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... In recent years, there has been increasing interest to find out contribution that environmental resources make to local rural income and employment. There is a shared understanding among researchers, policy makers and development practitioners that quantifying the contribution of environmental income in rural economies are important to understand the welfare implications of environmental degradation and to design effective development and conservation strategies 1,2,3,4 .However, the role of environmental income and its contribution to poverty alleviation and inequality reduction is still debated and there has been little empirical research on the level of dependence across different socioeconomic groups. Collecting environmental income information in quality terms is still considered difficult and costly to obtain 5,1 . ...
... Environmental income is defined as income earned from wild or uncultivated natural resources. So, based on this definition, wild income and agriculture are often inspected separately 4 .However, this study uses environmental income, as defined by UNDP et al. (2005), where environmental income is -Only when income from agriculture is combined with the income from wild products do we begin to get a clear idea of how important ecosystem goods and services are as a source of rural livelihoods.‖ That is, all sources of income based on nature given in the household budgets, are considered as components of environmental income. ...
... Valuation and household income accounting methods used in this study was drawn on both consumption and cash income was calculated for the different income sources 15,4,13 . The value of goods and services of environmental goods can be difficult to measure. ...
... Some scholars have, however, contended that although access to forest income helps the poor to survive, it may not help them move out of poverty (Neumann & Hirsch, 2000;Wunder, 2005). The view that rural households are dependent on forest resources is nonetheless commonly acknowledged by development researchers (Cavendish, 2000;Fisher, 2004;Gatiso & Wossen, 2015;Vedeld et al., 2004;Wunder et al., 2014). The continued availability and access to NTFPs in the forest communities is, however, being threatened by the swelling demand for farmland in developing countries in tandem with their growing populations. ...
... In the last two decades, interest has been on the contributions of forests to household income, welfare and local employment in rural communities (Arnold & Townson, 1998;Byron & Arnold, 1999;McSweeney, 2004) spanning multiple perspectives, such as political ecology and resource management. However, investigations on the rural households' dependence on forests are now emerging for developing countries (Adhikari et al., 2004;Brobbey et al., 2019;Cavendish, 2000Cavendish, , 2002Chilongo, 2014;Dash & Behera, 2016;Fisher, 2004;Mamo et al., 2007;Vedeld et al., 2004). In Ghana, for instance, the very few studies on communities' use of forest resources (Amanor, 1999;Appiah et al., 2009;Brobbey et al., 2019;Falconer, 1992;Wiggins et al., 2004) tend to focus on the contribution of forests to the livelihood strategies. ...
... Physical assets were also subjectively valuated by respondents based on current resale value (see (Takasaki et al., 2000). The household's forest dependency level was then obtained by accounting for its relative forest income (see Mamo et al., 2007;Vedeld et al., 2004;Vedeld et al., 2007). The relative forest income (RFI) is a simple but important measure of reliance, or dependence, on forest environmental income and is given by: ...
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While it is widely acknowledged that an understanding of the determinants of rural households’ forest extraction and dependence on forest resources is important for policies on forest conservation and rural development, the factors that determine Ghanaian households’ dependence on forests are neither adequately explored nor well-understood. Against this background, this paper examines the extraction and dependence on forest resources among rural households in the forest communities of Southern Ghana. Data were collected through a household livelihood survey and in-depth interviews in two forest communities. Regression models were then used to investigate key factors that condition the households' dependence on forests in the study communities. The findings indicate that almost all households are engaged in forest extraction. The average overall contribution of forests to household income in the study communities was 21 percent and constituted the third largest contributor to household income following crop income and non-farm income. The findings also indicate that forests also play an essential safety net role in the face of unforeseen income shortfalls and ultimately, in poverty alleviation. The results further reveal that the rural household's extraction of forest resources and consequently its dependence on forests (livelihood strategy) are a function of its access to other livelihood assets, its vulnerability context as well as other context variables. Recommended policy interventions for forest conservation and sustainable rural development include securing the natural resource base, broadening poor people's livelihood options and improving access to education in rural communities.
... A test to determine how mining income could narrow or widen the gap between the rich and the poor in the region, taking into account environmental resources, was performed by calculating Gini coefficients (Vedeld et al. 2004). This method enables us to test inequality associated with dependence on mining income. ...
... A comparison of these two Gini coefficients will reveal whether, and to what extent, mining incomes contribute to reducing inequality (Vedeld et al., 2004). If GANMI > GAI, then it implies that mining incomes help reduce income inequality in the region, else the reverse holds true. ...
... If GANMI > GAI, then it implies that mining incomes help reduce income inequality in the region, else the reverse holds true. For instance, Aryal (2002) found GAI in his study at Budongo, Uganda increased from 0.55 to 0.61 when forest income was excluded (Vedeld et al. 2004). ...
... Due to the seasonal nature of consumption and sale of most forest products, and the common subsistence use (i.e. direct consumption) of many forest products, data on full annual income (subsistence and cash) and full consumption (subsistence and expenditures) provide the most holistic picture of rural livelihoods (Vedeld et al. 2004). The Household Questionnaire for GCS-REDD includes questions to elicit data for full income accounting (Box 1). ...
... Changes in the ability of rural households to access forests, or to harvest specific forest products, may have a considerable impact on rural people whose relative share of forest income or consumption was high before the intervention. Research undertaken over the past 10-15 years provides strong evidence that poor and vulnerable households have a high degree of dependence on subsistence forest products, whereas relatively wealthy households have the financial and social capital to take advantage of markets for highvalue forest products (Cavendish 2000, Arnold 2002, Bush et al. 2004, Fisher 2004, Vedeld et al. 2004, Narain et al. 2005, Chomitz et al. 2007). Further, we know that the poor depend on forests to provide safety-net functions in times of crisis, and to support the current consumption needs of rural households (Pattanyak and Sills 2001, Angelsen andWunder 2003). ...
... These elements have led authors such as Arnold & Ruiz-Pérez (2001), Batagoda et al. (2006), Guleria et al. (2017), Thammanu et al. 2021;Vedeld et al. (2004Vedeld et al. ( , 2007 to argue that NTFPs by themselves do not represent a sufficient source of income for rural families (Southgate et al. 1996). Rather, they should be contemplated as part of a wider spectrum of rural livelihood strategies which recognize their value as household income safety nets, and the importance of the cultural values of NTFPs as reservoirs of traditional knowledge (Turner 2001;Torres et al. 2015). ...
Article
Broad reading of the literature on NTFPs in order to highlight key issues of NTFP management, their importance for rural livelihoods, and the implications for forest policy. It demonstrates the complexity of formulating an integrated framework for the understanding of NTFP management, especially as they affect forest policies. The scope is global, but with emphasis on Latin America. Human populations have depended on and used NTFPs for millennia. For a great number of rural (and also urban) inhabitants, particularly the poorest sectors, their use represents an important source of subsistence and income-generation. It has been suggested that the use of NTFPs can generate greater incomes than other productive land use options, such as timber extraction or cattle keeping. Some studies estimate that around 25% of the income of about one billion people around the world comes from NTFPs, although that implies that, by themselves, NTFPs do not represent a sufficient source of household income. Rather, they should be considered as part of a wider spectrum of rural livelihood strategies which include their importance as income safety nets and as reservoirs of cultural values and traditional knowledge. Furthermore, NTFPs have many ecological and social values related to forest ecosystems, well-being and conservation. This diversity of potential benefits has represented an obstacle for the creation of management and conservation policies. The intention of this paper is to tackle some of the most important issues raised in the literature on NTFPs, forest conservation and development, with an entry point in the alternative understandings and definitions of NTFP. The paper highlights some approaches intended to overcome perceived barriers for sustainable management of NTFPs and the well-being of their human users.
... This high dependency on forest and forest products is observed in certain studies on India (Jodha, 2000;Narain et al., 2005;Rao, 1994), Zimbabwe (Cavendish, 2000), Chile (Bahamondes, 2003), Cambodia and Lao PDR (Dasgupta et al., 2003), Peru (Escobal & Aldana, 2003;Swinton & Quiroz, 2003), Guatemala and Honduras (Nelson & Chomitz, 2004), and others. Veldeld et al. (2004) and Kuik (2005) observe that per capita income and dependence on natural resources are inversely related. Ding (2009) finds that the poor resort to depletion of natural resources due to lack of access to capital markets and other avenues to improve their lots. ...
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There is a debate surrounding the nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. While the predominant school of thought argues that poverty is directly responsible for environmental degradation, another school of thought argues that poor do not have the resources which would force them cause environmental degradation. Empirical support for both the arguments, however, is based mostly on macro data. Using micro level data, this paper makes an attempt to examine whether poverty is a factor determining forest degradation in the state of Odisha in India. The study is carried out in two districts, divergent from each other in incidence of poverty, forest coverage and percentage of Scheduled Tribe population. The study finds no empirical evidence that poverty affects degradation of forest. On the other hand, there is evidence of forest degradation with the increase in income, though region specific. Hence, it is non-poor households than poor one who could be responsible for forest degradation. This result therefore does not support the downward spiral hypothesis and questions the assumption that poverty alleviation is an essential part of avoiding forest degradation. However, importance of poverty reduction cannot be overlooked, and effective forest management can be a way to address poverty.
... The most relevant decision to be taken by economic agents that live in forest regions is whether to collect APS or to look for another economic activity. Such behavior could be analyzed as a discrete decision by making use of the logit model, where the dependent variable Y i is a binary variable representing two possible outcomes [22], the decision of the i-th household to collect APS (Y i = 1) or not (Y i = 0). X i = (X 1i , . . . ...
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Research Highlights: Recently, there has been a growing interest in the contribution ofNon-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) to livelihoods and food security among local populations in Tunisia. NWFPs have gained special attention given the relevance of this forest heritage to alleviate poverty and improve household economies. Background and Objectives: This study focuses on determining the contribution of Aleppo pine production to local household livelihood and food security in Tunisia (Siliana province). The relevance of this region as a leading Tunisian Aleppo pine producer makes the analysis especially interesting. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained using structured surveys distributed among rural household heads during the collection season. A logistic regression as well as food security indicators were calculated to evaluate the contribution of NWFPs to household livelihood. Results: Empirical findings support evidence that there is a significant difference between the alternative sources of revenues. The collection of Aleppo pine was significantly affected by gender, attending extension days and agricultural training program, distance to market, household size and livestock activity. Conclusions: Aleppo pine plays an important role in supporting rural livelihoods and provides an important safety net for the local population throughout the year.
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One of the by-products of forests and rangelands is the fruit of woody plants, which is widely used for food and medicine and is an important source of livelihood for some rural communities. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of fruit production with growth characteristics of four species of shrubs in Bayramkandi habitat in Shut city, West Azerbaijan province. Surveying was carried out in the region in 9 circular plots of 200 square meters and sampling of species along the river and along the valleys was done in 3 transects of 50 meters with a width of 3-5 meters. Within each plot, the percentage of canopy cover, morphological characteristics such as canopy length, small canopy diameter and fruit production of these plants were measured. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between production amount and morphological characteristics and regression equation between variables and fruit production amount was determined. The results showed that the small diameter variable of three species of Juniperus excels L., Crataegus orientalis P. and Berberis vulgaris L. had a positive and significant correlation with the produced fruit, so that for one percent increase in this variable, 54.19, 0.472 and 54.52 percent of crop production in these species will increase, respectively. In Rosa canina.L. species, the variable of species height at the level of 95% had a significant relationship with production and for one percent of altitude 0.305% will increase the yield. Therefore, it can be concluded that these characteristics are the most important factors determining the growth of species and having comprehensive information about the growth and production of species can be effective in the field of proper management and sustainable management of rangelands.
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Where the Fair Trade initiative is applied to wild plants, two contradictory objectives may arise: that of conserving a target plant species (conservation) and that of increasing income from it for collectors (poverty alleviation). As identified through my fieldwork in India, a Fair Trade certification for wild plants has been introduced for different purposes, including (a) to teach the local community the forgotten value of natural resources (conservation), (b) to make current collection practices more sustainable in exchange for better prices (both conservation and poverty alleviation), and (c) to help the most vulnerable collectors with better prices (poverty alleviation). A review of my past study (Makita, 2018) suggests that when there is a single primary objective, such as (a) or (c), certification can more obviously contribute to the achievement of this objective. Given the uniqueness of wild plants as an income source, it is important to clarify which one of the two contradictory objectives will be prioritised, rather than pursuing both.
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The Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, is the international gateway for the Agricultural University of Norway's (NLH) twelve departments, associated research institutions and the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine in Oslo. Established in 1986, Noragric's contribution to international development lies in the interface between research, education (MSc and PhD programmes) and assignments. Noragric Working Papers present research outcome, reviews and literature studies. They are intended to serve as a medium for Noragric staff and guest researchers to receive comments and suggestions for improving research papers, and to circulate preliminary information and research reports that have not yet reached formal publication.
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