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Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): DETERMINANTS, DELIVERABLES, AND SHORTFALLS



Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was implemented in 2000 ostensibly to accelerate development within its 15 years plan of action. In the credence of this notion, Nigeria was one of the early countries that adopted the rational policy. Prior to the introduction of MDG, the country had implemented diverse developmental policies which are said not to have delivered the expected dividend. Hence, no sooner, the MDGs came to an end; the impulse of another developmental goal became necessary. Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) succeeding MDGs reiterates questions such as, how well did MDGs perform in developing countries? Where the aims of the MDGs met? If MDGs struggle to achieve 8 goals, how possible will SDGs 17 goals be realized? It is in this light, that the study using secondary data evaluate the MDG era in Nigeria, how far and how well they achieved their set target. The study suggests that although MDGs era in Nigeria recorded slight progress with regards to targeted goals, it did not meet the required plausible targets. Hence, as a very effective way of achieving sustainable development, the study recommends good governance and prioritizing of goals according to the country needs.
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement
of the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs):
illennium Development Goals
(MDGs) was implemented in 2000
ostensibly to accelerate development
within its 15 years plan of action. In the
credence of this notion, Nigeria was one of
the early countries that adopted the
rational policy. Prior to the introduction of
MD G, the countr y had im plemented diverse
developmental policies which are said not
to have delivered the expected dividend.
Hence, no sooner, the MDGs came to an
end; the impulse of another developmental
goal became necessary. Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) succeeding
MDGs reiterates questions such as, how
well did MDGs perform in developing
countries? Where the aims of the MDGs
met? If MDGs struggle to achieve 8 goals,
how possible will SDGs 17 goals be
realized? It is in this light, that the study
using secondary data evaluate the MDG era
in Nigeria, how far and how well they
achieved their set target. The study
suggests that although MDGs era in Nigeria
recorded slight progress with regards to
targeted goals, it did not meet the required
plausible targets. Hence, as a very effective
way of achieving sustainable development,
the study recommends good governance
and prioritizing of goals according to the
country needs.
Keywords: MDGs, SDGs, Nigeria, Poverty Reduction, Good Governance.
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 657
CBN- Central Bank of Nigeria
DFFRI- Directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure
EFA- Education for All
FMARD- Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
FME- Federal Ministry of Education
FMWASD- Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development
FMWR- Federal Ministry of Water Resources
GDP- Gross Domestic Product
MDGs- Millennium Development Goals
NACA- National Agency for the Control of HIV/AIDS
NBS- National Bureau of Statistics
NDHS- National Demographic and Health Survey
NMCP- National Malaria Control Programme
NTBLCP- National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme
ODA- Official Development Assistance
ODI- Overseas Development Institute
OFN- Operation Feed the Nation
PAP- Poverty Alleviation Programme
PCAMMDGs- Presidential Committee for the Assessment and Monitoring of the MDGs
SAP- Structural Adjustment Programme
SDGs- Sustainable Development Goals
UN- United Nations
UNDP- United Nations Development Programme
UNICEF- United Nations Children’s Fund
UPE- Universal Primary Education
USAID- United States Agency for International Development
VPF- Virtual Property Fund
WHO- World Health Organisation
OSSAP-MDGS- Office of the Senior Special Adviser to the President, MDGs.
658 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
Development has become a haphazard phenomenon in the world, most especially in the
21st century. This impetus can be aligned to problems such as poverty, climate change,
food security, corruption, unemployment and lopsided incomes which continue to be on
the increase. Hence, states have been addressing its course in accordance to the socio-
political and economical challenge prevalent in their varying societies; international
organizations also have not disregarded the upbeat impact of development.
International organizations like the United Nations have long recognized the key role
of development since 1960 when “development” became its central theme (Jackson, 2007;
Hong, 2015:4). Although, the most important urge during the era was to reduce hunger
prevalent among countries especially in Africa, parts of Asia and Caribbean. Over time, the
UN has gone beyond addressing the issues of hunger; to intervention programmes so as
to eliminate illiteracy, hunger and diseases. Albeit, with little successes.
In light of this, and in recognition of the status of developing countries, the World
Bank, IMF and Western Countries advocated Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in
the 1980s as a response to African economic crisis of the 1970s (Jackson, ibid; Heidhues
and Obare, 2011: 57-59; Hong, ibid). However, SAP which was intended to address Africa’s
key economic problems by laying emphasis on privatization and free market development
did not achieve the desired goals
Consequently, the United Nations development agenda in the 1990s broadened to
focus more on social and human development dimensions through numerous global
summits, conferences, declarations and strategies such as Copenhagen Declaration; 1995
World Summit for Social Development; The Fourth World Conference on Women, amongst
others. Despite this momentum in enhancing development, new challenges such as
conflicts in African countries, democratic changes in Europe and slow economy emerged
to thwart this effort (Jackson, 2007).
Nevertheless, in September 2000, many of these goals were incorporated into the
resolutions of the United Nations Millennium Summit in New York and endorsed by 189
member states to be known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The MDGs which comprises eight major goals and 18 targets were time bound till 2015
to halve developmental issues in comparison with the 1990 figures. Essentially, these goals
seek to address key areas of development such as: poverty, education, health care,
environmental sustainability and international cooperation. Compared to the other region
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 659
in the world, African and developing countries takes into cognizance the great opportunity
MDGs have in promoting development through human welfare in the world (ADB, 2002;
UNECA, 2016). However , with t he wind -up of M DGs, th e worl d still seems to have problems
with development and poverty eradication especially amongst the developing countries
(Sahn and Stifel, 2003:23-28; Aleyomi, 2013: 4-9; MDG Report, 2015). These categories of
country also encompass Nigeria.
The issue of underdevelopment in Nigeria is a paradox considering its poor state in
comparison with the vast natural and human resources that exists in the country
(Oshewolo, 2010:264). The richly endowed country which was one of the wealthiest 50
countries in the world in the 1970s has retrogressed in trading shoulders with the poorest
countries in the twenty first century (Ugoh and Ukpere, 2009:849; Oshewolo, 2010: 267;
Ngara, 2014:49). An apt example is to compare Nigeria with countries such as Malaysia,
China and Indonesia. It could be recalled that all this countries which were in the same
class with Nigeria has outgrown Nigeria in growt h and development. For instance, Malaysia
got their first palm seedling from Nigeria in the early 1960s when palm oil was already a
thriving trade good in the country (Chukwuemeka, 2009:406). However, in 1990s, Malaysia’s
export of palm oil produce attained much financial gain than that of Nigeria earnings from
oil exports (Eshalomi and Ayodele, 2010; 6-8; Okezie and Baharuddin, 2011:369). Likewise,
China, which was seen as a nonaligned developing country in conjunction with Nigeria, is
one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods (Utomi, 2008:39). This
development is attributed to Deng Xiaoping’s reform policies of the 1970s and the 1980s
such as creation of a diversified economy, fiscal decentralization and collectivized
agriculture. Indonesia another of Nigeria’s contemporary in GDP size, is an agrarian and
religious society, which also experienced oil boom in the 1970s, has seen its GDP sizes
grow considerably. Both countries took different policy choices, while Indonesia policy led
to 40% increase in total export, Nigeria’s export is less than 1% the same as in the 1970s
(Chukwuemeka, ibid).
In a bid to ameliorate the grave consequences of poverty and developmental disorder,
successive Nigerian government have designed and implemented numerous policies and
projects to tackle the scourge. Maduagwu (2005) identified 35 developmental programmes
that have been undertaken by the state at different intervals. These include inter alia:
660 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
Operation Feed the Nation [OFN] in 1976; Green Revolution in 1980 to address poverty;
Directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure [DFFRI] in 1986 to construct good
roads, provide rural water and electrification supply for those in the rural areas; National
Directorate of Employment (NDE) in 1986 aimed at providing financing, training and
guidance for the unemployed youths; Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) which was
introduced in 2000 to address the problems of rising unemployment in the society, boost
economy productiveness, and ensure Nigerians are provided with basic necessities of life
such as: affordable health care, sanitized environment, quality education amongst others
(Chukwuemeka, 2009; Adebayo, 2012: 2-3; Onwe and Chibuzor, 2015:227-230).
Regardless of these developmental programmes, development expected is yet to take
place (Anger, 2010; Oshelowo, 2011; Banwo and Oluranti, 2013; Adejumo and Adejumo,
2014). Instead, poverty, unemployment, child mortality, corruption and lopsided income
have been on the increase. Poverty profile in Nigeria shows that poverty level in the
country had been on the rise. In 1980, the poverty level moved from 28.1% to 46.3% in
1985; although it declined to 42.7% in 1992, it increased to 65.2% in 1996 and 69.2% in
1997. In 2004, Nigeria’s relative poverty rate stood at 54.4% and perked to 69% in 2010,
while the absolute poverty rate stood at 54.7% and increased to 60.9% in 2010 (
Chukwuemeka, 2009: 405; NBS, 2010, Igbuzor, 2013).
In view of all these enumerated challenges and the determination in promoting
sustainable development, Nigeria like other United Nation member countries embraced
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The MDGs comprises of eight different goals to be halved by 2015 in comparison to
1990. They include: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; achievement of universal
primary education, promotion of gender equality and women empowerment; reduction of
child mortality; improvement in maternal health; combating HIV/AIDs, Malaria and other
diseases; ensure environmental sustainability and developing global partnership for
development (United Nations Millennium Project, 2006). Scholars (Edoh, 2003;
Mahammad, 2006; Lawal and Rotimi, 2012:74) are of the opinion that the accomplishment
of the MDGs will bring about a difference in the living standard of the people in the
society. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate the successes and challenges witnessed
during the Nigerian MDGs era using UN stipulated target and steered up deliverables in
the new adopted SDGs. However, it is imperative for the study to provide clarity to some
concepts as they are used in this study.
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 661
Development means as a concept is a victim of definitional pluralism which has been given
different meanings to its credence by different scholars based on their ideological belief
or intellectual capacity. The linear movement of the concept from an economic growth
based to general well-being and now multi-dimensional well-being had kept the definition
varying (Seers, 1969; Harris, 2000; UNDP, 2000; S’a Cobinah, Black and Thwaite, 2011,
UNDP, 2015).
Rodney (1976) describes development as the ability of a state to harness its resources
for the beneficial use of its citizens. Ghai (1977:6) defines development as the availability
and accessibility of man’s fundamental needs such as: food, shelter, clothing, education
and health. Todaro and Smith (2005: 51) cited in Akume (2014: 443) views “development
as a distinct transformation by which an entire society transforms the lives of its citizenry
and social groups from an unsatisfactory way of life to a fine-tuned life, regarded to be
materially and spiritually better. Seers (1969:2-5) categorized poverty, unemployment,
worsening inequality and lopsided income to be signs of an unsatisfactory life. Seers
contend that a country’s developmental status by answering the question: what has been
happening to poverty, inequality and unemployment? This question implicitly is clearly
what MDGs seeks to address.
Therefore, it can be deduced that the whole essence of development is to enhance
advancement and improvement that is reflective on individuals, and the political, economic,
social and cultural aspect of the state.
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development simply means development that can be maintained or kept going
without having any detrimental effect to the future. The oft-quoted Brutland Commission
re port which ha s been a funda mental groun dwork for sc h olars on sustainable development
defined sustainable development to mean, “The development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own
needs (WCED, 1987:3). Similarly, a UK Direct Government website, explain sustainable
development to mean a better standard of living for people and for the future generations
to come (Rogers, Jalal and Boyd, 2012; Reid, 2013). Sustainable development also means
not using up resources faster than the earth could replenish or decision making that could
662 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
degenerate the future. In furtherance, sustainable development is mainly achieved through
the integration and acknowledgement of economic, environmental and social concerns
(Newman and Rowe, 2003:24; Kates, Parris and Leiserowitz, 2005; Adejumo and Adejumo,
2014:33; Emas, 2015:2). This aforementioned of sustainable development has been
regarded as the underlying basis for the adoption of the MDGs.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The focal point of Government in any society is to spearhead development in the social,
cultural, economic and political level. In ensuring this, physical necessities and basic rights
such as shelter, food, clothing, equality, employment and freedom must be made
accessible to the citizenry. It is on this premise, that the UN hosted 189 heads of states to
a millennium summit in addressing inimical challenges to development.
However, the implementation of this time bound developmental goals received mixed
feelings as to its actualization, especially with regards to Africa (Haines and Cassels,
2004:394-395;Igbuzr, 2006:4; Aleyomi, 2013:1-3; Dada and Owolabi, 2013; Haya and
Nkondo, 2016:176).On the contrary, to the tail end of 2015, Ban-Ki-Moon reported that
the contrary, has yielded astonishing results all over the world in areas such as : poverty,
child mortality, maternal mortality amongst others (End Poverty, 2015; Jones, 2015; UN,
2015). Likewise, Nigeria has recorded slight progress in the actualization of the goals, while
remarkable progress is made in certain areas, some are met halfway. As elaborated in the
later part of this paper, there is still much to be desired in this area in Nigeria context.
Synthesis of the Millennium Development Goals: Global View
After World War II, countries leaned to constructs, concepts or ideologies that speak
towards development (Ake, 1996:1; Adjei, 2007:21; Fukuda-Parr and Hulme, 2011:17). Thus,
as the world was entering into a new millennium, the United Nations welcomed the MDGs
as a developmental key in improving human well-being all over the world (Jahan, 2003:2;
Hulme, 2009:4-9). The global aura of MDGs which got a mixed reaction from
commentators has however indicted significant progress globally on the goals (MDG
Report, 2015). According to UN reports, despite the uneven achievements and shortfalls
in many areas, the MDGs has saved millions of lives and improved conditions for many
others (The Guardian, 2015). The report shows, the number of people who survives on less
than $1.25 a day has been reduced from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015; the
number of undernourished people also fell by half in 2015. In the area of education,
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 663
Primary school enrolment rate in developing nations rose to 91% in 2015 from 83% in
2000; the global under five mortality rates has declined by more than half, dropping from
90 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births. The fight against malaria witnessed huge
improvement, for instance, more than 900 million insecticide treated mosquito nets were
delivered to malaria endemic countries between 2000 and 2014. With regards to accessible
water, about 2.6 billion have gained access to improved drinking water. There has also
been an indirect flow between drinking water target and sanitation. Globally, 147 nations
have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met the sanitation target while 77
countries have met both (The Guardian, 2015; Odunyemi, 2015:34-35; UN MDGs Report,
The MDGs were relatively successful in Sub-Saharan Africa, although, some scholars
believe the performance could have been better (Global Poverty Report, 2002; UN World
Summit, 2005; MDG Report, 2007, Aribigbola, 2009). Many countries in Sub Saharan Africa
were able to record accelerated progress. For example in Rwanda poverty reduced
drastically from 78% to 44.9% in 2003 with the help of MDGs induced policies (Sangado,
et al, 2003). Countries like Benin, Togo, Tanzania and Sao-Tome made considerable change
in the area of education (MDGs Report, 2011). Similarly, Nigeria recorded improved
performance in its MDG Goals.
Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria: Myth or Reality
Nigeria was among the 189 countries that adopted the MDGs in year 2000. The
programme was part of the government plan to reduce poverty and uphold sustainable
development. The MDGs however commenced in 2005, after the cancellation of the debt
relief. The cancellation of the debt enabled the government to save US$1 billion annually
and this led to the increase and target of pro-poor interventions such as YES, YouWin,
Conditional Cash Transfer, Conditional Grant Scheme, etc. (Igbuzor, 2013; Olabode,
et al,
2014:47-48; Nigeria MDGs Report:16-17). MDGs project in Nigeria have gulped about N1.4
trillion between 2006 and 2010 (Az-Zubair; 2010).Prodding further, an analysis of the 2012
budget shows that a total of more than 3 trillion was spent on MDGs (PCAMMDGs, 2013).
The robust disbursement of funds towards MDGs programme initiates commitment to
the actualization of the MDG goals and targets. However, assessment reports of the MDGs
do not seem to suggest much success. The 2004 report which was Nigeria’s first report on
MDGs suggest that it was unlikely the country would realize most of the goals air marked
664 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
for 2015 especially halving poverty and hunger, reducing child mortality amongst other
key goals (MDG Report, 2004:iv). The 2005 reports however contains some ray of hope
with regards to Nigeria actualizing some of the millennium development targets such as
universal primary education, ensuring environmental stability, developing global
partnership. The report also stated that Nigeria could achieve other targets such as
eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; gender equality, reducing child mortality,
improving maternal health by 2015 given the current policies set in place and the debts
which was exonerated within that year span (Nigeria MDG Report, 2005).
The 2008 Nigeria MDG Report which denoted a mid-point of the 15 years millennium
journey, however, indicated a slow paced approach in the realization of the goals on the
underlying basis of the 2005 Nigeria MDG report (Nigeria Mid-Point Assessment, 2008;
Igbuzor, 2013:13). The report indicates that the number of people living in poverty was to
have declined from 54.7% to 28.7% in 2007 in ascertaining the assurance of the goal but
it has not gotten there. On the other hand, infant mortality rose from 81 per 1000 live
births in the year 2000 to 110 per 1000 live births in 2005/2006 against the global target
of 30 per 1000 live births in 2015; Under the midway target, maternal mortality rates were
expected to fall within 440 per 100000 live births, however, it was 828 deaths per 100000
live births and 531 deaths per 100000 live births in urban areas. The numbers of people
with access to safe drinking water rose from 54% in 2000 to 60% in 2005/2006 while the
proportion of the population with access to basic sanitation dropped from 42.9 in 2000 to
38% in 2005/ 2006 (Nigeria midpoint Assessment, 2008; Lawal,
et al,
2012: 77-78; Igbuzor,
2013: 10-12).
In view of the poor mid-point performance, some scholars are of the opinion that the
country may be unable to achieve the MDGs target in 2015 especially given the lack of
transparency and accountability, misuse of funds, poor coordination and corruption facing
the implementation of most of the MDG Programmes (Ibrahim and Igbuzor, 2009;
Oshelowo, 2011; Lawal et al, 2012; Ajiye, 2014; Imodu, 2014; Omoh, 2014, Odunyemi, 2015).
Notwithstanding the challenges that the MDGs are facing, some gains were recorded in
key sectors.
MDGs in Nigeria: Performance Review
According to the Presidential Committee on MDGs, for Nigeria to accomplish the MDGs
targets in Nigeria, poverty rate is expected to reduce from, 42.7% in 1990 to 21.35% in
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 665
2015; children dropouts are assumed to be completely eliminated; infant mortality rate per
1000 ought to decrease from 191 to 63.7; maternal mortality rate from 740 to 176 in 2015;
improved access to sanitation from 39% to 70% (Igbuzor, 2013:12). However, the
completion of the MDG era has indicated incremental improvements in some areas and
challenges in some as evidenced below:
Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Nigeria being one of the most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa following
its poverty records, contributes a major quota to the poverty statistic in the region.
Statistics show that poverty prevalence in the country has been on decline. Using
the halve of 1992 data which was estimated at 42.7% as a benchmark upon which
progress or lack of it was gauged, poverty status has been said to be swaying. In
2004, Nigeria poverty status rose from 53.3% to 65.6% in 2006; then moderated
to 54.4% in 2011 (Bello, 2007:46; Nwanolue, 2014: 5-6; Nigerian MDGs Report,
2015; 29). However, a report by World Bank (2014) stated that 33.1% Nigerians
lives in poverty which is a closer range to the 21.35 % target for 2015. This report
however contradicts the NBS (2011) and UNDP (2013) report estimate that about
69% people live in poverty.
The figures appear not to have taken into consideration the country’s vast
economic growth rate following the country’s poverty menace and restrict it to
specific sectors like agriculture and manufacturing (ADB, 2015).
The upturn in the agricultural sector led to the notable achievement of
Nigeria’s fight against hunger. FAO (2013) reports that Nigeria has been able to
reduce hunger by 66% in 2012, meeting the MDG target 3 years prior 205
deadline. This development reduced the proportion of underweight children from
35.7% in 1990 to 25, 5% in 2014 as against the 2015 benchmark of 17.85%.
In light of the above, eradicating hunger in Nigeria recorded a remarkable
success while poverty reduction did was not achieved.
Achieving Universal Primary Education
Education is an established instrument in bringing about development in any
Nation. On this platform, MDGs provided 2015 as a bench mark for children
everywhere in the world, boys and girls alike to complete a full primary education.
On this ground, the Nigerian Government introduced the Universal Primary
666 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
Education (UPE), Education for All Policy (EFA) and the Federal Teachers Scheme
(FTS) to ensure the effective progress of MD Goal 2 (Ajiye, 2014:28; Nigeria MDG
Report, 2015:39-45).
This programmes has yielded remarkable achievement following the
improvement in school net enrolment rate from 60% in 1995 to 84% in 2004;
87.6% in 2006 and 88.8% in 2008 (MDG Report, 2013). However, due to insurgency
in the Northern part and insecurity in some other parts of the country, the net
enrolment rate dropped to 59% in 2011 and moderated to 68.7% in 20 1 4 ( N i g e r i a
MDG Report, 2015: 39-40; Odunyemi, 2015:35).
The primary six completion rate has also witnessed a strong progress to its
feet. Starting with a good performance of 73% in 1993 to 89% in 2006, dropped
to 82% in 2013 then picked up to 85.5% in 2015 ( Nwanolue, 2014:8; Odunyemi,
ibid; Nigerian MDG Report, ibid).
On the other hand, the literacy rate of 15-24 years old has witnessed fair
progress as revealed by available data. From 64.1% in 2000 to 80% in 2008;
bounced to 65.6% in 2011 and stepped up to 66.7% in 2014 as against the 100%
target of 2015 (NBS, 2015).
Promote Gender Equality and Women Empowerment
This target is so important to the Nigerian government because one in every
household in Nigeria is a woman and also the vital importance of women and
girls in the development of a region. This importance has led to the clamor for
gender equality, (Agbalajobi, 2010:75-76; Manion, 2012:229-235; Mullings, 2014;
Mazibuko, 2016, Onochie, 2016). For the purpose of this paper, gender equality
here is understood as giving a woman same entitlement as her male counterparts.
The Gender Equality Index, Nigeria ranks 118 out of 134 countries (Ukaid Gender
Report, 2012). The report espoused that women make up only 21% of the non-
agricultural paid labor force and are also politically underrepresented.
Nonetheless, the situation is improving from the FMWA&SD (2014) reports,
sub nationals governments in Nigeria have come up with policies to discourage
gender disparity in the society. For instance, many states in the Northern part of
the country has enacted laws to prohibit street begging and hawking; withdrawal
of girls from school and enforcement of fundamental human rights for girls. There
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 667
is also a gender equality policy implemented under the Education for All project.
This enabling policies has been background upon which gender equality is been
promoted. Statistics shows that there has been a progressive increase in the ratio
of girls to boy in primary school. In 1995, the ratio was 86% but declined to 78%
in 2000. The figure climbed to 90 % in 2012 and 94% in 2013. Similarly, ratio of
girls to boys in secondary school witnessed similar turnaround from 78% in 1991
to 86% in 2005 and 91% in 2013 (FME, 2015). Share of women in wage
employment has also witnessed a slight progress from 6.6% in 1990 to 7.7% in
2010 and 14% in 2012 has compared to the desired 100% target. Women
involvement in politics has also witnessed changes. Statistics showed that women
seats in the parliament improved from 3.1% in 2000 to 7.5 in 2008 and 5.11% in
2015 as compared to the 35% required target for 2015 (NBS, 2009; FMWA&SD,
2015). At the state level, seats occupied by women in all Nigerian states were
2.19% in 1999 and jumped to 6.97% in 2011. There was an impressive growth at
the grass root level, where seats chaired by women increased from 1.21% in 1999
to 9.43% in 2007 (Nigeria MDGs Report, 2015:57-59).
Clearly, from the foregoing statistics, the crusade for women empowerment
appears to be making impressive progress but it is still way below the 35% target.
Reducing Child Mortality
MDG 4 aims to reduce the mortality of children under five years of age from 191
per 1000 in 1990 to approximately 64 per 1000 live in 2015; and infant mortality
rate (IMR) from 91 deaths in 1990 to 31 deaths per 1000 people (Nwanolue,
However, the under-five mortality rate has witnessed slight progress as it has
improved from 191 deaths in 1990 to 89 deaths per 1000 in 2015 as against the
63.7 deaths per 1000 target for 2015. IMR has also witnessed a similar trend, from
91 deaths per 1000 to 100 deaths per 1000 in 2004, then declined progressively
to 58 in 2014 as against the 2015 30.3 deaths per 1000 target (NBS, 2014; NDHS,
An appreciable progress has been met in this area even though targets were
not met. There is room for greater improvement in this area given the
establishment of government interventions such as the Sure-P initiative to
668 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
incentivize the uptake of maternal and child health services; the Global Polo
Initiative and the Immunization Strategic Plan.
Improve Maternal Health
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is the number of people who die from any cause
related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental
or intended cause during pregnancy and child birth or within 42 days of the
termination of pregnancy (Nigeria MDGs Report, 2015:68).
WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and World Bank (2012), shows that Nigeria has the
10th highest MMR in the world, with 630 women dying per 100,000 births. USAID
(2012) in providing clarity stated in their report that an estimated 40000 Nigerian
women die during pregnancy and child birth each year. Another 1 million to 1.6
million people suffer from serious disabilities/ complications from pregnancy and
birth related causes annually.
Nevertheless, in the actualization of t he MM R target in Nigeria, there has been
a remarkable progress from a value of 1000 in 1990 to 243 maternal deaths per
1000, waylaying the 2015 target of 250 maternal deaths per 1000 (Nigeria MDGs
Report, 2015).
Additionally, the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
increased from a low of 36.3% in 2004 to 58.6% in 2014. Antenatal care coverage
also witnessed changes from 6% in 2004 to 68.9% in 2014 as against the 100%
target (Nigeria MDGs Report, ibid).
Combat HIV and AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
HIV/AIDs epidemic has become one of the complex health problems worldwide.
USAID (2006) reported that 4.3 million people across the globe were affected in
the year 2006.
In Nigeria, statistics shows that HIV prevalence among young women aged
15-24 is on the decline. The rate of infection fell from 5.8% in 2001 to 4.1% in
2010. This however falls short of t he 2015 target of 0.9% (NACA, 2011). Proportion
of the population with advanced HIV infection that has access to antiretroviral
drugs increased from 23.9% in 2000 to 48% in 2014 as against the 100% 2015
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 669
With regards to Malaria, there has been a sharp increase in the prevalence
rate, despite distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets and other
malaria preventives. The statistics which was 2.122.663 in 1998 increased to
5,326,573 in 2008 and 10,143,142 as against the 0 target for 2015 (NMCP, 2013).
Similarly, progress has been made with tuberculosis. For instance, NTBLCP
(2013) observed that there was a decrease from 343 per 100000 people to 338
per 100,000 with tuberculosis in 2013. However, a survey carried out in 2014
indicated an occurrence of about 600,000 new cases of tuberculosis with 91,354
placed on treatment (NTBLCP, 2015).
Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Nigeria commitment to ensuring environmental sustainability is enshrined in its
Vision 2020, which is an integrated long term development plan for the country.
Also, the Nigerian Government established a Federal Ministry of Environment in
2008, with the constitutional mandate in protecting the environment against
pollution and degradation (Nigeria MDGs Report: 2015:86). But Nigeria’s natural
resource like its forest keeps depleting. Between 2000 and 2010 for example,
forest area shrank from 14.4% to 9.9%. The country also keeps loosing forest
cover at a startling rate of 3.5% per annum equalizing to 350,000 to 400,000
hectares per year (Nigeria MDGs Repot, 2013).
Similarly, access to safe water and sanitation has been a challenge to Nigeria.
The country’s progress towards this area has been erratic and dawdling. The
percentage of the population with access to improved drinking water source from
any of the following channel like piped water, borehole, protected spring or rain
water is 67% as against the 77% 2015 required target (FMWR, 2014; NBS, 2014).
Even though citizens played discernible roles in providing their own boreholes,
well and other sources of safe water (FMR, 2014).
In all, Nigeria has more to do in the area of environmental sustainability. As
noted by FAO (2010), forestry provides employment for over 2 million people
particularly in the harvesting of fuel, wood and poles but due to deforestation,
not more than 80000 people work in log processing industries, especially in the
forest zones of the south. There is also need to scale up access to drinking water
because improved drinking water, safe water and sanitation will help in reducing
670 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
number of deaths from diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, ring worm and typhoid.
All of which are symptoms of acute water shortage and grimy environment.
Develop Global Partnership for Development
The flow of Official Development Assistance (ODA) from developed countries to
Nigeria has increased dramatically since 2004, with the heath sector as a leading
recipient. The health sector so far has received about US$480,017,028 from donors
as compared to other sectors (National Planning Commission, 2015). The
accruement of these funds has contributed to the attainment of health related
target especially Goal 4.5 and 6 (Nigeria MDG Report, 2015:96). The agricultural
sector has also benefitted greatly from the ODA which its visible in the
appreciable progress made in dealing with hunger as stipulated in Goal one.
Other benefits of ODA had been used in setting up developmental programmes
and initiatives such as Mid-wives Service Scheme, Universal Basic Scheme,
Conditional Grant Scheme, Conditional Cash Transfer, Vocational T r a ining Scheme,
Roll back Malaria Partnership with global fund in providing insecticide treated
mosquito nets and Federal Teachers Scheme (Ajiye, 2014:30).
In promoting global partnership through communication, Nigeria had
witnessed tremendous changes. The number of fixed telephone line dropped from
0.30 in 1990 to 0.10 in 2014 owing to the introduction of Global System Mobile
(GSM) which was massively embraced from 0.00 in 1990 to 77.84% in 2014
following its easy and handy access to communication. Tele-density has rapidly
grown from 0.73 in 2001 to 99.3 per every 100 persons given way for a
phenomenal growth. The number of internet users, also relatively grew from 3.53
per 100 people in 2005 to 42.68 users per 100 people in 2014 due to the
advantage of enabling easy socio economic activities at a relative low cost (NCC,
2014; Nigeria MDG Report, 2015:98-99).
As statistics above shows, much progress was made in respect to meeting
Goal 8. Table one below presents an overview of the progresses made thus far
using the MDG Nigeria actualization target to gauge.
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 671
MDG GOALs Progress Towards Targe
Eradicate extreme poverty
and hunger
Appreciable progress especially in
reducing hunger and underweight
Goal not Met
Achieving Universal Primary
Slight progress mainly because of the
insurgencies and insecurities in some parts
of the country
Goal not met
Promoting Gender Equality
and Women Empowerment
Satisfactory progress in areas in the ratios
of girls to boys in school and
Weak progress in women empowerment.
Goal not met
Reduction of Child Mortality Satisfactory Progress Goal not met
Improvement in Maternal
Appreciable Progress in Maternal Mortality
Weak Progress in other indicators
Goal not met
Combating HIV/AIDs, Malaria
and Other Diseases
Weak Progress Goal not met
Ensuring environmental
Appreciable progress in the provision of
safe drinking water. Weak progress in
other Indicators
Goal not met
Developing Global
Partnership for Development
Appreciable and Satisfactory Progress Goal met
Source: Nigeria MDGs Report (2015)
Challenges Facing the Nigeria Millennium Development Goals
Nigeria’s end report of the Millennium Development Goals presented a bag of mixed
results as seen above. While there has been appreciable progress in some selected goals,
others have been faced with challenges. The reports reveal that Nigeria recorded
tremendous success from 2005 to 2014 with regards to ODA which amounts to US
$1,282,205,2971 mainly from OECD countries. There also has been improved performance
in fund disbursement. As affirmed by the MDGs office, over one trillion naira was spent
for the implementation of MDG targets and objectives in the country between 2007 and
2010 (Leadership Newspaper, 2010). The robust disbursement of funds do not however
1 The fund is a total amount of all the accrued sectors (agriculture, civil society, education,
health, energy/environment, Governance, Government, Human Rights, Political System,
Poverty Alleviation, Women Empowerment) which received aid
672 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
reflect in the country’s level of poverty, infant mortality, unemployment, diseases,
et al.,
2014:17; NPC, 2015). As argued by Nwanolue,
et al
(ibid), it is unlikely
that all these accrued funds were solely dedicated to the spending of pro-poor projects
and programmes towards the achievement of MDGs. Awofadeji (2009), in his article
provided instances where funds were disbursed for the supply and distribution of drugs
when there are no health facilities. Also, N430 billion awarded for MDG Projects within
2006-2009 went back into Government purse through counterpart funding by different
states (Alabi and Ojor, 2011:238).
Other scholars such as, Alabi and Ojor, 2011: 237-243; Oshelowo, 2011: 18-19;
Abdulgafar,et al., 2013:68; Cyprian, et al., 213:509; Terungwa and Akwen, 2014:115;
Odunyemi, 2015:37 have also attributed challenges such as poor governance, corruption,
lack of accountability and transparency, policy inconsistency, lack of holistic database and
insurgencies to be the reasons for the mixed results of the MDGs. For instance, Ribadu
(2005) asserted a whooping sum of US$400 to be funds squandered and reserved by
Nigerian leaders in various Western banks. Similarly, the federal government in a report
documented they have been able to make cash recoveries totalling to N78, 325,354,631.82;
$185,119,584.61; £11,250 and recoveries under interim forfeiture (cash and assets)
equalizing to N126,563,481,095.43; $9,090,243,920.15; £2,484,447.55 within May 29, 2015
to May 25, 2016 from looters of public treasury (Aziken and Nwabughiogu, 2016; Mail and
Guardian Africa, 2016; Vanguard,2016). Allegedly, all these looted funds could have been
used to carry out effective and efficient programmes and intervention plans for the
betterment of the citizenry and the development of the society,
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Transition to Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)
MDGs during its 15 years benchmark made an appreciable effort in ensuring development
globally mainly through array of issues such as halving poverty, hunger, disease, gender
inequality, child mortality and improving maternal health. However, not all countries,
especially Sub-Saharan African countries are on track with the realization of the goals.
Poverty, gender inequality, child mortality and combat of diseases still remain a daunting
challenge in most countries (MDG Report, 2015).
In a bid to address these daunting challenges associated with MDGs and to sustain the
positive results achieved by the programme, the global community adopted a Post 2015
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 673
development agenda known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs
which was launched September 25, 2015 and commenced operation in 2016 comprises of
17 targets with the aim to improve livelihood, stability of the economy and environment,
and protect the planet for future generations (Sachs, 2012; Emas, 2015:2-3; Waziri, 2015).
The goals are as follows:
1) End poverty in all ramifications
2) End hunger, food security and promote sustainable agriculture
3) Good Health and Wellbeing
4) Quality Education and life-long opportunities
5) Gender Equality and Women empowerment
6) Clean Water and Sanitation for all
7) Accessible, Affordable, Reliable and Sustainable energy for all
8) Promote Decent Work and Economic Growth
9) Promote sustainable industrialization
10) Reduce Inequalities within and among countries
11) Build inclusive safe and sustainable cities and communities
12) Promote sustainable consumption and production pattern
13) Urgent action to address Climate Change
14) Conservative and Sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas
15) Protect, Restore and Promote terrestrial ecosystem and halt biodiversity loss.
16) Promote peaceful and inclusive society, rule of law, effective and accountable
society while ensuring sustainable development
17) Strengthen mean of implementation and global partnership for sustainable
The goals which are in line with Spangenberg (2005) and Rio Earth Summit (1992) is
seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development. It emphasises on the economic,
environmental, social and institutional issues of the society. Spangenberg argues that the
four systems have to maintain its capability to survive and evolve in meeting up with
impending demands.
It should be considered that the SDGs is a broader version of the MDGs by taking into
consideration loopholes of the MDGs and relative challenges of the society. For instance,
the Goal 2 of the MDGs focused on achieving universal primary education inadvertently
674 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
neglecting secondary and the tertiary education. However, Goal 4 of the SDGs which
speaks on Quality education focuses on the whole aspect of education .Notably also, in
2000; there was relative stability, prosperity, climate calmness and global harmony. Now
on the contrary, the world is experiencing complex problems like global warming,
population influx, increasing urbanization, insurgencies, insecurity, terrorism, depleting
economy and food security (Adejumo, 2015, Igbuzor, 2015, UNDP, 2016).
Hence, these evolving glitches was a welcoming need for the SDGs. Waziri (2015) notes
that the attainment of SDGs will free the human race from tyranny and want, and secure
the planets for the present and yet to come generations.
Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria: An Engaging Bowl
MDGs gave impetus to Nigerian developmental growth, even though, the country did not
meet up with the required targets of the MDGs as noted in the earlier part of the paper.
Therefore, in a bid to sustain the positive results yielded from the MDGs, improve the lives
of the people and focus more on the achievement of the dawdling goals, Nigeria joined
other member countries in the United Nations in adopting the post 2015 development
agenda known as the SDGs.
The SDGs which is an inclusive developmental plan focuses on six essential elements:
human dignity, human advancement, planet warmth, prosperity, developmental
partnership, justice and equity. These elements just like MDGs aim to end extreme poverty
anywhere and everywhere, tra nsform live, improve the pla net and pr omot e soc io economic
development (Ihejirika, 2015).
The SDG agenda which is a broader version of MDGs as stated above and as seen in
the figure below comprises of unfinished goals in line with the MDGs. These goals include:
Goal 1- Ending poverty in all ramifications
Goal 2- Ending hunger in all its form and promoting sustainable agriculture
Goal 3- Ensuring Healthy lives and Comprehensive well-being for all ages
Goal 4- Quality Education for all educational phases (primary, secondary, tertiary)
Goal 5- Achieving Gender equality and women empowerment
According to Ihejirika (2015), these first five goals are crucial to Nigerian development
owing to them being residual goals of the MDGs. Additionally, scholars such as Adegbulu
(2015) and Igbuzor (2015) have also included Goal 6-Clean water and Sanitation for all;
Go a l 8- Promote d ecent work an d E conomic Gro wth for all, t o be of immeasurable essence.
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 675
Implicitly, all these stated goals are prerequisite for Nigerian development and have
become policies which have been enshrined in various pro-developmental interventions
within the country such as NEEDS, Vision 2020 and the Transformation Agenda (Igbuzor,
2015; Odunyemi, 2015:38). Likewise, more of these SDG targets are interwoven2. For
instance, managing agricultural productivity will not be conceivable if there is no income
and good health. Also, getting a good and decent job (Goal 8) will reduce inequality in
the society (Goal 10); lift one of povert y (Goal 1); avert hunger (Goal 2) and give one access
to a good health and well-being (Goal 3). On the contrary, getting a good job cannot be
possible without having a quality education (Goal 4) and an accessible industry and
infrastructure (Goal 9). From another point of view, eradication of poverty will lead to the
falling in place of SDG targets such as having access to quality education, good health
and wellbeing, clean water and sanitation and reduction of inequality.
Emerging Priorities in Attaining Sustainable Development Goals in
The adoption of the MDG in Nigeria did not lapse without leaving a considerable impact
in the country. Altogether, the developmental agenda left down lessons which if put to
use will yield to fruitful results in the new post 2015 development agenda:
1) Early Commencement: Unlike the MDGs which did not start till 2005 due to
financial constraints and the debt owed by Nigeria, there is need for early
commencement of the SDGs implementation. As noted, the late commencement
of the MDGs could be alienated to the negative impact and slow outcome of the
MDG target (Igbuzor, 2015; Nigeria MDG Report, 2015: xxiii).
2) Funding: This consequential effect that affected the MDGs and also aided in its
delay in commencement. In realizing the set goals of the SDGs, financial resources
have to be pumped into programmes, policies and interventions that will lead to
its actualization. Part of this requires maintaining Nigeria’s pledge to the Paris
club by utilizing the estimated US$8 billion available in the Virtual Property Fund
in appropriate and shrewd manner (Nigeria MDGs Report, 2015). In same way,
the Nigeria 2016 budget generated room for the SDG programme by allocating
2 Interwoven here means the realization of one target will lead to the achievement of the
676 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
a total of N8, 495,940,103 for the smooth implementation of the SDGs (Odunsi,
2015; Onyekpere, 2016).
3) Political Will and Policy Ideas: In ensuring active steps towards development,
there must be a strong political will and policy idea towards the actualization of
such a programme or goal. On this note, in eradicating poverty and improving
the lives of the citizens as an indispensable condition for sustainable development,
President Muhammadu Buhari has visualized developmental interventions such
as the Youth Empowerment Plan, Provision of one meal per day and the transfer
of N5000 monthly to vulnerable citizens of the country (Usman, 2015; Vanguard,
2015; Biafra Today, 2016; Nwabughiogu, 2016)
4) Ownership and Universality: Development lead to good change based on the
capacity and ne eds of the peo ple (Igbuzor, 2005). Therefore, S DGs has to prioritize
according to Nation’s capacities and pressing needs taking into account also the
constraints and opportunities that lie there in. For Nigeria, SDGs 1,2,3, 4,5,6,8
should be vigorously focused on in the early stage of the implementation of the
SDGs mainly because they are shortfalls from the MDGs
5) Accurate, Reliable and Inclusive Data: Having an accurate and reliable data is
essential in planning developmental programmes and policies. According to
Ejemudo (2013:78), a country that does not have accurate data will not be able
to put in place necessary strategies and policies. For a country like Nigeria, data
is a scarce commodity and this has brought about challenges during the MDGs
era. For example on Health, the data generated by the National Bureau of
Statistics (NBS) sometimes conflict with those of the National Population
Commission (Nigeria MDGs Report, 2015). Also, the data report on the poverty
level of Nigerians by NBS contradicts that of the World Bank even though same
measuring stick was used (Nigeria MDG Report, 2015).
6) Good Governance: It is anticipated that getting governance right is the fulcrum
for achieving developmental programmes. This is indeed the reason why scholars
(Kemp, Parto and Gibson, 2005; Oshelowo, 2011: 18-19; Sachs, 2012; Igbuzor,
2013; Terungwa and Akwen, 2014) have attributed good governance as a
prerequisite to development. The sphere of good governance which includes but
Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 677
not limited to identifying the needs of the citizens, prioritizing such needs,
harnessing available resources with which to meet the needs, distribute the
resources among the needs and ensure the judicial use of the resources
(Terungwa and Akwen, 2014:122). Anger (2010) also stated the qualities of Good
Governance as:
Engaging the people in the conduct and management of affair
Accountability and Transparency in the mobilization and utilization of
Responsibility and Responsiveness in public service
Effective and Efficient manner in handling public/ personal affairs
On this ground, developmental deficiencies such as corruption, deficiency in
monitoring, inequality, policy inconsistency amongst others cannot be abetted. All of which
have led to the past failure of developmental programmes in Nigeria (Ajiye, 2014:32;
Terungwa and Akwen, 2014:126).
The end of MDGs has demonstrated that the world can be united on a global course in
seeking for development. The era which end with successes and challenges in varying
countries with Nigeria as no exception, has steered the establishment of a post
development agenda known as the Sustainable Development Goals.
The SDGs which reflect a broader and better coverage of the totality of the social,
economic, environmental and institutional system if adopted and pursued with greater
commitment and meticulousness will improve the wellbeing and lives of a country’s
Hence, as Nigeria commences the post development agenda, the lessons, successes
and challenges learnt from the MDGs will help in navigating challenges that might be
faced in the new Sustainable Development Goals and in formulating holistic policies
needed to promote an inclusive economic development and environmental sustainability
such as the Conditional Cash Transfer which implicitly is a way to impact on the lives of
the masses and if implemented effectively will reduce poverty.
678 Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review
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Department of Political Science
Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
... On the one hand, some scholars described the outcomes of MDGs as largely ineffective (Aleyomi, 2013;Kimoon, 2015;Moschen et al., 2019), specifically in the socio-economic contexts. On the other hand, MDGs have been considered relatively effective, especially in developing economies in Africa (Durokifa & Ijeoma, 2018;Durokifa & Moshood, 2016). It can be argued that these mixed results contributed to the reflections of the MDGs, which resulted in the launch of the 2020). ...
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The goal of this study is to assess the progress made so far in the eradication of poverty through the growth of tourism in the rural communities of three Southern African tourist destinations. In doing so, the study seeks to answer the following research questions: (1) to what extent have the countries in Southern Africa improved the livelihoods of the poor through community-based tourism? (2) Are the poor the beneficiaries of the sustainable, inclusive community-based tourism drive in Southern Africa? (3) Is community-based tourism a panacea for the eradication of poverty in rural areas of Southern African? The study uses meta-synthesis to evaluate the extent to which pro-poor tourism approaches are achieving the intended goals using Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe as case studies. Findings shows that empirical studies investigating poverty alleviation and CBT are growing, especially in Botswana and Namibia, and the level of poverty seems to be declined in areas where community-based tourism thrives.
... Developing expertise in specialized SCM areas promote cost-saving which improves shareholders' and customers' benefits. The increased cost of drug development, production, and supply across the value chain, most pharmaceutical manufacturers have resorted to outsourcing some of their SCM operations to minimize cost and optimize profit margin [24][25][26][27][28]. ...
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Abstract Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the active management of supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage and in the most effective, and efficient ways possible. Nigeria is a developing economy with poor healthcare indices coupled with poor socioeconomic developmental status with a dire need for a robust SCM platform to drive her economy and the already weak healthcare system. The study explored the dynamics of supply chain management for commodities as a growing need for healthcare sector development in Nigeria. We critically explored studies and articles related to the SCM and healthcare sector development in Nigeria. SCM is a growing and largely untapped aspect of healthcare sector development in Nigeria.
... Developing expertise in specialized SCM areas promote cost-saving which improves shareholders' and customers' benefits. The increased cost of drug development, production, and supply across the value chain, most pharmaceutical manufacturers have resorted to outsourcing some of their SCM operations to minimize cost and optimize profit margin [24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Studies established that only about 72 developing countries out of 129 countries that are signatories to the MDGs achieved the targets (McGuire, 2015;da Silva, 2014;Ugwuegbe, Urama and Iloh, 2018). Several studies that evaluated the level of achievement of the MDGs in Nigeria show that the country could not achieve the MDG targets because of the Federal system, especially the over-concentration of power in the Federal Government (Akwara, Udaw and Gerald, 2014;Moshood, 2016). Furthermore, the Federal system in Nigeria has been noted to be a major driver for inadequate infrastructure in the country (Suberu, 2010), with little regard for the rule of law and fundamental human rights (Elaigwu, 2002), and unnecessary bureaucracy and bottlenecks with regard to planning and implementing public projects (Muhammad, 2007;el-Rufai, 2017). ...
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Every nation adopts a political system that best suits its nature and context. Most heterogeneous states, including Nigeria, adopt federalism as a system of government. This system allows for the division of power and jurisdiction between the levels of government that make up the federation. Over time, it has been observed that Nigeria's federalism is confronted with many issues that have triggered agitations and patriotic calls for a true practice of federalism by its citizenry. This study is aimed at highlighting the inherent flaws in the Nigerian federal system. Data were generated from official publications, reputable journals, newspapers, conference papers, and internet sources. These sources were augmented with direct observations from the practice of federalism in Nigeria. The content analysis method was used to analyse the data. The findings show that Nigeria is run on a single constitution, making the other 300 tiers of government over-dependent on the federal government. These situations are contrary to what applies in true federalism. This paper recommends that Nigeria should have just two tiers of government: federal and state governments, each having a separate constitution. The federating units should control all the resources within their borders.
... The European Council set a strategic goal for the European Union's spring summit in Lisbon in 2000 -to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world that can achieve sustainable economic growth to create more and better jobs and to achieve greater social cohesion [15]. There were many reports and studies done with regard to the performance of each country and monitoring the progress of indicators to achieve these goals [16][17][18][19][20][21]. The MDGs have been superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 17 integrated and far more ambitious goals [22]. ...
Promoting the principles of sustainable development supposes the involvement of many categories of stakeholders. Universities have become important players in the complex process of transition to the green economy. Their contribution in this process is particularly important considering the multiple functions of universities in didactic, research and entrepreneurial fields. Globalization, international crises, the pressures generated by the intensification of international competition, the aging of the population, the challenges generated by the technical progress are some of the factors that have determined the remodelling of the activities carried out by universities. The functions and role of universities have adapted to the development of society and these entities, given the spirit of innovation that characterizes them, have provided solutions to the challenges facing nations. This chapter aims to identify the main directions of action of universities in the process of promoting sustainable development. These directions are correlated with the functions that universities fulfil, taking into account the complexity of the sustainable development phenomenon and the different categories of stakeholders involved.
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Long acknowledged as the foundation for a country's growth and prosperity are four disciplines-science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Education in these four fields has several advantages for women in terms of long-term social and economic advancement. By 2030, the fifth sustainable development target (SDG 5) is to enable women and girls to realise their full potential. One of the criteria to determine SDG 5 is measuring gender equality in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In Taraba State, Nigeria, this study investigated into gender equality in STEM fields. The study sample consists of 14,548 STEM-majoring students from 100 secondary schools and 6 post-secondary institutions in Taraba State, with 8,354 male and 6,194 female participants. Data on enrollment in STEM-related courses as well as information from a standardised survey were collected. The findings show that enrollment data at the secondary school level is equal for both sexes. Nonetheless, more male students chose chemistry and physics, while more female students chose biology and technical drawing. According to the tertiary institutions' findings, men predominate in STEM fields. The study comes to the conclusion that there is significant gender inequality in STEM education in Taraba State, Nigeria, and suggests that efforts should be taken to bridge the gap in order to meet SDG 5. The findings of this study add to the existing body of knowledge that provides a baseline report that there is gender discrepancy in STEM education in Taraba State, Nigeria, and an indication that if efforts are not taken, the female gender might be disadvantaged in the efforts to achieve SDG 5 by 2030.
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Long acknowledged as the foundation for a country's growth and prosperity are four disciplines- science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Education in these four fields has several advantages for women in terms of long-term social and economic advancement. By 2030, the fifth sustainable development target (SDG 5) is to enable women and girls to realise their full potential. One of the criteria to determine SDG 5 is measuring gender equality in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In Taraba State, Nigeria, this study looks into gender equality in STEM fields. The study sample consists of 14,548 STEM-majoring students from 100 secondary schools and 6 post-secondary institutions in Taraba State, with 8,354 male and 6,194 female participants. Data on enrollment in STEM-related courses as well as information from a standardised survey were collected.The findings show that enrollment data at the secondary school level is equal for both sexes. Nonetheless, more male students chose chemistry and physics, while more female students chose biology and technical drawing. According to the tertiary institutions' findings, men predominate in STEM fields. The study comes to the conclusion that there is significant gender inequality in STEM education in Taraba State, Nigeria, and suggests that efforts should be taken to bridge the gap in order to meet SDG 5.
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Cross-sectional studies have shown a number of factors that impact maternal health, including socioeconomic status, health-seeking behaviours, and education. The objective of this study was to establish the impact of maternal education on maternal and newborn health in Nigeria. The design adopted for this study was retrospective. The 2018 NDHS and global data were used as primary sources for the study. Predictive factors responsible for good health indicators were considered for all the states in Nigeria. The educational status of the mother and utilization of maternal and newborn health services were considered for analysis. The result showed a strong link between maternal education and maternal health in Nigeria, just as it exists in other parts of the world. It was concluded that maternal education knits many social parts together and creates a whole piece of interaction, creating a better health outcome. Literate women were more likely to deliver in health care facilities under the supervision of skilled birth attendants. They are also more likely to present themselves and their newborns for postnatal care. The benefits of maternal education extend beyond just the direct recipients of the education; children also benefit from maternal schooling as maternal education significantly reduces the risk of not accessing maternal and newborn health services. Therefore, more attention should be given to girl-child education as a strong social determinant of health when devising strategies to reduce maternal mortality and to achieve universal health coverage in Safe Motherhood.
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The discourse on evidence-based policymaking in healthcare continues to explore sustainable solutions to current and emerging challenges. However, what constitutes evidence in health policymaking needs to be defined and agreed upon, especially in places with several forms of knowledge and ways of knowing. Researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders must understand the value of people-centred approaches to health policies, given the increased focus on equitable distribution of power and resources for sustained health outcomes. This paper argues that people’s values, lived experiences, and opinions are not always adequately considered when formulating health policies, especially in countries with diverse cultural and social norms. A country, like Nigeria, with many health challenges requires health policies based on contextual knowledge, given the country’s diverse lived experiences and values. Implementation researchers note that to ensure the adoption of evidence-based policies, researchers and implementers must intentionally incorporate elements for successful implementation into the planning and formulation of policies. Evidence shows that the policy development process in public health does not always adequately capture informal knowledge in the policy formulation process. With the lack of data on the role of informal knowledge in policymaking, Nigerian researchers could begin to examine the potential benefits these types of knowledge could have on policies. Future research could explore, and document experiences and lessons learned from other fields to apply these to public health.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were initiated as a new chapter in international development and contributed to the use of global goals and the setting of targets as a key tool for defining the international development agenda. Given this growing significance, little is known about how they affect key stakeholder policy preferences, and their wider implications on Universal Primary Education in Nigeria as the second goal (MDG2), which inadvertently neglects secondary and tertiary educations. Domesticating the MDGs and building on the loopholes identified by MDG 2, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were introduced as a broader version of the MDGs. While Goal 2 of the MDGs focuses on achieving Universal Primary Education, Goal 4 of the SDGs addresses quality education across all levels of education. In this regard, this paper focuses on the relationship between the university system and the SDG4. Drawing on data from secondary sources, this paper argues that in order to ensure that the SDGs achieve a remarkable quantum leap in the area of education, the training and development of academics at Nigerian universities must be optimised and prioritised. Relying on the human capital theory, the paper opines that training academics in universities is one of the strategies towards realising Goal 4 of the SDGs. This is because university academics are the major determinants of the quality of academic activities that go on in universities, which are critical to the education system that is in turn a catalyst of development on a sustainable scale.
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Nigeria is abundantly endowed with both Human and natural resources that can be carefully combined or harnessed and judiciously utilised to spur development. In terms of development the Nigerian state is yet to occupy her rightful position among the comity of states. One of the reasons responsible for Nigeria's stagnation in terms of development is bad governance. The kernel of this paper rests in the fact that good governance and sustainable development are not-strange bed fellows‖ and it is against this background that the authors theoretically investigate the necessity of good governance in Nigeria and its implication on sustainable development. Deploying secondary sources and employing descriptive narrative approach in analysing the subject matter, the paper recommends the need for leadership that is people oriented, one that will make the country to develop and meet the advanced countries and equally sustain that development.
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) according to analysts is the world biggest promise to mankind. It is a global mission with eight (8) vocal points of: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and women empowerment; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development. In order to achieve these objectives, MDGs goals are subdivided into eighteen (18) clear cut targets and forty-eight (48) indicators believed to be necessary as acid-test facilitator for the achievements of these laudable goals. These laudable goals are expected to be achieved between the years 1990-2015. Nigeria being a member of global committee of nations in the time past and recent adopts various developmental plans such as VISION 2010,NEEDS,7-Points Agenda, VISION 20:2020, SURE etc within the framework of MDG to serve as driving force to achieve these laudable projects. Achieving these goals involves a lot of commitments. The essence of this paper is to examine through the use of non-parametric statistical test, the extent to which these goals (MDG) have been achieved and make relevant suggestions to aid speedy achievement of these goals.
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Since the term "sustainable development" was coined, a core set of guiding principles and values has evolved around it. However, its definition remains fluid, allowing institutions, programs of environment and development, and places from local to global to project their own aspirations onto the banner of sustainable development.
This volume utilizes the cross-cultural, historical and ethnographic perspective of anthropology to illuminate the intrinsic connections of race, class and gender. The author begins by discussing the manner in which her experience as a participant observer led her to research and write about various aspects of African-American women's experiences. She goes on to provide a critical analysis of the new scholarship on African-American women, and explores issues of race, class and gender in the arenas of work, kinship and resistance.
Gender equality in education has become a highly embedded norm in global development policy, as well as within the poverty reduction and national development policies of aid recipient countries. Despite such progress, however, we know little about the significance of competing gender equality and education policy orientations (e.g., human capital, human rights, human capabilities), especially in relation to the power and political dynamics at work in the enactment of global gender equality in education policies in national policy spaces. This article addresses these gaps in the literature through a qualitative examination of girls' education policy in The Gambia, a country widely hailed as a leader in the promotion of gender equality in education. I use an analysis of the produced knowledge of World Bank and government documents alongside the findings from an ethnographic account of the United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI) national launch workshop in The Gambia to illustrate my central claim that girls' education policy, on the ground, is more complex and contested than is suggested in the produced knowledge of donor and government documents. Moreover, my account of the UNGEI launch workshop serves to highlight some of the challenges and tensions associated with the global-national interface of efforts to promote gender equality in education.