Conference PaperPDF Available

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTITUDE TOWARDS REFUGEES: AN ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY

Authors:

Abstract

Globalization causes socio-demographic transformations and one of the most relevant is refugee crisis. In 2015, over 1 mil. people – refugees, displaced persons and other international migrants – have made their way to the EU. The EU has confronted the problem of illegal and extensive international migration. Recently it has been even more in the public focus of international organizations and separate countries as the influx of refugees has rapidly increased due to economic problems and wars in the Middle East. Most people have developed an attitude towards refugees and refugee crisis, as the topic has received a lot of publicity and media coverage. Therefore, a research concerning the socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards refugees is relevant offering an insight to the background of people's attitudes. Research results show that attitude towards refugees is highly associated with income level, country of residence, employment status and family structure but not with age, gender, education level and place of living. The results of research can be useful for understanding and perhaps solving many unwanted social problems, for example racism and discrimination based on religion or social status. Knowing the factors influencing the attitude formation eases the creation of multicultural society with a very diverse population in globalization context.
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
286
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
INFLUENCING ATTITUDE TOWARDS
REFUGEES: AN ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM
EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY
Mindaugas Butkus1,a,*, Alma Maciulyte-Sniukiene2,b and Kristina
Matuzeviciute3,c
1Siauliai University Department of Economics, Visinskio str. 19, Siauliai, Lithuania
2Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Department of Business Technologies, Sauletekio av. 11,
Vilnius, Lithuania
3Siauliai University Department of Economics, Visinskio str. 19, Siauliai, Lithuania
amindaugo.butkaus@gmail.com, balma.m@splius.lt, cmatuzeviciute@gmail.com
*Corresponding author
Abstract. Globalization causes socio-demographic transformations and one of the most
relevant is refugee crisis. In 2015, over 1 mil. people refugees, displaced persons and other
international migrants have made their way to the EU. The EU has confronted the problem of
illegal and extensive international migration. Recently it has been even more in the public focus
of international organizations and separate countries as the influx of refugees has rapidly
increased due to economic problems and wars in the Middle East. Most people have developed
an attitude towards refugees and refugee crisis, as the topic has received a lot of publicity and
media coverage. Therefore, a research concerning the socio-demographic factors influencing
attitudes towards refugees is relevant offering an insight to the background of people’s attitudes.
Research results show that attitude towards refugees is highly associated with income level,
country of residence, employment status and family structure but not with age, gender,
education level and place of living. The results of research can be useful for understanding and
perhaps solving many unwanted social problems, for example racism and discrimination based
on religion or social status. Knowing the factors influencing the attitude formation eases the
creation of multicultural society with a very diverse population in globalization context.
Keywords: refugees, socio-demographic factors, globalization
JEL Classification: F60, F22, C21, Z13
1. Introduction
One of the key elements of globalization is migration which takes various forms: legal and
illegal, voluntary and forced. According to estimates of UN Refugee Agency, there are over 21
mils. Refugees in the world. More than 50 percent of them come from three countries: Somalia,
Afghanistan and Syria. Societies’ attitudes towards this problem influence government refugee
policies, so it is important to analyse what socio-demographic factors influence these attitudes.
The goal of the paper is to evaluate which socio-demographic factors influence attitudes
towards refugees in the EU. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents
the literature review on determinants of attitudes towards refugees. Section 3 describes research
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
287
variables, hypotheses and model. Section 4 presents the estimation results and summarises
research findings. The last section concludes the paper.
2. Determinants of attitudes towards refugees – literature review
Existing literature on attitude towards refugees is limited. In recent years there have been a
lot of discussions about refugee issue due to the increasing number of refugees in the EU and
other countries of the world, but not about factors influencing attitude towards this issue. It is
very important to identify attitude towards refugees, determine its causes and manage it because
negative attitude influences conflict in multicultural society.
Although immigrants and refugees do not belong to the same category, scientific literature
usually analyses attitudes towards migration with no special focus on refugees and in most cases
focuses on economic and non-economic factors influencing these attitudes. The main difference
of definitions “immigrant” and “refugee” is that migration is a voluntary decision and refugees
usually are forced to move from their country of origin. Despite this difference, this research
assumes that factors forming attitudes toward immigrants and refugees in most cases can be
similar.
There are different sociological theories which analyse factors influencing societies’
attitudes towards immigrants / refugees. Human capital theory analyses the influence of
education on attitude towards immigration / refugees. Theory states that higher level of
education causes higher tolerance, more support for immigrants / refugees, as people with
higher education do not need to compete with immigrants / refugees (mostly low educated) for
simpler and more abundant jobs (Mayda, 2006). It is also noted that the skill level of immigrants
does not change significantly the highly educated natives’ attitudes toward immigrants
(Rustenbach, 2010).
The theory of economic competition is applied at three levels: regional, national and
individual. At individual level, people perceive a threat from immigrants because of the
competition with local natives for jobs. At regional level, people with negative attitudes towards
immigrants live most likely in areas and districts where the main source of income is low-
skilled work and therefore there is harsh competition with immigrants for those jobs
(Rustenbach, 2010). Higher unemployment rate at national level leads to a more negative
attitude toward immigrants. The explanation of this effect can be similar to the aforementioned
“greater competition in the labour market makes natives feel threatened(Paas & Halapuu,
2012).
The contact theory originated from Allport (l954) describes the impact of different
encounters and relations on the development of attitudes towards immigration. Fetzer (2011)
found that when contact with immigrants appears without any further knowledge or intimate
relations with the encountered immigrant, then the outcome was usually negative. People tend
to have a lot of prejudice towards things they do not know. Close relations with immigrants
create positive attitudes towards immigration and that extends to every type of immigrants.
Neighbourhood safety theory also emphasizes above mentioned fear of the uncertain and
new. Immigrants provide a lot of new and unknown to the communities, which enables the
natives to attribute many negative aspects of the community’s attitude to the immigrants
(Rustenbach, 2010). Earlier, some positive relations have been found between the unsafety of
a neighbourhood and negative attitude towards immigration (Chandler &Tsai, 2001).
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
288
There are many factors which influence societies’ attitudes towards specific issues:
demographic, economic, social and cultural, political, geographical and etc. It is crucial to
understand how different factors influence societies’ opinion because that influences refugee
acceptance in destination country. Table 1 shows different factors influencing attitude towards
refugees and researches which analysed them in the context of migration.
Table 1: Factors influencing attitudes towards refugees
Determinants
Authors
Demographic
Gender, age, generational
status, marital status, race
Schweitzer et al., 2005; Mayda, 2006; Dustmann &
Preston, 2007; Berg, 2010; Facchini et al., 2011; Paas &
Halapuu, 2012; Murray & Marx, 2013; Bullard, 2015.
Social
Education, social class,
primary language, migration
experience
Schweitzer et al., 2005; Mayda, 2006; Dustmann &
Preston, 2007; Facchini et al., 2011; Gang et al., 2013;
Murray & Marx, 2013; Bullard, 2015.
Political
Political and political party
affiliation, religion
Chandler & Tsai, 2001; Dustmann & Preston, 2007;
Bullard, 2015.
Economic
Income, national pride, labour
market status, economic
security, fiscal cost
Mayda, 2006; Dustmann & Preston, 2007; Hainmueller &
Hiscox, 2007; Facchini & Mayda, 2009, 2012; Boeri, 2010;
Facchini et al., 2011; Paas & Halapuu, 2012; Gang et al.,
2013; Hatton, 2016.
Geographical
Location, town size
Finney& Peach, 2004
Source: authors’ contributions.
Researches explaining different factors influencing attitudes towards refugees/immigrants
are diverse. In general, most positive and tolerant attitudes are associated with youth, high
socio-economic status, high educational attainment and left wing political sympathies
(Hainmueller & Hiscox, 2007). Women seem generally more opposed to immigration than men
(Citrin et al., 1997). People with non-native or immigrant family members generally show more
positive attitudes toward immigrants than people from families without a recent history of
immigration (Mayda, 2006; Murray & Marx, 2013). People who are not born in the country
where they live, people who have ever belonged to a group discriminated against in the country
they live in, and people who have worked abroad have more tolerant attitudes towards
immigrants (Paas & Halapuu, 2012). In general, personal experience of migration (immigration,
emigration, and internal migration) can generate more tolerant and empathetic attitudes (Finney
& Peach, 2004). Individuals with right wing or conservative political ideologies, and those
evincing more national pride, are generally more likely to oppose immigration (Chandler &
Tsai, 2001). Other authors (Murray & Marx, 2013) find that political orientation had no effect
on respondents’ attitudes toward refugees. Highly-skilled individuals are more likely to adopt
tolerant attitudes towards immigration than low-skilled, and this effect is greater in richer
countries than in poorer countries, and in more equal countries than in more unequal ones. In
Western countries this is caused by western educational systems which are designed to increase
social tolerance (Gang et al., 2013). Chandler and Tsai (2001) point out that education fosters
tolerance, not just by increasing students’ knowledge of foreign cultures and raising levels of
critical thinking, but also by generating more diverse and cosmopolitan social networks.
Analysing economic determinants, it was found that individuals with less economic security
tend to have more intolerant attitudes towards refugees (Paas & Halapuu, 2012). A variety of
studies, particularly those by political scientists, argue that social and cultural values are more
important in shaping immigration opinion than economic considerations (Citrin et al., 1997;
Rustenbach, 2010; Manevska & Achterberg, 2013).
Results of research vary according to the specifics of country and period. It cannot be stated
whether it is negative or positive attitude towards refugees and there is a need for continuing
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
289
research of society’s perceptions towards refugees. Furthermore, investigations should include
not only economic-social factors, but also demographic ones influencing public attitudes
towards refugees. This is proved in the present article.
3. Variables, hypotheses and model
The theory and results of empirical researches on immigration clearly show that the attitude
towards refugees is potentially related to many socio-economic factors. In accordance with a
previous part of the paper, having analysed various researches concerning this topic, in this
research binary logistic regression was chosen as the most suitable statistical tool for empirical
estimation of factors influencing attitude towards refugees and European Social Survey (ESS)
database as source of raw data. The attitude towards refugees was originally measured in
various Likert-type scales, ranging from 1-4 to 0-10 scales. To simplify interpretation, all the
above mentioned scales are re-encoded into only two values, using simple mathematical
division. In cases when scales had an uneven number of answer possibilities, the “leftover
value” in the neutral middle was counted as negative attitude. To this end, dependent variable,
describing European peoples’ attitude towards refugees, i.e. their positive or negative nature of
answers to questions regarding refugees, is encoded into binary form. Positive attitude was
described as value “1” and negative one as “0”.
The factors potentially influencing attitude towards refugees, i.e. independent variables in
the model, are chosen as follows: (i) Education level. It was originally categorized in ESS data
by ES-ISCED, a variant of ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education)
especially developed for working with ESS data. In this analysis four dummy variables are
assigned to the existing data: “basic education”, “high school diploma”, “vocational school
diploma” and “higher education”. “Primary education” is chosen as benchmark group. (ii)
Employment status consists of two dummy variables: “people without job looking for one” and
“people who are neither working nor looking for a job”. “Working people” is chosen as
benchmark group. (iii) Income of people in this research is described only by the subjective
opinion of the respondents, their answers coded into binary form: people who answered they
can manage (or even manage well) with their income “0” and people who encounter
difficulties managing with their family’s income – “1”. Thus this dummy variable can be named
insufficient income”. (iv) Gender coded into binary form: male “0” and female – “1”. Thus
this dummy variable can be named “female”. (v) Marital status consists of three dummy
variables: “divorced”, “widowed” and “never married” people. “Married people” is chosen as
benchmark group. (vi) Children in family, like gender, are by essence dummy variable having
only two values: people either have children “1” or they do not “1”. Thus this dummy
variable can be named “children”. (vii) Religiosity is divided into two groups and encoded into
binary form: people who consider themselves religious “1” and people not so – “0”. Thus this
dummy variable can be named “Religious”. (viii) Place of living conveniently reduced to binary
variable: people who live in cities encoded as “0” and people living in countryside as “1”. Thus
this dummy variable can be named Countryside”. (ix) Nationality as variable was recorded
into two categories, both representing about half of the whole sample. Citizens of Northern and
Eastern European countries are encoded as “0”, people of Central and Western European
countries as “1”. Thus this dummy variable can be named Central/Western Europe”. (x) Age
was grouped into four categories and three dummy variables are assigned to following groups
“from 21 to 40”, “from 41 to 60” and “61 and above”. “Up to 20” is chosen as benchmark
group. (xi) Neighbourhood safety was categorized and “feeling safe walking home after dark”
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
290
assigned to “0” and the opposite of that to “1”. Thus this dummy variable can be named lack
of safety”.
From theoretical background we can predict the possible impact of factor, i.e. independent
variables, on attitude towards refugees in the model. As many research papers emphasized, the
level of education is very important factor to consider. From that comes our first hypothesis:H1:
People with higher level of education possess more probability for positive attitude towards
refugees. From neighbourhood safety theory appears another testable hypothesis: H2: People
feeling safe will have more likely positive attitudes towards refugees. From theories about
natives’ financial situation two hypotheses can be deduced: H3: People whose work are more
likely to have positive attitudes towards refugees and H4: People who are satisfied with their
family’s financial situation are more likely to have positive attitudes towards refugees. For the
rest, following hypotheses are formulated: H5: People living in cities are more likely to have
positive attitudes towards refugees; H6: Females are more likely than males to have positive
attitudes towards refugees; H7: Younger people are more likely to have positive attitudes
towards refugees than older people; H8: Natives from Central and Western European countries
are more likely to have positive attitudes towards refugees than people from Eastern and
Northern Europe; H9: People who are married possess higher probability for positive attitude
than those never married, divorced or widowed; H10: People who consider themselves
religious are more likely to have positive attitude towards refugees than people who do not
consider themselves religious and H11: Families without children are more likely to have
positive attitudes towards refugees than families who have children.
The regression model for empirical estimations is composed as follows:

(1)
where P(Y) is a probability of occurrence of a positive attitude over negative attitude towards
refugees, as negative attitude in the model is the benchmark value. x1,…,x11 marks all eleven
independent variables, i.e. factors, in the model starting from education level. β1,…,β11 as usual
marks the regression coefficients, giving information how strongly and in which direction
independent variables respectively affect the odds ratio of the dependent variable.
4. Estimation results and discussion
On the whole ESS database consists of about 47 thousand respondents. Rather scare is data
about marital and work statuses (data about these factors is available for a bit more than 60%
of all questioned respondents). Incomplete data (nevertheless for some of variables we had data
from almost 99.9% of respondents) reduces sample size for our research and in our case it is
27598.In general, it appears that people in the EU have positive attitude towards refugees.
69.9% out of sample supports inflow of refugees into the EU, and think, that government should
be generous when assigning refugee statuses. Nevertheless, slightly more than half of
respondents think that refugees could make country’s crime problems worse.
Estimation results of binary logistic regression model linking factors with odds ratios of the
positive attitude towards refugees are presented in Table 2. Surprisingly education, gender,
religiosity, place of living, age and neighbourhood safety were estimated as statistically
insignificant factors not affecting attitude towards refugees at 95% confidence level. Because
of the globalization when people meet other cultures, change experience and traditions,
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
291
familiarize with religions, society becomes more tolerant to different people. As it was proved
in previous research that attitude towards immigrants/refugees changes over time (see Facchini
et al., 2011). Thus we should reject hypotheses H1, H2, H5, H6, H7 and H10 because we do
not have clear statistical evidence, that factors corresponding to these hypotheses affect attitude
towards refugees.
Table 2: Estimation results of the model
Factors in the model
Estimated β
coefficient (B)
p-value
Exp(B)
95% C.I. for Exp(B)
Lower
Upper
Constant
1.659
0.009
5.254
Education level
0.428
Basic education
-0.058
0.854
0.943
0.507
1.755
High school diploma
-0,151
0.615
0.860
0.479
1.546
Vocational school diploma
-0.094
0.780
0.910
0.469
1.766
Higher education
0.190
0.555
1.209
0.644
2.270
Employment status
0.109
people without job looking for
one
0.340
0.413
1.405
0.623
3.170
people who are neither working
nor looking for a job
0.317
0.040
1.373
1.015
1.858
Insufficient income
-0.434
0.013
0.648
0.461
0.912
Female
0.129
0.360
1.138
0.863
1.501
Marital status
0.117
Divorced
-0.737
0.128
0.479
0.185
1.237
Widowed
-1.070
0.029
0.343
0.131
0.898
Never married
-0,642
0.194
0.526
0.200
1.358
Children
0.459
0.028
1.586
1.052
2.382
Religious
0.125
0.383
1.133
0.856
1.500
Countryside
-0.045
0.758
0.956
0.716
1.276
Central/Western Europe
-0.459
0.001
0.632
0.486
0.821
Age
0.505
from 21 to 40
-0.154
0.530
0.857
0.530
1.387
from 41 to 60
-0.224
0.446
0.800
0.450
1.421
61 and above
0.103
0.748
1.109
0.591
2.081
Lack of safety
-0.308
0.078
0.735
0.522
1.035
N
27598
-2 Log likelihood
1406.493
Pseudo R2
Cox&Snell
0.044
Negelkerke
0.065
Hosmer and Lemeshow test
χ2
12.022
p-value
0.150
Source: authors’ calculations.
We do not see statistically significant difference in attitude towards refugees between people
who work and people without job but looking for one. But we estimated that people who are
neither working nor looking for a job 1.4 times are more likely to have positive attitude towards
refugees than those who are recorded as active labour force. Thus we should reject hypothesis
H3, because we see impact in opposite direction than it was sensible from theoretical point of
view. This is contrary to theoretical explanation that individuals with less economic security
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
292
have more intolerant attitude towards refugees. Active labour force has negative attitudes
because of the tougher competition in labour market and also wage decrease.
Confident feeling about household income affects the probability of positive attitude towards
refugees. People with insufficient income, according to model estimation, 1.6 (1/Exp(B)) times
are more likely to have negative attitude towards refugees than those who feel confident feeling
about household income. Thus we do not reject hypothesis H4.
Concerning the question of how generous should the government be supporting asylum
seeker flows and assigning refugee statuses, the people from Western and Central European
countries are 1.6 ((1/Exp(B)) times more not to agree with the statement compared with
Northern and Eastern European countries’ citizens. The explanation comes from the current
refugee crisis in the EU. In 2015, European countries received more than 1,3 million asylum
claims (Western countries receive majority of claims) and this caused different conflicts and
increase of crimes. Also we could state that Northern countries are more tolerant to refugees.
Eastern European countries are less developed so they are not very attractive to refugees and
do not face with this problem. Thus we should reject hypothesis H8, because natives from
Central and Western European countries seem less likely to have positive attitudes towards
refugees than people from Eastern and Northern Europe.
We do not see statistically significant difference in attitude towards refugees between
married, never married and divorced people. But we estimated that the widowed almost 3 times
are more likely to have negative attitude towards refugees than people with other marital
statuses. This factor has no theoretical background so it is needed for deeper research. Thus we
partly reject hypothesis H9, because we see difference in attitude towards refugees just between
married and widowed and no difference in attitudes between married and divorced, married and
never married.
People who have or ever had children, according to the model, 1.6 times are more likely to
have positive attitude towards refugees than those without. The value itself falls into rather wide
confidence interval of 95% confidence so the result should be interpreted with healthy
scepticism. Thus we have some statistical evidence to reject hypothesis H11 stating that people
without children have more probability of positive attitude towards refugees.
5. Conclusion
Society’s attitudes towards refugees are influenced by various factors: demographic,
economic, social and cultural, political, geographical and etc. These attitudes influence policy
towards refugees in destination countries. Thus research concerning the socio-demographic
factors influencing attitudes towards refugees is relevant offering an insight to the background
of people’s attitudes.
For this research binary logistic regression was chosen as the most suitable statistical tool
for empirical estimation of factors influencing attitude towards refugees and ESS database as
source of raw data. We developed 11 hypotheses about factors influencing attitudes towards
refugees in EU. As the research shows people who are neither working nor looking for a job,
feel confident about household income, originated from Central and Western European
countries, married and with children are more likely to have positive attitude towards refugees.
And in opposite active labour force, people with insufficient income, living in Eastern and
Northern Europe countries, the widowed have negative attitude towards refugees.
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
293
We can conclude that some of our findings were confirmed by previous research but some
results are controversial and there is a need for continuing research of society’s perceptions
towards this issue.
References
[1] Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley
Publishing Company.
[2] Berg, J. A. (2010). Race, class, gender, and social space: Using an intersectional approach
to study immigration attitudes. The Sociological Quarterly, vol. 51, pp. 278302.
[3] Boeri, T. (2010). Immigration to the land of redistribution. Economica, vol. 77, no. 308,
pp. 651687.
[4] Bullard, S. M. (2015). Attitudes toward Refugees Entering the United States of America.
Honors Theses. Paper 323 [online]. Available: http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/
viewcontent.cgi? article=1282&context=honors_theses
[5] Chandler, C. R. and Tsai, Y. M. (2001). Social Factor Influencing Immigration Attitudes:
An Analysis of Data from the General Social Survey, Social Sciences Journal, vol. 38,
no. 2, pp. 177-188.
[6] Citrin, J., Green, D., Muste, C. and Wong, C. (1997). Public opinion toward immigration
reform: the role of economic motivations. Journal of Politics, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 858881.
[7] Dustmann, Ch. and Preston, I. P. (2007). Racial and Economic Factors in Attitudes to
Immigration. The B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, vol. 7, no. 1.
[8] Facchini, G. and A.M. Mayda. (2009). Does the welfare state affect individual attitudes
toward immigrants? Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 295314.
[9] Facchini, G. F., Mayda, A. M. and Mendola, M. (2011). What drives individual attitudes
towards immigration in South Africa? [online]. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank
.org/INTLM/Resources/390041-1212776476091/5078455/Facchiniindividualattitudes.
pdf
[10] Facchini, G. and A.M. Mayda. (2012). Individual attitudes towards skilled migration: an
empirical analysis across countries. World Economy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 18396.
[11] Fetzer, J.S. (2011). The Evolution of Public Attitudes Toward Immigration in Europe and
United States, 2000-2010. Research Report EU-US Immigration Systems 2011/10
[Online]. Available: http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/17840/EU-US%20Im
migration% 20Systems%202011_10.pdf
[12] Finney, N. and Peach, E. (2004). Attitudes towards asylum seekers, refuges and other
immigrants. Commission for Racial Equality Research study [online]. Available:
http://icar.livingrefugeearchive.org/asylum_icar_report.pdf
[13] Gang, I. N., Rivera-Batiz, F. L. and Yun, M-S. (2013). Economic Strain, Education and
Attitudes Towards Foreigners in the European Union. Review of International
Economics, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 177-190.
[14] Hainmueller, J. and Hiscox, M. J. (2007). Educated Preferences: Explaining Attitudes
Toward Immigration in Europe. International Organization, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 399-442.
16th International Scientific Conference Globalization and Its Socio-Economic Consequences
University of Zilina, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication, Department of
Economics 5th 6th October 2016
294
[15] Hatton, T. J. (2016). Immigration, public opinion and the recession in Europe. Economic
Policy, vol. 31, no. 86, pp. 205-246.
[16] Manevska, K. and P. Achterberg (2013). Immigration and perceived ethnic threat:
cultural capital and economic explanations. European Sociological Review, vol. 29, no.
3, pp. 43749.
[17] Mayda, A. M. (2006). Who Is Against Immigration? A Cross-Country Investigation of
Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants. Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 88, no.
3, pp. 510-530.
[18] Paas, T. and Halapuu, V. (2012). Attitudes towards immigrants and the integration of
ethnically diverse societies. Norface Migration Discussion Paper No. 2012-23.
[19] Murray, K. E. and Marx, D. M. (2013). Attitudes Toward Unauthorized Immigrants,
Authorized Immigrants, and Refugees. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority
Psychology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 332-341.
[20] Rustenbach, E. (2010). Sources of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants in Europe: A
Multi-Level Analysis, International Migration Review, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 5377.
[21] Schweitzer, R., Perkoulidis, Sh. A., Krome, S. L. and Ludlow, Ch. N. (2005). Attitudes
towards Refugees: The Dark Side of Prejudice in Australia. Australian Journal of
Psychology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 170-179.
... In the current study, three possible variables were suggested as predictors of hostility toward Muslim refugees among Germans: sense of safety, psychological distress and political attitudes. These variables derived from the neighborhood safety theory (Butkus et al. 2016) and the Terror Management Theory (TMT; Pyszczynski et al. 1997). In the light of the neighborhood safety theory, anti-immigrant sentiment may arise if natives attribute many of society's problems to the presence of refugees and immigrants, including higher levels of violence or crime (Rustenbach 2010). ...
Chapter
The arrival of refugees to Western Europe in recent years triggered controversial debates and hostility in many host countries. The current study aimed to explore selected predictors (namely, sense of safety, psychological distress, and political view) of hostility toward refugees in Germany, the country that absorbed the majority of refugees arriving in Europe. 1001 German adult participants completed an online survey. The findings revealed that a lower sense of safety, higher levels of psychological distress and right-wing political views were linked to greater hostility. The importance of understanding the antecedents of hostility toward refugees, their interplay, and recommendations for action are discussed.
... Bu doğrultuda Türkiye'de genel olarak sığınmacılara, özel olarak Suriyelilere olan tutumlar incelendiğinde; toplumun Suriyelilere karşı görece ılımlı tutumunun 2011 yılından bugüne olumsuza evrildiği söylenebilir (Çakıcı, Yılmaz ve Çakıcı, 2018;Ekici, 2019;Gözübüyük, Kemik ve Sever, 2019;Afyonoğlu, 2020b;Erdoğan, 2020b) Toplumun sığınmacılara yönelik tutumlarında "eğitim" önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Toplumların eğitim seviyesi yükseldikçe, sığınmacılara yönelik tutumlarının olumlu hale geldiği varsayılmaktadır (Curry, 2000;Mayda, 2006;Butkus, Maciulyte-Sniukiene ve Matuzeviciute, 2016 ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu araştırma sosyal hizmet öğrencilerinin Suriyelilere yönelik tutumlarını belirlemeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Türkiye’nin yedi coğrafi bölgesinde bulunan fakülte bazında, örgün lisans eğitimi veren ve aktif olarak eğitim-öğretime devam eden yedi devlet üniversitesindeki (Hacettepe, İstanbul Cerrahpaşa, Düzce, Manisa Celal Bayar, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Bingöl ve Şırnak) sosyal hizmet bölümü üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri küme örnekleme yöntemiyle bölüme yerleşen öğrenci sayısına göre seçilmiştir. Veriler kişisel bilgi formu ve ‘Suriyeli Sığınmacılara Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği’ni içeren çevrimiçi anket yoluyla 2020 yılı Nisan-Temmuz ayları arasında toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları; öğrencilerin sığınmacılara yönelik tutumlarında kararsız kaldıklarını, Suriyeliler hakkındaki olumsuz düşüncelere katılmadıklarını, Suriyelilere yönelik radikal ve ılımlı çözüm önerileri ile ilgili kararsız kaldıklarını, sığınmacıların haklarını savunan ifadelere katıldıklarını ve sığınmacılara herhangi bir yardımda bulunmadıklarını göstermektedir. Sonuçlar aynı zamanda öğrenim görülen üniversite, cinsiyet, sığınmacı bir tanıdığı olmak, yakın çevrenin tutumu, siyasi görüş, göçmenlere yönelik eğitsel aktivitelere katılım, üniversite öncesi yaşanılan bölge ve ailenin yaşadığı yerin tutumları farklılaştırdığını göstermektedir. Araştırma sonuçları genel olarak toplumun özel olaraksa öğrencilerin sığınmacılara yönelik tutumlarında etkili olan sosyal ve ekonomik faktörler bağlamında değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarının göçmenlerle sosyal hizmet açısından ihtiva ettiklerine yönelik tartışma ile göçmen ve mültecilerle sosyal hizmet dersine ve sosyal hizmet eğitim müfredatına yönelik öneriler ise araştırmanın sonuç bölümünde sunulmuştur. Abstract This research aimed to investigate the attitudes of social work students towards the Syrians. For this aim, third year social work students from seven universities (Hacettepe, İstanbul Cerrahpaşa, Düzce, Celal Bayar, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Bingöl and Şırnak) in seven geographical regions of Turkey were selected, according to following criteria: being a faculty and having an active formal education, by using cluster sampling method. The data were collected through an online questionnaire. Research results show that students are indecisive in their attitudes towards Syrians, do not agree with negative thoughts about them, are hesitant about radical and moderate solutions, agree with statements defending the rights of Syrians and did not provide any help in cash or in kind to Syrians. Results also indicate that acquaintance to asylum-seekers, the attitude of their family and friends, political opinions, participation in educational activities, place lived before university and residence of their family differentiate the attitudes of students towards the Syrians. The results were evaluated in the context of social and economic factors that affect the society in general and the students in particular. The implications of the results for social work with migrants, the suggestions for the social work courses with migrants and refugees and for the curriculum of social work education are presented in the conclusion part.
... These attitudes included the following: that they did not want to see Syrian refugees in the city centre, that they had the risk of carrying communicable diseases and increased the crime rate, that they limited job opportunities and had to pay taxes, that they should not be granted the right to citizenship, and that their entry to Turkey should be made more difficult. Studies looking to measure the attitude towards and perception about Syrian refugees revealed a negative attitude overall, that participants distanced themselves culturally from Syrian refugees, that they thought Syrian refugees constituted economic, social and security threat, and that they were seen as a source of crime, primarily of terrorism (Oytun and Gündoğar, 2015;Keleş et al., 2016;Muary and Marx, 2013;Butkus et al., 2016;Schweitzer et al., 2005;Sevi et al., 2016;Sönmez and Adıgüzel, 2017;Özdemir and Özkan, 2016;Kuş, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes towards Syrian refugees of students educated in Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Public Administration Department in 2017-2018 academic years. In this cross-sectional study, the "The Attitudes towards Syrian Refugees Scale” was used. In the scale, the total score is calculated on the negative attitude. As the score increases, the attitude becomes negative. A total of 467 Public Administration students participated in my work (level of participation= 55.5%). The average of the attitude scores of the students is 89.7 ± 20.9 (min.33-max.135 points). We used t-test and ANOVA to determine the variables that affect the attitude scores of the students. As a result of the analysis, we found that the presence of Syrian friends (p <0.001), feeling themselves safe (p = 0.025) and the attitude towards the Syrians of their family (p <0.001) affected the attitude scores of the students. According to this, students having Syrian friends and feeling themselves too much /much safe are more positive attitudes towards Syrian refugees. At the same time, as the attitudes towards the Syrians of their families become negative, the attitudes of the students also become negative. Keywords: Syrian Refugees, Public Administration, Attitudes towards Syrian Refugees.
... These attitudes included the following: that they did not want to see Syrian refugees in the city centre, that they had the risk of carrying communicable diseases and increased the crime rate, that they limited job opportunities and had to pay taxes, that they should not be granted the right to citizenship, and that their entry to Turkey should be made more difficult. Studies looking to measure the attitude towards and perception about Syrian refugees revealed a negative attitude overall, that participants distanced themselves culturally from Syrian refugees, that they thought Syrian refugees constituted economic, social and security threat, and that they were seen as a source of crime, primarily of terrorism (Oytun and Gündoğar, 2015;Keleş et al., 2016;Muary and Marx, 2013;Butkus et al., 2016;Schweitzer et al., 2005;Sevi et al., 2016;Sönmez and Adıgüzel, 2017;Özdemir and Özkan, 2016;Kuş, 2016). ...
Article
This paper uses data from nine rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2018 to examine the relationship between individual attitudes toward immigration and party preferences among voters across countries. We find that individuals with more favorable attitudes toward the effect of immigrants on their country’s economy and culture have a higher likelihood of voting for parties that are further left on the political spectrum, while those with more unfavorable attitudes prefer parties further to the right. Our results also show that voters are more strongly influenced by their perceptions of the cultural contributions of immigrants than by their views of the economic contributions of immigrants and this effect is becoming stronger over time. Interestingly, while the direction of influence is clear, extreme views on immigration do not appear to translate into votes for parties on the extremes of the political spectrum. Overall, our results provide useful insights in a global climate of increased focus on immigration policy.
Chapter
The arrival of refugees to Western Europe in recent years triggered controversial debates and hostility in many host countries. The current study aimed to explore selected predictors (namely, sense of safety, psychological distress, and political view) of hostility toward refugees in Germany, the country that absorbed the majority of refugees arriving in Europe. 1001 German adult participants completed an online survey. The findings revealed that a lower sense of safety, higher levels of psychological distress and right-wing political views were linked to greater hostility. The importance of understanding the antecedents of hostility toward refugees, their interplay, and recommendations for action are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
One of the most pressing problems nowadays attracting attention of EU citizens is the integration of immigrants. During the recent period immigration flows to the EU, especially external, were growing considerably – the number of international immigrants in the EU has increased by 57.5 percent over 2000 – 2015. One of the factors leading to successful integration of immigrants is attitudes towards them regarding their impact on countries’ socio-economic, cultural or other transformation. Empirical studies show that immigration can lead to both positive and negative effects on countries’ demography, economy, culture and criminogenic situation depending on the immigrants’ education, age, gender and other characteristics. Nevertheless, even if immigration leads to a positive transformation of the country, society’s attitude towards immigration can be negative and this can complicate the process of integration. For this reason, it is important to investigate not only the effects of immigration on countries’ demography, economy, culture and other areas, but also to investigate society’s attitudes towards benefits and losses of immigration. We employed binary logistic regression to analyse the EU society’s attitudes towards consequences of immigration. The results show that public attitudes toward consequences of immigration are largely negative, especially towards impact on criminogenic situation and this does not match actual impact empirically researched by other authors and presented in the literature review.
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on exploring people’s attitudes towards immigration in 26 European countries based on the European Social Survey fourth round database. Outcomes of the empirical analysis show that the attitudes of European people towards immigrants vary depending on 1) the personal characteristics of the respondents; 2) the country’s characteristics; and 3) the attitudes of people towards country institutions and socio-economic security. The studies results provide empirical evidence-based grounds for the development of policy measures to integrate ethnically diverse societies, taking into account the composition of the country's population and their attitudes to institutions and socio-economic security.
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to study to what extent the share of immigrants in a country influences individuals’ perceptions of ethnic threat and how this can be explained by theories of economic and cultural threat. Following an economic logic, people with a weak socio-economic position should have a greater perception of ethnic threat. This would be more so if the share of low-educated immigrants in a country was relatively high. Following a cultural logic, greater perceptions of ethnic threat should be found among individuals with a weak cultural position, which would apply more strongly if the share of non-Western immigrants in a country was relatively high. Both theories are studied using data from the first round of the European Social Survey, enriched with country-specific variables. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the theories under scrutiny and in the light of current scientific debates about the influence of immigration on Western societies.
Article
Full-text available
Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
This paper tests hypotheses concerning the effects of economic factors on public opinion toward immigration policy. Using the 1992 and 1994 National Election Study surveys, probit models are employed to test diverse conceptualizations of the effects of economic adversity and anxiety on opposition to immigration. The results indicate that personal economic circumstances play little role in opinion formation, but beliefs about the state of the national economy, anxiety over taxes, and generalized feelings about Hispanics and Asians, the major immigrant groups, are significant determinants of restrictionist sentiment. This restricted role of economic motives rooted in one's personal circumstances held true across ethnic groups, among residents in communities with different numbers of foreign-born, and in both 1992 and 1994.
Article
It is widely believed that the recent recession has soured public attitudes towards immigration. But most existing studies are cross-sectional and can shed little light on the economy-wide forces that shift public opinion on immigration. In this paper I use the six rounds of the European Social Survey (2002-2012) to test the effects of macro-level shocks on immigration opinion for 20 countries. For Europe as a whole the shifts in opinion have been remarkably mild but with differences between countries that reflect the severity of the recession. Pro-immigration opinion is negatively related to the share of immigrants in the population and to the share of social benefits in GDP, but only weakly to unemployment. These effects are common across different socioeconomic groups and there is little evidence of divergence in opinion. The continuing rise in support for right wing populist parties during the recession owes more to growing Euro-scepticism than to a surge in anti-immigrant sentiment.
Article
Surveys carried out by the Eurobarometer survey series show a sharp increase in the negative attitudes of European citizens towards foreigners between 1988 and 2003, but a noticeable reversal of this trend between 2003 and 2008. This paper provides a statistical analysis of the determinants of attitudes towards foreigners and analyzes the factors associated with changes in anti‐foreigner sentiment among European citizens. The paper concludes that while rising racial prejudice accounts for a substantial portion of the trend in anti‐foreigner sentiment, economic conditions also matter, with economic strain leading to more negative attitudes. At the same time, educational attainment is shown to be a strong antidote to anti‐foreigner attitudes. Both rising average schooling and more positive attitudes towards foreigners by the highly educated have led to a reversal of the climbing anti‐immigrant sentiments in Europe. The paper discusses policy implications and the potential effects of the European economic collapse since 2008.
Article
This paper empirically investigates the determinants of individual attitudes towards immigration in South Africa using the 1996, 2001 and 2007 rounds of the World Value Survey. The main question we want to answer is whether South African public opinion on migration is affected by the potential labor market competition of migrants towards natives. We investigate this issue by estimating the impact of survey respondents’ individual skill on their pro-migration attitudes. Our estimates show that the impact of individual skill – measured both with educational attainment and an occupationbased measure – is positive and significant in both 1996 and 2001. Given that in both years immigrants to South Africa are on average more skilled than natives, we conclude that the labor-market channel does not play a role in preference formation over immigration. What might explain the positive impact of individual skill are noneconomic determinants.
Article
This study uses an intersectional approach to predict attitudes toward immigrants by examining the intersections of race, class, gender, and social space. With data from the 2004 General Social Survey and the 2000 Census, generalized hierarchal linear modeling generates significant two-way and three-way interactions in predicting attitudes toward immigrants taking jobs, improving the economy, committing crime, and migrating to the United States. Important differences in attitudes between groups and within groups only emerge when particular intersections are considered in the analysis. One implication is that pro-immigrant organizations may gain greater support by devising political strategies from an intersectional perspective.
Article
In recent times, many nations are experiencing an increase in anti-immigrant attitudes on the part of natives. Most papers only explore one or two sources of anti-immigrant attitudes at a time, which provides an incomplete picture of the effects at work. This paper tests eight different explanations for anti-immigrant attitudes: cultural marginality theory, human capital theory, political affiliation, societal integration, neighborhood safety, contact theory, foreign investment, and economic competition. Analysis is conducted using combined data from the European Social Survey and Eurostat/OECD and individual-, regional-, and national-level predictors. Results indicate that key predictors of anti-immigrant attitudes are regional and national interpersonal trust, education level, foreign direct investment, and political variables.