Abstract and Figures

The bureaucratic and impersonal nature of public management can fertilize workplace bullying and risks for psychological health and safety. Psychological safety climate (PSC) is an important indicator to reduce psychological hazards. Yet, there have been few studies conducted to examine the existence of PSC in the public sector in non-Western economies. This study examined the implementation of PSC and its effects on 274 employees from six branches of a Vietnamese public sector organization. The results suggest that senior management in organizations should consider positive work conditions and an effective system of policies, procedures, and practices for the prevention of psychosocial hazards.
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Public Management Review
ISSN: 1471-9037 (Print) 1471-9045 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rpxm20
Psychological safety climate and workplace
bullying in Vietnam’s public sector
Diep T. N. Nguyen, Stephen T. T. Teo, Steven L. Grover & Nguyen Phong
To cite this article: Diep T. N. Nguyen, Stephen T. T. Teo, Steven L. Grover & Nguyen Phong
Nguyen (2017): Psychological safety climate and workplace bullying in Vietnam’s public sector,
Public Management Review, DOI: 10.1080/14719037.2016.1272712
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1272712
Published online: 23 Jan 2017.
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Psychological safety climate and workplace bullying in
Vietnams public sector
Diep T. N. Nguyen
, Stephen T. T. Teo
, Steven L. Grover
and Nguyen Phong Nguyen
School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia;
Department of
Management, Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand;
Department of Accounting, UEH
University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
The bureaucratic and impersonal nature of public management can fertilize work-
place bullying and risks for psychological health and safety. Psychological safety
climate (PSC) is an important indicator to reduce psychological hazards. Yet, there
have been few studies conducted to examine the existence of PSC in the public
sector in non-Western economies. This study examined the implementation of PSC
and its effects on 274 employees from six branches of a Vietnamese public sector
organization. The results suggest that senior management in organizations should
consider positive work conditions and an effective system of policies, procedures,
and practices for the prevention of psychosocial hazards.
KEYWORDS Psychological safety climate (PSC); workplace bullying; public sector; Vietnam
Workplace bullying has catastrophic effects on individuals (Hall, Dollard, and
Coward 2010; Hoel et al. 2010), and environmental conditions contribute to (or
diminish) workplace bullying (Cooper-Thomas et al. 2013; Law et al. 2011). This
study investigates how overarching perceptions of the work environment influence
bullying. That is, while some contextual conditions of organizations influence bully-
ing and negative acts (Dollard, Tuckey, and Dormann 2012; Idris et al. 2012), over-
arching beliefs about organizational support for mental health represent conceptions
of organizational culture regarding protection of employees (Dollard, Tuckey, and
Dormann 2012; Law et al. 2011).
Currently, empirical research argues for more evidence on psychological safety
climate (PSC) in the workplace and perceived organizational support (POS) in the
prevention of bullying and negative emotional experience of employees. PSC has
been examined in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model (e.g. Dollard, Tuckey,
and Dormann 2012; Law et al. 2011), and POS has been shown to be an
antecedent together with leadermember exchange in the enhancement of the
positive emotional experience of employees in work (e.g. Brunetto, Farr-
Wharton, and Shacklock 2011; Brunetto et al. 2015). Yet, there has been little
CONTACT Stephen T. T. Teo drstephen.teo@gmail.com
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
examination of these two constructs simultaneously even though they are vital
determinants of health matters and safety issues among employees (Bond, Tuckey,
and Dollard 2010; Dollard, Tuckey, and Dormann 2012; Idris et al. 2012; Law et al.
2011). Therefore, the interest of this study is the investigation of how PSC and
POS influence perceptions of bullying and the positive outcomes of employee
engagement and well-being.
The bureaucratic and impersonal nature of the workplace coupled with the low
priority given to management skills contribute to psychological incidents of bully-
ing in the public sector (Leymann 1996;Zapfetal.2003). People working in
public sector organizations experience more psychological effects of negative work-
place behaviours than those working in the private sector (Baron and Neuman
bullying in the public sector as research has shown employees tend to experience
more negative workplace behaviours in this sector compared to those employed in
the private sector (Burnes and Pope 2007; Strandmark and Hallberg 2007). The
bureaucratic management style in Vietnams public sector reflects a high level of
bureaucracy and high power distance (Painter 2003; Thang et al. 2007). Managers
in public sector organizations in Vietnam lack managerial skills to cope with
problems and issues related to the management of employees (Dao 1997;Painter
2003;Thangetal.2007). Together with the bureaucratic approach, a lack of
commitment by leaders to problem-solving in the public sector may engender
bullying and undesirable outcomes.
In addition, people in high power distance contexts are likely to accept over-
qualified tasks or those that fall outside their job descriptions and perceive super-
iorsabuse of power and unfair treatment as legitimately within their authority
and reflective of their managerial levels (Loh, Restubog, and Zagenczyk 2010;
Stone-Romero,Stone,andSalas2003). Therefore, people experiencing high
power distance misinterpret bullying behaviours when these acts are perceived as
standard behaviours because of the acceptance of hierarchy and the unequal power
distribution in their settings (House et al. 2004; Loh, Restubog, and Zagenczyk
2010). Although Vietnam has high power distance, there is a lack of empirical
evidence on whether bullying acts are prevalent and what the effects of these acts
are on individuals and organizations. Therefore, it is applicable for this study to
examine the prevalence and effects of PSC and POS on bullying acts in the public
sector in Vietnam.
This study makes three contributions to the literature. First, it advances the
empirical evidence of psychosocial risks in the public sector, which has drawn little
attention compared to the private sector (Burnes and Pope 2007; Strandmark and
Hallberg 2007). Second, it extends PSC as a vital organizational climate buffering
negative behaviours. It is important to examine the implementation of PSC based on
the perceptions of individual employees, even though previous PSC research has
aggregated self-reports from individuals with group or organizational level reports
(Idris et al. 2012; Neal and Griffin 2006). Third, this study adds to the literature an
understanding of the mobilization of contextual conditions of an organization
towards dealing with workplace bullying in a non-Western economy with a high
power distance culture and bureaucratic management practices. That is, while prior
studies have focused on Western economies, this study empirically examines effects
of PSC and POS that are critical components of supportive organizational resources
for employees in Vietnams public sector.
Theoretical background and hypothesis development
PSC theory
PSC construct captures the importance of building a work environment that makes
employees feel psychologically safe (Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010; Idris et al.
2012). The central mechanism of safety climate is management commitment (Flin
et al. 2000; Zohar and Luria 2005). PSC requires senior management support and
commitment relating to involvement and decisive and quick actions in correcting
psychological problems (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010).
PSC captures the extent to which management treats issues of psychological health
and safety equally with organizational production goals (Dollard and Bakker 2010;
Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010), suggesting organizations should integrate policies,
procedures, and practices in relation to the work climate of health and safety (Neal
and Griffin 2006; Zohar 2010). PSC environments include effective organizational
communication, which refers to how organizations attract the attention of employees
regarding psychological health and well-being. Communication also characterizes
how organizations listen and respond to employeesmental harm (Dollard and
Bakker 2010; Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010). That is, PSC emphasizes the effec-
tiveness of communication processes between senior management and employees in
resolving mental health problems (Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard 2010; Idris et al. 2012).
PSC assesses the level of participation and involvement (Dollard and Bakker 2010;
Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010). Therefore, a key principle of PSC is that organiza-
tions involve stakeholders, including employees, unions, and health and safety repre-
sentatives (Bond and Bunce 2001; Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010).
PSC contributes to a safe work environment and organizational and working
conditions supporting safety (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Idris et al. 2012).
Specifically, employees working in a high PSC environment receive commitment
and protection from senior management in the prevention of psychosocial hazards
and the increase of psychological health (Bond and Bunce 2001; Dollard and Bakker
2010). In addition, employees use two-way communication so that individual
employees and managers are aware of stressful work conditions and take rapid action
to preclude or control psychological risks (Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard 2010; Idris
et al. 2012). Therefore, the identification of a work climate that is safe for employees
may be a lead indicator of psychosocial hazards and psychological health in the
workplace (Idris et al. 2012).
Hypothesis development
This study examines the effects of PSC on the work context that include both
psychological work conditions and job resources influencing employeeshealth and
safety (see Figure 1).
Empirical studies have shown that a variety of psychological job features, such as
work pressure, emotional demands, organizational change, or work-family conflict,
lead to increased health problems through stress, anger, depression, exhaustion, and
burnout (Bakker and Demerouti 2007; Law et al. 2011). Psychological work condi-
tions are operationalized in this study as workplace bullying. Bullying exists when
attacking behaviours happen frequently and recurrently over a period of 6 months.
For example, the bullying victims usually suffer from negative behaviours, such as
ignorance, social isolation, or being humiliated and intimidated, making it difficult
for the victim to defend him or herself (Einarsen et al. 2003; Einarsen, Hoel, and
Notelaers 2009). Exposure to bullying is a psychosocial hazard caused by chronic job
demands, imbalanced power distribution, or a high level of internal competition for
benefits and rewards (Demerouti et al. 2001; Salin 2003). Bullying is one of the most
severe problems representing unsafe work environments (Buch, Martinsen, and
Kuvaas 2015; Hoel et al. 2010). The negative consequences from workplace bullying
are well documented. Bullied people suffer higher risk of psychological harm such as
traumatic stress (Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard 2010), depression, anxiety, and bad
temper (Mayhew and McCarthy 2005). Moreover, negative organizational outcomes
include staff turnover, sick leave or reduced productivity (Hoel, Einarsen, and Cooper
2003), and disengagement (Law et al. 2011). Therefore, given these high risks and
costs, it is critical to understand the antecedents of workplace bullying.
Empirical studies have emphasized the role of PSC as a cause of causesof work
hazards because when it is low, high levels of psychosocial risks and stress are present
(Dollard and Bakker 2010; Law et al. 2011). In organizations with low PSC, informal
norms and sanctions prevent the deployment of resources to counteract demands,
making employees feel unsafe to take action against the sources of psychological
harm (Dollard and Bakker 2010). For example, a low PSC environment contributes to
high levels of psychological injuries in police officers (Tuckey, Winwood, and Dollard
2011). In contrast, in high PSC environments, senior managers are aware of danger-
ous cues and are able to give support to employees and provide resources to
effectively perform their jobs and ameliorate distress. In addition, employees can
use their voice to seek reductions in job conditions without negative consequences
(Law et al. 2011). Therefore, this study proposes that:
Hypothesis 1: PSC is negatively related to workplace bullying.
Figure 1. Proposed model.
There is less likelihood that psychological job conditions will damage psychological
health and safety among employees who receive sufficient resources to overcome
high demands and perform their jobs well (Demerouti et al. 2001; Dollard, Tuckey,
and Dormann 2012). Adequate resources have an influence on stimulating positive
outcomes such as employee engagement (Law et al. 2011) and performance (Bakker
and Demerouti 2007). As a result of having adequate resources, the negative effects of
high job demands are reduced (Demerouti et al. 2001). There is a variety of job
resources that have been investigated in the study of PSC and bullying. For instance,
Dollard and Bakker (2010) measured job resources through decision authority and
skill latitude. Law et al. (2011) examined job resources in terms of procedural justice,
social support, and organizational rewards. In this study, job resources are concep-
tualized as POS an area that has received little attention in the scholarship of PSC
and bullying.
In accord with PSC theory, POS is regarded as one of the resources available for
employees to enable them to feel confident, secure, and committed to the organiza-
tion (Eisenberger et al. 1997; Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). In a high POS environment,
management regulates organizational resources and provides good working condi-
tions for employees to enhance their well-being (Brunetto et al. 2014). In turn,
employees repay the organization favourably in accordance with the resources they
receive (Saks 2006). While PSC is considered to generate shared understanding of the
organizations protective role in dealing with psychological health problems (Dollard
and Bakker 2010; Idris et al. 2012), POS maintains employeespositive feelings and
motivates commitment and engagement (Brunetto et al. 2014; Saks 2006).
According to social exchange theory (SET), employees look for a balanced
exchange relationship with their managers, and expect positive interpersonal rela-
tionships within their work settings. In other words, SET reflects how the organiza-
tion generates employeesobligations and commitment (Rhoades and Eisenberger
2002). POS is an important component of SET as it characterizes the reciprocal
exchange relations (Brunetto et al. 2015; Eisenberger et al. 1986). Specifically, POS is
defined as employee perceptions of the extent to which the organization values
employee performance and cares about employee well-being (Eisenberger et al.
1997). The concept of POS highlights the idea of mutuality between employees and
the organization because the organizations beliefs and recognition of employees
value determine attitudes and behaviours of employees that are beneficial to the
organization (Eisenberger et al. 1997). In a reciprocal manner, employees perceive the
way the organization appreciates their contributions and treats them favourably,
before deciding what they should return to the organization (Eisenberger et al.
1986). Organizations that provide little support and show lack of regard towards
employeescontributions encourage a reduced sense of employee obligation to
managers and the organization (Eisenberger et al. 1997). In contrast, when employees
perceive support from organizations, they increase their commitment to the organi-
zation and perform their jobs better (Armeli et al. 1998; Eisenberger et al. 1997).
Previous studies have provided support for the positive outcomes of a high level of
POS such as employee engagement (Saks 2006), well-being (Rhoades, Eisenberger,
and Armeli 2001;Parzefall and Salin 2010), and commitment (Guzzo, Noonan, and
Elron 1994; Settoon, Bennett, and Liden 1996).
Employee engagement reflects the feelings of energy, devotion, and fascination at
work (Schaufeli et al. 2002). Employee engagement is defined as a status of mentality
characterized by positive perceptions of satisfying tasks (Schaufeli and Bakker 2004).
When employees engage in their work, they are full of energy and perform their jobs
happily and enthusiastically (Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). Previous studies have found
that employee engagement is engendered by a positive work environment that
consists of a good relationship with management and colleagues, supportive manage-
ment practices, and effective job resources (May, Gilson, and Harter 2004).
Well-being within the workplace is a broad concept that is defined in a variety of
ways. Guest and Conway (2004) define well-being in relation to a manageable
workload, personal control over the job, support from colleagues and managers,
positive relationships at work, and reasonably clear roles and involvement in changes.
Grant and colleagues (2007) characterize well-being in terms of psychological well-
being (employeeslevel of satisfaction with the organizations processes and prac-
tices), physical well-being (employeeshealth outcomes), and social well-being
(employeesperceptions of fairness and equity, and the quantity and quality of social
networks at work). SET argues that well-being is enhanced when employees receive
frequent emotional support from the organization. The provision of organizational
support and a positive working climate play key roles in balancing competing
demands such as psychological health and safety and productivity objectives (May,
Gilson, and Harter 2004).
PSC signals the availability of supportive resources that potentially supply assis-
tance or respite from hazardous factors (Dollard and Bakker 2010). High PSC
involves employees in making decisions that support employee well-being and
increases job satisfaction within the organizational climate and management group.
Senior managers take particular responsibility for safeguarding employees from
bullying by enacting relevant policies, procedures, and practices. In addition, orga-
nizations with high PSC make employees feel more comfortable to speak-out about
threats to well-being and provide mechanisms for handling psychological distress
(Dollard and Bakker 2010; Salin 2003). Furthermore, high levels of internal competi-
tion and frustration that threaten psychological safety and well-being of employees
are unlikely to exist in an organization with high PSC (Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard
2010; Salin 2003).
In high PSC settings, senior managers understand that psychological health and
safety is the key factor leading to the achievement of organizational production
objectives (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Hall, Dollard, and Coward 2010). Thus, man-
agers endeavour to optimize working conditions that reduce negative attitudes and
behaviours and prevent counterproductive consequences amongst employees (Flin
et al. 2000; Spector, Fox, and Domagalski 2006). Specifically, managers acknowledge
and provide adequate resources to employees so that they can achieve standardized
job activities (Law et al. 2011; Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). Employeesperceptions of
a supportive environment in relation to policies and practices are positively asso-
ciated with the decrease of negative work emotions and the increase in productivity
(Law et al. 2011; Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). Furthermore, giving employees a chance
to participate in the prevention of stress increases ownership of ideas and responsi-
bilities and improves communication between employees and managers (Dollard and
Kang 2007; Jordan et al. 2003). This leads to employee perceptions of their legitimate
role in occupational health and safety (Dollard et al. 2007). For these reasons, PSC is
regarded as a critical indicator of sufficient job resourcing within organizations and
associated with the motivational process at the individual level that nurtures positive
well-being outcomes (Bakker and Demerouti 2008; Dollard and Bakker 2010).
Therefore, it is hypothesized that:
Hypothesis 2: PSC is positively related to perceived organizational support,
employee engagement, and well-being.
The main effect of POS on the organization is to make employees feel more engaged
and committed to the organization (Eisenberger et al. 1997; Saks 2006) because
employees receive the organizations recognition for well-done jobs, as well as social
identity and support for their well-being (Rhoades and Eisenberger 2002). In other
words, a high level of POS creates an understanding of fair treatment among
employees that supports esteem, affiliation, and approval in the workplace
(Eisenberger et al. 1997; Armeli et al. 1998). As a result of this supportive environ-
ment, negative behaviours like bullying are inhibited (Keashly 2001). Tuckey et al.
(2009) report that support from the organization and colleagues is negatively asso-
ciated with workplace bullying. Similarly, Cooper-Thomas and associates (2013)
show that POS buffers the negative effects of bullying on job performance. While a
poor work environment is associated with the growth of bullying (Skogstad et al.
2011), a supportive workplace climate refers to lower levels of bullying (Parzefall and
Salin 2010; Cooper-Thomas et al. 2013). Therefore, this study proposes that a high
level of POS results in a low level of bullying behaviours.
Hypothesis 3: Perceived organizational support is positively related to employee
engagement and well-being.
Hypothesis 4: Perceived organizational support is negatively related to workplace
Research on workplace bullying has provided an understanding of how bullying
harms individuals and organizations. Victims of bullying report that they suffer
from negative emotions and psychological strains for a long period of time including
anxiety, fatigue, and depression (Einarsen, Matthiesen, and Skogstad 1998; Lutgen-
Sandvik 2008). As a result of the negative work climate, people who have been bullied
decide to leave the organization because they feel dissatisfied and less engaged and
lose work motivation (Loh, Restubog, and Zagenczyk 2010). In addition, people who
experience bullying at work experience higher levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety,
low self-esteem, and dissatisfaction with their job (Agervold and Mikkelsen 2004;
Lutgen-Sandvik 2008). It is therefore hypothesized that:
Hypothesis 5: Workplace bullying is negatively related to employee engagement
and well-being.
Hypothesis 6: Employee engagement is positively related to well-being.
Moderation effect of PSC
Workplace bullying over time relates to health problems such as stress, depression,
bad temper, and anxiety. Bullied people do not feel motivated and engaged with their
work or the organization due to such negative emotions towards working conditions
(Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard 2010; Mayhew and McCarthy 2005). A psychologically
safe work climate helps reduce psychological hazards that can be rooted in job
conditions and interrelations among individuals, while at the same time helping to
create good working conditions, which lead to the enhancement of a positive emo-
tional cognitive work experience (Dollard, Tuckey, and Dormann 2012).
Subsequently, we argue that the effect of workplace bullying on employee engage-
ment and well-being depends on the presence of PSC in the organization. That is,
when high commitment and positive actions by the management are directed at
protecting psychological health and safety of employees, employee engagement and
well-being are supported by a psychologically safe work climate.
Particularly, in a high PSC climate, employees are aware of safety signals that
inhibit the development of psychological distress (Lohr, Olatunji, and Sawchuk 2007),
and therefore PSC influences how bullying affects psychological health and safety
because supportive resources allow employees to cope with any negative treatment
(Bacharach and Bamberger 2007; Lohr, Olatunji, and Sawchuk 2007). In a high PSC
environment, management provides tools to employees to use their voice in freely
communicating problems with managers (Dollard, Tuckey, and Dormann 2012; Law
et al. 2011). Similarly, employees in a high PSC climate are aware that policies and
practices that allow employees to utilize resources to cope with bullying are actioned
rather than in documents. Previous studies have affirmed that PSC moderates the
positive relationship between bullying and post-traumatic stress symptoms (Bond,
Tuckey, and Dollard 2010) and reduces the positive relationship between emotional
demands and emotional exhaustion (Dollard and Bakker 2010). Law et al. (2011)
found that employees who experience bullying regard their work as less meaningful
and interesting when PSC is low. These previous findings generate the expectation
that victims of bullying can still be motivated and engaged in their work when PSC is
high. This study, therefore, proposes that PSC lessens the negative relationship
between bullying and employee engagement and well-being.
Hypothesis 7: PSC moderates the relationship between bullying and employee
engagement and well-being, such that the relation reduces as PSC increases.
Data and sample selection
Data collection was conducted in May 2015. Questionnaires were sent to officers
working in six branches of a public sector agency in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. In
total, 274 completed responses were returned to the authors (response rate of 42 per
cent). The sample consisted of 82.8 per cent non-supervisor employees. Of the
respondents, 57.7 per cent were females and 42.3 per cent were males. Out of the
274 respondents, 44.2 per cent were aged between 31 and 40. The majority of
respondents had more than 3 yearsexperience in their jobs (74.9 per cent) and in
their current organizations (82.8 per cent). Of the respondents, 46.4 per cent were
working in large organizations that had over 250 employees and 45.7 per cent were
working for medium-sized organizations (50250 employees). The majority of
respondents had completed undergraduate degree at colleges and universities in
Vietnam (83.9 per cent). Previously validated scales were used in this study. SPSS
ver22 was used to produce descriptive statistics, correlations, and to run exploratory
factor analyses. AMOS ver22 (Byrne 2009) was used to test the validity of the
measurement model of scales and the developed hypotheses.
This study adopted Brislins(1970)back-translation process in order to ensure the
content and face validity of all the scales. In accordance with the process, one of the
authors and a doctorate qualified academic from Vietnam firstly translated and back-
translated the scales from English into Vietnamese and back to English. To ensure the
equivalence of the translation, authors invited two experienced HRM and OB scho-
lars who were not involved in the project to check the translations. They were asked
to compare the interpretation until all errors were eliminated and the questionnaire
looked reasonable and acceptable. A pilot test of the survey was then conducted with
the participation of 50 part-time postgraduate students at business universities in Ho
Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Respondents in the pilot test re-evaluated the clarity of the
translation. As a result, some items were reworded, refined, or changed to be more
understandable for non-academic professionals but they were still representative of
the intended constructs.
This study used a 12-item scale developed by Hall, Dollard, and Coward (2010)to
measure PSC. Respondents were asked to indicate whether their organizations imple-
ment policies, procedures, and practices related to the protection of psychological health
and safety on a five-point Likert scale, from 1= strongly disagree to 5ʹ= strongly agree.
SPSS ver22 was used to undertake an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of PSC (two
factors were identified with a KMO test: 0.88; 76.10 per cent with eigenvalue greater
than 1.0). The first factor was management support and commitment (MSC), which was
measured by three items (α= 0.83, sample items included: senior management show
support for stress prevention through involvement and commitment). The second
factor was organizational participation and involvement (OPI), which was measured
by five items (α= 0.92, sample items included: In my organization, the prevention of
stress involves all levels of the organization). Overall, PSC had a composite reliability
coefficient of 0.80 and an average variance extracted (AVE) value of 0.68.
Perceived organizational support
This study adopted an eight-item scale from Eisenberger et al. (1997) to measure POS.
Respondents were asked to indicate whether they received organizational support on a
seven-point Likert scale, from 1= strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree. Sample
items included, my organization cares about my opinions. A confirmatory factor
analysis confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) test was undertaken to evaluate the uni-
dimensionality of the scale. As a result, three items were excluded because their factor
loadings were below 0.50 (Garver and Mentzer 1999). Finally, this scale comprised of
five items had a composite reliability coefficient of 0.93 and an AVE value of 0.71.
A nine-item scale developed by Notelaers and Einarsen (2008) was used to measure
bullying behaviours in the workplace. Respondents were asked to indicate whether
they experienced such negative behaviours on a five-point Likert scale, from
1= never to 5= daily. Sample items included, social exclusion from co-workers
or work group activities. A CFA test showed that six items had factor loadings above
0.70 and squared multiple correlations above 0.50 (Hair et al. 2010; Jöreskog and
Sörbom 1996). This scale had a composite reliability coefficient of 0.92 and an AVE
value of 0.67.
Employee engagement
A nine-item scale adopted from Schaufeli and Bakker (2003)measured employee
engagement. Sample items included, I find the work that I do full of meaning and
purpose. Respondents were asked to indicate their answers on a seven-point Likert
scale, from 1= strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree. The CFA test showed that
six items had factor loadings above 0.70 and their squared multiple correlations were
above 0.50 (Hair et al. 2010; Jöreskog and Sörbom 1996). This scale had a composite
reliability coefficient of 0.90 and an AVE value of 0.61.
This study measured well-being by using a four-item scale developed by Brunetto,
Farr-Wharton, and Shacklock (2011). Respondents were asked to indicate their
agreement with statements related to their work on a seven-point Likert scale, from
1= strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree. Sample items included, overall, I fulfil
an important purpose in my work life. The CFA test showed that four items had
factor loadings above 0.70 and the squared multiple correlations were above 0.50
(Hair et al. 2010; Jöreskog and Sörbom 1996). This scale had a composite reliability
coefficient of 0.91 and an AVE value of 0.72.
Control variables
This study controlled for age, gender, and education level as these have been
previously shown to have an influence on negative behaviours at work (Hoel et al.
2010; Zapf et al. 2011). In this study, results of ANOVA (with Tukey post hoc test)
and independent-samples t-test analyses showed that there was no effect of control
variables on latent variables in the model.
Measurement model estimation
In order to test the hypotheses, this study followed Anderson and Gerbings(1988)
two-step approach. We conducted an evaluation of the measurement model and an
assessment of the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. A series of CFAs
was undertaken by using AMOS ver22 to estimate the measurement parts of the
model. The CFAs for the five scales showed that each met the minimum fit indices as
recommended (see Table 1).
As presented above, five constructs had AVE values which were above the cut-off
value of 0.5 (Hair et al. 2010). These results indicated that each of the five constructs
had convergent validity. In addition, the analysis of the whole hypothesized five-
factor measurement model showed a good fit to the data (χ
/df = 1.940, CFI = 0.96,
TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.050) (see Byrne 2009). Two tests were
undertaken in this study in order to check the discriminant validity between con-
structs. A series of CFA tests were undertaken on alternative measurement models
(see Table 2), and comparisons were made with the hypothesized five-factor mea-
surement model provided by using a chi-square difference test. For instance, model 1
had a significantly better fit to the data than model 2 (Δχ
(4) = 16.222, p< 0.001).
Simultaneously, model 1 showed better fit to the data than model 3 (Δχ
(7) = 163.773, p< 0.001). Results of comparisons between model 1 and remaining
alternative models showed that model 1 provided the best fit to the data.
Second, this study continued to follow Fornell and Larckers(1981) approach to
test to what extent the constructs in the proposed model were different. The square
root of the AVE for each construct was much larger than its correlation with any
other construct (Fornell and Larcker 1981) (see Table 3). These results confirmed that
the discriminant validity of the five scales was established. After testing the conver-
gent and discriminant validity of the measurement model, this study used parameter
estimates in previous step to create composite measures to run the structural model.
Table 1. Fit indexes in confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) for individual scales.
df χ
Psychological safety climate (PSC) 25.609 11 2.328 0.99 0.97 0.07 0.040
Perceived organizational support (POS) 5.583 4 1.396 0.99 0.99 0.04 0.011
Bullying 28.677 14 2.048 0.99 0.99 0.06 0.020
Engagement 20.508 8 2.563 0.99 0.98 0.07 0.023
Well-being 0.737 1 0.737 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.004
Table 2. Comparison of model fit indices.
df χ
Five-factor model
(preferred model)
399.541 206 1.940 0.96 0.95 0.06 0.050
Four-factor model
(PSC, POS, bullying,
engagement + well-
415.763 210 1.980 0.96 0.95 0.060 0.050 Δχ
(4) = 16.222
Three-factor model
(PSC + POS, bullying,
engagement + well-
563.314 213 2.645 0.93 0.92 0.08 0.092 Δχ
(7) = 163.773
Two-factor model
(PSC + POS +
engagement + well-
being, bullying)
1,146.237 215 5.331 0.82 0.79 0.13 0.100 Δχ
(9) = 746.696
Single-factor model 2,073.445 217 9.555 0.64 0.58 0.18 0.259 Δχ
(11) = 1,673.904
N= 274.
Common method variance
This study utilized Harmanssingle factor test,acommon latent factorand a
marker variableto check for common method variance (see Podsakoff et al.
2003). Harmans single factor test showed that five factors emerged with values of
more than 1, accounting for 74.1 per cent of the variance in the exogenous and
endogenous constructs. A common latent factor test showed that only three indica-
tors had common latent factor effects on their standardized factor loadings of above
0.20 (Chin 1998). This result suggested a potential problem of common method bias
(Podsakoff et al. 2003). However, no indicator had stronger loadings on the common
latent factor than on their own construct. The final test used a marker variable
(social desirability scale), which was unrelated to one or all constructs in the study,
that showed that the difference of correlations of all constructs between, before, and
after including the marker variable was 0.02. This result indicated that the correla-
tions between exogenous constructs and the endogenous variable could not be
accounted for by the marker variable (Lindell and Whitney 2001). In general, these
three tests showed that common method bias was not a major issue in this study.
Descriptive statistics
Table 3 presents the means, standard deviations, composite reliability coefficients,
AVE values, and zero-order Pearson correlations of the study constructs.
Respondents reported high PSC (mean = 3.36, SD = 0.76), POS (mean = 4.38,
SD = 1.49), employee engagement (mean = 5.01, SD = 1.16), and well-being
(mean = 4.83, SD = 1.24). Approximately 53 per cent of respondents reported to
have been a target of bullying at their workplace (rated from 2now and then to 5
daily). Employees reported that the highest bullying behaviour was devaluing of your
work and efforts(mean = 2.31, SD = 1.09). In total, 16.40 per cent of respondents
reported to having been a target of bullying (rated as now and then) at their
workplace (known as self-labelled bullying) during the past 6 months. This result
was in the range of 1118 per cent for self-labelled bullying across 86 countries in a
meta-analysis research (Nielsen, Matthiesen, and Einarsen 2010) and higher than the
rate in New Zealand (ODriscoll et al. 2011; Bentley et al. 2012).
Table 3. Descriptive statistics and zero-order Pearson correlations of latent variables.
MSD CR AVE PSC POS Bullying Engagement Well-being
PSC 3.36 0.76 0.80 0.68 0.82
POS 4.38 1.49 0.93 0.71 0.37*** 0.85
Bullying 2.13 0.94 0.92 0.67 0.27*** 0.22*** 0.82
Engagement 5.01 1.16 0.90 0.61 0.48*** 0.41*** 0.34*** 0.78
Well-being 4.83 1.24 0.91 0.72 0.53*** 0.43*** 0.31*** 0.81*** 0.85
N= 274, M= mean; SD = standard deviation; ***p< 0.001.
AVE: average variance extracted; CR: composite reliability coefficient.
Bold values are the square root of AVEs.
Tests of hypotheses
AMOS ver22 was used to test the proposed model. Control variables were included in
the structural model. Age was found to be positively related with well-being (β= 0.23,
p< 0.01) while education level was insignificantly associated with the endogenous
variables. The path analysis procedure showed that the model had a good fit (χ
df = 1.73, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.046), and these positive
fit indices satisfied the cut-off criteria for fit indexes (Byrne 2009; Hu and Bentler
1999). The path analysis showed that most of the hypotheses were supported, except
H2 and H5 (see Figure 2).
PROCESS macro (Hayes 2013) was used to test a path model comprised of two
mediators (POS and bullying). A 95 per cent confidence interval based on 10,000
bootstrap samples did not include zero, indicating definitive evidence of the indirect
PSC Wellbeing
Figure 2. Path analysis result.
N= 274, *p< 0.05, ***p< 0.001. Control variables were included in the model.
Table 4. Mediation effects of POS and bullying.
POS Bullying Engagement
β(SE) 95% CI β(SE) 95% CI β(SE) 95% CI
PSC 0.72***
0.54, 0.94 0.27**
0.42, 0.11 0.51***
0.34, 0.67
POS ––0.09*
0.17, 0.01 0.19***
0.11, 0.28
Bullying –––0.24***
0.37, 0.11
Constant 1.96***
1.205, 2.704 3.43***
2.920, 3.940 2.97***
2.274, 3.665
= 0.14
F(1, 272) = 42.641***
= 0.09
F(2, 271) = 13.368***
= 0.33
F(3, 270) = 43.506***
Indirect effect of PSC on engagement through POS and bullying
Effect (boot SE) 95% boot CI
PSC POS engagement 0.14 0.072, 0.231
PSC POS bullying engagement 0.02 0.001, 0.041
PSC bullying engagement 0.06 0.024, 0.126
N= 274, *p< 0.05, **p< 0.01, ***p< 0.001.
effect of employee engagement (see Table 4). Mediation analysis showed that the
indirect effect of PSC on employee engagement through both POS and bullying was
0.016 (CI: 0.001, 0.041).
To test the moderation effect of PSC, we conducted moderated regression analyses
following the procedure suggested by Aiken and West (1991). We centred the main
effect variables of PSC and bullying. Hence we multiplied the two centred variables. A
graphic presents the interaction of PSC and bullying with employee engagement (see
Figure 3). PSC moderated the relationship between bullying and employee engage-
ment (β=.12, p< 0.05). As expected, PSC reduced the negative impact of bullying
on employee engagement. When employees perceived a high level of workplace
bullying, the presence of high PSC resulted in a higher level of employee engagement.
Conversely, when PSC was low, employees reported less employee engagement when
bullying was high.
Little is known about how the contextual conditions of an organization can engender
or inhibit bullying and emotional cognitive experience of employees in the public
sector of non-Western economies. This study provided empirical evidence showing
the effects of PSC on the protection of psychological health and safety of employees
in an Asian developing setting. First, this study found that workplace bullying was
present in these particular Vietnamese public sector agencies when the prevalence
rate on self-reported bullying acts was high. Study results suggest that workplace
bullying is a worldwide phenomenon, happening in both Western and Eastern
environments. Second, as workplace bullying results in negative outcomes affecting
employees and organizations, this study reiterates the criticality of the working
environment in preventing the emergence of bullying behaviours. The findings
lend support to PSC theory and work stress literature that hold that PSC and POS
Figure 3. Moderation effect of PSC on the relationship between bullying and engagement.
are valuable job resources available for employees to lessen negative workplace
behaviour such as bullying. Both PSC and POS are also vital precursors of employee
engagement and well-being (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Law et al. 2011). Third, in
response to the need for more investigations on PSC, this study undertook to
examine the moderating effect of PSC and found that PSC is a leading antecedent
and vital moderator of workplace bullying. This study echoes that public sector
managers need to create, develop, and maintain a high PSC climate so that employees
can feel sufficiently secure and comfortable to work effectively even when workplace
bullying is present. The following sections discuss the theoretical contributions and
managerial implications of these findings.
Theoretical contributions
The results strengthen the nomological net by providing empirical evidence of how
PSC affects psychological health and safety in the Vietnamese public sector context
an area previously unexamined in the literature. Particularly, the results support
Dollard and Bakker (2010) and Law et al.s(2011) researches by identifying the
mediation effects of POS and bullying on the relationship between PSC and employee
engagement. This study lends support to Law et al. (2011) in terms of the mediation
effect of workplace bullying on the impact of PSC and the positive cognitive-emo-
tional experience of work, such as employee engagement. Moreover, this study
provides additional evidence that an organization should also pay attention to POS
in the protection of psychological health and safety among employees (Brunetto et al.
2015). This study is consistent with previous studies in terms of recognizing the
importance of PSC in activating a positive resource which reinforces the mediation
observed in studies on PSC.
A lack of organizational support, a high level of job demands, low job rewards,
and inadequate job resources may cause work pressure, harassment, and bullying
behaviours (Dollard, Tuckey, and Dormann 2012;Lawetal.2011; Zohar and
Luria 2005). Therefore, policies, practices and procedures in a high PSC work
setting will reduce bullying behaviours stemming from job conditions. This study
supports Bond, Tuckey, and Dollard (2010), Dollard and Bakker (2010), and Law
et al. (2011) in terms of the moderation effect of PSC. Previous studies have
focused on the moderation effect of PSC on the relationship between psychologi-
cal hazards and psychological health problems. This study shows that PSC is an
organizational resource which can be used to enhance employee engagement in
the presence of a high level of workplace bullying. That is, when an organization
has high PSC, the management commits to taking immediate actions to prevent
psychological risks, allowing employees to feel safe to use supportive resources to
cope with bullying. By contrast, in a low PSC environment, a lack of management
support and protection of psychological health and safety results in the prevalence
of informal norms and authorizations that prevent the deployment of organiza-
tional resources to balance psychological job conditions (e.g. Tuckey, Winwood,
and Dollard 2011). Thus, a high level of workplace bullying worsens employee
As research on PSC and workplace bullying has been limited to non-Western
economies, this study contributes to theliteratureevidencethatPSCandwork-
place bullying prevail in a developing economy. Importantly, when little attention
has been paid to the context of the public sector, the high rate of self-labelled
bullying reported in this study shows that workplace bullying in Vietnamspublic
sector exists. This result may reflect the fact that public sector organizations in
Vietnam show a high level of bureaucracy and high power distance which could
be taken to represent a high level of managerial prerogative (Dao 1997;Kamoche
outcomes in terms of psychological health and safety because employees have
deference for power and authority distribution and acceptance of unfair treatment
(House et al. 2004; Loh, Restubog, and Zagenczyk 2010; Stone-Romero, Stone, and
Salas 2003). These management features in the public sector may then prevent
employees from using available organizational resources as the management
avoids dealing with negative behaviours (Dao 1997;Painter2003;Thangetal.
2007). Therefore, this research affirms that PSC is a critical means for public
sector organizations in Vietnam to protect the employeespositive experience at
Managerial implications
The findings have implications for managers in public sector organizations with a
high power distance culture. It is imperative to establish a high PSC climate in these
organizations in order to prevent the development of psychological problems and
risks amongst employees who are likely to accept authority and power from indivi-
duals holding higher positions (Loh, Restubog, and Zagenczyk 2010; Stone-Romero,
Stone, and Salas 2003). Specifically, as PSC is the most important creator of work
conditions, managers in organizations should commit to setting up and operating an
effective system that protects psychological health and safety among employees. As
Vietnams public sector organizations have ineffective human resource management
systems, training and education for managers are vital to improve the public admin-
istrative systems (Dao 1997; Painter 2003). To create a high PSC climate, training in
effective managerial skills, and knowledge of negative behaviours and psychological
health and safety is important for managers in public sector organizations to deal
with bullying matters. Hence managers in public sector organizations should actively
take a leading role in developing a positive working environment that allows employ-
ees to feel secure and able to access available organizational resources.
In addition, a two-way communication system between senior managers and
employees is vital so that employees share a common understanding of policies,
procedures, and practices set up for their care and protection within the organization.
Furthermore, as Vietnam has a high power distance culture, this cultural trait may be
a barrier for employees in terms of discussing management issues with senior
managers (Thang et al. 2007). Therefore, to prevent psychological harm that can
lead to lower performance (Bakker and Demerouti 2007) and a lower level of
engagement (Law et al. 2011), employees should be given freedom to discuss their
health problems and psychological safety. If managers are aware of psychosocial
hazards and employees feel safe to talk about these issues, immediate action can be
taken to diminish negative outcomes, such as stress, exhaustion, and depression.
Moreover, job demands need to be controlled as they may lead to negative behaviours
in the workplace and employees need resources to perform their job better and
engender positive feelings at work. Hence, managers should ensure the adequate
provision of resources to employees and lessen job demands that contribute to
psychological stress (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Law et al. 2011; Schaufeli and
Bakker 2004).
Limitations and future studies
This study surveyed perceptions of individual employees in the public sector.
While previous studies have argued that PSC is derived from the organizational
level (Dollard and Bakker 2010; Law et al. 2011), future studies should examine the
management of PSC through the aggregation of individual and organizational
levels. A limitation of this study is that the data was collected from self-report
questionnaires from employees in six branches of one public sector agency, which
could limit the generalizability. To avoid this matter, future studies should expand
the data collection to multiple sources of respondents from other agencies.
Further, even though the three tests in this study showed that common method
bias was not a major issue, future studies should focus on the issue of common
method variance and subjective bias. In addition, future studies should use mea-
sures of objective evidence such as reports of incidents of sick leave, work stress
compensation claims, or hospital records. Moreover, this study tested the applica-
tion of PSC theory in the context of Vietnam. As Vietnam has a high power
distance culture, future studies should include national contextual conditions to
explain the influence of contextual conditions underlying the implementation of
PSC in non-Western economies.
In summary, this study extends the JD-R model to a non-Western economy. Like
other countries, workplace bullying is prevalent in Vietnam. Consistent with past
research, results in this study affirmed that PSC is an important antecedent of issues
of psychosocial harm and the positive cognitive-emotional experience of work.
Therefore, organizations in the public sector should pay attention to establishing a
high PSC climate with the strong commitment of senior management to the preven-
tion of psychological hazards among employees.
Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Notes on contributors
Diep T. N. Nguyen is Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan
University, Australia. She completed her PhD degree from Auckland University of Technology. She
is currently undertaking research into strategic HRM (specifically, the roles and influence of HR
departments) and workplace bullying in Vietnam. Her research has appeared in the Journal of
General Management and New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations.
Stephen T. T. Teo is Professor of work and performance in the School of Business and Law, Edith
Cowan University, Australia. Stephen teaches HRM strategy, business research methods, and inter-
national HRM to undergraduate and postgraduate students. He is currently examining resilience,
stress, and productivity in the healthcare sectors in Australia and New Zealand. His studies have
been published in journals such as Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management
Journal, International Journal of HRM, and Journal of Vocational Behavior.
Steven L. Grover is Professor of management, School of Management, University of Otago, New
Zealand. He teaches managing and leadership to undergraduate and postgraduate students. He is
currently examining behavioural ethics and interpersonal treatment, and issues of respect and trust
between followers and leaders. His studies have been published in journals such as Academy of
Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Applied Psychology, Human
Relations, and Organization Science.
Nguyen Phong Nguyen is Lecturer at the International School of Business, UEH University,
Vietnam. Nguyen is also a full-member of Certified Practising Accountants, Australia. His research
focuses on intra-organizational competition strategy, the interfaces between marketing and other
disciplines, employeeswell-being and psychological climate in organizations. Recently, Dr Nguyen
and his co-authors have two papers accepted and presented in ANZMAC 2015 [best paper in the
track Marketing Strategy and Strategic Marketing] and ANZAM 2015.
Diep T. N. Nguyen http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5454-8835
Stephen T. T. Teo http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5025-7937
Steven L. Grover http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3081-6660
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... Bullying is also a factor in developing students' negative perceptions of the school climate (Han, Zhang, & Zhang, 2017;Klein, Cornell, & Konold, 2012). Bullying cases that occur in a school have an impact on psychological security in students (Dollard, Dormann, Tuckey, & Escartín, 2017;Kwan, Tuckey, & Dollard, 2016;Nguyen, Teo, Grover, & Nguyen, 2017). The low feeling of security has an impact on student involvement in learning activities in schools (Mehta, Cornell, Fan, & Gregory, 2013). ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Despite this progress, an extensive review of these particular areas uncovers that some missed constructs which are considered highly significant to behavior-based Safety performance under the climate domain. Moreover, several numbers of researchers found their is a lack of empirical evidence attempting to assess the antecedents and determinants of employee safety (Nguyen, Teo, Grover, & Nguyen, 2017). In this regard, the objective of this study is to examine the mediation effect of ESC on the relationship between climate constructs and intention to Safety in small and medium enterprises. ...
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Changing work trends in the globalized environment have not only affected small and medium enterprises’ growth but also its turn into enormous challenges for small and medium enterprises. Small and medium enterprises have been categorized as one of the highest risks industry due to their unique nature, weakness, and capabilities. This paper aims to examine the influence of management commitment, safety motivation on safety performance in the small and medium manufacturing enterprises. Data were collected using stratified random sampling from 300 managerial and non-managerial employees in the Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprise sector. The data analysis process utilized completed and useable questionnaires with an overall response rate of 57%. The four hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) in IBM-SPSS-AMOS. The results revealed that management commitment and safety motivation have positive and significantly influence safety performance. Furthermore, safety motivation is the strongest predictor of safety performance, while management commitment, directly and indirectly, influence safety performance. Safety motivation partially mediated the relationship between management commitment and safety performance. The model accounted for 43% of the variance in safety performance explain by management commitment and safety motivation. The study added to the existing safety performance literature. This study provides valuable guidance for practitioners in determining the proactive mechanisms that can be used to improve safety performance as well as increase workplace safety.
... In the present study, we found that safety climate was related to gender (men had the lowest scores) and marital status (married with or without children had the highest score). In similar studies from the rest of the world, physicians had a more positive view of teamwork but not of safety climate [16][17][18][19][20], with the exception of the research by Nguyen et al. from Italy [21]. In another study, physicians scored the safety climate higher, but the qualitative data from that study revealed a number of issues that the hospital staff felt impacted negatively on patient safety [22]. ...
Background Over time, the multidimensional nature of the safety culture in the healthcare field has led to great efforts to improve quality and create tools aiming at enhancing safety. In particular, emphasis has been placed on teamwork and the safety climate. There is a strong relationship between these two complex elements, which interact to improve the safety climate and reduce patient-safety issues. In this study, "teamwork" includes the perceptions of the health professionals collaborating within a health team to provide safe patient care, and "safety climate" refers to the professional commitment to patient safety. Objective This article assesses health professionals' perceptions of both patient-safety issues and teamwork in their hospital work environment after the development and implementation of a comprehensive quality-assurance system. Methods This descriptive correlation study is based on anonymous and self-completed questionnaires obtained after the development and implementation of a comprehensive quality assurance system in the wards and departments of Nicosia General Hospital. The research sample consisted of the health professionals who participated in the working groups that implemented the quality assurance system. We used the questionnaire's sociodemographic data and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) developed in the Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe program, focusing on two factors: Teamwork and the safety climate. Results While teamwork received a positive score (>75%), the same did not occur for the safety climate (68.60%). Women typically rated the safety climate more positively than men, who mostly gave negative ratings (p = 0.005). There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.011) in the scores between participants aged 24-44 and those aged 45-54, with the latter reporting higher teamwork scores. The participants' educational levels also played important roles in their responses, with university graduates (BSc) providing more positive teamwork scores than those with a master's degree (p = 0.018). Conclusions Our research revealed that the health professionals of Nicosia General Hospital perceived the teamwork climate as positive, in contrast to the safety climate. The results highlight the need not only to intervene in all the areas covered by the SAQ to improve the safety climate but also to keep encouraging teamwork to obtain better results.
... Despite this progress, an extensive review of these particular areas uncovers that some missed constructs which are considered highly significant to behavior-based Safety performance under the climate domain. Moreover, several numbers of researchers found their is a lack of empirical evidence attempting to assess the antecedents and determinants of employee safety (Nguyen, Teo, Grover, & Nguyen, 2017). In this regard, the objective of this study is to examine the mediation effect of ESC on the relationship between climate constructs and intention to Safety in small and medium enterprises. ...
... Also, although indigenous representation in Vietnam public organisations has increased, there is limited research on indigenous people in the workplace (NAFOSTED, 2018). Most previous research on indigenous issues focuses mainly on social and cultural issues (Huong, 2016;Nguyen et al., 2017;Van Gramberg et al., 2013), and it is argued that the political environment on their workplace experience which may contribute to the limitation of workplace-based research on indigenous people is still unexplored. In this context, this paper represents a research team's perspective focusing on the challenges of indigenous research in Vietnam from the perspective of a Vietnamese Indigenous researcher of indigenous research in Vietnam. ...
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Purpose This paper provides critical insights into the contextual challenges of researching indigenous people in Vietnam's public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a study of indigenous employee voice and inclusion in public sector organisations in three locations in the Central Highlands region, the researcher engages in self and methodological reflections to explain the challenges faced. Findings This paper identifies and discusses the challenging issues of political sensitivity, data access, availability and consistency of quantitative data, and characteristics of indigenous participants in the context of Vietnam. Practical implications This paper benefits directly those who are interested in researching Vietnam's indigenous people in future. Further, it contributes to the global conversation on the challenges of conducting indigenous research, particularly in reaching out to indigenous populations and obtaining reliable data in order to capture indigenous voice and experiences. Originality/value There is a dearth of knowledge of indigenous research in non-Western countries where indigenous people are not recognised officially by the government. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by focusing on cultural, political and societal issues of indigenous research from Vietnam.
... Not only psychological safety, but also mental health is at stake here. It is important to provide an environment that promotes psychological safety and stimulates mental health (Nguyen, Teo, & Nguyen, 2017). ...
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Veterinary employee turnover intention: 'How to improve employee sustainability and address the FTE-shortage in the veterinary workfield'. Drs. Adriaan, Johannes, Hermanus te Loo OMBA2018/2 OMBA2018/2 Final Assignment Veterinary employee turnover intention. 2 Acknowledgement I want to thank my wife Sabina, my sister Maroeska, and my close friends, Hina, Frits, Patrick, and Shirley for supporting me when times got difficult. I want to express my respect and gratitude towards my supervisor, professor Rita van Deuren for guiding me when I wandered of the path. But also for listening to me when times were hard, and to take me seriously, and to vouch for me with the examination board. I want to thank the examination board for listening to my plea, and acknowledging my necessity at a moment at which I doubted myself. It helped me a lot and gave me strength. I want to thank all the teachers, all the staff members of the Maastricht School of Management, and my fellow students, for the incredible journey this Master of Business Administration program has been. The professionality, hospitality and warmth I received of the all the teachers, and the staff members was more then I expected. I learned from all of them. My fellow students all added to my development. The stories from home, family, culture, war, and sickness. I felt a connection which I never would have expected possible from an online education. I want to compliment the Maastricht School of Management on providing such an envigorating environment. It was a period of joy, and of hardship. In the recent year I sold my practice, got a new position, bought a house, lost my mother to COVID, got married, almost lost my sister to COVID, lost my father in law to unexpected disease, and lost a friend to sudden heart failure. When I thought I could no longer bear it, understanding and support was provided from family, but also from the teachers, the examination board, and the staff members of the Maastricht School of Management. I thank you all for the journey and I hope to see you all. Veterinary employee turnover intention. 3 Executive summary The study investigates how perceived job demands and resources, perceived energy resources, perceived psychological safety, perceived job satisfaction, and perceived benefits and support influence employee turnover intention. The introduction sets the stage for this investigation. The background of the investigator, and the reason for the research in the particular area of the veterinary medicine workfield. Employee turnover is one of the causes of a shortage of veterinary professionals in the veterinary medicine workfield. The literature study defines the independent variables and what they are made up of. The relation found in literature with the dependent variable is discussed and the dependent variable is also defined. A conceptual framework is formulated, the independent variables influence employee turnover intention negatively. The research data was acquired by means of convenience sampling. A questionnaire was formulated following a rapport on research among doctors. The major research question is: What is causing employee turnover intention in veterinary medicine. The minor research questions are concerned with how the independent variables: perceived job demands and resources, perceived energy resources, perceived psychological safety, perceived job satisfaction, and perceived benefits and support influence employee turnover intention. It was also investigated if a gender difference could be found with respect to the quantitative outcome of the research. Gender was not one of the variables to be examined and evaluated in this research to begin with, but I had enough data to get conclusions en recommendations for future research, and for recommendations for practice. Standard multiple regression was performed to analyze the quantitative data concerning the research questions. The gender difference was assessed with a independent-samples T-test. A descriptive analysis was added to provide a proper description of the data used. The findings were statistically relevant, and revealed that employee turnover intention is influenced by perceived job demands and resources, and job satisfaction in particular. Also a significant gender difference was found. The difference was specifically for perceived energy resources, and job satisfaction in particular. Veterinary employee turnover intention. 4 The outcomes of this research hold theoretical and academic relevance as they add to the existing body of knowledge on employee turnover intention. The recommendations arising from this study will help focus on the task of decreasing employee turnover in the workfield of veterinary medicine. Emphasis should be on perceived job satisfaction, but also perceived energy resources and the demands of the female professionals as they are becoming the main force to reckon, working in the veterinary workfield. Veterinary employee turnover intention. 5 0. Contents
Background & Objectives Work-related violence is widespread, occurs across industries / occupations, has detrimental effects on physical and mental health of workers and clear implications for the workplace system. Despite this, there is limited understanding of the broad range of contributing factors. This systematic review identifies factors contributing to WV and adopts a systems thinking framework (Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, 1997) to map across the workplace system. Methods A systematic search across 6 databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, AMED, EmCare, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO) was conducted using keywords that specified the setting (workplace), topic (risk factors for WV), and study design of interest. The search was limited to workers > 18 years of age, and articles published in English from 2010 to July 2020. Results The search retrieved 1,286 articles. Following the application of eligibility criteria, a total of 120 articles were included, the majority of which were rated as moderate methodological quality (59%). The vast majority of articles were within healthcare. When mapped across the workplace system the highest percentage of factors were at the Frontline staff level, followed by Governance and Administration, and Operations Management. Conclusion This study represents the first step in gaining a comprehensive understanding of the system of factors contributing to WV. Findings suggest more attention should be given to sectors outside of healthcare such as the public service, with an identified need for WV intervention. The findings of this study can be used to inform the development of targeted intervention to reduce WV through systemic change.
Public sector organizations frequently restructure due to shifting management trends, crises, and political developments. Earlier research indicates that the sometimes-drastic reforms implemented in government strongly affect employees, causing psychosocial effects such as frustration, stress, and negative work environments. This may in turn increase the likelihood of severe phenomena such as workplace bullying and harassment. It remains unclear, however, how public organizations can introduce changes while preventing side-effects such as bullying and harassment. The goal of this article is twofold. First, we test whether evidence on the relationship between workplace change and bullying and harassment holds when using a large, public sector-wide sample. Second, we investigate whether satisfaction with change management plays a mediating role. Using cross-sectional and strata-based panel data analyses on Australian data, results indicate a positive relationship between workplace change and workplace bullying and harassment, but also suggest that satisfaction with change management mitigates this effect.
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Purpose of the study: The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of climate emergence (i.e., work ownership, Islamic work ethic, and employee safety climate) on the intention of safety behavior. Methodology: The research framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Exchange Theory. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data from 400 first-line operators and supervisors within the Small Medium Enterprise. A total of 250 useable questionnaires with a response rate of 75% were used for data analysis. The five proposed hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in IBM-SPSS-AMOS. Main Findings: The results indicate that climate emergence factors have a positive and significant effect on employee intention to safety behavior. Furthermore, employee safety climate found to be the strongest predictor of employee intention to safety behavior, while other climate emergence factors do not have a direct effect on the intention of safety behavior. The model accounted for 76% of the variance in climate emergence in the context of intention to safety behavior. Applications of this study: The results obtained from this study contribute to the improvement of proactive safety performance measures in the small-medium enterprise. However, further efforts are required to achieve the enhanced safety performance level Novelty/Originality of this study: This study adds to the existing psychological literature on climate and employee safety behavior. This present study enhanced the climate-based construct by improving the safety performance measurement for small-medium enterprises.
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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the partial least squares (PLS) approach. As a logical base for comparison, the PLS approach for structural path estimation is contrasted to the covariance-based approach. In so doing, a set of considerations are then provided with the goal of helping the reader understand the conditions under which it might be reasonable or even more appropriate to employ this technique. This chapter builds up from various simple 2 latent variable models to a more complex one. The formal PLS model is provided along with a discussion of the properties of its estimates. An empirical example is provided as a basis for highlighting the various analytic considerations when using PLS and the set of tests that one can employ is assessing the validity of a PLS-based model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
Cross-sectional studies of attitude-behavior relationships are vulnerable to the inflation of correlations by common method variance (CMV). Here, a model is presented that allows partial correlation analysis to adjust the observed correlations for CMV contamination and determine if conclusions about the statistical and practical significance of a predictor have been influenced by the presence of CMV. This method also suggests procedures for designing questionnaires to increase the precision of this adjustment.
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
This article discusses the need for, and strategies of, developing a sound system of administration in Vietnam. It adopts a concept of administrative reform as the induced systemic improvement of public sector operational performance The paper examines the limitations and weaknesses of the present system of public administration from three perspectives: organisation; institution; and human resource. A strategy of reform is developed with a focus on the three abovementioned dimensions. The main instruments of the reform are decentralisation, privatisation, contracting out, overhauling the existing legal system, enacting new laws and regulations, and training public servants. The potential difficulties of implementation are also analysed.