors affecting leadership opportunities of women representatives. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to highlight that senior management is avoiding women from key leadership positions, also avoiding their entry to higher education institutions. Moreover, senior management doesn't allow them to learn skills through administrative techniques that help them to build their leadership role and confidence. Based on equity theory, this research examines the impact of women's leadership on work special effects with the moderating role of organization support. Data were collected from private and public sector universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through a survey questionnaire. Based on 294 respondents' responses the study found a significant association with women leadership and work special effect (AC, WP). The moderation analysis shows that the moderator significantly and positively moderates the relationship between WL and WSE. This research is the first to validate a women leadership scale in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
... Two main explanations have been offered to understand women's underrepresentation in elite leadership roles (Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci, & Burke, 2017). One claims that there might be a shortage of women with the appropriate level of education and work experience to occupy senior leadership positions. ...
Article
Role congruity theory postulates that traditionally there is a mismatch between the communal qualities associated with women and the masculine or agentic qualities considered necessary in a good leader. Thus, female candidates are presumed to be less suitable for leadership roles. The purpose of this study is to discover the conditions under which this (in)congruity may fluctuate. In a hypothetical manager recruitment process done in Spain, two profiles (agentic and communal) were associated with female and male candidates to explore variations according to the organizational setting (profit-oriented or civic-minded company) and the value attributed to candidates’ qualities (high or low). Results showed congruity between candidates’ profile and organizational setting when their trait value was high: agentic candidates were preferred over communal candidates for the profit-oriented company, with the reverse occurring for the civic-minded company. However, candidates’ sex apparently played no significant role in participants’ decision making; additionally, when the value of candidates’ traits was low, congruity was only found for the profit-oriented company. We conclude that, overall, the agentic construal of management, with its good and bad features, still has the upper hand in the current vision of leadership.
... In organizations, leaders have various characteristics. Women leaders are also leading the organizations effectively [32]. Agile women leaders impact organizational success and organizational performance [33]. ...
Article
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The need for organizations to adapt to constant change means the challenges of implementing an agile strategy. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the role of agile women leadership and team effectiveness by looking into the mediating effect of interpersonal trust based on a cross-sectional quantitative study with a sample of 269 employees from Poland and Turkey. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals in companies having women leaders or managers. The three questionnaires required the respondents to answer questions regarding the perception of agile leadership, trust and team effectiveness. By using SPSS, demographics, descriptive statistics and tests of normality were determined. Smart PLS version 3.0 was used for confirmatory factor analysis, internal accuracy and validity estimates, hypothesis checking and mediation testing. Results of PLS-SEM indicated interpersonal trust has a full mediation role between agile women leadership in shaping team effectiveness. The population of this study are working for organizations of just two countries; hence, the generalizability of the findings to other settings is unknown. Our findings contribute to the literature on women agile leadership and team effectiveness by demonstrating how the growth in trust to managers contributes to the emergence of team effectiveness and the agile leadership trend over time. This study will therefore contribute to the understanding of organized teams’ effectiveness in the perspective of agile women leadership and trust of supervisors
... Firstly, strong and authoritarian leaders are perceived as masculine. This view concurs with the previous literature on gender differences in leadership styles (Gipson et al., 2017). Secondly, democratic leaders are perceived as task-competent and socio-emotional-competent. According to Bass and Bass (2008), this view could explain why democratic leaders are perceived more effective and satisfying than authoritarian leaders (Likert, 1977;Miller & Monge, 1986). ...
Article
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Nowadays, to the detriment of democratic leaders, the emergence of authoritarian leaders has drastically modified the political sphere. This project aims to shed light on this issue by analysing how the perceived effectiveness of democratic and authoritarian political leaders are shaped by the common dimensions of social perception, such as competence/warmth, masculinity/femininity, and human uniqueness/human nature. Accordingly, three experimental studies were conducted. In Study 1 (n = 1001), we revealed that democratic leaders are perceived as more competent, warm, feminine and human. In Study 2 (n = 548) and Study 3 (n = 622), we investigated whether these dimensions of perception mediated the relationship between leaders and their perceived effectiveness. The results revealed that democratic leaders are perceived as effective in cooperative scenarios due to their competence, femininity, and human nature. Alternatively, democratic leaders are preferred in ambiguous contexts due to their competence and cognitive flexibility, that is, human nature. In contrast, authoritarian leaders are perceived as effective in competitive scenarios because of their masculinity. In Study 3, we manipulated the (in)stability of socio-economic contexts. The results revealed that democratic and authoritarian leaders are perceived as more competent, warm, human and more effective in socio-economic contexts that are stable compared with those that are unstable. The implications of the results regarding the emergence of authoritarian leaders are discussed.
... It is worth mentioning that mainstream approaches also analyze the relations between gender and leadership. However, most of these studies focus on gender behavioural aspects and their relationship with the leadership styles of women and men, seeking mainly to understand the possible differences and similarities in leadership styles between men and women, and how these styles influence organizational performance (Aarum & Hansson, 2011;Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci & Burke, 2017). Ford (2006Ford ( , 2010 highlights that, concerning these mainstream studies, poststructuralism allows a more subjectivist interpretation of leadership, analyzing in the speeches given the complex relations between gender, psyche and self. ...
Article
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Resumo Liderança é considerada um tema relevante para os estudos organizacionais, fato que pode ser verificado pela existência de diversos periódicos acadêmicos dedicados exclusivamente ao tema. Contudo, apesar da proliferação de periódicos e várias publicações sobre o tema, a definição de liderança ainda é vaga, sendo geralmente considerada pelo mainstream um atributo masculino de líderes individuais heroicos. Assim, este artigo busca realizar uma análise crítica do mainstream sobre liderança, tendo-se como lente de análise a ontologia pós-estruturalista sobre o tema. Portanto, este artigo objetiva contribuir com o debate ontológico sobre liderança ao abordar o que é liderança para o pós-estruturalismo, enfatizando suas diferenças ontológicas em relação ao mainstream. O pós-estruturalismo promove uma ontologia de liderança alternativa ao mainstream que rompe com a concepção universal de liderança ao evidenciar sua característica microssocial e discursiva, concebendo liderança como um processo discursivo micropolítico, sendo fundamental para a entendimento da ontologia pós-estruturalista de liderança compreender (1) a produção das identidades de líderes e seguidores e (2) a materialidade da liderança.
... They argued that focused leadership training for women that aims at constructing and internalizing leader identity can facilitate women's trajectories toward senior leadership positions. Furthermore, Gipson et al. (2017) argued that women leadership programs should place a deeper focus on the unique issues faced by women leaders and the context of the organization. ...
Article
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While gender diversity in leadership has been shown to benefit organizations and promote innovations, women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions in the industry sector. With increasing numbers of women pursuing PhDs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, it is critical to examine how PhD programs contribute to the career paths of PhDs. This study examines the role of doctoral education preparation in communication, management, and technical skills, as well as post-PhD early career management training (ECMT), on PhDs’ attainment of leadership positions in industry. Data come from the National Science Foundation Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Science Foundation Survey of Earned Doctorates, and National Research Council Rankings of PhD programs. Using regression analyses, results indicate that ECMT is associated with a higher likelihood of attainment of leadership positions. PhD preparation in management skills also contributes to the attainment of leadership positions. Previous literature has shown that structural inequities and workplace bias contribute to limiting women’s progress to leadership positions and that it is critical to address systemic and workplace biases. Research findings suggest that PhD program preparation and increased access to professional development opportunities can help contribute to the enhancement of women’s pathways to leadership roles. Structural changes in doctoral education preparation in management skills and increases in ECMT opportunities offered by employers also have the potential to increase the participation of STEM PhDs in leadership roles in industry.
... It is the leader who chooses a certain leadership style (Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 2017). Some organizations may choose the same leadership style, while others choose a different one based on the nature of work and differentially of their task performance (Gipson et al., 2017). The truth is that the culture and goal of organizations determine the type of leadership style chosen by their leaders (Appelbaum et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Leadership is the process of influencing followers to achieve a goal. This study aims to explore the Afghan postgraduate students’ experiences of their leadership development through the leadership course taught in Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia. A quantitative research design was employed in the study. An online survey questionnaire with 19 items was used to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was administered to all 46 postgraduate students in Social Sciences, Humanities and Science faculties, but only 42 of them responded to the online survey. Statistical Package for Social Sciences has been used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the mean, frequency and percentage. Inferential statistics such as Independent Sample T-Test and One Way ANOVA were used to find out the differences in the responses of the participants by their demographic variables, i.e., gender, year of study, faculty, work experience and age. The finding showed that the students had a positive perception of the leadership course. The participants believed that the course helped them to improve their leadership skills. The study recommends that the leadership course be taught in Afghanistan universities since it plays a crucial part in developing leadership skills in students, which is crucial for their career after graduation.
... Women are considered less competent and ambitious, more sentimental (Billing & Alvesson, 2000) than men, and are generally neglected while considering leadership positions (Phelan & Rudman, 2010). In their study, Gipson et al. (2017) confirm that women are discriminated against in the leadership selection process worldwide. These constraints and discriminations pose dire consequences for gender equality 1 and undermine women's leadership competence at every stage in their career (Eagly & Carli, 2007;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Player et al., 2019). ...
Article
This article describes lived experiences of successful women leaders in government administration organizations in India. The analysis of women’s experiences revealed the enablers and deterrents faced by these women in their leadership trajectories. These factors are categorized as an individual: family background and childhood experiences, self-aspiration and leadership development and work-life balance and familial support or organizational viz. workplace and sociocultural challenges and success mantras. A combination of them has influenced the progression of these women. The results present the need for a massive social change initiated by human service organizations to shift the so-called patriarchal social system. The paper has identified various dimensions like prioritizing promoting diversity, mentoring, and redesign of human resource policies which need to be focused. Also, the organizations and government can use these findings to design development programs for realistically promoting more women to higher positions.
... Information on how and whether participation in groups plays a role or fails in participation of women in leadership is still limited (Nakazi et al., 2017). While farmer groups remain critical in smallholder dairy subsector, women composition and leadership in socioeconomic groups reveals biasness in favour of men (Gipson et al., 2017;Torre et al., 2019;Dhatt et al., 2017). In the study area, farmer groups' were ignorant about gender equity objectives and laws, and lacked the strategies and willingness to apply them. ...
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Smallholder farmers in Kenya are the majority players in the dairy sector and need consideration in generation of policies to improve economic performance. The problem is smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya have continued practising subsistence farming without transitioning to commercial enterprises, hence the observed poor economic status. The objective of this study was to analyse smallholder dairy farming typologies, collective action, and commercialisation in Kenya. The study was conducted in Nyandarua and Nakuru counties, where there are a large number of smallholder dairy farmers. The study used a multistage sampling technique to select a random sample of 380 dairy farmers. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were the tools for data collection. The data was analysed using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, propensity score matching, and household commercialisation index models. The results showed that there were three significantly different types of smallholder dairy farmers i.e. low resource endowed and low market oriented, moderate resource endowed and moderate market oriented, and high resource endowed and high market oriented. The distinguishing factors for these dairy farming typologies were output, land, household assets, and infrastructure. Resources, capital, infrastructure, and extension service related challenges characterised the smallholder dairy sector. The majority of the smallholder dairy farmers practiced collective action, with most being in self-help groups. Farmers joined groups depending on group leadership, education of leaders, leadership period, age of group, conduct of members, and execution of rules and regulations. Factors that affected group performance were type of group, gender of leaders, motivation to leaders, approach to absenteeism, years of group existence, and the reasons for lending to the group members. The study revealed moderately high level of commercialisation in the study area even though there was low level of commercialisation in Nakuru County compared to Nyandarua County. Major constraints to smallholder dairy commercialisation included poor quality and quantity of inputs, low output prices, poor dairy related infrastructure, and inadequate extension services. The study concluded that milk production was relatively low among the farmers, who were heterogeneous in demographic and socio-economic characteristics. There was moderate farmer group membership in the study area, and a substantial increase in milk sales for farmers who belonged to groups. Even though farmers practised commercialization, the levels varied across the study area. The study proposes a revision of policies to improve land accessibility, feed availability, extension, physical infrastructure, financial resources, and technological innovations, which are important to improve dairy production. The policies need to be accustomed to the needs of smallholder dairy farmer typologies. Farmer groups membership need to be emphasised to address the challenges of production and marketing. Policies should focus on group sensitisation and capacity building. Deliberate efforts should be made to improve group membership and management for sustainable cooperative mentality among members. Smallholder dairy commercialisation needs improvement in marketing infrastructure, adequate and quality marketing information and institutional support to lower the transaction costs.
... A study by Gipson et al. (2017) found that while men and women exhibit different leadership styles and men are predominantly preferred for positions of leadership, there is no statistically significant difference in the performance of women and men in leadership. Female leaders tend to impact the general organization than their male counterparts because they have a higher propensity to adopt the transformational leadership style, allowing them to mentor and attend to their followers more than their male counterparts (Hopkins et al., 2008). ...
Article
Despite extensive research into women's leadership representation and roles, little is known about the role of women in Iraqi leadership and academics. Most of the literature on academic imperialism and the relegation of women to secondary roles in higher education is authored by Westernershus; thus, it may not accurately depict the level of gender inequality in academia. The aim of the current study is to explore the prospect of career progression for women in Iraq based on the insight presented by both male and female professionals. The study also sought to whether the interaction between lecturers and students was influenced by gender stereotypes and the inclusion of women in departmental administration. Hence, a quantitative research method was used, and data required to sufficiently address the research questions was collected using questionnaires. The sample population constituted of 59 male and female professionals and 114 students of both genders and across departments. The collected data was then analyzed on SPSS version 2.0. The research found that male employees had a better prospect of career progressions than their female counterparts; 57.6% of male professional participants strongly agreed that their prospect of career progression is high, while 50% strongly agreed to this prompt. Moreover, female lecturers reported that female students were freer with them than their male counterparts. Also, females felt less represented in departmental administration than their male counterparts. Although Iraq's academia has come a long way in bridging the gender inequality gaps, more still needs to be done for better female professionals' inclusion in leadership and administrative roles. The current study that future studies should be dedicated to finding the current challenges facing women academics. | KEYWORDS Gender Equity; women's leadership; academic imperialism | ARTICLE
... Palabras-clave liderazgo femenino · desigualdad de género · escala · psicología organizacional Women increasingly participate in the labor market but remain underrepresented in the most prestigious organizational and political positions in countries all over the world (Gipson et al., 2017). According to the authors, this is not due to women's lack of qualification of women for such positions, but rather to the low demand for female leadership. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to provide initial evidence on the validity of the internal structure and of the relationships with external variables of the Scale of Barriers and Facilitators of Female Leadership. The participants consisted of 627 Brazilian workers (71.9% female), aged between 19 and 75 years (M = 36.28; SD = 9.92). Theoretical models and empirical studies ground the development of 86 items, featuring barriers and facilitators of female leadership, associated with the macro (society), meso (organization), and micro (individual) levels. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a final version composed of 33 items, distributed in six factors: gender stereotypes (social barrier), gender equality (social facilitator), gender discrimination in the organization (organizational barrier), support for female leadership in the organization (organizational facilitator), individual difficulties to advance in one’s career (individual barrier), and action plan to advance in one’s career (individual facilitator). The internal consistency indexes ranged from .69 to .90. To assess the relationships with external variables, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Negative correlations were identified between gender stereotypes and gender discrimination in the organization with benevolent sexism. Positive correlations were also identified between the factors of gender equality and support for female leadership in the organization with benevolent sexism. The factor individual difficulties to advance in their own career showed a negative correlation with self-esteem, and the action plan factor to advance in their own career showed a positive correlation with self-esteem. The instrument proved to be an adequate measure to diagnose barriers and facilitators, social, organizational, and individual that influence the advancement of women to leadership positions.
... A study by Gipson et al. (2017) found that while men and women exhibit different leadership styles and men are predominantly preferred for positions of leadership, there is no statistically significant difference in the performance of women and men in leadership. Female leaders tend to impact the general organization than their male counterparts because they have a higher propensity to adopt the transformational leadership style, allowing them to mentor and attend to their followers more than their male counterparts (Hopkins et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite extensive research into women's leadership representation and roles, little is known about the role of women in Iraqi leadership and academics. Most of the literature on academic imperialism and the relegation of women to secondary roles in higher education is authored by Westernershus; thus, it may not accurately depict the level of gender inequality in academia. The aim of the current study is to explore the prospect of career progression for women in Iraq based on the insight presented by both male and female professionals. The study also sought to whether the interaction between lecturers and students was influenced by gender stereotypes and the inclusion of women in departmental administration. Hence, a quantitative research method was used, and data required to sufficiently address the research questions was collected using questionnaires. The sample population constituted of 59 male and female professionals and 114 students of both genders and across departments. The collected data was then analyzed on SPSS version 2.0. The research found that male employees had a better prospect of career progressions than their female counterparts; 57.6% of male professional participants strongly agreed that their prospect of career progression is high, while 50% strongly agreed to this prompt. Moreover, female lecturers reported that female students were freer with them than their male counterparts. Also, females felt less represented in departmental administration than their male counterparts. Although Iraq's academia has come a long way in bridging the gender inequality gaps, more still needs to be done for better female professionals' inclusion in leadership and administrative roles. The current study that future studies should be dedicated to finding the current challenges facing women academics.
... For instance, many studies used social role theory, social identity theory, role congruence theory, human capital, Hofstede's cultural dimensions, expectation states theory, and lack of fit theory to identify the leadership gap between genders (Madsen & Scribner, 2017). Furthermore, Gipson et al. (2017) highlighted that many researchers centred their studies on the gap of gender leadership based on stereotyping and discrimination theories, with 165,000 articles of leadership emerge from the Web of Science. In addition, many researchers who wrote about a gender-centred approach, which implies that women's attributes and behaviour are "unsuitable" for top leadership roles, have ignored organisational and cultural aspects in their studies (Akpinar-Sposito, 2013). ...
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ÇALIŞANLARIN OLUMSUZ DUYGUYU İFADE EDEBİLME YETENEĞİNİN FİRMANIN FİNANSAL PERFORMANSINA ETKİSİ: KADIN LİDERLERİN MODERATÖR ROLÜ
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This chapter presents the female leadership model present in the women who lead the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Mexico. It was found that women entrepreneurs have balanced leadership between the pursuit of economic results and the development of quality relationships with employees. This means they are good communicators and consider their employees in the integral development of their companies, but the women entrepreneurs are also interested in the achievement of the organizational objectives. This style of leadership develops in a context in which family support is key to success, where the main challenge they face is the economic one and where, under the perception of themselves, they have been able to break with the traditional scheme of work and female leadership.
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Authenticity has been a focus of much leadership research in recent years. Despite this interest, there has been a dearth of studies that explore the role of gender in the social construction of authenticity. To date, authentic leadership theories have tended to be either gender neutral or, where gender has been considered, it is argued that women as ‘outsiders’ are less likely to be accepted by their followers as authentic leaders. In this study we examine the media representations of the CEOs — one male, one female — of two major Australian retail banks during the global financial crisis. Our approach enables us to show that authenticity is something leaders ‘do’ rather than something they ‘have’ or ‘are’, and that being constructed as authentic depends on the leader performing authenticity in line with gender norms deemed appropriate for the socially constructed context in which they are expected to lead.
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A study was conducted on three hundred and fifty-eight Managers across the Johnson & Johnson Consumer & Personal Care Group (JJC&PC Group) globally to assess if there are specific leadership competencies that distinguish high performers from average performers. Participants were randomly selected, then coded for performance rating, potential code, gender, functional group and regional area. More than fourteen hundred employees took part in a one hundred and eighty three question multi-rater survey that measured a variety of competencies associated with leadership performance including those commonly referred to as Emotional Intelligence. Results showed that the highest performing managers have significantly more “emotional competence” than other managers. There was strong inter-rater agreement among Supervisors, Peers, and Subordinates that the competencies of Self-Confidence, Achievement Orientation, Initiative, Leadership, Influence and Change Catalyst differentiate superior performers. The high potential managers received higher scores in the emotional competencies by Peers and Supervisors, but not by Subordinates. Some gender difference was found, with Supervisors rating Females higher in Adaptability and Service Orientation, while Peers rated Females higher on Emotional Self-Awareness, Conscientiousness, Developing Others, Service Orientation, and Communication. Direct reports scored Males higher in Change Catalyst.
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This study examined the association between corporate transparency and ethical orientation of Fortune 500 companies and the number of females represented on the board of directors from the Fortune (2010) annual report data. Our basis for this judgment was whether the firm was listed on either (both) Ethisphere Magazine’s “2010 World’s Most Ethical Companies“ (Ethisphere Magazine 2011) or (and) Corporate Responsibility Magazine’s “100 Best Corporate Citizens 2010“ (Corporate Responsibility Magazine 2011) list(s). Our results indicated that, as the number of women directors increased, the probability of a corporation appearing on these lists increased. We also found that a ‘‘critical mass’’ of women directors was indicated by the data for Ethisphere Magazine’s but not Corporate Responsibility Magazine’s list.
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Women bring a different perspective to decision making. Yet where that perspective is, arguably, needed most, on boards, women are noticeably under-represented. In this article, Ivey's Dean, who sits on several boards, makes a strong and compelling case for why there should be more women on more boards and what companies can do to identify and help more women to become board members.
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The positive correlation between the presence of female directors on boards and corporate performance suggests that women appear to make better directors than men. But why? Using the Defined Issues Test (DIT) instrument (Rest, 1979, 1986), 624 board directors (75% male; 25% female) were surveyed to determine their reliance on three reasoning methods (i.e., ‘Personal Interest’, ‘Normative’ and ‘Complex Moral Reasoning’ or ‘CMR’) to make decisions. The results showed that female directors achieved significantly higher scores than their male counterparts on the CMR dimension which essentially involves making consistently fair decisions when competing interests are at stake. Since directors are compelled to make decisions in the best interest of their corporation while taking the viewpoints of multiple stakeholders into account, having a significant portion of female directors with highly developed CMR skills on board would appear to be an important resource for making these types of decisions and making them more effectively.
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The aim of this study is to conceptually define and develop a scale to measure relational behavior in the workplace associated with theorized differences in how women and men approach work. Drawing from the gender studies and organizational literatures, the construct is defined and a relational approach to work scale is developed. Data were collected from a sample of 223 graduate students with work experience. Findings show preliminary evidence of reliability and validity.
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How does racial and gender diversity in the management ranks affect the bottom line? Our findings indicate that participative strategy making (PSM) positively moderates the relationship between both racial and gender diversity in management and firm performance measured as return on assets. Specifically, PSM strengthens the positive relationship that exists between racial diversity in management and firm performance. Although no main effect is observed for gender diversity in management, our results reveal that gender diversity in management is positively related to performance when PSM is high. However, we find that gender diversity in management is negatively related to performance when PSM is low, while gender homogeneous management experience superior performance. We offer implications for diversity research to embrace and consider the role of PSM and ‘inclusiveness’.
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Although the number of women in middle management has grown quite rapidly in the last two decades, the number of female CEOs in large corporations remains extremely low. This article examines many explanations for why women have not risen to the top, including lack of line experience, inadequate career opportunities, gender differences in linguistic styles and socialization, gender-based stereotypes, the old boy network at the top, and tokenism. Alternative explanations are also presented and analyzed, such as differences between female leadership styles and the type of leadership style expected at the top of organizations, feminist explanations for the underrepresentation of women in top management positions, and the possibility that the most talented women in business often avoid corporate life in favor of entrepreneurial careers.
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Work–family programs signal an employer's perspective on gender diversity to employees, and can influence whether the effects of diversity on performance are positive or negative. This article tests the interactive effects of nonmanagement gender diversity and work–family programs on productivity, and management gender diversity and work–family programs on financial performance. The predictions were tested in 198 Australian publicly listed organizations using primary (survey) and secondary (publicly available) data based on a two-year time lag between diversity and performance. The findings indicate that nonmanagement gender diversity leads to higher productivity in organizations with many work–family programs, and management gender diversity leads to lower financial performance in organizations with few work–family programs. The results suggest different business cases at nonmanagement and management levels for the adoption of work–family programs in gender-diverse organizations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Two traits – warmth and competence – govern social judgments of individuals and groups, and these judgments shape people's emotions and behaviors. The present chapter describes the causes and consequences of warmth and competence judgments; how, when and why they determine significant professional and organizational outcomes, such as hiring, employee evaluation, and allocation of tasks and resources. Warmth and competence represent the central dimensions of group stereotypes, the majority of which are ambivalent – characterizing groups as warm but incompetent (e.g., older people, working mothers) or competent but cold (e.g., “model minorities,” female leaders), in turn eliciting ambivalent feelings (i.e., pity and envy, respectively) and actions toward members of those groups. However, through nonverbal behaviors that subtly communicate warmth and competence information, people can manage the impressions they make on colleagues, potential employers, and possible investors. Finally, we discuss important directions for future research, such as investigating the causes and consequences of how organizations and industries are evaluated on warmth and competence.
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The inconsistent findings of past board diversity research demand a test of competing linear and curvilinear diversity–performance predictions. This research focuses on board age and gender diversity, and presents a positive linear prediction based on resource dependence theory, a negative linear prediction based on social identity theory, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear prediction based on the integration of resource dependence theory with social identity theory. The predictions were tested using archival data on 288 large organizations listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, with a 1-year time lag between diversity (age and gender) and performance (employee productivity and return on assets). The results indicate a positive linear relationship between gender diversity and employee productivity, a negative linear relationship between age diversity and return on assets, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between age diversity and return on assets. The findings provide additional evidence on the business case for board gender diversity and refine the business case for board age diversity.
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This paper focuses on the relationship between Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chairperson characteristics and firm performance. Specifically, the study examines the association between the characteristics of the CEO and the Chairperson of the board and firm performance. Using a sample of S&P 500 firms, the evidence found suggests that demographic and experience-related characteristics may be associated with the market valuation and financial performance of the firm. In particular, the reported results indicate a positive relationship between the presence of female CEOs or Chairs and firm performance, thus suggesting that gender-based differences may affect the CEO’s/Chairperson’s success. Moreover, the findings concerning the age of the CEO or Chair are mixed, while their experience and quality appear positively related to firm performance. Interestingly, a CEO or Chairperson holding multiple board seats is negatively associated with firm performance, whereas CEO duality has a positive relationship with Tobin’s Q and the return on assets (ROA) of the firm.