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Beyond money. Toward and economy of well-being

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... ince subjective well-being (SWB) is regarded as an important indicator of social progress (Diener and Seligman 2004) and is associated with a wide range of positive outcomes, such as better social relationships, health, and job success, researchers and policymakers have an increasing interest in subjective aspects of citizens' quality of life (QOL) and determining its key predictors (Diener and Chan 2011;Lyubomirsky, King, and Diener 2005;Kuykendall, Tay, and Ng 2015). Encouraging leisure activities is one of the key ways for urban policy managers to improve residents' subjective life satisfaction. ...
... SWB is regarded as an important indicator of social progress (Diener and Seligman 2004). At the same time, SWB has been found to be associated with a wide range of positive outcomes, including better social relationships, health, and job success (Diener and Chan 2011;Lyubomirsky, King, and Diener 2005;Kuykendall, Tay, and Ng 2015). ...
... Initial publications purporting to launch a new field of wellbeing studies, almost all in economics and psychology, began to appear mainly in the USA in the 1990s (Kahneman et al., 1999;Van Praag & Ferreri-Carbonell, 2004), building on more sporadic earlier work. Soon its proponents began to translate this 'new science' into policy (Diener et al., 2009;Diener & Seligman, 2004;Graham, 2011). They advocated novel indices to track wellbeing nationally and internationally, and policies to target wellbeing instead of or in addition to conventional economic indicators. ...
... WPP advocacy emerging from the wellbeing sciences, with few exceptions, retains the social planner's focus on an 'ultimate value' and a narrow (ideally unidimensional) metric for it that policy should aim to maximise. High profile psychologists Diener and Seligman (2004), for example, argue (p. 1-2) that 'wellbeing should become a primary focus of policymakers, and that its rigorous measurement is a primary policy imperative … wellbeing ought to be the ultimate goal around which economic, health, and social policies are built'. ...
... This supports the claim that the current Finance models reflect a particular stage of human development and are therefore conditionally limited to the stage of development at which they were developed. Diener and Seligman (2004) note that the dimensions of human experience included in Finance represent human needs that were prevalent during the era when neoclassical models in Economics and Finance were developed. These include material wealth, safety, and security needs and represent the prevailing cultural 'center of gravity' during the era in which the models were developed. ...
... There exists a disconnect between models in Finance and the extensive evidence that the subjective dimension is value-relevant yet cannot be simply "reduced to" the objective dimension (see e.g., Diener and Seligman (2004) and VanderWeele (2017) and references therein on social relationships and meaningful work as determinants of human well-being and economic value). ...
Article
Current models in Finance make strong, self-limiting assumptions about the nature of human utility, human relationships, human flourishing, and human growth. These assumptions facilitate tractable solutions to financial problems but ignore subjective determinants of human well-being and value creation within the firm. The philosophical and theological traditions of Catholic teaching, as well as evidence on human flourishing from model social science, call us beyond these models. This paper focuses on three specific areas where a “disconnect” exists between Catholic teaching and current Finance models, highlights the relevance of Catholic teaching, and sketches a framework for more fully integrating human flourishing into Finance models.
... In psychology more work is done, notably on the relationship between the ten Schwartz values and subjective wellbeing (e.g Schwartz & Sortheix, 2018). Positive psychologists posit in their 'authentic happiness theory' that meaning and engagement in life (life orientations) are essential to happiness, providing support to the beneficial effects of strength of character, religion, volunteering and acts of kindness (altruism) for happiness (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Diener & Seligman, 2004). Through analysing German panel data, Headey et al. (2010) show that changes in happiness levels are related to life goals and choices made in response to these. ...
... In Kalleberg's job satisfaction theory (1977), intrinsic work values refer to characteristics of a job which one finds important, such as autonomy in the job, responsibility, a skills match, and meeting people and extrinsic work values to pay, job security or promotion. In positive psychology, there is clear evidence on the effects of life goals related to work on SWB showing that people striving for material success such as success in a job or pay are less happy than people who attach less value to material goals (Diener andSeligman, 2004, Headey et al., 2010). In psychology, Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory is well-known, stating that intrinsically motivated people engage in an activity because they find it enjoyable and interesting, demonstrating greater effectiveness and persistence in their behavior and improved well-being (Ryan et al., 1997). ...
Book
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This book on Reflections on European Values is a Liber Amicorum honouring Loek Halman’s contribution to the European Values Study. For years, he has been a key figure in this longitudinal and cross-national research project on moral, social, and political values, dedicating his academic life to advancing the understanding of values in Europe. This Liber Amicorum is published at the occasion of Loek’s retirement after a long career at the Department of Sociology at Tilburg University. It brings together essays on the study of European values, written by his academic friends. The 32 chapters in this volume are structured in five themes that reflect Loek’s scholarly interest. A first group of contributions presents theoretical and methodological reflections on the European Values Study. Second, essays on the sociology of religion reflect Loek’s interest in this topic. Third, comparative studies using the European Values Study are presented. The fourth part focuses on a case most well-known : the Netherlands. The fifth and final section further deepens the understanding of values in several specific countries in Europe. Upon his retirement, this book will serve as an inspiration for scholars who want to walk in Loek Halman's footsteps in continuing research on values in Europe.
... Prior research on social comparison (Diener & Seligman, 2004;Festinger, 1954) suggested that to ascertain how well they are doing, consumers tend to compare their income, assets, and possessions with those of others who are similarly situated. Other research streams that we draw upon include those addressing the desire to live a balanced life (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2010), the correction of imbalanced spending (Heath & Soll, 1996), the motivations triggered by spending money or time (e.g., Mogilner, 2010), and the use of social norms to influence behaviors (e.g., Goldstein et al., 2008). ...
... This will help them take appropriate corrective action and make them feel happier. This is welcome news in light of some recent research showing the detrimental consequences of time and money pressures on happiness, stress levels, and social relationships (Diener & Seligman, 2004;Kasser & Sheldon, 2009). Another way in which our findings can help consumers is if they are not sure how much to spend on a friend's birthday or on the graduation of one's sibling. ...
Article
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The current research reports results of seven studies that reveal how social norms information about people's spending on others makes one notice one's imbalanced (or lower) spending on others and feel unhappy about it. This motivates the consumer to undertake the corrective action of budgeting to spend more on others which then enhances happiness with her/his budgeting decision. These effects are stronger for time than for money and the mechanism underlying the corrective action is through the joint influences of social connection and self‐sufficiency motivations. Increasing saliency of the opportunity cost of time creates a boundary condition for the above effects and power in relationships moderates the imbalanced spending of time (vs. money) effect. These findings contribute to the literatures of social norms and time versus money by suggesting that social comparison can also influence prosocial budgeting to spend time and money on others. Managerially, peer‐to‐peer payment fintech companies, which have data about prosocial spending, can partner with restaurants and food delivery companies and with charitable institutions, to target messages to the customers of fintech companies urging them to use coupons to eat out with friends and to contribute to charitable causes.
... This paper uses the micro data of the China Family Panel Studies 2018 (CFPS2018) to match the provincial public health expenditure data to investigate the impact of public health investment and its disparity on residents' subjective well-being. The measurement of subjective well-being is based on the Multi-Level Structure Model of Subjective Well-Being [8]. This paper measures residents' subjective well-being from four perspectives: overall cognitive happiness valuation, life satisfaction, positive emotions and negative emotions. ...
... The multi-level structure model of SWB [8] divides SWB into three levels and four areas specifically: the first level is the overall SWB, which is the overall evaluation of life quality; the second level includes general life satisfaction (overall judgment of individual life) and satisfaction in important areas of life (such as job satisfaction); the third level is the embodiment of the second level, such as positive emotions including pleasure and happiness, and negative emotions including sadness, and life satisfaction in important areas including job satisfaction. Generally speaking, the higher the individual's overall satisfaction with their quality of life, and the more positive emotions and fewer negative emotions are experienced, the higher the individual's subjective well-being will be. ...
Article
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Maximizing or improving residents’ subjective well-being is one of the basic purposes of public expenditure. As an important component of public expenditure, the impact of public health investment on residents’ subjective well-being receives considerable attention. Regarding the empirical evidence, this paper measures residents’ subjective well-being from the perspectives of overall cognitive happiness, life satisfaction, positive emotions and negative emotions, on the basis of a multi-level structural model of subjective well-being. Factor analysis is used to estimate the subjective well-being of residents at the province level in China, based on the China Family Panel Studies of 2018. In addition, structural equation modeling is employed to explore the impact of public health investment and its regional disparity on the subjective well-being of residents. The empirical results show that public health investment has a significant positive effect on residents’ subjective well-being. Moreover, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the regional disparity of public health investment and residents’ subjective well-being. Further study illustrates that the effects of public health investment and its regional disparity on residents’ subjective well-being are heterogeneous by group. Public health investment has a greater impact on the well-being of low- and middle-income, eastern and urban residents than high-income, midwest and rural residents.
... As very few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and public dissatisfaction, we draw insights from satisfaction studies. In the literature, satisfaction is usually used as an alternative to happiness and subjective well-being; although there are subtle differences between these three terms, they all represent positive emotions (Frey and Stutzer 2000;Diener and Seligman 2004;McBride 2010;Boes and Winkelmann 2010). Subjective well-being tends to be the most inclusive and broadest of the three concepts. ...
... Non-monetary needs are those that cannot be directly purchased or obtained through money alone, such as government administrative efficiency, neighborhood connections, and community atmosphere. The latter two tiers of needs are often used in satisfaction (or subjective well-being or happiness) studies to argue that the effect of economic growth on satisfaction tends to be insignificant after a given point of economic growth is reached (Diener and Seligman 2004;Masuda, Williams, and Tallis 2021). In this paper, we add subsistence needs because they have different attributes from universal needs and the absence of both types of needs can have different effects on public dissatisfaction. ...
Article
Much is known about the relationship between economic growth and satisfaction, while little is known about the relationship between economic growth and dissatisfaction. This study measures the levels of public dissatisfaction in 36 Chinese cities from 2011 to 2018 using data from an official online petition platform. We construct panel data to analyze the impact of per capita GDP and per capita income on public dissatisfaction. The results show that per capita income has a significant negative effect on public dissatisfaction, but only once the per capita income exceeds a threshold amount. In the extended discussion, the nonlinear relationship between income and public dissatisfaction is described as a stair-shaped curve. The results imply the need for developing countries to adhere to economic policies based on income maximization.
... Some researchers believe that the happiness approach is appropriate for economic analysis (Crespo and Mesurado, 2015;Diener and Seligman, 2004;Kahneman and Krueger, 2006), and studies on sustainable development (Lamb and Steinberger, 2017). Kjell (2011) posits the term Sustainable Well-being because of several synergies between both concepts (e.g. the search for improving human well-being). ...
Article
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Sustainable development is a well-known and much studied topic, the application of many different approaches to which has led to continual debate about its true meaning and feasibility. A eudaimonic well-being approach might offer a new perspective to these discussions. This research aimed to understand the current state of the relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature to establish whether sustainability can be conceptualized based on this perspective. In order to accomplish this aim, the study carried out a systematic literature review, using the ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis’ method. The available literature was screened and the 50 articles selected through this process were mapped by means of bibliometric, methodological, and content analyses. This threefold analysis identified, for each article, the region where the empirical investigation took place; the main method used; key information about the relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature; and the theories presented with the aim of explaining the reasons for the positive or negative relationships identified. The findings indicated that contact with nature, preservation behavior and nature interdependency were the three main aspects studied in the literature, in terms of the interactive relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature. Considering that several studies identified a positive outcome from the contact with, preservation, and interdependence of nature, the research concluded that eudaimonic well-being is an important approach in support of the promotion of sustainable development.
... Wellbeing in general is defined as the quality of life, with a positive perception towards satisfaction in life, health, education, relationships, future, etc. (Diener et al., 1997;Veehoven, 2008). It is a quantifiable measure for public policy and is related to depression, anxiety, stress, cognitive well-being, productivity, social connectedness etc. (Diener and Seligman, 2004;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Being a subjective quantity, it is typically measured using self-reports and standardized scales such as Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson et al., 1988), Positive Wellbeing Index (International Wellbeing Group, 2013) etc. ...
Conference Paper
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We study the correlates and pathways related to behavior, cognition, social, health, environmental and demographic aspects, on wellbeing outcomes of older adults. Based on survey data on older adults (De Pue et al., 2021) from before and during the COVID-19, we investigate the factors and pathways at both quantitative and qualitative levels that impact mental health. We explored correlation-based bi-directional relationships and uni-directional causal relationships between the variables from multiple domains at coarse-grained as well as fine-grained level. The results show the dependence of major factors and pathways influencing mental health and wellbeing for the elderly during this period. The key contributions of our work are the use of correlation and causal analysis, and demonstrating the use of advanced methods in data science to derive better evidence-driven insights for public health and policy for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
... The ability to commit to values and enact plans to achieve them requires basic material goods (food, shelter, and clothing), a decent level of physical and mental health, and a reasonably predictable environment. The policy recommendations that our theory suggests are likely to be somewhat similar to the recommendations made by several other theories (e.g., Diener & Seligman, 2004;Wilkinson & Pickett, 2010). Nonetheless, asking the question, "What would allow people to pursue their important goals effectively?" may sometimes yield different answers than the question, "What would allow people to feel happy and satisfied with life?" ...
Article
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Value Fulfillment Theory (VFT) is a philosophical theory of well-being. Cybernetic Big Five Theory (CB5T) is a psychological theory of personality. Both start with a conception of the person as a goal-seeking (or value-pursuing) organism, and both take goals and the psychological integration of goals to be key to well-being. By joining VFT and CB5T, we produce a cybernetic value fulfillment theory in which we argue that well-being is best conceived as the fulfillment of psychologically integrated values. Well-being is the effective pursuit of a set of nonconflicting values that are emotionally, motivationally, and cognitively suitable to the person. The primary difference in our theory from other psychological theories of well-being is that it does not provide a list of intrinsic goods, instead emphasizing that each person may have their own list of intrinsic goods. We discuss the implications of our theory for measuring, researching, and improving well-being.
... Positive interpersonal relationships are regarded as intrinsic components of psychological well-being and satisfaction with life (Diener & Seligman, 2009). According to Prilleltensky (2005), the well-being of humans is reliant on the quality of their relationships and the context in which they live. ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... Although a single definition for wellbeing has yet to be solidified, wellbeing is defined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention as the presence of positive emotions and moods, satisfaction with life, fulfillment, and positive functioning (CDC, 2019). Results from epidemiological studies demonstrate that wellbeing is associated with self-perceived health, longevity, healthy behaviors, mental and physical health, social connectedness, and productivity (Diener & Seligman, 2004;Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). In addition, data suggest that wellbeing is inversely associated with poor lifestyle factors such as dysregulated sleep quality, low physical activity, decreased lean body mass (LBM), and poor diet (Anton et al., 2015). ...
Article
Shifts in wellbeing and health occur as we age. As life expectancy increases, maintenance of wellbeing and health becomes increasingly important. Nutrients found in beef are associated with outcomes of wellbeing such as physical and cognitive function, lean body mass, and mood in older adults and individuals with chronic disease. However, it is unclear how beef and nutrients found in beef impact wellbeing in healthy adults ≥50 years of age. This study systematically reviewed evidence linking the intake of beef and nutrients found in beef to markers of wellbeing in healthy adults. PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched up to August 31, 2021 for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Nutrients included in the analysis were beef, red meat, dietary protein, essential amino acids, branched chain amino acids, tryptophan, arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, zinc, and iron. We identified nine RCTs with results from 55 measurements of markers of wellbeing. An overall positive effect was found of beef and beef's nutrients on wellbeing. There was an overall positive effect of amino acids and protein on wellbeing, with no effect of arginine, vitamin B-12, leucine, and zinc. Physical function was also influenced by beef and nutrients found in beef. Eight of the studies found focused on specific nutrients found in beef, and not beef itself in older adults with one or more chronic diseases. This study identified a need for further research regarding the effect of beef and nutrients found in beef on defined functional outcomes of wellbeing in healthy adults ≥50 years of age. [Free access: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ezdQ16J4lmL5P]
... It is important for government, as well as organizations to monitor the well-being of citizens and workers, and take steps to improve their. Periodic, systematic data assessment will offer policymakers a much stronger set of findings to use in making policy decisions (Diener & Seligman, 2004). Governments and other organizations need to improve data quality with adequate strategies, approaches, techniques, and tools to ensure the reliability of data collection. ...
Thesis
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Unreliable and poor-quality data is a significant threat to governmental institutions because of its devastating impact on nations' social and economic well-being. Managers in government organizations require reliable data to inform economic planning and decision-making. Grounded in the theory of total quality management, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies information technology (IT) managers in sub-Saharan African countries use to ensure the reliability of data. The participants were 12 IT managers in three government establishments in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, responsible for ensuring the data reliability for economic planning and decision-making. The data collection included semistructured interviews of IT managers and analysis of documents (n = 6). Thematic analysis resulted in five primary themes: data quality assessment, education and training, use of technology, management and employee involvement, and advocacy and sensitization. A key recommendation is that IT managers conduct regular quality data assessments of collected data to ensure integrity. Managers should also review and update organizational data collection processes to align with global best practices. The implications for positive social change include the potential to ensure appropriate budgeting and resource allocation to states and local governments areas, which may improve the living condition of citizens.
... It is important for government, as well as organizations to monitor the well-being of citizens and workers, and take steps to improve their. Periodic, systematic data assessment will offer policymakers a much stronger set of findings to use in making policy decisions (Diener & Seligman, 2004). Governments and other organizations need to improve data quality with adequate strategies, approaches, techniques, and tools to ensure the reliability of data collection. ...
Thesis
Unreliable and poor-quality data is a significant threat to governmental institutions because of its devastating impact on nations' social and economic well-being. Managers in government organizations require reliable data to inform economic planning and decision-making. Grounded in the theory of total quality management, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies information technology (IT) managers in sub-Saharan African countries use to ensure the reliability of data. The participants were 12 IT managers in three government establishments in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, responsible for ensuring the data reliability for economic planning and decision-making. The data collection included semistructured interviews of IT managers and analysis of documents (n = 6). Thematic analysis resulted in five primary themes: data quality assessment, education and training, use of technology, management, and employee involvement, and advocacy and sensitization. A key recommendation is that IT managers conduct regular quality data assessments of collected data to ensure integrity. Managers should also review and update organizational data collection processes to align with global best practices. The implications for positive social change include the potential to ensure appropriate budgeting and resource allocation to states and local governments areas, which may improve the living condition of citizens.
... When measuring the quality of life, it is uncertain whether intrinsic factors affect well-being due to the presence of extrinsic factors (Veenhoven, 2001). Well-being is a valuable concept that can be considered a separate measure from quality of life (Diener and Seligman, 2004), and it goes far beyond the traditional indicators that predict quality of life. Thus, using quality of life scales to measure a person's well-being is biased. ...
Article
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Background The number of students enrolled in higher education in China accounts for more than one-fifth of the world, and universities, as a community of faculty, staff and scholars, currently do not have a scale that specifically assesses the well-being of the population in the environment of Chinese universities. However, the University of Pittsburgh has developed a comprehensive well-being scale, referred to as the Pitt Wellness Scale, specifically to measure people’s well-being in a university environment. Aims Investigate the psychometric properties of the Pitt Wellness Scale in Chinese university environmental samples. Methods The original scale was culturally adapted and modified through expert consultation, a random sample of 1870 current faculty, staff, and students were selected for the questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to investigate the potential factor structure of the Chinese Revision of the Pitt Wellness Scale and to measure its reliability and validity. Finally, the factors that affect people’s well-being in the Chinese university environment were explored. Results The Chinese Revision of the Pitt Wellness Scale retained 30 items, and the EFA supports a five-factor structure, which differed from the results of the original scale, and the CFA results showed that the model fitted well. The discriminant validity of the modified Chinese scale was excellent. The overall Omega coefficient of the scale was 0.958, and the reliability of the retest after 4 weeks was 0.821. Conclusion The Chinese Revision of the Pitt Wellness Scale possesses satisfactory psychometric properties, and it can be considered an instrument for assessing personal well-being in Chinese university environment.
... Positive interpersonal relationships are regarded as intrinsic components of psychological well-being and satisfaction with life (Diener & Seligman, 2009). According to Prilleltensky (2005), the well-being of humans is reliant on the quality of their relationships and the context in which they live. ...
Chapter
Child marriage has been identified as a violation of human rights and an obstacle to promoting the development goals concerning gender, health and education. All these impacts undermine the development of the girl child. Despite the potential for negative outcomes, the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic resources can buffer the adverse effects (e.g., psychological, physical and economic impact) of early marriage. This study employed a qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore and describe protective resources utilised by married girls in the Northern region of Ghana to cope with the challenges in their marriage and to promote positive outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 21 married girls who were aged between 12 and 19 years. Findings, from a thematic analysis of data, showed that intrinsic resources that promoted positive outcomes included possession of resilience attitudes, the use of help-seeking and active coping, and in some instances avoidance coping for problems they perceived as unsolvable. Extrinsic resources included interpersonal support networks, however, participants reported limited access to community and NGO support, which were also identified as protective resources. Policy makers and clinicians should consider a social justice approach in evaluating and recommending protective resources to girls in early marriages when working to promote their well-being. In so doing, attention should be placed on making external support systems accessible to married girls.
... Positive interpersonal relationships are regarded as intrinsic components of psychological well-being and satisfaction with life (Diener & Seligman, 2009). According to Prilleltensky (2005), the well-being of humans is reliant on the quality of their relationships and the context in which they live. ...
Chapter
Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
... In addition, comparative studies should be conducted in other countries. Finally, well-being is important not only for people but also for society (Diener and Seligman, 2004) because it is accompanied by a wide range of positive outcomes such as entrepreneurial success and higher career performance (Dijkhuizen et al., 2018). Thus, this still needs to be scrutinized by researchers who can focus on the effect of other personal and environmental variables on it and its outcomes. ...
Article
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Studies regarding rural entrepreneurs in developing countries and, specifically, their well-being have not been sufficiently developed in the literature. The present study was an attempt to fill this gap and to examine important antecedents and outcomes associated with entrepreneurial well-being among a sample of 102 Iranian rural entrepreneurs. This research established a theoretical research model that highlighted the relationships among job fit, entrepreneurial passion, well-being, and persistence. The results of structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model. In particular, the results indicated that higher job fit was associated with higher levels of entrepreneurial well-being through an entrepreneurial passion mechanism. Moreover, the results supported the hypothesized serial mediating effect. In other words, a high level of job fit enhances entrepreneurial persistence through a high level of entrepreneurial passion and well-being. This study provides significant input to policymakers and practitioners in their efforts to promote the antecedents and outcomes of well-being among rural entrepreneurs.
... Positive interpersonal relationships are regarded as intrinsic components of psychological well-being and satisfaction with life (Diener & Seligman, 2009). According to Prilleltensky (2005), the well-being of humans is reliant on the quality of their relationships and the context in which they live. ...
Chapter
Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
... It is better to live and enjoy the good life which the future holds for us, than to die in hopelessness and miss the blessings of tomorrow. Among other factors, Diener and Seligman (2004), asserted that longevity is connected with well-being. Reduced risk of disease, illness and injury; better immune functioning; speedier recovery; and increased longevity are associated with well-being (Pressman & Cohen, 2005). ...
Book
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the book is a multidisciplinary festschrift in honour of Rev Fr Prof Jude A.onuoha to mark his 25 years priestly anniversary. the honoree is an academic guru hence his friends, past students aqnd colleagues decided to write the book which culminated from all walks of knowledge.
... Over the past decades, life satisfaction received a lot of attention in the fields of psychology, sociology, and economy (Clark 2018;Diener et al. 1999;Diener et al. 2017). There are even attempts to establish life satisfaction as a central indicator for the efficacy of political actions (Diener et al. 2015;Diener and Seligman 2004). This is due to its relevant link to many important facets of human life like mental health (Beutel et al. 2010;Lombardo et al. 2018), physical health, and longevity (Diener and Chan 2011). ...
Article
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Background In Germany there is a large wealth gap between East and West Germans as well as a gap in life satisfaction, with people in East Germany reporting to be less satisfied. This paper intends to shed light on the role of the different levels of wealth and their association with life satisfaction. On a wider scale, this paper examines psychological consequences of wealth inequality between large societal groups. Method Longitudinal data from the years 2007, 2012, and 2017 of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) with a sample size of N = 5066 (Nfemale = 2522, Nwest = 3756, mage2007 = 50.46) was used. To test our hypothesis, multiple linear regression models as well as a fixed-effects regression model were run. Furthermore, to examine the development of wealth distribution between different birth cohorts in East and West Germany a latent growth curve model was calculated. Results Net-worth was found to be a highly significant predictor for life satisfaction. This holds true for variance between respondents as well as for individual change over time within respondents. Additionally, the results show that the wealth gap between East and West Germans in total as well as within most of the birth cohorts increased. Conclusion Due to their socialistic history and the related obstacles in acquiring wealth as well as the unbalanced distribution of GDR-assets after the reunification, East Germans are significantly less wealthy than West Germans. This has consequences on the mental well-being and the life satisfaction of East Germans.
... In recent years, the study of happiness and subjective well-being (SWB) has gained popularity by both psychologists, social scientists, and more recently, economists. Research by Diener and Seligman (2004) explores how the subjective experience of happiness is an intrinsically valuable personal goal pursued by all individuals. More basic and fundamental than money. ...
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This research continues the advances in applied positive psychology by measuring and exploring the factors which contribute to the happiness among people living in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. This research provides a province-wide account of subjective well-being (SWB), which is defined as a person’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her life, by answering the questions: What is the measurable level of well-being of individuals in PEI? What are the relationships between community factors and components of well-being in PEI? Which quality of life factors most influence individual’s emotions and life satisfaction in PEI? Participation was voluntary, anonymous, and included just over 1% of the adult population of residents (n = 1381). Data was collected online between October and November 2020. Demographic variables were collected and analyzed using variance of mean scores from three self-reported well-being measures, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Effect Schedule, and the World Health Organization’s (brief) Quality of Life Scale. Regression analysis was used to investigate contributions to well-being. Findings uncovered inequity in well-being among minority populations including, LGBT, gender diverse, Indigenous, disabled, and those living under the poverty line. This study provides a deeper understanding that Islanders view psychological health and healthy environment as important aspects of quality of life influencing their well-being. Results build on existing theories on the influence of income, age, and education have on well-being. Finally, the research provides a starting point and methodology for the continuous measurement and tracking of both the affective and cognitive accounts of well-being on PEI, or in other communities, provinces, or islands. This research provides insight into happiness as an indicator of how our society is performing and adds momentum towards the adoption of sustainable development goals, such as national happiness.
... Finally, considering inconsistent results in previous research regarding the relationship between income, happiness, and life satisfaction (Diener & Seligman, 2004;La Barbera & Gürhan, 1997), perceived (subjective) relative income is controlled in the proposed model. Moreover, when people judge adequacy of their income, they inevitably compare themselves to other people (Ackerman & Paolucci, 1983;Solnick & Hemenway, 1998). ...
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... So, how do we value animal health beyond money (not only as commodities)? The level of importance of essential factors, such as health, time, and money, varies according to each person's priorities [46][47][48][49]. What if we must give in exchange part of our health, money, and lifetime to cure a sick animal? ...
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... Concerning subjective WB measures, it should be noted that there are few articles (24.3%) that measure subjective WB analyzing both components within the same study (affective WB and cognitive WB). However, according to Diener's definition of subjective WB, the concept must include affective and cognitive components since these components differ in terms of predicting other variables and do not appear to be functionally equivalent (Diener & Seligman, 2004). In this regard, future research should measure subjective WB using both components to understand better how affective and cognitive WB are related (in all its areas) to EI. ...
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... In the long run, average well-being is more likely to increase in countries where relational goods are increasing rather than in countries where the economy is growing . In contrast, the most celebrated exemplars of growth in recent decades -the US and China -share similar patterns of declining subjective well-being (Brockmann et al. 2009;Stevenson and Wolfers 2013), paralleled by a significant spread of mental illnesses, especially anxiety and depression (Twenge 2000;Diener and Seligman 2004;Wilkinson and Pickett 2009;Case and Deaton, 2015). In these countries, the decline of well-being is largely explained by two driving forces. ...
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The present work investigates how the increased domestic responsibilities created by the Spring 2020 lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway and gender ideologies relate to the well-being of mothers with elementary school children. In June 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional online study including current and retrospective measures with 180 mothers (Mage = 39.96 years, SD = 6.11) of elementary school children across Norway. First, in line with earlier research on the strain of the pandemic on parents, and especially mothers, we found that Norwegian mothers’ well-being during the lockdown significantly declined compared to before the lockdown (both measured retrospectively). Furthermore, mothers’ well-being after the Spring 2020 lockdown did not immediately return to pre-lockdown levels. Finally, we predicted that gender ideologies (i.e., essentialist beliefs about parenthood) would exacerbate the negative impact of increased domestic responsibilities (i.e., childcare and housework) on mothers’ well-being (i.e., higher standard-higher stress hypothesis). As predicted, for mothers who more strongly endorsed the belief that mothers are instinctively and innately better caretakers than fathers, perceptions of increased domestic responsibilities were associated with lower well-being post-lockdown. These findings point to the specific challenges mothers face in times of crisis, and the importance of addressing and confronting seemingly benevolent ideologies about motherhood that place additional burdens on women.
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Метою статті є теоретичне обґрунтування та емпіричне дослідження взаємозв’язку між рисами характеру, толерантністю до невизначеності та компонентами особистісного благополуччя сту- дентів-психологів. Методи. У дослідженні використано такий діагностичний інструментарій, як: «Шкала психологіч- ного благополуччя К. Ріфф» (адаптація Т.Д. Шевеленкова, Т.П. Фесенко); П’ятифакторний опитуваль- ник (The Big Five Inventory, BFI, автори: Олівер Джон, Крістофер Сото (Oliver P. John, Christopher J. Soto, 2015; адаптація С.А. Щебетенко, А.Ю. Калугіна, А.М. Мишкевича, 2018); «Шкала загальної толерант- ності до невизначеності МакЛейна» (адаптація Е.Г. Луковицької, 1998, ревалідизація Е.М. Осіна, 2004). Результати. У статті теоретично обґрунтовано та викладено результати емпіричного дослідження взаємозв’язку між рисами характеру, толерантністю до невизначеності та компонентами особистісного благополуччя студентів-психологів. Дослідження проведено зі 311 студентами Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка за спеціальністю «Психологія». Досліджено взаємозв’язки між показниками благополуччя особистості, толерантності до невизначеності та рисами характеру. Виявлено значущий зв’язок між загальним показником благополуччя особистості та толерантності до невизначеності. Про- ведено наскрізний аналіз та виявлено значущий зв’язок між компонентною «Особистісне зростання» (психологічне благополуччя), субшкалами «Ставлення до невизначених ситуацій», «Перевага новизни», «Ставлення до складних задач» (шкала МакЛейна) та рисами характеру «Екстраверсія-Наполегливість», «Сумлінність-Відповідальність», «Відкритість досвіду» (BFI). Висновки. У статті наведено стислий огляд зарубіжних підходів до становлення дослідження фено- менів благополуччя особистості та толерантності до невизначеності, узагальнено та сформульовано визначення понять «особистісне благополуччя» і «толерантність до невизначеності». Проаналізовано кореляційні зв’язки між показниками особистісного благополуччя, толерантності до невизначеності та рисами характеру. Виявлено характерологічні диспозиції толерантності до невизначеності у сис- темі особистісного благополуччя студентів-психологів. Визначено перспективи подальших досліджень впливу на стан особистісного благополуччя студентів-психологів. Ключові слова: психологічне благополуччя, особистісне благополуччя, невизначеність, толерантність до невизначеності, толерування ситуації, риси характеру.
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The study aimed to examine the pairing relationship between economic growth and psychological human behavior (psychological well-being) of the individuals by application of the homo-hetero pairing effect correlation coefficient technique. The cross-sectional data were used. The data were collected from 211 individuals randomly sampled from two regions in Tanzania. The data were analysed by homo-hetero pairing effect correlation coefficient and the results were compared to that of the Pearson correlation coefficient and simple regression model. The study found that economic growth and psychological well-being are positively changing in pairs, and the psychological well-being of the individual is the true enabler (optimal independent) of the linear modelling. The study concluded that the improvement of the psychological well-being of individuals significantly improves economic growth and not vice versa. Therefore, the paper recommended that psychological well-being-based initiatives should be established and encouraged in society as found to have a positive impact on economic growth. Moreover, the study specifically, recommends the application of the homo-hetero pairing correlation coefficient in studies of cardiology, neurology, epidemiology, psychology, economics, anthropology, sociology and other fields of the social sciences.
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Thesis
This thesis explores the role that curriculum-based environmental education plays in influencing young peoples' wellbeing. It adopts a social constructivist approach to understand how wellbeing is understood, articulated and experienced by young people in residential learning environments. The thesis argues that positivistic and adult-centred accounts of wellbeing have restricted our appreciation of the diverse ways in which young people engage with and recognise their emotions in educational settings. In adopting an alternative framework, the thesis argues for experiential and subjective understandings of wellbeing to be developed through a range of methodological tools. The research sought to develop these ideas by focusing on the experiences of students visiting the Field Studies Centre at Slapton Ley (Devon, UK) and utilised focus groups and solicited participant diaries, providing a basis for phenomenological inquiry that enabled a direct engagement with young people participating in environmental education programmes. The empirical research focused on the experiences of young people between the ages of 14 and 18 years on a residential, curriculum-based environmental education programme and examined the role and potential of environmental education for supporting the wellbeing of young people. From an initial thematic analysis of the data five elements were identified as key to the participants' wellbeing: wellbeing as multidimensional, social elements, psychological elements, physical health and environmental elements. These elements were then used to provide a framing for understanding young peoples' experiences of wellbeing throughout the lived experience of curriculum-based environmental education and, as a result, the research yielded three themes that provide an understanding of the key experiences of environmental education and its connection to wellbeing: experiences of place, experiences of people, and the learning experience. Using these themes and the participants' conceptualisations of wellbeing, the research then iii explored how strategies can be developed within environmental education to promote the wellbeing of young people and reveals the importance of fostering feelings of restoration, increasing social bonds and developing a sense of achievement and accomplishment. Consequently, this research contributes to the fields of environmental education and health and wellbeing research within a geographical context through demonstrating the importance of qualitative approaches in revealing the ways young people articulate their emotions in educational settings. Alongside this, it challenges assumptions about the way nature is utilised in wellbeing interventions, highlighting the role that social and cultural backgrounds can play in the way nature is experienced by different groups and how this can be addressed within environmental education. Therefore, a key contribution of this research is in providing an empirical analysis for the relationship between environmental education and wellbeing, and how to best design environmental education programmes that meet the needs of young people.
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This paper has been produced as an Issue-Based Contribution to the sixth Global Report on Local Democracy and Decentralization (GOLD VI): the flagship publication of the organized constituency of local and regional governments represented in United Cities and Local Governments. The GOLD VI report has been produced in partnership with the Development Planning Unit (University College London), through the programme Knowledge in Action for Urban Equality (KNOW). GOLD VI focuses on how local and regional governments can address the local manifestations of growing inequalities and contribute to create ’Pathways toward urban and territorial equality’. The GOLD VI report has been produced through a large-scale international co-production process, bringing together over a hundred representatives of local and regional governments, academics and civil society organizations. This paper is an outcome of this process and is part of the GOLD VI Working Paper series, which collects the 22 Issue-Based Contributions produced as part of the GOLD VI process. In particular, the present paper has contributed to Chapter 8 on 'Prospering’, which focuses on prosperity as a culturally specific and multi-dimensional concept: one that includes, but is not limited to, the concept of income. The chapter explores key drivers of urban inequality reflected in the scarcity of decent work and in social-spatial disparities in the location of different productive activities within cities. Through the lens of ‘prospering’, the chapter analyses how local and regional governments can increase decent work opportunities, and, drawing on the impacts of COVID-19, how they can mitigate the effects of future pandemics and of climate change on decent work, urban prosperity, and inequality.
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