ArticlePDF Available
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
188
Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers
Special Issue Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 188 - 198
Date of Publication: 21st January, 2017
DOI-https://dx.doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2017.31.1 88198
THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHING GENERATION Z
Elizelle Juan Cilliers
Urban and Regional Planning, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West
University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
juanee.cilliers@nwu.ac.za
Abstract
Incredible technology changes are defining our current reality, impacting on our approach to
society, to planning and to breaking new ground in terms of education. There is a rise of a new
generation that is "location-aware" and speaks a technological-language”. This has a great
impacts on the teaching-learning environment within the current university structures, as
students (the new Generation Z learners) are more equipped with technology, than typical
Generation X (lecturers), which increase complexity of education processes involving
instruction, guidance, and supervision. This study investigated the preferences of the new
Generation Z student, in terms of technology usage within formal educational systems, based on
the surveys conducted among the Urban Planning students on the Potchefstroom campus of the
North-West University, South Africa, over a 7 year period. It also tested perspectives and
technology usage and preferences of current lecturers (of the same group of students), in order
to reveal some of the complex realities and challenges faced when teaching Generation Z. The
research concluded with the viewpoints of both groups and presented some solutions to bridge
the gaps and enhance teaching-learning strategies.
Keywords
Generation X, Generation Z, Urban Planning, Technology hype
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
189
1. Introduction
During the time of writing this paper, Pokemon Go was released, and what better proof of
illustrating the incredible technology changes and era we are currently living in. Pokemon Go
introduced the reality of blending the physical and virtual spaces (Lopez, 2016), but at the same
time the great number of people playing this game, revealed something about the changing
societal needs. The digital world is a game changer for life as we know it.
The use of YouTube, web blogs, mobile mapping and bar-codes on smart phones is
increasing in the everyday life. Spatial representations have been inflected by electronic
technologies (radar, sonar, GPS, WLAN, Bluetooth etc.) which was traditionally only used in
mapping, navigation, and location and proximity sensing. Social media is transforming society
(Sinaga, 2015) and there is a rise of a new generation that is "location-aware" (De Varco, 2004)
and business as usual” is being rewritten by this younger generation of internet users (Van Zyl,
2009). This is also true when considering methods of teaching and learning and communication
structures associated therewith.
This paper explored the broad characteristics of Generation Z, along with the technology
preferences of this group (with specific reference to social media usage) and possible strategies
to bridge the technology-gap with previous generations and enhance the current teaching-
learning environment.
The empirical investigation was based on surveys conducted among 3rd year Urban
Planning students of the North-West University (NWU) in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2016, in order
to compare differences and illustrate advances, changing needs and preferences with regard to
technology usage of Generation Z. The viewpoints of previous generations was captured by
means of surveys distributed amongst the Urban Planning lecturers of the said group of students.
2. Who is this generation Z?
The generation typology is well covered in various sources. Five general trends can be
identified, broadly referring to: (1) The traditionalists, born between 1928 and 1944, who values
authority and a top-down management approach; (2) The baby boomer generation, born between
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
190
1945 and 1965 who tend to be workaholics; (3) Generation X, born between 1965 and 1979, a
generation who is comfortable with authority and view the work-life balance as important, (4)
Generation Y, been born between 1980 and 1995 and who generally grew up in prosperity and
have technology savvy and (5) Generation Z, born after 1995, who is still to come into the
workforce, but tend to be digital natives, fast decision makers, and highly connected
(Consultancy.uk, 2015; Dauksevicuite, 2016) (refer to Figure 1). Based on the recent statistics of
Pokemon Go players, the digital preferences of Generation Z is substantiated, with the greatest
number of players (46%) aged between 19 and 29 years (in comparison to 22% aged between 13
and 17 years, 25% between 30 and 50 and 6% above 50 years) (Forbes, 2016).
Figure 1. Generation typology
Source: Consultancy.uk (2015)
The typical Generation Z person, or digital natives as often referred to (Dauksevicuite,
2016; Rothman, 2016) was the first generation born into a globally (internet) connected world
and therefore “live and breathe” technology. This is also true for the higher education
environment where Generation Z students rely on PC-recordings instead of taking notes, are
more tend to raise questions online, see a lecture as come and entertain me” and does not like
waiting for a response but demand instant information and communication (Dauksevicuite, 2016;
Rothman, 2016).
Some research illustrated that the brains of Generation Z are structurally different than
those of earlier generations, not as a result of genetics, but as a result of the external environment
and how our brains respond to such (Rothman, 2016). “The brains of Generation Zs have
become wired to sophisticated, complex visual imagery, and as a result, the part of the brain
responsible for visual ability is far more developed, making visual forms of learning more
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
191
effective” (Rothman, 2016). Auditory learning, such as lectures and discussions, is very strongly
disliked by this group, whereas interactive games, collaborative projects, advance organizers,
and challenges, are appreciated (Rothman, 2016).
The technology preferences of the Generation Z student was tested in a local case study
conducted among 3rd year Urban Planning students at the North-West University in South Africa.
The preferences and technology usage of lecturers of this group of students were also tested in
order to shed some light on the teaching-learning challenges associated with educating
Generation Z. Findings of these surveys (over a 7 year period) are presented accordingly.
3. Technology preferences case study
3.1 Student preferences
Since 2011 technology preferences were tested among 3rd year Urban Planning students
of the North-West University (NWU). Surveys was conducted in 2011, 2013, 2015 (on typical
Generation X students) and for the first time in 2016 on Generation Z students, born in 1995.
Students completed anonymous questionnaires capturing their preferences with regard to
technology use as part of teaching-learning strategies. This research aimed to compare the
findings over the different time periods in order to draw some conclusions with regard to the
change in need and expectations when considering technology usages (and social media) as part
of formal education structures. All (100%) students within al the survey years, indicated that they
own their own computer and smart phone, and use such to access social media.
It was evident that the use of social media increased as not all students (94% in 2013 and
93% in 2015) had Facebook accounts, but this increased to 100% in the 2016 survey. Students
also contacted their lecturers through social media, and 75% of the 2016 survey identify
WhatsApp as the preferred method (none used Facebook for such purposes). 57% of students in
the 2015 survey also indicated that WhatsApp improves their learning environment, while 100%
(in both 2015 and 2016) agreed that they use WhatsApp to receive academic information from
their classmates.
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
192
Figure 2: Student-lecturer communication methods
It was interesting to note that most students prefer writing written examinations and not
electronic examinations, although the trend is picking up and more students are voting in favor of
electronic (online) examinations. The same trend was evident with regard to electronic study
material, with 63% opting for this option in 2016 (refer to Figure 3)
Most students, in all the survey years, stated that they would rather have more lectures and
viewer assignments. The option for lectures (physical contact sessions) increased per survey and
88% of students chose this option in the 2016 survey, as captured in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Student preferences with regard to formal study material
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Contact lecturers via
Facebook WhatsApp Not via social media
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
2013 2015 2016
Prefer electronic examinations
Prefer electronic literature
Prefer more lectures
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
193
The perceptions of students regarding the technology know-how of lectures decreased in every
survey year, and in the 2016 survey, 100% of students were confident that they know more of
technology than (all 14%, most 42% and some 42%) their lecturers (refer to Figure 4).
Figure 4: Student perceptions
71% of the students of the 2016 survey indicated that they would like even more technology-
usage as part of their modules. This findings correlate with previous research of Olivier (2013)
indicating that 83% students on the Potchefstroom Campus of the NWU agree that technology
elevates the level of teaching and learning.
Since 2011 a change in technology trends were observed in terms of:
Wifi is more freely available on campus in 2016, enhancing the connectedness of students.
In 2011 it was valid to ask if students have a smart phone and internet connected computer,
whereas in 2016 this was a given for all students.
In 2016 all students engage in social media and even feel comfortable to contact their
lecturers through the use of social media, a trend that is definitely increasing over time.
There is a growing trend in students opting for electronic study material and electronic
examinations.
There is a growing trend illustrating that students prefer more contact sessions and lectures.
Student increasingly believe they have more technology know-how than their lecturers.
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
I have more technology know-how than my lecturers
2013 2015 2016
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
194
Students are requesting more technology-usage as part of their modules.
3.2 Lecturer preferences
In 2016 the technology-usage survey was extended to include the viewpoints of the
lecturers teaching the students included in the survey (3rd year Urban Planning students of the
NWU). The identified lecturers completed anonymous questionnaires capturing their preferences
with regard to technology use as part of teaching-learning strategies. This research aimed to
identify the current reality of technology-usage as part of formal education structures and
comparing that to the needs and expectations of the students.
All lecturers indicated that they use technology within the module they teach. 80% of
lecturers indicated that they use social media to contact students, but none of them use
WhatsApp for academic purposes and only 20% use FaceBook for academic purposes.
None of the lecturers prefer electronic examinations and 100% agree to have more lectures and
fever assignments. 80% believe they have less technology know-how in comparison to the
students they teach, as captured in the following figure, identifying the correlation between the
lecturer and student preferences.
Figure 5: Student-lecturer correlations
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Use social media for
contact
Prefer electronic
examinations
More lectures Student more
technology know-
how
Lecturer Student
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
195
60% of the lecturers believe that social media can enhance teaching-learning strategies. 60% of
the lecturers stated that they are aware of the preferences (understanding, expectations and
challenges) of Generation Z, although 100% of them indicated that they are interested to learn
more about such realities.
4. Teaching-learning strategies and way forward
The Generation Z students will from now on fill our classrooms, and expect a teaching
environment in which they can interact in a similar way they do in their virtual worlds. This
imply a demand for instant information, visual forms of learning, and replacing
communication” with interaction”.
Findings presented in this study support the statement of Du Plessis (2011:28) that “there
is a need to explore and understand the elements of technology, social media and social
networking that students find so compelling and to incorporate those elements into teaching and
learning”. This does not only imply integrating technology as part of teaching-learning, but
seeking a “creative classroom setup" with unique initiatives that introduce more visual-teaching
methods and interesting, quick-result participatory methods. Student-centered learning has power
(Du Plessis: 2011:71) and technology advances and social media can further enhance such
approaches.
The teacher however, needs to think critically and creatively and establish a classroom
environment that is conducive to thinking and creating. The creation of the proper learning
environment is crucial. New designs for classrooms, desks facing each other to enhance
interaction, outdoor teaching possibilities, inclusion of interactive technology and field trips
should form part of this new thinking (Stern, 2014).
Table 1 captures a summary of the students-view and lecturers-view as perceived in this
research, and offers a possible solutions to bridge these different worlds and viewpoints, and
create a way forward for teaching-learning strategies accommodating Generation Z students.
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
196
Table 1. Bridging the student-lecturer view
Student view
Lecturers view
Know they have more
technology know-how
than their lecturers
Realize that they teach a
student with more
technology know-how
Online connected
throughout the day
resulting in quick
information
Include some technology in
teaching, but it is limited.
Requesting more
technology-usage as part
of their modules
They realize that social
media can benefit teaching-
learning strategies, but
don’t have the knowledge
to implement such
initiatives
Growing interest in online
examinations, online
study material
Believe traditional teaching
methods (such as written
examinations and formal
contact sessions) are best
strategies.
Prefer more contact
sessions
Prefer more (traditional)
contact sessions
Born into the internet-era
and does not understand a
different view
They are not fully aware of
the characteristics,
challenges and preferences
of the Generation Z student
but are willing to learn
Source: Based on Stern (2014); Rothman (2016); Streetline (2013); Hanzl (2007)
The challenge of teaching Generation Z is to move beyond traditional teaching-learning
strategies and seek ways to teach in order to grasp the imagination, interest and understanding of
this “connected generation Z.
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
197
Acknowledgements
This research (or parts thereof) was made possible by the financial contribution of the NRF
(National Research Foundation) South Africa. Any opinion, findings and conclusions or
recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and therefore the NRF
does not accept any liability in regard thereto.
REFERENCES
Consultancy.uk. (2015). Generation Y less satisfied than other
generations. http://www.consultancy.uk/news/2061/generation-y-less-satisfied-than-
other-generations. Date of use: 1 August 2016.
Dauksevicuite, I. (2016). Unlocking the full potential of digital native learners. Henley Business
School, Mc Graw Hill Education handouts.
De Varco, B. (2004). Earth as a lens: Global collaboration, geocommunication, and the birth of
ecosentience. PlaNetwork Journal, 1(1).
Du Plessis, N. (2011). Social Media in Higher Education: The case of Facebook. Vaal University
of Technology, North-West University: Vaal Campus. September 2011.
Forbes. (2016). More woman than men are playing Pokemon
Go. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2016/07/26/more-women-than-men-are-
playing-pokemon-go-by-a-lot/#5ee741774f16. Date of access: 1 July 2016.
Hanzl, M. (2007). Information technology as a tool for public participation in urban planning: a
review of experiments and potentials. Design Studies, Vol. 28(2007):289-307. Elsevier
Ltd, Great Britain. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2007.02.003
Lopez, G. (2016). Pokémon Go, explained. Available
at: http://www.vox.com/2016/7/11/12129162/pokemon-go-android-ios-game (Date of
access: 2 January 2017).
Olivier, V. (2013). Students’ Preference and Use o f Information and Communication
Technology at the North-West University. Academic support services Information
Technology in Education.
PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2017 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved.
Availa ble Onl ine at: http://grdspublishing.org/
198
Rothman, D. (2016). A Tsunami of learners called Generation Z.
http://www.mdle.net/Journal/A_Tsunami_of_Learners_Called_Generation_Z.pdf
Sinaga, M. (2015). #Ktpuntukahok: The role of social media as a tool of social movement.
People: International Journal of Social Sciences, Special Issue 2015: 369:374. Global
Research and Development Series.
Stern, R. (2014). Generation Z, Teachers--how's today's "creative classroom" working for
you? http://www.chicagonow.com/gifted-matters/2014/05/generation-z-teachers-hows-
todays-creative-classroom-working-for-you (Date of access: 5 August 2016).
Streetline. (2013). 5 Urban Technology Trends Impacting City Planning. Streetline: Connecting
the real world. Blog of 15 Jan 2013, available at http://www.streetline.com/blog/5-urban-
technology-trends/, Date accessed: 10 August 2015.
Van Zyl, A.S. (2009). The impact of social networking 2.0 on organizations. Stellenbosch:
Emerald Insight.
... Millennials want to know what is expected from them in explicit terms and expect direct feedback [10,21,43,44]. Generation Z' students (sometimes are referred as iGen or Centennials) [45][46][47] are the most diverse generation in modern history, and its members are attentive to inclusion across race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity [47,48]. The contemporary higher education has increasing the number of diverse races; as well, students may be from lower-income households and may have parents who have not attended college [45,47]. ...
... Generation Z' students (sometimes are referred as iGen or Centennials) [45][46][47] are the most diverse generation in modern history, and its members are attentive to inclusion across race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity [47,48]. The contemporary higher education has increasing the number of diverse races; as well, students may be from lower-income households and may have parents who have not attended college [45,47]. This is a result of equity approaches. ...
... This is a result of equity approaches. Generation Z learners are less self-directed (compared to Millennials) and need innovation (communication through technology), personalized services (from career development to tutoring to mental health), and equitable opportunities for engagement [45,47]. Grounded on our analysis, codes depicting diversity included different hair styles and colors, different peoples' heights, and different genders/non-gender. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction/Aims We aimed at using drawings as a form of data collection to give voice to older and younger generations in regards to educational practices in undergraduate dentistry. Materials and methods First year dental students (younger generations) and faculty members (older generations) produced drawings depicting their perceptions of the current dental education learning environment. Qualitative analysis was conducted independently by two researchers using the drawings to produce codes, categories and themes. Results 15 drawings were produced: 9/34 (26.4%) made by students and 6/20 (30%) made by faculty members. The generated themes indicated that students and faculties found that dental education is going through a challenging time, because of the restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic; and that they were aware about the evident division between basic/preclinical and applied/clinical courses. Faculties showed hopeful signs that the situation may get better. Students‘ drawings evoked the following topics: digital connectedness, diversity, time goes by, and future aspirations in Dentistry. Discussion This study reinforced the validity of visual methods as an approach in research and showed different graphical features (features that might be intentionally or unintentionally represented in the drawings) that gave voice to participants. These voices could have been invisible in more traditional qualitative approaches, such as interviews or questionnaires. Conclusions Although the two groups of participants came from different generation cohorts, they had aligned perceptions regarding challenges in dental education, and mentioned the separation between preclinic and clinic. Drawings were unique, innovative, and an interesting tool to express perceptions regarding today’s learning environment. These insights can consequently help educators to personalize teaching approaches to better meet the needs of the students.
... In particular, Gen Z has recently received scholarly interest due to its unique personality and organizational behavior that is different from previous generations (Puiu, 2016;Cilliers, 2017). Gen Z members, in general, enjoy forming bonds with others and seeking new ideas or experiences through such relationships, as well as engaging in community activities (Seemiller and Grace, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
How can sport community involvement influence life satisfaction during a pandemic? Self-expansion theory posits that individuals seek to gain resources such as positive interpersonal relationships for growth and achievement. By considering psychological capital (PsyCap) as a dispositional resource intervening between sport community involvement and life satisfaction, we examined an empirical model to test the chain of effects. Based on the stress process model, distress and generational group (Generation Z vs. others) were tested as moderators. Participants (N = 233) responded to the scale item questionnaire for model assessment. Supporting the hypothesized relationships, the model was supported with a significant moderated-moderated mediation. The mediation effect of PsyCap was stronger when distress level was lower and such interaction effect was amplified for Generation Z (Gen Z). Whereas the global sport communities and Gen Z were found to be more particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, our findings suggest that there are psychological pathways for fans to maintain their resilience. It is foremost imperative to lower the stress level of sport fans for their community involvement to positively affect life satisfaction. Gen Z were more stressed during the pandemic but individuals who managed to cope with stress were able to leverage community involvement to boost positive psychological resources. Acknowledgment of these effects brings implications for better management strategies and provides avenues for new research.
... This drive towards the new normal saw opportunities to enhance student experiences and to reduce costs. It also enabled institutions to offer more flexible learning, hence satisfying the needs of Generation Z learners, who had higher technology use expectations in their learning experience (Cilliers, 2017;Hernandez-de-Menendez, Escobar Diaz, & Morales-Menendez, 2020;Szymkowiak, Melovic, & Daic, 2021). While this transition to online teaching brought considerable advantages, it also presented challenges to both learners and academics, be it the acceptance of this new normal teaching and learning mode to digital maturity of students, student engagement and equitable access (Coman, Tiru, Mesesan-Schmitz, Stanciu, & Bularca, 2020). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Online teaching platforms have been a technological resource available to university teachers for well over a decade. The extent of take-up by university teachers had, however, been uneven—until COVID-19 made face-to-face teaching unviable. A proliferation of rapid-fire university staff development courses ensued, to fast-track competence to teach online, without due cognizance of the impediments that students in developing contexts like South Africa would have to navigate. Access to synchronous sessions presents particular teaching and learning challenges. Arguably the most exigent aspect of the pedagogic process is the extent to which teaching and assessment practices might sustain the same level of student cognitive competence development in the online space. As such, university academics were likely to experience dissonance as ‘new’ learners (of online pedagogy) and ‘new’ teachers (using online pedagogy). As a higher education pedagogue, I reflect on my particular struggles in moving to online teaching and assessment practice. Methodologically, I engage the tenets of self-study research to portray the dilemmas and cognitive dissonance I experienced in aspiring towards pedagogic communicative competence in the digital space. I reflect on how I employ synchronous and asynchronous teaching using video-conferencing tools, and the necessity of undergirding such online teaching and assessment with fundamental pedagogic/educational principles. I argue that the online pedagogy is likely to be successful if pedagogues are consciously alert to teaching and learning theory that undergirds online teaching, to ensure that online learning platforms like Moodle move beyond its predominantly repository-like function.
... This drive towards the new normal saw opportunities to enhance student experiences and to reduce costs. It also enabled institutions to offer more flexible learning, hence satisfying the needs of Generation Z learners, who had higher technology use expectations in their learning experience (Cilliers, 2017;Hernandez-de-Menendez, Escobar Diaz, & Morales-Menendez, 2020;Szymkowiak, Melovic, & Daic, 2021). While this transition to online teaching brought considerable advantages, it also presented challenges to both learners and academics, be it the acceptance of this new normal teaching and learning mode to digital maturity of students, student engagement and equitable access (Coman, Tiru, Mesesan-Schmitz, Stanciu, & Bularca, 2020). ...
Chapter
The presence of COVID-19 amid an inflexible, binary-gendered South African academia has imposed increased mental, social, economic, and physical burdens on women, intersecting race, class, gender, and culture. COVID-19 has exposed issues in wage gaps, role overloads, research productivity, tenure, mentorship, and work-life balance, drawing attention to the burdens experienced by women. While women academics experienced varied challenges pre-COVID-19, the pandemic exacerbated these and regressed the advancement of women in academia. The numerous challenges that women academics experience are categorised under the four key areas, namely mental, social, economic, and physical encumbrances. A qualitative desktop methodology and an auto-ethnographic approach are adopted in this study to examine the burdens of a virtual university on women. An exploration of scientific studies was incorporated into the presented chapter. The chapter is underpinned by a theoretical framework describing the social construction of reality and intersectionality, which is well placed in circumstances where women are marginalised. To respond to the current position that COVID-19 and the transformed university structures have placed women academics in, a multidisciplinary gendered inclusive approach is utilised. Placing women at the centre of the clinical model will yield an integrated institutional model.
Article
Robo-advice technology refers to services offered by a virtual financial advisor based on artificial intelligence. Research on the application of robo-advice technology already highlights the potential benefit in terms of financial inclusion. We analyze the process for adopting robo-advice through the technology acceptance model (TAM), focusing on a highly educated sample and exploring generational and gender differences. We find no significant gender difference in the causality links with adoption, although some structural differences still arise between male and female groups. Further, we find evidence that generational cohorts affect the path to future adoption of robo-advice technology. Indeed, the ease of use is the factor which triggers the adoption by Generation Z and Generation Y, whereas the perceived usefulness of robo-advice technology is the key factor driving Generation X ⁺ , who need to understand the ultimate purpose of a robo-advice technology tool before adopting it. Overall, the above findings may reflect that, while gender differences are wiped out in a highly educated population, generation effects still matter in the adoption of a robo-advice technology tool.
Article
Aim: The purpose of the study was two-fold. First, to evaluate students' learning style and relate it to their academic performance. Second, to highlight changes implemented in the tooth morphology (TOMO) course as a response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and methods: The study was performed during 2021-2022 with 101 dental students. Didactic lectures were delivered online and students challenged with nine quizzes and one final examination. Didactic score was calculated by averaging the scores of quizzes and the final exam. Lab score was a combination of five lab projects and the final competency. At course completion, students received a survey on their learning style and how they would like to receive feedback. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in didactic and lab scores among groups. Results: Many students perceived themselves as visual learners (39%) followed by kinesthetic (24%), aural (19%), and reader (18%). There was no difference among learning style groups in performance of didactic (p = 0.340) and lab scores (p = 0.845). Students preferred that the instructor talks them through the questions for feedback on quizzes (41%) while they preferred demonstrations when receiving feedback on their wax-ups (51%). Most students (75%) preferred a TOMO teacher that uses demonstrations. 2020-2021 marked the year of the pandemic where all lectures were delivered online and waxing projects were performed at-home. A postpandemic transformation occurred during 2021-2022, reverting to conventional in-person lab sessions while keeping online didactic lectures. Conclusion: We conclude that TOMO should be delivered by using various teaching styles rather than focusing on a single method while providing more demonstrations. Clinical significance: Teaching tooth morphology to the new generation type of learners efficiently will affect the clinical work of dental graduates.
Article
Corpus linguistics is one of the most recent developments in language analysis. One of the aims of learning through corpus-based approach is to enable students with more 'hands-on' learning compared to subjective learning. Besides, corpus-based approach also improves students' cognitive and critical thinking skills whilst motivating them to find patterns in authentic language leading to novice linguistic researchers. The current study reports on perceptions of students and the researcher's observations made during corpus based EFL teaching and learning interventions. Several applications of corpus-based instruction like concordance, collocation and word analysis are used during the teaching-learning activities. The respondents were 30 intermediate EFL students from a private school in Jordan who are interviewed as well as observed for data collection. Both interviews and observation data were collected and analysed by using the thematic analysis technique. Overall, according to the findings, there is a positive insight on the application of corpus-based approach in EFL language learning and teaching process in Jordanian EFL classrooms, which concludes that students tend to be more motivated and cheerful while learning via this approach.
Chapter
With the unprecedented impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, Higher Education Institutions were forced to shift to an online learning platform for the continuation of education. The lack of preparedness for this transition resulted in many challenges for learners and educators. One of the challenges instructors had to face was the disengagement of learners. It has been reported that a main reason for high dropout rates is low student engagement levels. Engaging students became even more critical as learners felt isolated and disconnected in the new setting. There is therefore a need to consider effective approaches to engage learners in their learning journey. Student engagement has been a quality indicator for higher education institutions adopting online learning. The successful completion of an online course is highly influenced by student engagement. In this research, the understanding of student engagement and its importance for an online learning environment, building upon the crucial role of the instructor to promote student engagement are explored. The chapter finally synthesises existing literature on student engagement to propose the best approaches for instructors to consider in their instructional design for an online learning environment.
Article
Full-text available
Developments in information and communication technology, which constantly change the way we perceive the world, have affected the learning styles of the individuals of the generation Z towards being visual and image-oriented. The perception styles and short interest periods of this generation, who are the learners of today's higher education institutions, are constantly fed with multiple visual flows and instantly changing information, so that the current learning system requires a differentiation by learner-centered approach. In architectural education, where visual communication, perception, and representation techniques are at the forefront, the learning process begins with conventional thinking tools, so it may be insufficient to attract the attention of the Generation Z. In this context, the aim of the study is based on re-evaluating the conventional tools in first-grade architectural education within the scope of interests and abilities of the Generation Z. In this study, the design tools that will be reconsidered for first-grade architectural education are established within the framework of the concept of "bricolage" which is seen as the way of the Generation Z's perception. This notion is the ability to integrate different parts with the creative element into a common context. Within the scope of the study, bricolage is interpreted as a learning style that conventional representation expressions are constructed with multiple sequence narratives. In the study, visual narrative techniques such as stop-motion, gif-motion, storyboard, and collage are determined as suitable representation methods for the concept of bricolage. In this context, the method of the study is to discuss these techniques as design tools and grouping them according to the way of creating. These visual narrative techniques, created based on simultaneity or succession, are thought to be a tool to explore the possibilities of action of spaces and design architecture in the context of events. Consequently, the bricolage approach, which puts the learner at the center, enables first-year students, who are not familiar with architectural education methods to acquire basic knowledge and skills. Besides, it is suitable for the kinesthetic learning styles of these individuals, who are Generation Z. In this context, the development of this conceptual reading as a methodology to investigate the action possibilities of spaces and design the architecture in the context of events creates a new perspective for future studies.
Article
Full-text available
Information technology offers new potentials of citizen participation in urban planning. The essential tasks to achieve with the use of new media are: providing a communication platform which suppresses a barrier of non-professionalism, allowing for distant contacts and enabling participatory process management. The paper contains a review of experiments and prototypes of different IT applications: Participatory Planning GIS, 3D models, communication platforms and computer games. Technology facilitates also collaborative distant work and citizens' participation in the city database completion. The most cited examples remain experimental. Great potential lies in augmented reality technology, which is currently being tested. Link to the full text online: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/50c8/c3653e3c54f09a2b0f8e9c230259f86f179d.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of what electronic social networking encompasses. It also aims to educate IT, business decision makers, knowledge workers and librarians about the various applications, benefits and risks associated with social networking. Design/methodology/approach – After a literature review of the available resources (academic literature, journal articles, white papers, popular media and books) the benefits and perceived risks associated with electronic social networking on organisations are investigated. Findings – An individual's success in society depends on the shape and size of his/her social network and ability to network and form connections with other social groups. Organisations which can harness this innate human ability to manage knowledge will be able to lower transactions costs and become more profitable. Originality/value – The paper increases the understanding of what electronic social networking encompasses and how it can be utilised for business purposes. The ideas and discussion put forth are equally applicable to libraries and may give them new insights into the provision of social networking applications as part of their services to users.
Article
In 2017, there is going to be a governor election in province with the highest population density in Indonesia, Jakarta Capital Region. This upcoming general election highlights a number of subject matters, the most evident of which is the aggregation of 1 million Indonesian identity card for a future governor candidate, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama also known as Ahok. Ahok is now no longer carried by a political party. On behalf of being a future governor candidate, referring to Peraturan KPU No. 9 Tahun 2015, he needs propulsion from at least 750.000 Jakarta inhabitans. To make it exactly safe, Ahok needs 1 million copies of ID card of his supporters, and ought to be collected on July 2016 as the governor election will be held on February 2017. Volunteers who support Ahok are named “Teman Ahok” (Ahok’s Friends). They are making bombard in social media with hash tag #KTP untuk Ahok (ID card for Ahok) and producing a 2- minute-47-second video published in YouTube, entitled “Satu Juta KTPuntuk Ahok”. This way of social media bombarding aims to inform people as well as forming mass mobilization about Ahok and the plan, well be said to make social movement. This study describes the role of social media as a tool of social movement. Keywords: Ahok, social media, social movements
Generation Z, Teachers--how's today's "creative classroom" working for you?
  • R Stern
Stern, R. (2014). Generation Z, Teachers--how's today's "creative classroom" working for you? http://www.chicagonow.com/gifted-matters/2014/05/generation-z-teachers-howstodays-creative-classroom-working-for-you (Date of access: 5 August 2016).
5 Urban Technology Trends Impacting City Planning
  • Streetline
Streetline. (2013). 5 Urban Technology Trends Impacting City Planning. Streetline: Connecting the real world. Blog of 15 Jan 2013, available at http://www.streetline.com/blog/5-urbantechnology-trends/, Date accessed: 10 August 2015.
Unlocking the full potential of digital native learners. Henley Business School, Mc Graw Hill Education handouts
  • I Dauksevicuite
Dauksevicuite, I. (2016). Unlocking the full potential of digital native learners. Henley Business School, Mc Graw Hill Education handouts.
Earth as a lens: Global collaboration, geocommunication, and the birth of ecosentience
  • B De Varco
De Varco, B. (2004). Earth as a lens: Global collaboration, geocommunication, and the birth of ecosentience. PlaNetwork Journal, 1(1).
Social Media in Higher Education: The case of Facebook
  • N Du Plessis
Du Plessis, N. (2011). Social Media in Higher Education: The case of Facebook. Vaal University of Technology, North-West University: Vaal Campus. September 2011.
More woman than men are playing Pokemon Go
  • Forbes
Forbes. (2016). More woman than men are playing Pokemon Go. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2016/07/26/more-women-than-men-areplaying-pokemon-go-by-a-lot/#5ee741774f16. Date of access: 1 July 2016.
Pokémon Go, explained
  • G Lopez
Lopez, G. (2016). Pokémon Go, explained. Available at: http://www.vox.com/2016/7/11/12129162/pokemon-go-android-ios-game (Date of access: 2 January 2017).