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Does a ‘protective’ message reduce the impact of an advergame promoting unhealthy foods to children? An experimental study in Spain and The Netherlands

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Abstract

The weight of evidence points to the advertising of food affecting food consumption, especially among children. Such advertising often promotes unhealthy foods. Current policy deliberations focus on developing effective ‘protective’ messages to increase advertising literacy and consequent scepticism about advertising targeting children. This study examined whether incorporating a ‘protective’ message in an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks would reduce children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted in the Netherlands (N = 215) and Spain (N = 382) with an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. The results showed that playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks increased caloric intake in both countries, irrespective of whether the ‘protective’ message was present or not. These results point to the limitations of ‘protective’ messages and advertising literacy and provide policy makers with a rationale for extending the current prohibition of food advertising to young children in the terrestrial media to online environments.

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... In total, 1624 unique studies were identified through database searches, of which, 26 [13,22,23,26,29,30,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61] were deemed eligible for inclusion. Compared to the studies included in similar, previous systematic reviews [62] and meta-analyses [17][18][19][20][21], the present meta-analysis contained 12 extra studies [22,23,26,29,30,49,51,52,55,56,58,60]. ...
... and by using both Egger´s regression method [41] and a trim-and-fill analysis [42]. [13,22,23,26,29,30,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61] were deemed eligible for inclusion. Compared to the studies included in 197 similar, previous systematic reviews [62] and meta-analyses [17][18][19][20][21], the present meta-analysis 198 contained 12 extra studies [22,23,26,29,30,49,51,52,55,56,58,60]. ...
... Most of the studies about foods embedded in entertainment media in the systematic review were 227 also likely to present effects on food intake [23,[44][45][46]48]. However, there were two studies that did 228 not report significant effects on food intake [47,60]. ...
Article
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While watching or playing with media, children are often confronted with food appearances. These food portrayals might be a potential factor that affects a child's dietary behaviors. We aimed to comprehensively expound the effects of these types of food appearances on dietary outcomes of children. Our objectives were to synthetize the evidence of the experiments that study the effects of foods embedded in children's entertainment media throughout a systematic review, to conduct two meta-analyses (food choice and intake) in order to quantify the effects, and to examine to what extent the effects of foods embedded in entertainment media varies across different moderating variables. We conducted a systematic search of five databases for studies published up to July 2018 regarding terms related to children and foods embedded in entertainment media. We identified 26 eligible articles, of which 13 (20 effect sizes) and 7 (13 effect sizes) were considered for a meta-analysis on food choice and intake, respectively. Most of the studies were assessed as having a middle risk of bias. Overall, food being embedded in entertainment media is a strategy that affects the eating behaviors of children. As most of the embedded foods in the included studies had low nutritional values, urgent measures are needed to address the problem of childhood obesity.
... In addition, children nearing adolescence are also more susceptible than younger children to social appeals and branding [53,55]. Therefore, even with knowledge of persuasive intent, children's appetitive response can be influenced by HFSS product marketing [22,[56][57][58][59]. In order for children to defend against the effects of food and beverage advertising, the food marketing defence model [52] Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at www.mdpi.com/xxx/s1, Figure S1: Photographic stills of influencer marketing techniques featured in the YouTuber's video, Interview guide. ...
... This may indicate that earlier theories of advertising, such as the persuasion knowledge model [47] which asserts that young children (12 years and under) are less able than adults to activate persuasion knowledge and so resist the effects, are perhaps outdated. However empirical research shows that advertising awareness alone has no protective effect on children's appetitive response to digital marketing of HFSS foods [56][57][58][59] or more specifically influencer marketing of these foods [22,23]. This is likely because children under the age of 12 are unlikely to apply advertising knowledge while being exposed to an advertisement, unless they are overtly made aware of the persuasive intent [51]. ...
Article
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Exposure to influencer marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar, and/or salt (HFSS) increases children’s immediate intake. This study qualitatively explored children’s understanding of, and attitudes towards, this marketing, to elucidate potential mechanisms through which exposure affects behavior. In six focus groups (n = 4) children (10–11 years) were shown a YouTube video featuring influencer marketing of an HFSS product. Inductive thematic analysis identified six themes from children’s discussions of this marketing: (1) YouTubers fill a gap in children’s lives, (2) the accessibility of YouTubers increases children’s understanding of their actions, (3) influencer marketing impacts all—the influencer, the brand, and the viewer, (4) attitudes towards influencer marketing are most affected by a YouTuber’s familiarity, (5) YouTuber influencer marketing is effective because they are not ‘strangers’, (6) children feel able to resist influencer marketing of HFSS products. Children had an understanding of the persuasive intent of this marketing, and although most were sceptical, familiar YouTubers elicited particularly sympathetic attitudes. Children felt affected by influencer marketing of HFSS products, but believed they were able to resist it. Beyond theoretical insight, this study adds to the growing body of evidence to suggest children’s exposure to HFSS influencer marketing should be reduced.
... Furthermore, research finds that children (7-12 years) do not compensate for increased marketing-induced food consumption by reducing calorie intake at a later eating occasion [48]. Thus, over time, repeated food marketing exposure would likely lead to weight gain [3], especially because several studies have shown that children find it difficult to resist the influence of food marketing [3,49]. ...
... However, research shows that even children as young as 8 years can display an understanding of persuasive intent and still respond positively to marketing, displaying a preference for the advertised brand compared to alternatives [57]. Consistent with these findings, empirical studies have demonstrated that advertising disclosures (visual disclaimers that notify the viewer of the persuasive intent of media content) have no protective effect on children's appetitive response to HFSS food marketing, and can even increase the effect, with children consuming more of the advertised product when present [46,49]. ...
Article
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Currently, food marketing for unhealthy foods is omnipresent. Foods high in fat, salt, and sugar (HFSS) are advertised intensively on several media platforms, including digital platforms that are increasingly used by children, such as social media, and can be bought almost everywhere. This could contribute to the obesity epidemic that we are facing. As the majority of children and adolescents do not eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), which leads to chronic diseases, we need to change the obesogenic environment to a healthogenic environment. Reducing the marketing of energy-dense snacks to children and increasing the promotion of healthier foods, such as fruits and vegetables, may be an effective and necessary instrument to improve the dietary intake of children and reduce the risk of their experiencing some chronic diseases later in life. With this focused narrative review, we provide an overview of how children and adolescents react to food promotions and how food promotional efforts might be a useful tool to increase the attractiveness of fruit and vegetables. This review therefore contributes to the question of how changing the advertising and media environment of children and adolescents could help create a world where the healthy choice is the easier choice, which would reduce childhood obesity and improve children’s health, as well as to make the food system more sustainable.
... 21 Data from healthy food adverts and no advergame control data were excluded; 22,23 data for advergames with food adverts/nonfood adverts with a protective message intervention were excluded. 24 Data for combined media (the effect of TV adverts with advergame) were excluded since the effect was inconsistent for TV or advergame analyses. 25 In terms of the outcome, total intake of food groups were combined in analyses to give an overall measure of dietary intake. ...
... Experiments were conducted in the United States (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 7), the United Kingdom (n = 5), Australia (n = 2), Canada (n = 2), Spain (n = 1), Georgia (n = 1), and Mexico (n = 1); one study contained separate samples in Spain and Netherlands, which were included as separate studies in meta-analysis. 24 ...
Article
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Evidence indicates that screen advertising for unhealthy food results in significant increases in dietary intake among children. This review was undertaken with the main aim of estimating the quantitative effect of screen advertising in experimental and nonexperimental conditions on children's dietary intake. Systematic searches were undertaken of interdisciplinary databases. Studies from 1980 to April 2018, all geography and languages, were included; participants were children and adolescents aged between 2 and 18 years; the intervention was screen advertising; and the outcome was dietary intake. Meta‐analyses were conducted for measured and nonmeasured outcomes. Food advertising was found to increase dietary intake among children (age range 2‐14, mean 8.8 years) in experimental conditions for television (TV) advertising and advergames. Meta‐analysis revealed that children exposed to food advertising on TV (11 studies) and advergames (five studies) respectively consumed an average 60.0 kcal (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1‐116.9) and 53.2 kcal (95% CI, 31.5‐74.9) more than children exposed to nonfood advertising. There was also an effect by body mass index (BMI). Findings from nonexperimental studies revealed that exposure to TV food advertising was positively associated with and predictive of dietary intake in children. Short‐term exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV and advergames increases immediate calorie consumption in children.
... Previous literature on digital advertising aimed at children has focused on studying the mechanisms and tactics of digital communication implemented by brands to influence children and adolescents (Boelsen-Robinson et al., 2016;Confos and Davis, 2016), the appropriateness of the content of mobile advertising aimed at children of different ages (Chen et al., 2013), the attitude of adolescents toward mobile advertising (Parreñ o et al., 2013;Walrave and Heirman, 2013), the levels of digital AL in children and adolescents (Ba et al., 2002;Thaichon, 2017) and most recently, the effect of warning messages of sponsored content, known as disclosures, in AL, mainly in its conceptual and attitudinal dimensions (Folkvord et al., 2017;Vanwesenbeeck et al., 2017;Van Dam and Van Reijmersdal, 2019;Boerman and van Reijmersdal, 2020). ...
... Given the nature of the problem posed, the latter was adopted as the methodology and for the same reason, the information was analyzed with techniques that allowed for a comprehensive, exploratory and descriptive vision of the phenomenon under study. And second, considering that the literature on AL has mostly focused on studying the impact of digital advertising on children with access to devices such as personal computers (PC) and laptops (Folkvord et al., 2017;Shin, 2017;Hudders and Cauberghe, 2018), this study has developed a questionnaire that has been adapted from previous literature to suit the mobile advertising context and the population of interest, that is, parents with children between 5 and 16 years of age. ...
Preprint
Purpose-The use of mobile devices by children and adolescents is increasing significantly; therefore, it is relevant to research the level of advertising literacy (AL) of parents who act as mediators between children and mobile advertising. This study aims to explore the conceptual, moral and attitudinal dimensions of AL and its relationship with different styles of parental control. Design/methodology/approach-A cross-sectional survey was applied simultaneously to a sample of parents with children between 5 and 16 years old in three Spanish-speaking countries: Mexico, Spain and Colombia. Participants from the three countries were recruited via online social media networks and were asked to fill in an online survey. A questionnaire, which has been adapted from previous literature to suit the mobile advertising context and the population of interest, was designed. Crosscountry samples of varying sizes, with a predetermined quota of 200 participants for each country, were used. The total sample consisted of 1,454 participants. Findings-Four factors of mobile AL were found, which, to a greater extent, correspond to the dimensions of AL proposed in the literature. The following are the dimensions that were identified: cognitive, moral, attitudinal and an emerging factor is known as ''children's perceived mobile AL.'' Differences in parents' perceived knowledge of mobile advertising, parental control styles and AL levels in the three countries were identified. Parents with an authoritative style were identified to have more knowledge than those with an indulgent style. Differences were also identified between countries concerning the amount of exposure that children have to mobile advertising, while no significant differences were found in the moral dimension. Practical implications-Marketing practitioners and public policymakers must consider that parents differ in some dimensions of AL. Parents also seem to lack adequate knowledge about the advertising tools available to announcers that affect children and adolescents in a mobile communication environment. Therefore, government agencies should consider developing mobile digital media literacy programs for parents. Originality/value-This paper explores the dimensions of AL applied to the mobile context and identifies the level of parental mobile AL in three Spanish-speaking countries, as well as the differences between these sub-samples concerning parental mobile AL profiles and parental control styles, thus expanding the literature on AL with a cross-cultural approach.
... Previous literature on digital advertising aimed at children has focused on studying the mechanisms and tactics of digital communication implemented by brands to influence children and adolescents (Boelsen-Robinson et al., 2016;Confos and Davis, 2016), the appropriateness of the content of mobile advertising aimed at children of different ages (Chen et al., 2013), the attitude of adolescents toward mobile advertising (Parreñ o et al., 2013;Walrave and Heirman, 2013), the levels of digital AL in children and adolescents (Ba et al., 2002;Thaichon, 2017) and most recently, the effect of warning messages of sponsored content, known as disclosures, in AL, mainly in its conceptual and attitudinal dimensions (Folkvord et al., 2017;Vanwesenbeeck et al., 2017;Van Dam and Van Reijmersdal, 2019;Boerman and van Reijmersdal, 2020). ...
... Given the nature of the problem posed, the latter was adopted as the methodology and for the same reason, the information was analyzed with techniques that allowed for a comprehensive, exploratory and descriptive vision of the phenomenon under study. And second, considering that the literature on AL has mostly focused on studying the impact of digital advertising on children with access to devices such as personal computers (PC) and laptops (Folkvord et al., 2017;Shin, 2017;Hudders and Cauberghe, 2018), this study has developed a questionnaire that has been adapted from previous literature to suit the mobile advertising context and the population of interest, that is, parents with children between 5 and 16 years of age. ...
Article
Purpose The use of mobile devices by children and adolescents is increasing significantly; therefore, it is relevant to research the level of advertising literacy (AL) of parents who act as mediators between children and mobile advertising. This study aims to explore the conceptual, moral and attitudinal dimensions of AL and its relationship with different styles of parental control. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey was applied simultaneously to a sample of parents with children between 5 and 16 years old in three Spanish-speaking countries: Mexico, Spain and Colombia. Participants from the three countries were recruited via online social media networks and were asked to fill in an online survey. A questionnaire, which has been adapted from previous literature to suit the mobile advertising context and the population of interest, was designed. Cross-country samples of varying sizes, with a predetermined quota of 200 participants for each country, were used. The total sample consisted of 1,454 participants. Findings Four factors of mobile AL were found, which, to a greater extent, correspond to the dimensions of AL proposed in the literature. The following are the dimensions that were identified: cognitive, moral, attitudinal and an emerging factor is known as “children’s perceived mobile AL.” Differences in parents’ perceived knowledge of mobile advertising, parental control styles and AL levels in the three countries were identified. Parents with an authoritative style were identified to have more knowledge than those with an indulgent style. Differences were also identified between countries concerning the amount of exposure that children have to mobile advertising, while no significant differences were found in the moral dimension. Practical implications Marketing practitioners and public policymakers must consider that parents differ in some dimensions of AL. Parents also seem to lack adequate knowledge about the advertising tools available to announcers that affect children and adolescents in a mobile communication environment. Therefore, government agencies should consider developing mobile digital media literacy programs for parents. Originality/value This paper explores the dimensions of AL applied to the mobile context and identifies the level of parental mobile AL in three Spanish-speaking countries, as well as the differences between these sub-samples concerning parental mobile AL profiles and parental control styles, thus expanding the literature on AL with a cross-cultural approach.
... Such cues can take different forms such as being auditory or visual and can be put into effect prior to playing the game or afterward (De Pauw et al., 2018). They can include a protective message/warning in the game (Folkvord et al., 2017) or pair the advertising with a cue to activate health knowledge (Esmaeilpour et al., 2018). If these cues are effective, they can activate children's advertising literacy and persuasion knowledge, which will reduce the seductive impact on brand attitudes (Vashist and Pillai, 2017). ...
... Aside from the difficulty these studies are encountering to find proper ways to reduce the impact of this persuasive technique on the intake of unhealthy food products (Folkvord et al., 2017), these rules and legislation will not be imposed on brands unless more research is able to show the magnitude of the effects of digital media on children. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the magnitude of the impact advergames have on children’s preferences and choices for unhealthy products and brands, in terms of time of exposure (immediate vs delayed) and number of exposures (single vs repeated exposure). Past literature has focused essentially on the immediate effects of single exposures to advergames. Few studies explored the delayed or repetition effects and found wear-out effects of multiple exposure and also no delayed effects of single exposure. Therefore, this study will reduce the existent gap in the literature by studying simultaneously both effects. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 104 children aged 6-9 years old was used, divided into three groups (no exposure/single exposure/repeated exposure) in an experimental between-subjects design setting. Findings The results confirm the existence of all the expected effects: exposure to advergames has immediate and longer effects on a child’s preferences and choices of the brand depicted in the advergame and in that product category. Repeated exposure to the advergame enhances all the effects on the brand, but not on the product category. Originality/value Although earlier literature has already analyzed time and repetition effects on traditional media, or sought to analyze effects of advergames but with an adult sample, this article highlights the extent of these effects with children, and based on these results, reflects on the ethicality of using advergames with children on products high in fat, salt and/or sugar.
... Some of the studies in Table 1 also investigated factors that may mediate the impact of marketing techniques such as: A protective message [91], attentional bias [92], weight status [47,75], genetics [56], parental influence [40,41,54], developmental stage and gender [38,40] and health knowledge [39]. These studies indicated a fast latency of initial fixations to food cues (p = 0.05), heavier weight status (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04) and FTO risk alleles (p = 0.02) all increased food consumption in children [47,56,75,92]. ...
... Food marketing was also more likely to influence the food preferences of boys than girls (p = 0.03) [38]. Some findings showed a moderating impact of and the activation of health knowledge [39] (p = 0.03), but overall, the influence of food marketing was not mediated by a protective message (Dutch children p = 0.1 and Spanish children p = 0.2) [91], parental influence (p > 0.05, p > 0.05 and p = 0.7) [40,41,54] or age (p = 0.3) [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages is a widely acknowledged risk factor for the development of childhood obesity and noncommunicable diseases. Food marketing involves the use of numerous persuasive techniques to influence children’s food attitudes, preferences and consumption. This systematic review provides a comprehensive contemporary account of the impact of these marketing techniques on children aged 0–18 years and critically evaluates the methodologies used. Five electronic academic databases were searched using key terms for primary studies (both quantitative and qualitative) published up to September 2018; 71 eligible articles were identified. Significant detrimental effects of food marketing, including enhanced attitudes, preferences and increased consumption of marketed foods were documented for a wide range of marketing techniques, particularly those used in television/movies and product packaging. Together, these studies contribute strong evidence to support the restriction of food marketing to children. However, the review also signposted distinct gaps: Firstly, there is a lack of use of qualitative and physiological methodologies. Secondly, contemporary and sophisticated marketing techniques used in new media warrant increased research attention. Finally, more research is needed to evaluate the longer-term effects of food marketing on children’s weight.
... In addition, children who played an advergame promoting branded HFSS foods increased their food intake, irrespective of whether an advertising disclosure was featured. 33 The food marketing defense model 34 states that four conditions must be met in order for children to counter the effects of food marketing: awareness of advertising, understanding of its persuasive intent, and the ability and the motivation to resist. Therefore, if advertising disclosures do raise awareness of the persuasive intent of marketing, in order to resist its effect, children must also be motivated to do so. ...
... This is consistent with a recent study finding the same effects after exposure to an HFSS food advergame either with or without an advertising disclosure. 33 Also supported by the literature, 25,29,53,54 the current study found the presence of an advertising disclosure did increase children's awareness of advertising, with 76% of children exposed to a disclosure, and 32% of those not, reporting awareness. However, increased awareness did not reduce kcal intake of the marketed snack, but actually increased intake, meaning marketing was more effective when a disclosure was present. ...
Article
Background: Children are active on social media and consequently are exposed to new and subtle forms of food marketing. Objectives: To examine whether exposure to a YouTube video featuring influencer marketing of an unhealthy snack affects children's ad libitum snack intake and whether inclusion of an advertising disclosure moderates this effect. Methods: In a randomized between-subjects design, 151 children (aged 9-11 y; mean, 10.32 y ± 0.6) were exposed to influencer marketing of a non-food product (n = 51), or an unhealthy snack with (n = 50) or without (n = 50) an advertising disclosure. Participants' ad libitum intake of the marketed snack and an alternative brand of the same snack was measured. Results: Children exposed to food marketing with (P < .001, d = 1.40) and without (P < .001, d = 1.07) a disclosure consumed more (kcals) of the marketed snack relative to the alternative; the control did not differ (.186, d = 0.45). Consumption of the alterative brand did not differ across conditions (.287, ηp2 = .02). Children who viewed food marketing with a disclosure (and not those without) consumed 41% more of the marketed snack (.004, ηp2 = .06), compared with control. Conclusions: Influencer marketing increases children's immediate intake of the promoted snack relative to an alternative brand. Advertising disclosures may enhance the effect.
... One study found that playing an advergame which promoted HFSS foods increased caloric intake of such products among children in the Netherlands and Spain, even in the conditions when a warning was displayed to indicate the content was marketing and when healthier alternative foods were also available [110] . Another study similarly found that playing an advergame that promoted HFSS food and drinks increased selection of, and liking towards, HFSS foods [83] . ...
... Several experimental studies also highlighted that displaying protective warnings which highlight that the content is marketing also has limited effect. One study, for example, found that playing an advergame promoting HFSS snacks increased caloric intake among children in Netherlands and Spain, irrespective of whether a protective message was displayed [110] . Similarly, another study found that displaying a protective message did not increase the ability of children in the US to identify the persuasive intent of an advergame or knowledge of who was responsible for producing (e.g. ...
Technical Report
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Navigating a digital marketing mix, and the impact on children and young people’s dietary attitudes and behaviours: A narrative review.
... Considering that most food advertising promotes unhealthy, palatable, and rewarding food products, it is considered to be an important factor in the current obesity epidemic Folkvord, 2019;Folkvord et al., 2016;Harris, Bargh, & Brownell, 2009). Food commercials influence children's preferences (Borzekowski & Robinson, 2001), requests for (Buijzen & Valkenburg, 2002), and consumption of advertised products (Folkvord, Anschütz, Buijzen, & Valkenburg, 2013, Folkvord, Anschütz, Nederkoorn, Westerik, & Buijzen, 2014, 2015, 2017. Several studies have shown that children with overweight or obesity may be particularly vulnerable to these effects (Folkvord et al., 2015(Folkvord et al., , 2016Halford et al., 2004Halford et al., , 2007. ...
... Previous studies have shown that advergames promoting unhealthy foods have an effect on pester power (Dixon, Scully, & Parkinson, 2006), food choice (Dias & Agante, 2011), food liking, nutritional knowledge Esmaeilpour, Heidarzadeh, Mansourian, & Khounsiavash, 2018), and actual eating behavior (see for an overview on the effects of advergames Folkvord & van't Riet, 2018). Considering that A great number of studies have shown that advertising knowledge does not results in increased counterarguments against advertising effects (An, Jin, & Park, 2014;Brucks, Armstrong, & Goldberg, 1988;Folkvord et al., 2016Folkvord et al., , 2017Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, & Buijzen, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
People with an increased motivation for rewarding substances show increased automatic selective attention towards cues that are related to that specific substance. The aim of this study was to explore if overweight and hungry children have an attentional bias for food cues in food advertising. A randomized between-subject design was used with 95 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or non-food products. Overweight children had a higher gaze duration for the food cues compared to normal weight children. No effects were found of overweight on the attentional bias measurements for the non-food cues. Furthermore, hungrier children had a higher gaze duration, a higher number of fixations, and a faster latency of initial fixation on the food cues than less hungry children, while we found the opposite results for the non-food cues. The findings largely confirm our expectations, adding important knowledge about individual susceptibility to food advertisements. Overweight and hungrier children seem to be stronger affected by food advertising than normal weight and less hungry children. This study is the first that examined attentional bias in a food advertisement that is highly comparable to advertisements that are used by food companies, thereby increasing the external validity of the findings. The second strength is that the development of an attentional bias for food cues is developing at a young age and it was examined in a real-life situation.
... -May impact food preferences, choice or intake [51] • Advergames -Impact on food intake/consumption [36,37], food choice [34] -Variable effects on attitudes and consumption [38•] • Depictions of physical activity -Impact on attitudes [24,25] • Brand personalities -Impact on attitudes [50] • Deals (sales, in-store, and other) ...
Article
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Purpose of Review This scoping review examines literature from the past 5 years (June 2014 to June 2019) across three databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) to detail how the persuasive power of child-targeted food marketing content is addressed and evaluated in current research, to document trends and gaps in research, and to identify opportunities for future focus. Recent Findings Eighty relevant studies were identified, with varied approaches related to examining food marketing techniques to children (i.e., experimental, survey, meta-analyses, mixed methods, content analyses, focus groups). Few studies specifically defined power, and studies differed in terms of techniques examined. Spokes-characters were the predominant marketing technique measured; television was the platform most analyzed; and dominant messages focused on health/nutrition, taste appeals, and appeals to fun/pleasure. Summary Mapping the current landscape when it comes to the power of food marketing to children reveals concrete details about particular platforms, methods, and strategies, as well as opportunities for future research—particularly with respect to definitions and techniques monitored, digital platforms, qualitative research, and tracking changes in targeted marketing techniques over time.
... Neyens et al. (2017) measured brand attitudes of the advertised food products. Final, Folkvord et al. (2013) measured actual intake, by assessing ad libitum snack intake for five minutes during a break from four bowls of food (two with fruit, two with energy-dense snacks), and Folkvord et al. (2014Folkvord et al. ( , 2015Folkvord et al. ( , 2016Folkvord et al. ( , 2017) measured ad libitum snack intake for five minutes of two bowls of food (with energy-dense snacks) when the researcher was not in the same room as the children. In addition, Norman et al. (2018) measured actual intake on multiple moments during the day to examine the (sustainable) effects of the advergames promoting energy-dense snacks. ...
... As children's media consumption has changed from traditional spaces (TV) to digital spaces (online games, etc.) and social media, research has continually sought to quantify the marketing taking place in those domains. Some have looked at websites and explored brand cues in advergames (Harris et al., 2012;Folkvord et al., 2017;Folkvord and van 't Riet, 2018). However, contemporary digital marketing of HFSS foods and beverages is often targeted and personalized, meaning there are methodological challenges in measuring children's exposure (WHO, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Food and beverage cues (visual displays of food or beverage products/brands) featured in traditional broadcast and digital marketing are predominantly for products high in fat, sugar and/or salt (HFSS). YouTube is hugely popular with children, and cues featured in content uploaded by YouTube video bloggers (influencers) has been shown to affect children’s eating behavior. However, little is known about the prevalence of such cues, the contexts in which they appear, and the frequency with which they are featured as part of explicit marketing campaigns. The objective of this study was to explore the extent and nature of food and beverage cues featured in YouTube videos of influencers popular with children. All videos uploaded by two influencers (one female, one male) over a year (2017) were analyzed. Based on previous content analyses of broadcast marketing, cues were categorized by product type and classified as “healthy” or “less healthy” according to the UK Nutrient Profiling Model. Cues were also coded for branding status, and other factors related to their display (e.g., description). In total, the sample comprised 380 YouTube videos (119.5 h) and, of these, only 27 videos (7.4%) did not feature any food or beverage cues. Cakes (9.4%) and fast foods (8.9%) were the most frequently featured product types, less frequent were healthier products such as fruits (6.5%) and vegetables (5.8%). Overall, cues were more frequently classified as less healthy (49.4%) than healthy (34.5%) and were presented in different contexts according to nutritional profile. Less healthy foods (compared with healthy foods) were more often; branded, presented in the context of eating out, described positively, not consumed, and featured as part of an explicit marketing campaign. These data provide the first empirical assessment of the extent and nature of food and beverage cue presentation in YouTube videos by influencers popular with children. Given the emerging evidence of the effects of influencer marketing of food and beverages on children’s eating behavior, this exploratory study offers a novel methodological platform for digital food marketing assessment and delivers important contextual information that could inform policy deliberations in this area.
... Avec la rapide évolution technologique et numérique, les industries agroalimentaires inventent de nouveaux outils publicitaires et promotionnels toujours plus ludiques et influents et qui échappent à la réglementation imposant la présence de messages sanitaires sur les publicités. Les nouveaux outils de communication numérique sont tellement attrayants pour les enfants et adolescents que même y ajouter des messages sanitaires pour éventuellement contrecarrer leurs effets néfastes comme, par exemple, sur des jeux numériques publicitaires, serait insuffisant [30]. ...
Article
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Les liens entre les usages et le temps d’écrans (télévision, mobile, jeux vidéo, etc.), surpoids et obésité sont bien établis dans la littérature scientifique. L’article présente les quatre principaux mécanismes impliqués : 1) l’usage des écrans incite à des prises caloriques immédiates, 2) les effets, parfois non conscients, de la publicité pour les produits de mauvaise qualité nutritionnelle, 3) la sédentarité, 4) l’usage des écrans le soir est lié à une durée de sommeil insuffisante, facteur de risque d’obésité.
... Attention should be given to the direction of game design and targeted behaviour change. Given that the long-term impact of advergames remains unexplored, and incorporating a 'protective' message in advergames was shown to be ineffective to reduce children's subsequent unhealthy snack intake (Folkvord, Lupiáñez-Villanueva et al., 2017), it is advisable to develop regulations or guidelines for digital marketing of unhealthy foods to children. Physical games: (Gillis, 2003) To evaluate the effect of an interactive food game on children with chronic food refusal to increase their food acceptance.→ ...
Article
Gamification and serious games have increasingly been used in dietary interventions for children. This review evaluates these game-based interventions by examining the following questions: Can game-based approaches change children’s eating behaviour (positively or negatively)? If yes, what game elements are characterised among the effective interventions? and, What are the potentials of applying game-based approaches to improve children’s eating behaviour? Medline (Ovid), Scopus and PSYCINFO were used to identify experimental studies. Forty-three studies, including video or physical games and gamification, were identified and presented in four topics according to the study aim and eating behaviour target: 1) increase fruit and vegetable intake, 2) modify snacking behaviour, 3) encourage food exploration, and 4) promote healthy eating. Both gamifications and serious games can enhance children’s fruit and vegetable intake, and promote healthy eating behaviour by improving their nutritional knowledge and attitudes. They may also encourage children’s food exploration to increase novel food acceptance and reduce picky eating behaviour. However, playing snack-promoting games (advergames) significantly increases children’s subsequent snack intake, and profound effects were found for unhealthy snacks. As game elements, rewards were repeatedly used across studies to incentivise behaviour change. The combination of narrative context, feedback, progress and challenge was frequently used to motivate and engage children to establish healthy eating behaviour. In conclusion, game-based interventions have potential for increasing fruit and vegetable intake and educating children about healthy eating. Further research is needed to examine long-term effects and the underlying mechanisms for behavioural change.
... Premièrement, on remarque un développement intensif des moyens de communication numériques qui échappent totalement à la règlementation imposant la présence de ces bandeaux sanitaires : publicités sur Internet et sur les mobiles, intenses promotions des marques sur les réseaux sociaux numériques, jeux vidéo publicitaires (advergames)… Or, enfants et adolescents y sont fortement exposés et très sensibles (Buchanan et al. 2017). Les nouveaux outils de communication numériques sont tellement attrayants pour les enfants et adolescents que même y ajouter des messages sanitaires pour éventuellement contrecarrer leurs effets néfastes comme, par exemple, sur des jeux numériques publicitaires, serait insuffisant (Folkvord et al., 2017). L'accroissement de la pression publicitaire nécessite de réglementer les pubs pour les enfants Deuxièmement, on constate l'usage de plus en plus fréquent de techniques de communication commerciale agissant sur les consommateurs à un niveau peu ou non conscient. ...
Technical Report
Les différentes agences sanitaires se sont engagées dans un vaste travail de réactualisation des recommandations nutritionnelles. Outre le contenu de ces dernières, leur forme devra également fortement évoluer pour s’adapter aux nouveaux modes de communication et pour répondre à de multiples écueils, qui limitent depuis longtemps l’efficacité de ce type de messages sanitaires. « La formulation et la communication de repères de consommations alimentaires auprès du consommateur par les pouvoirs publics nécessiteront un travail complémentaire permettent d’identifier les formats d’expression les plus adaptés » a ainsi souligné l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES) dans un récent rapport. Dans cette optique, l’INSERM a récemment formulé différentes recommandations destinées à renforcer l’efficacité des messages. Il s’agit d’une part de mieux tenir compte des mécanismes cognitifs et psychosociaux qui participent à la réception de ces informations, afin d’utiliser des méthodes plus pertinentes. Par ailleurs, il est essentiel de restreindre les publicités vantant les aliments gras et sucrés ; une mesure que la France a toujours renoncé à prendre et qui paraît s’imposer. Ces axes majeurs sont ici évoqués pour nous par Fabien Girandola, professeur de psychologie sociale et Didier Coubet, professeur en sciences de l’information et de la communication qui ont participé à ce travail d’expertise.
... In previous studies [11,12], it has been found that foods classified as processed, with low nutritional value due to their high sugar, fat, or salt content, dominate advertisements (ads) seen by children, with the result that there is greater TV exposure to food considered unhealthy than to healthy eating. Despite the poor nutritional value of the products advertised, most ads aimed at children make some type of nutritional or health claim [10], which misleads consumers who, believing in the healthy properties that the ad attributes to products with little nutritional value, end up consuming them [13,14]. ...
Article
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In Spain, 40% of children are overweight or obese. Television advertising is a widely acknowledged factor contributing to high-calorie food intake. This study longitudinally correlates some variables involved in childhood obesity prevention strategies in Spain. A mixed-methods approach was used. A quantitative analysis of audience data was conducted to determine the advertising campaigns most viewed by Spanish children from 2016 to 2018. The Nutri-score system was applied to determine the nutritional quality of the food advertised. A content analysis and a study of the discursive strategies used as an advertising ploy was undertaken. The results were examined in relation to the regulatory framework of the Spanish PAOS Code for the co-regulation of food advertising aimed at children. The study shows that Spanish advertising aimed at children mostly advertises very low nutritional value products. Moreover, these campaigns violate the PAOS Code in terms of the use of language in relation to the product, its benefits, and the appearance of popular characters. Our findings suggest a direct association between low nutritional value food ads and discursive strategies based on the intangible and extrinsic characteristics of these products. There remains the need for stricter legislation that takes into consideration the nutritional value of advertised foods and the language used in their hedonistic advertising.
... However, there is also evidence of the opposite. In the context of influencer marketing for unhealthy food, research found that a disclosure made children eat more of the advertised product and more of the provided snacks in general (Folkvord et al., 2017;Coates et al., 2019). Additionally, studies have found positive effects of advertising literacy on purchase intentions or advertised product desired (e.g., Rozendaal et al., 2009;Van Reijmersdal et al., 2015b;Vanwesenbeeck et al., 2017), while others have found no evidence for the relationship between advertising literacy and product desire (Mallinckrodt and Mizerski, 2007). ...
Article
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Watching online videos is becoming an important part of children’s media diets. Children particularly like content that is specifically created for YouTube by YouTube personalities. Because these personalities have a large reach and are considered likeable and credible, they have become social media influencers. For advertisers, these influencers are an interesting channel to reach youth. Therefore, influencers often embed persuasive sponsored messages in their videos to earn money. However, there are concerns about this practice because it is not always clear when a video includes advertising. Therefore, in several countries, guidelines have been developed that state that sponsoring in influencer videos should be disclosed as such. Until now, little is known about the effects of disclosures for influencer videos on children and the boundary conditions for such effects. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a disclosure of sponsored influencer videos on children’s advertising literacy. Additionally, we examined the consequences of the disclosure for children’s responses to the brand, advertised product, and video. We also included the para-social relationship (PSR) that children experience with an influencer as a possible boundary condition for disclosure effects on persuasion. Our experiment amongst children between 8 and 12 years old showed that, when children correctly recalled the disclosure, the disclosure increased their recognition of advertising, and understanding of selling and persuasive intent. Moreover, advertising literacy evoked by the disclosure affected persuasion: The disclosure enhanced brand memory through ad recognition, but also decreased advertised product desire through understanding the selling intent of the video. Furthermore, the PSR of children with the influencer proved to be a boundary condition for disclosure effects on brand attitudes. Only for those children who experienced moderate to low PSRs with the influencer, the disclosure resulted in less positive brand attitudes through understanding selling intent. For children who experienced a strong PSR with the influencer, the understanding that the content had a selling intent did not affect their brand attitudes. These findings show that a disclosure (if noticed and remembered) can be an effective tool to achieve transparency, but also influences the persuasive outcomes of influencer marketing in online videos.
... Previous studies have found an effect of the promotion of healthy foods on intake among adolescents [56][57][58][59]. In addition, several studies have found a neurological effect of food advertising for unhealthy foods in adolescents [53,54], but this has not yet been tested for promotion techniques for healthy foods. ...
Article
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Marketers have found new ways of reaching adolescents on social platforms. Previous studies have shown that advertising effectively increases the intake of unhealthy foods while not so much is known about the promotion of healthier foods. Therefore, the main aim of the present experimental pilot study was to examine if promoting red peppers by a popular social influencer on social media (Instagram) increased subsequent actual vegetable intake among adolescents. We used a randomized between-subject design with 132 adolescents (age: 13–16 y). Adolescents were exposed to an Instagram post by a highly popular social influencer with vegetables (n = 44) or energy-dense snacks (n = 44) or were in the control condition (n = 44). The main outcome was vegetable intake. Results showed no effect of the popular social influencer promoting vegetables on the intake of vegetables. No moderation effects were found for parasocial interaction and persuasion knowledge. Bayesian results were consistent with the results and supported evidence against the effect of the experimental condition. Worldwide, youth do not consume the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables, making it important to examine if mere exposure or different forms of food promotion techniques for healthier foods are effective in increasing the intake of these foods.
... Moreover, strategies to prevent childhood obesity related to TV advertising should use an evidence-based approach in order to succeed. For example, the effectiveness of "protective" messages in food advertising for children is under question because the results are not as expected [70]. This may be because healthy messages shown in food advertisements on TV do not usually receive attention, since they always appear in illegible type for only a short time. ...
Article
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The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase. Screen time, one of the most documented reasons for the obesogenic environment, enhances childhood obesity, since advertisements for unhealthy food products are still broadcast on channels for children. This is presently one of the main challenges for the government in Spain, since the current laws and obligations are not updated. This study aims to analyze food advertising aimed at children on Spanish television in 2013 and 2018 on children's and general channels to test the effect of laws and obligations over time. In total, we viewed 512 h of the most viewed channels, two children's and two general channels, during the week and on weekends during specific periods of 2013 and 2018. Food advertising was categorized as core, non-core, and other food advertisement (CFA, NCFA, and OFA, respectively) according to the nutritional profile. A total of 2935 adverts were analyzed, 1263 in 2013 and 1672 in 2018. A higher proportion of NCFAs were broadcast on children's channels than in prior years, rising from 52.2% to 69.8% (p < 0.001). Nowadays, the risk of watching NCFAs on children's channels compared to general channels turns out to be higher (Odds ratio > 2.5; p < 0.001), due to exposure to adverts for high-sugar and high-fat foods such as cakes, muffins, cookies, and fried and frozen meals rich in fat. In conclusion, the trends of nutritional profiles in food advertising on television are worsening over time, since the prevalence of NCFAs was higher in 2018 than in 2013. Currently, CFAs are not mainly broadcast on children's channels, confirming high-risk exposure to non-core food advertising by watching them. Thus, food advertising laws and obligations should be adapted to increase compliance.
... Another recent review identified 71 qualitative and quantitative effect studies on food marketing and children, which supports these results [15••]. The examined studies indicate significant effects of food marketing, including enhanced attitudes [e.g., 13,16], preferences [e.g., 17], and increased consumption [e.g., 18] of marketed (predominantly unhealthy) foods connected with a wide range of marketing strategies like brand placements [e.g., 3, 11•, 13], advergames [e.g., 19], social media [20], and product packaging [e.g., 1]. This is verified by another recent meta-analysis on screen advertising on children's dietary intake that concludes exposure to unhealthy food advertising increases immediate calorie consumption in children [21]. ...
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Purpose of Review Childhood obesity is a global health concern. And a number of studies have indicated that food promotions affect children’s food attitudes, preferences, and food choices for foods high in fat and sugar, which potentially impacts children’s body weight development. This review showcases how children are affected by food promotions, why companies even target children with their promotional efforts, and what makes children so susceptible to promotion of unhealthy food. In addition, this review discusses how regulations, parental styles, and individual media literacy skills can help to contain the potential detrimental effects of food promotions on children’s health. Recent Findings The recent findings indicate that children are affected by food promotions in their preference for unhealthy food and beverages in selection tasks shortly conducted after exposure. Furthermore, results indicate significant effects of food marketing, including enhanced attitudes, preferences, and increased consumption of marketed (predominantly unhealthy) foods connected with a wide range of marketing strategies. Children are particularly vulnerable to promotional efforts and react to it strongly due to their still developing cognitive and social skills as well as their lack in inhibitory control. Summary This review proposes an applied focus that discusses pathways for regulators, parents, and educators. In the light of the discussed results, a large number of studies on food promotion indicate that there is need to react. In all these measures, however, it is of relevance to consider children’s developmental stages to effectively counteract and respond to the potential detrimental effects of food promotions on children’s long-term weight development.
... Game elements may include, for example, avatars, storylines, bonuses and leaderboards. The integration of "advergames" into digital marketing strategies (Chester et al., 2010;Nicholls, 2012) presents online games as if only entertainment is being provided; however, when embedded with brand identifiers, including logos, branded characters and package images, the intention is to create positive associations with brands and products (An and Kang, 2014;Gross, 2010;Folkvord et al., 2017;Nairn and Hang, 2012;Terlutter and Capella, 2013). Research suggests that exposure to advergames has immediate and long-term effects on children's identification with brands (Agante and Pascoal, 2019; Chen and Yao, 2019). ...
Technical Report
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This report draws on previous WHO reports on marketing and digital marketing and on consultations with Member States and civil society to stress the need for urgent action to protect public health and human rights. The report discusses the fast-changing digital ecosystem and the methods employed to invade online personal spaces with alcohol marketing. It provides a snapshot of regulatory contexts in a small selection of countries in the WHO European Region, as well as at international level. A range of policy options is suggested, with the overall conclusions emphasizing the urgent need for concerted action by countries and international institutions. A global and comprehensive approach is required, with the intention of protecting children and young people, people with (or at risk of) substance use disorders and the general population by removing marketing of alcohol altogether from digital spaces.W
... Food marketing is an enormous global industry, and there is plenty of evidence suggesting that there are disproportionate amounts of marketing of products with high sugar, fat, and salt content (Galbraith-Emami and Lobstein, 2013). Research suggests that the omnipresence of unhealthy food marketing stimulates the intake of these products because of the accumulation of years of priming and branding Folkvord et al., 2017), whereas even short-term exposure can eventually lead to higher food consumption (Boyland &Whalen, 2015). In the long run, eating energy dense foods may eventually lead to neurological adaptations and higher sensitization to these foods (Folkvord et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objective Literature on food marketing targeting young people reveals that in the last years, sophisticated marketing techniques have been developed to market predominantly unhealthy food products. Much research has been conducted to test the impact of these techniques on subsequent product selection and intake. Less is known about the effects of promoting healthier foods, although the health-related benefits of eating more fruit and vegetables for children are important. The main aim of the present experiment was to examine if an online advergame promoting a fruit brand with food products increased subsequent fruit intake by children. Methods We used a randomized between-subject design with 123 children (age: 7–13 years) who played an advergame that promoted fruit (n = 43), non-food products (n = 40), or were in the control condition (n = 40). Subsequently, we measured the free intake of fruit as main outcome. Results Playing the advergame promoting fruit did not stimulate the subsequent intake of fruit. Children in the advergame with fruit ate similar amounts of fruit than children in the control condition. No moderation effects of BMI, hunger, sex and game attitude were found. In addition, Bayesian analyses have been conducted that support the null hypothesis. Discussion Previous research has shown that marketing of unhealthy products via advergames affects subsequent intake of the promoted product, but the same effect is not found for healthier foods. We suggest that future research should examine if longer exposure or different forms of novel food marketing are effective in increasing the intake of healthier foods. Until now, it is unclear if advergames as a marketing technique for healthy foods have the same effectiveness on the intake of healthier food products.
Article
Children are increasingly exposed to food and beverage marketing, but little is known about the specific effects of marketing through media most used by children. This study aims to systematically review the influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing through social media and advergaming on diet‐related outcomes in children. Seven databases were systematically searched for English peer‐reviewed quantitative and qualitative scientific studies on the effects of marketing of unhealthy products through social media or advergaming on a range of diet‐related outcomes in children. Risk of bias was assessed with tools specific for the different study designs. Twenty‐six studies were included, of which 20 examined the effect of food and beverage marketing through advergaming and six through social media. Most studies had a high risk of bias. The results suggested that unhealthy food and beverage marketing through social media and advergaming has a significant effect on pester behaviors, food choice, and food intake of children. The studies demonstrate that unhealthy food and beverage marketing through media popular with children significantly impacts different diet‐related outcomes. Combined with existing evidence on this effect in other settings, this review provides clear evidence of the need for policies targeting screen‐based marketing.
Article
Introduction The HAVISA plan is a Spanish government's policy for the promotion of healthy lifestyles via health messages in television food advertisements. This study evaluated the positive or negative impact (health halo effect) of health messages on food choices and predisposition towards healthy habits of Spanish adolescents. Methods Randomized controlled study in 11–14 years old adolescents. The intervention group watched television advertisements for unhealthy foods with HAVISA health messages, while the control group watched the same advertisements without them. A self-administered questionnaire measured participants’ attitudes towards the products advertised, to diet and physical activity, and recognition of messages. Afterwards they chose between fruit and unhealthy snacks. The differences between the two groups were then compared. Results A total of 27.2% of the control group versus 29.6% of the intervention group chose fruit (p = 0.54). Both groups displayed high desire for (7.24 vs. 7.40, p = 0.29) and intention to consume (6.67 vs. 6.73, p = 0.63) the unhealthy products advertised. There were no differences in perceived healthiness of these foods (4.11 vs. 4.19, p = 0.74), or perceived importance of a healthy diet (3.17 vs. 3.12, p = 0.55) or physical activity (4.53 vs. 4.51, p = 0.73). Desire for vegetables (2.49 vs. 2.66, p = 0.08) and fruit (3.15 vs. 3.30, p = 0.09) were higher in the intervention group, but the differences were not significant. Only 47.6% of participants noticed the presence of health messages; of these, 31% correctly recalled their content. Conclusion HAVISA health messages changed neither the attitudes nor immediate eating behaviors of adolescents. There was no immediate healthy-lifestyle promoter or adverse health halo effect, probably due to the messages’ low prominence. Further research should evaluate the long-term effect of repeated exposure to health messages.
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Advergames are generally believed to be an effective advertising format due to their gamified and engaging nature. The empirical evidence for this, however, is inconclusive, with several studies reporting nonsignificant or contradicting results. The current study aimed to address this research gap by providing a meta-analysis of five advergame effects (i.e., ad attitude, memory, persuasion, choice behavior, persuasion knowledge). A systematic search procedure was used and 38 relevant data sets were identified. The results indicate that, generally, (1) consumers have a more positive attitude toward advergames than other types of advertising; (2) brand and product information seems less likely to be remembered by consumers when it is communicated via an advergame versus different types of advertising; (3) advergames seem to be persuasive and (4) drivers of choice behavior; and (5) compared to other types of advertising, advergames are less likely to be recognized as advertising; finally, a metaregression model showed that (6) consumers’ age mitigates the persuasiveness of advergames, meaning that younger consumers seem more susceptible to the persuasive effect of advergames than older consumers are.
Article
Background Academic interest in the use of social media data is rapidly increasing. The application of social media analysis in various domains is an emerging trend due to a massive volume of available data, accessibility, and interaction. Food is often a protagonist of the posting activity on social networks; however, the analysis of social media use in relation to food is still limited. Scope and approach The dual purpose of this systematic review was, firstly, to provide an overview of the existing literature about the phenomenon of food in social media, in order to identify the role of the consumer, the interlocutors of the message, and the type of content conveyed. Secondly, evaluate the impact of social media use, and understand whether the access to social media content can affect consumer knowledge, awareness of healthy food choices, or drive consumers towards unhealthy food practices. Key findings and conclusions Studies can be classified according to two types of communication flow, named from (consumer as the sender of a message) and to consumers (consumer as a receiver). Content analysis outlined four main categories: user-generated content, information measures and risk communication, digital marketing and exposure. Our results revealed a dual nature of social media use in relation to food: a virtuous one, leading to an increase in consumer knowledge and information, and a bad one, which tends to change individual behaviours in the direction of unhealthy food consumption practices.
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Children are heavily confronted with advertising messages in their media environments. Given the emotional nature of contemporary advertising and children’s still developing cognitive skills, young consumers are hardly able to cope critically with advertising attempts. So that children are able to detect the persuasive intent, advertising disclosures are viewed as potential supportive measures to mitigate harm that excessive advertising might cause to children. However, the effects of advertising disclosures on children’s awareness of persuasion, i.e., “persuasion knowledge,” appear to be mixed. Moreover, scholars of this research field lack a consensus about what kind of determining factors play important roles in terms of children’s persuasion knowledge activation through disclosures. The present study builds on persuasion knowledge literature and investigates whether the factors identified in this research field can be also transferred to advertising disclosures. The results of a literature review of previous disclosure research show that disclosures might need specific ‘features’ so that advertising disclosures can be effective among children. Furthermore, not all children appear to be equally likely to grasp the meaning of disclosures. However, individual factors other than age might be more important in this context, including environment and situation. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.
Technical Report
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Journal International de Médecine (www.JIM.fr) Les différentes agences sanitaires se sont engagées dans un vaste travail de réactualisation des recommandations nutritionnelles. Outre le contenu de ces dernières, leur forme devra également fortement évoluer pour s’adapter aux nouveaux modes de communication et pour répondre à de multiples écueils, qui limitent depuis longtemps l’efficacité de ce type de messages sanitaires. « La formulation et la communication de repères de consommations alimentaires auprès du consommateur par les pouvoirs publics nécessiteront un travail complémentaire permettent d’identifier les formats d’expression les plus adaptés » a ainsi souligné l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES) dans un récent rapport. Dans cette optique, l’INSERM a récemment formulé différentes recommandations destinées à renforcer l’efficacité des messages. Il s’agit d’une part de mieux tenir compte des mécanismes cognitifs et psychosociaux qui participent à la réception de ces informations, afin d’utiliser des méthodes plus pertinentes. Par ailleurs, il est essentiel de restreindre les publicités vantant les aliments gras et sucrés ; une mesure que la France a toujours renoncé à prendre et qui paraît s’imposer. Ces axes majeurs sont ici évoqués pour nous par Fabien Girandola, professeur de psychologie sociale et Didier Coubert, professeur ès sciences de l’information et de la communication qui ont participé à ce travail d’expertise.
Article
Importance: There is widespread interest in the effect of food marketing on children; however, the comprehensive global evidence reviews are now dated. Objective: To quantify the association of food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing with behavioral and health outcomes in children and adolescents to inform updated World Health Organization guidelines. Data sources: Twenty-two databases were searched (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, and The Cochrane Library) with a publication date limit from January 2009 through March 2020. Study selection: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria were primary studies assessing the association of food marketing with specified outcomes in children and adolescents (aged 0-19 years). Exclusion criteria were qualitative studies or those on advertising of infant formula. Of 31 063 articles identified, 96 articles were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, and 80 articles in the meta-analysis (19 372 participants). Data extraction and synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses; meta-regressions, sensitivity analyses, and P curve analyses were also performed. Where appropriate, pooling was conducted using combining P values and vote counting by direction of effect. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to judge certainty of evidence. Main outcomes and measures: Critical outcomes were intake, choice, preference, and purchasing. Important outcomes were purchase requests, dental caries, body weight, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Results: Participants totaled 19 372 from 80 included articles. Food marketing was associated with significant increases in intake (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.35; P < .001), choice (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.26-2.50; P < .001), and preference (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P = .001). Substantial heterogeneity (all >76%) was unexplained by sensitivity or moderator analyses. The combination of P values for purchase requests was significant but no clear evidence was found for an association of marketing with purchasing. Data on dental health and body weight outcomes were scarce. The certainty of evidence was graded as very low to moderate for intake and choice, and very low for preference and purchasing. Conclusions and relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, food marketing was associated with increased intake, choice, preference, and purchase requests in children and adolescents. Implementation of policies to restrict children's exposure is expected to benefit child health.
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This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the influence of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, the use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. The results showed that (1) a combination of text (“This program contains product placement”) and a product placement (PP) logo was most effective in enhancing the recognition of advertising and that a logo alone was least effective; (2) this effect was mediated by viewers’ visual attention to the disclosure and brand placement; and (3) the recognition of advertising consequently increased brand memory and led to more negative brand attitudes.
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The aim of this study was to investigate children's understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of child products to indicate what kind of effects (e.g. ad or product recall, learning and liking) they intend to elicit by using each of the six tactics. Subsequently, in a survey among 209 children (aged 8-12) and 96 adults (>18), we investigated the extent to which children understood advertisers' intended effects of these tactics and how this compared to an adult benchmark. Results showed that children's understanding of advertisers' tactics increased progressively between the ages of 8 and 12, showing a significant increase around age 10. The age at which children reach an adult level of understanding differed by tactic. For example, the use of celebrity endorsement was generally understood at an earlier age than other tactics, whereas product demonstration was understood at a later age.
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Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements.
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This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored television content as advertising, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content. Ultimately, this negatively affects the attitude toward the brand in the sponsored content. This model was supported, but only when the disclosure was displayed prior to or concurrent with the sponsored content. These effects were not found for a sponsorship disclosure shown at the end of the program after the sponsored content. Theoretically, the findings emphasize the importance of disclosure timing. A disclosure displayed prior to or concurrent with the sponsored content, primes the sponsored content and provides sufficient processing time, so viewers recognize the content as advertising and can process it critically. In addition, the findings show that persuasion knowledge and critical processing are important underlying mechanisms for the effect of sponsorship disclosure on brand attitude. Regarding the practical implications for legislators and advertisers, this research demonstrates that sponsorship disclosure can make viewers aware of the sponsored content in television programs. Furthermore, this changes the processing of sponsored content and can also ultimately lead to resistance against persuasion.
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This study examined how sponsorship disclosure on television influences persuasion knowledge and brand responses (i.e., brand memory and brand attitude). Moreover, we tested whether extending disclosure duration increases its effect. By conducting an experiment (N=116) we compared the effects of no disclosure to a 3-second and a 6-second disclosure. Results showed that especially a 6-second disclosure activates conceptual and consequently attitudinal persuasion knowledge. Regarding brand responses, we found that disclosure directly increased brand memory, regardless of duration. In addition, a 6-second disclosure indirectly resulted in less favorable brand attitudes through higher rates of attitudinal persuasion knowledge. Theoretically, this study provides insights into how sponsorship disclosure influences the persuasion process and the role of persuasion knowledge within this process.
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In both the academic and societal debates, it is widely assumed that cognitive advertising defenses can reduce children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. Empirical evidence supporting this crucial assumption is however missing. It is precisely this gap that the present study aims to fill In a survey of 296 children (aged 812 years), we investigate whether children’s cognitive defenses (i. e., advertising recognition and understanding of its selling and persuasive intent) reduce the relationship between the amount of television advertising they are exposed to and their desire for advertised product categories. Interaction analysis in regression shows that of all the cognitive defense variables, only understanding advertising’s persuasive intent was effective in reducing the impact of advertising exposure on children’s advertised product desire. However, this only applies to the older children in the sample (ages 1012). For the younger children, understanding the persuasive intent even increased the impact of advertising.
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Background: Previous studies have focused on the effects of television advertising on the energy intake of children. However, the rapidly changing food-marketing landscape requires research to measure the effects of nontraditional forms of marketing on the health-related behaviors of children. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on children's ad libitum snack and fruit consumption and to examine whether this consumption differed according to brand and product type (energy-dense snacks and fruit). The second aim was to examine whether advergames can stimulate fruit intake. Design: We used a randomized between-subject design with 270 children (age: 8-10 y) who played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks (n = 69), fruit (n = 67), or nonfood products (n = 65) or were in the control condition (n = 69). Subsequently, we measured the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruit. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and we weighed and measured them. Results: The main finding was that playing an advergame containing food cues increased general energy intake, regardless of the advertised brand or product type (energy-dense snacks or fruit), and this activity particularly increased the intake of energy-dense snack foods. Children who played the fruit version of the advergame did not eat significantly more fruit than did those in the other groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that playing advergames that promote food, including either energy-dense snacks or fruit, increases energy intake in children.
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It is widely assumed that advertising literacy makes children less susceptible to advertising effects. However, empirical research does not provide convincing evidence for this view. In this article, we explain why advertising literacy as it is currently defined (i.e., conceptual knowledge of advertising) is not effective in reducing children's advertising susceptibility. Specifically, based on recent insights on children's advertising processing, we argue that due to the affect-based nature of contemporary advertising, children primarily process advertising under conditions of low elaboration and, consequently, are unlikely to use their advertising knowledge as a critical defense. Moreover, literature on cognitive development suggests that children's ability to use advertising knowledge as a defense will be further limited by their immature executive functioning and emotion regulation abilities. Therefore, we argue that the current conceptualization of advertising literacy needs to be extended with two dimensions: advertising literacy performance, which takes into account the actual use of conceptual advertising knowledge, and attitudinal advertising literacy, which includes low-effort, attitudinal mechanisms that can function as a defense under conditions of low elaboration. We conclude our article with specific directions for future research and implications for the ongoing societal and political debate about children and advertising.
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This study examines the age at which children reach adult levels of cognitive advertising competences. In a computer-assisted survey of 294 children (8–12 years) and 198 adults (18–30 years), we investigate at what age children reach adult levels of (1) advertising recognition, and (2) understanding of advertising's selling and persuasive intent. Our findings show that around the age of 9–10, most children have reached an adult level of advertising recognition. However, at age 12, children have still not acquired an adult-like understanding of advertising's selling and persuasive intent. Finally, children's understanding of the selling intent of advertising develops before their understanding of its persuasive intent.
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Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media.
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To examine how advergames, which are online computer games developed to market a product, affect consumption of healthier and less healthy snacks by low-income African American children. Cross-sectional, between-subjects examination of an advergame in which children were rewarded for having their computer character consume healthier or less healthy foods and beverages. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 conditions: (1) the healthier advergame condition, (2) the less healthy advergame condition, or (3) the control condition. Urban public elementary schools. Thirty low-income, African American children aged 9 to 10 years. Main Exposure Children in the treatment conditions played a less healthy or a healthier version of an advergame 2 times before choosing and eating a snack and completing the experimental measures. Children in the control group chose and ate a snack before playing the game and completing the measures. The number of healthier snack items children selected and ate and how much children liked the game. Children who played the healthier version of the advergame selected and ate significantly more healthy snacks than did those who played the less healthy version. Children reported liking the advergame. Findings suggest that concerns about online advergames that market unhealthy foods are justified. However, advergames may also be used to promote healthier foods and beverages. This kind of social marketing approach could tip the scales toward the selection of higher-quality snacks, thereby helping to curb the obesity epidemic.
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The cue-reactivity procedure exposes addicts to a variety of drug-related stimuli while self-report of craving and physiological responses are monitored. The present review sought to determine the magnitude and overall pattern of responses typically found in cue-reactivity research and which, if any, learning-based model of cue reactivity is best supported by the findings. Meta-analytical techniques were used to select and evaluate results from 41 cue-reactivity studies that compared responses of alcoholics, cigarette smokers, cocaine addicts or heroin addicts to drug-related versus neutral stimuli. Effect sizes were calculated, separately by addict type, for self-report of craving and physiological responses (heart rate, sweat gland activity and skin temperature). Across all addict groups, the effect size for craving was +0.92. Alcoholics had a significantly smaller craving effect size (+0.53) compared to other addict groups (+1.18 to +1.29). Relatively smaller effect sizes were found for physiological responses. The general profile of effect sizes across all addict groups was increased heart rate (+0.26) and sweat gland activity (+0.40) and decreased skin temperature (-0.24) when addicts were presented with drug-related stimuli. The cue-reactivity paradigm can produce a stable profile of significant effects and, therefore, has a number of potential applications for investigating addictive phenomena. The implications of these findings for conditioning-based models of cue-reactivity phenomena are discussed.
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OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.
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Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be highly heritable, but most studies were carried out in cohorts born before the onset of the "obesity epidemic." We aimed to quantify genetic and environmental influences on BMI and central adiposity in children growing up during a time of dramatic rises in pediatric obesity. We carried out twin analyses of BMI and waist circumference (WC) in a UK sample of 5092 twin pairs aged 8-11 y. Quantitative genetic model-fitting was used for the univariate analyses, and bivariate quantitative genetic model-fitting was used for the analysis of covariance between BMI and WC. Quantitative genetic model-fitting confirmed substantial heritability for BMI and WC (77% for both). Bivariate genetic analyses showed that, although the genetic influence on WC was largely common to BMI (60%), there was also a significant independent genetic effect (40%). For both BMI and WC, there was a very modest shared-environment effect, and the remaining environmental variance was unshared. Genetic influences on BMI and abdominal adiposity are high in children born since the onset of the pediatric obesity epidemic. Most of the genetic effect on abdominal adiposity is common to BMI, but 40% is attributable to independent genetic influences. Environmental effects are small and are divided approximately equally between shared and non-shared effects. Targeting the family may be vital for obesity prevention in the earliest years, but longer-term weight control will require a combination of individual engagement and society-wide efforts to modify the environment, especially for children at high genetic risk.
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Background: Several studies have assessed the effects of food and nonalcoholic beverage (hereafter collectively referred to as food) advertising on food consumption, but the results of these studies have been mixed. This lack of clarity may be impeding policy action. Objective: We examined the evidence for a relation between acute exposure to experimental unhealthy food advertising and food consumption. Design: The study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which advertising exposure (television or Internet) was experimentally manipulated, and food intake was measured. Five electronic databases were searched for relevant publications (SCOPUS, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Emerald Insight, and JSTOR). An inverse variance meta-analysis was used whereby the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake was calculated between unhealthy food advertising and control conditions. Results: Twenty-two articles were eligible for inclusion. Data were available for 18 articles to be included in the meta-analysis (which provided 20 comparisons). With all available data included, the analysis indicated a small-to-moderate effect size for advertising on food consumption with participants eating more after exposure to food advertising than after control conditions (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.09; 0.65; I(2) = 98%). Subgroup analyses showed that the experiments with adult participants provided no evidence of an effect of advertising on intake (SMD: 0.00; P = 1.00; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.08; I(2) = 8%), but a significant effect of moderate size was shown for children, whereby food advertising exposure was associated with greater food intake (SMD: 0.56; P = 0.003; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.94; I(2) = 98%). Conclusions: Evidence to date shows that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake in children but not in adults. These data support public health policy action that seeks to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising.
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Although thousands of advergames are directed at children, little is known about how advergames affect children and whether this persuasive process differs from traditional advertising formats. Investigating the underlying persuasive mechanism, Study 1 shows that, for TV advertising, persuasion knowledge drives the persuasive effects while, for advergames, persuasion is mainly driven by the attitude toward the game. Adding advertising cues to the advergame does not increase persuasion knowledge but does diminish the positive attitude toward the game effect, influencing behavior indirectly. Study 2 demonstrates that, for an advergame, the persuasive mechanism does not differ between a commercial versus a social persuasive message.
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The study presents a framework for the analysis of advertising in digital games. It reviews literature on in-game advertising, advergames and advertising in social network games. The framework distinguishes between stimulus characteristics of the game as well as of the advertising that lead to psychological responses toward the game and the brand and to actual behavior toward the game and the brand. It takes into consideration individual factors of the player and social factors surrounding the player. In addition, theoretical models of advertising perception in digital games and issues regarding regulation are addressed. Directions for future research in the area of advertising in digital games are provided.
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This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.
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G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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The integrated and highly involving nature of advergames has led to criticism and concern among academics and caretakers. It is assumed that children are highly susceptible to persuasion via advergames, but empirical evidence is scarce. Therefore, this study examined the effects of three factors typically associated with advergames: brand prominence, game involvement, and (limited) persuasion knowledge on cognitive and affective responses. An experiment among 7 to 12year old children (N=105) showed that brand prominence and game involvement influenced children's responses, while persuasion knowledge did not. Brand prominence led to increased brand recall and recognition, whereas game involvement led to more positive brand attitudes. The effect of game involvement was mediated by game attitude, indicating that children are susceptible to affective mechanisms induced by the game. Crucially, our results demonstrate that brand prominence evokes cognitive responses, while game involvement leads to affective responses. Finally, our study revealed that persuasion knowledge (i.e. knowledge of the commercial source of the game and its persuasive intent) did not influence cognitive or affective responses to the brand or game. This implies that even if children understand the game's commercial and persuasive nature, they do not use this knowledge as a defense against the advergame's effects. This study has important theoretical and practical implications regarding the influence of new marketing techniques on children.
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Over the last decade, major food corporations have increasingly turned to the World Wide Web to market food to children, largely through interactive product-themed websites and digital games. This paper offers a critical look at the marketing stories, digital environments, and advergames found on two websites marketing sweetened cereals-Frootloops.com and Luckycharms.com-to argue that online cereal marketing disciplines the child (as) consumer/commodity through an immersive simulation of cereal marketing narratives. Both Frootloops.com and Luckycharms.com represent cereal as a valued (treasured, magical) item, and reward players not just for consuming/ manipulating the desired food item, but also for mastering the marketing narratives/ discourses guiding online play. Players are disciplined (through play) into a potentially unhealthy nutritional logic in which the most nutritionally bereft food items are most valuable and the consumptive possibilities are endless.
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The impact of in-game brand exposure strength is explored by investigating the advertising effects of brand prominence and game repetition. Four hundred eighty participants played an online game two or four times. The results indicate a positive effect of brand prominence on brand recall, without influencing brand attitude. Repeatedly playing an identical game had no effect on brand recall, but had a negative impact on brand attitude, indicating that the wear-out phase was reached quickly. Product involvement had a moderating effect for game repetition only, with more negative attitude effects of game repetition for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. In a follow-up study in which participants could play the game as often as they wanted, the effects of repeatedly playing the game were confirmed.
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This study tested one currently used advertising break for an advergame to see whether its presence helped children recognize the promotional nature of the advergame and mitigated the effects of advertising within the game. With the Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM) as the theoretical frame, the experiment required that 112 children, aged 8 to 11, play an advergame in which visual and/or audio formats of the ad break were present or absent. Results showed that none of the ad breaks helped children to clearly detect the commercial nature of the game. Also, the presence of the ad break was not linked to children's correct identification of the persuasive agent. The ad break did mitigate advertising effects on children, however, evidenced by decreased desire for and memory of the advertised product.
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Public health researchers express concern about branded computer games on food company websites (i.e. advergames) that enable marketers to engage children for unlimited lengths of time to promote calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods. Study 1 examines children's exposure to US food company websites with advergames: 1.2 million children visit these sites every month and spend up to 1 hour per month on some. They primarily promote candy, high-sugar cereals, and fast food. Study 2 demonstrates their potential impact. After playing unhealthy food advergames, children consumed more nutrient-poor snack foods and fewer fruits and vegetables. Children who previously played advergames were affected the most; older and younger children were similarly affected. Advergames encouraging healthy eating did increase fruit and vegetable consumption: however, only one website in our analysis used advergames to promote primarily healthy foods. These findings support the need for restrictions on companies' use of advergames to market nutritionally poor foods to children.
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There is a vital need for an updated evaluation of children's and adolescents' changing commercial media environment. In this article, we introduce an investigative framework for young people's processing of commercial media content (PCMC) that can deal with current and future developments in the media landscape. To develop this framework, we (a) introduce an integrated model of young people's persuasion processing, adopting a developmental perspective on adult persuasion models; (b) theorize how communication can predict persuasion processing, based on a limited capacity information processing approach; (c) identify specific message characteristics that affect persuasion processing (e.g., prominence, interactivity, integration). Thus, the PCMC model provides a theoretical framework as well as specific guidelines for future research investigating young people's commercialized media environment.
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An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of including entertaining and/or interactive content on evaluations of automotive Web sites and automotive brands. Research participants visited and evaluated four Web sites from major automotive manufactures. The four sites exhibited varying degrees of entertaining content and interactivity. The highly entertaining site (which included a mini, suspenseful movie) was associated with the most positive site evaluations, greatest intent to return to the site, and highest levels of arousal, as compared to the three other sites that included video product footage only, video footage and audio, or video footage and audio with an interactive feature. Significant increases in purchase intent were associated only with the brand featured in the site with the mini movie.
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Based on recent advancements in the behavioral priming literature, three experiments investigated how incidental exposure to fast food can induce impatient behaviors and choices outside of the eating domain. We found that even an unconscious exposure to fast-food symbols can automatically increase participants' reading speed when they are under no time pressure and that thinking about fast food increases preferences for time-saving products while there are potentially many other product dimensions to consider. More strikingly, we found that mere exposure to fast-food symbols reduced people's willingness to save and led them to prefer immediate gain over greater future return, ultimately harming their economic interest. Thus, the way people eat has far-reaching (often unconscious) influences on behaviors and choices unrelated to eating.
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Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising.
Article
It is widely assumed in academic and policy circles that younger children are more influenced by advertising than are older children. By reviewing empirical findings in relation to advertising and children’s food choice, it is argued that this assumption is unwarranted. The findings do not suggest that young children are more affected by advertising than are teenagers, even though the latter are more media-literate. This article critically examines the theoretical gap in the literature regarding the relationship between advertising literacy and advertising effects. By applying a dual process model of cognitive persuasion, it is shown that the evidence is more consistent with the argument that different processes of persuasion are effective at different ages, precisely because literacy levels vary with age. Recommendations for future research on the effects of advertising on children, together with the implications for policies of regulating advertising to young children and of media literacy interventions, are identified.
Article
Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.
Article
Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. We experimentally tested the side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intake in young children aged 8-12 y. The children (n = 120) watched a movie interrupted by 2 commercial breaks that contained either food commercials or neutral commercials. While watching, the children could freely eat palatable food. Afterward, they filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured. The main finding of our study was the interaction between commercial type and sex of the child. Food intake in boys was higher when they watched the food commercials than when they watched the neutral commercials, whereas food intake in girls was slightly lower when they watched the food commercials than when they watched the neutral commercials. The results suggest that boys are susceptible to food cues in commercials.
Article
The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non-food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods were measured after both sessions. Whilst there was no significant difference in the number of non-food adverts recognised between the lean and obese children, the obese children did recognise significantly more of the food adverts. The ability to recognise the food adverts significantly correlated with the amount of food eaten after exposure to them. The overall snack food intake of the obese and overweight children was significantly higher than the lean children in the control (non-food advert) condition. The consumption of all the food offered increased post food advert with the exception of the low-fat savoury snack. These data demonstrate obese children's heightened alertness to food related cues. Moreover, exposure to such cues induce increased food intake in all children. As suggested the relationship between TV viewing and childhood obesity appears not merely a matter of excessive sedentary activity. Exposure to food adverts promotes consumption.
doi: 10.1080/15295030903583648 Effects of Prominence
  • E A Rozendaal
  • E Buijzen
Communication, 27, 438-54. doi: 10.1080/15295030903583648. 539 van Reijmersdal, E. A., Rozendaal, E., & Buijzen, M. (2012). Effects of Prominence, 540
  • V Cauberghe
  • P De Pelsmacker
Cauberghe, V., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2013). Advergames. Journal of Advertising, 39(1), 5e18.
Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behavior
  • F Villanueva
  • G Gaskell
  • G Veltri
  • A Theben
  • F Folkvord
  • L Bonatti
Lupi a~ nez-Villanueva, F., Gaskell, G., Veltri, G., Theben, A., Folkvord, F., Bonatti, L., et al. (2016). Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behavior. Available from: http://ec.europa. eu/consumers/consumer_evidence/behavioural_research/impact_media_ marketing_study/index_en.htm (cited 9-12-2016).
It's not an advert e it says play!". A review of research
  • A Nairn
  • H Hang
Nairn, A., & Hang, H. (2012). Advergames: "It's not an advert e it says play!". A review of research. Available from: http://www.bath.ac.uk/management/news_events/ pdf/advergames-report-december2012.pdf (cited 24 March, 2014).
Priming effects of television food
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Effects of Prominence
  • E A Van Reijmersdal
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van Reijmersdal, E. A., Rozendaal, E., & Buijzen, M. (2012). Effects of Prominence, 540