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On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models

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... Convergent validity was assessed using the means of composite reliability (CR), factor loading (FL), and average variance extracted (AVE). All the CRs for each construct were greater than the recommended value of 0.60 (22), except that for "Maintaining physical health and wellbeing, " which was 0.57. The FLs of all the subscales were >0.5 (23), except that for "Maintaining physical health and wellbeing, " which was 0.499. ...
... The total DSE score was used in this study to examine the relationship between comprehensive DSE and life skills. The CFA results for this subject confirmed that the CR was 0.94, which exceeds the minimum requirement of 0.60 for consistency (22). The FL was 0.67, which was >0.5 (23). ...
... Each question was scored from 1 (not applicable at all) to 5 (very applicable). The CFA results for this subject confirmed that the CR was 0.93, which exceeds the minimum requirement of 0.60 for consistency (22). The FL was 0.71 which was >0.5 (23). ...
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Objective According to the stages of change, this study identified the association between dietary control self-efficacy and social support for healthy diets as factors influencing life skills acquisition in dietary habits among adolescents in Japan. Research design This cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2018 among eight high school baseball teams in Japan. Method Participants included 180 Japanese high school baseball players. Survey items evaluated life skills (dependent variables), self-efficacy's influence on dietary control, social support (explanatory variables), and stages of change. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to reveal the associations. Results In the pre-action stage, although there was no significant association between the interaction of self-efficacy and social support on total life skills (β = 0.11, p = 0.158), a significant association was observed in the action/maintenance stage (β = 0.32, p < 0.05). The interaction between self-efficacy and social support showed a significant association with goal setting in the pre-action stage (β = 0.19, p < 0.05) and with communicating in the action/maintenance stage (β = 0.34, p < 0.05). Conclusion The acquisition of life skills amidst dietary situations can be facilitated by providing social support that considers self-efficacy in relation to dietary control, according to the stages of change.
... La aplicación de un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM), fue el método que se empleo para validar el modelo de esta investigación, el mismo consistió en dos variables latentes, definidos por 4 dimensiones y una serie de ítems, planteando hipótesis resultadas del análisis empírico y así llegando al modelo a contrastar en busca de encontrar una relación entre las variables indicadas en esta investigación, tal como se muestra en la tabla 2. La tabla 2 representan la aplicación de un AFC del modelo indicando la fiabilidad y validez de las escalas de medida explican el nivel en qué ésta mide lo que se pretende medir (Lévy y Varela, 2005), la fiabilidad de las escalas de medida se refiere a la precisión de las puntuaciones que ésta ofrece (Lévy y Varela, 2005), a partir del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach y del índice de fiabilidad compuesta (IFC) (Bagozzi y Yi, 1988). Los resultados de la aplicación del AFC muestra que el modelo proporciona un buen ajuste de los datos (S-BX2= 1910.9022; ...
... Y para la evidencia de validez convergente, los resultados del AFC indican que todos los ítems de los factores relacionados son significativos (p<0.001) (Bagozzi y Yi, 1988) y el tamaño de todas las cargas factoriales estandarizadas son superiores a 0.50 (Mayorga, 2020). ...
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La imagen organizacional es un constructo complejo basado en la percepción del público o personal de una organización que realiza una valoración diferenciada y comparativa de sus características (Günalan y Ceylan, 2014). La imagen se refiere a la impresión total que una persona construye en su mente acerca de algo o alguien (Dichter, 1985). La imagen se forma en las personas o públicos de la organización como resultado de la interpretación que realizan de la información o desinformación de la organización (Toto y García, 2012). Sin embargo, la imagen involucra las creencias, actitudes, estereotipos, ideas, comportamientos relevantes e impresiones que una persona tiene de un objeto, una persona o una organización (Kotler y Andreasen, 2008). La imagen es definida como la suma de creencias, ideas e impresiones que una persona tiene de un objeto. Desde el punto de vista práctico la imagen puede ser institucional u organizacional.
... The confirmatory composite analysis is a process that is used for confirming measurement models in PLS-SEM (Hair et al., 2020). The specific criterion for the AVE values is that they should be 0.50 or higher for establishing convergent validity evidence (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). Convergent validity refers to the average variance shared between the construct and indicators (items). ...
... In order to interpret structural model results, the measurement model must be confirmed first using the evidence for convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability. To assess convergent validity, Average Variance Extracted values should be 0.5 or higher (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The findings are presented in Appendix Table B. ...
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Background: During the COVID-19 period, academics and higher education institutions have shown deep concern about academic integrity related to measurement and evaluation issues that have arisen in online education. Objectives: To address this concern, this paper examined the prevalence of cheating behaviour among university students before and during the pandemic by comparing self-reported cheating behaviours of students and academics' perceived levels of cheating behaviours of their students. Methods: A correlational design was employed aligned with study objectives. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that although both groups reported a significant increase in cheating incidents in online education, instructors' perceived frequency of student cheating is remarkably greater than students' self-report cheating incidents. Contrary to the perceptions of instructors and stakeholders in education, students did not report a very drastic cheating increase in online education during the pandemic. The strongest predictive power for online cheating behaviours was the cheating behaviours in face-to-face education. Whereas the sensitivity of institutions and course instructors toward cheating behaviour was negatively associated with cheating behaviours in face-to-face education, this situational factor did not show a significant effect in distance education. Regarding individual factors, we found a significant relationship between cheating behaviours and gender, discipline, whereas no significant relationship was found in terms of student GPA. Consequently, in order to minimize the threats to the validity of scores associated with cheating, faculty should be supported through faculty development programs and resources so that they can develop authentic assessment strategies for measuring higher-order thinking skills. KEYWORDS academic integrity, cheating, COVID-19 pandemic, cyber cheating, online cheating, plagiarism
... First of all, to ensure the Internal consistency and convergent of the proposed model, the composite reliability of all latent constructs must exceed threshold of 0.70. (Fornell & Larcker, 1981;Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Barclay et al., 1995;Hair et al., 2014). Table 3 demonstrates that factor loading values for each item in the current proposed model were accepted because they exceeded the threshold of 0.60, except for "IE16" as shown in Figure 5, which was deleted (Fornell & Larcker, 1981;Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Barclay et al., 1995). ...
... (Fornell & Larcker, 1981;Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Barclay et al., 1995;Hair et al., 2014). Table 3 demonstrates that factor loading values for each item in the current proposed model were accepted because they exceeded the threshold of 0.60, except for "IE16" as shown in Figure 5, which was deleted (Fornell & Larcker, 1981;Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Barclay et al., 1995). Moreover, the average variance extracted for each construct varied from 0.584 to 0.730, all constructs have exceeded the proposed threshold of 0.50. ...
... Cronbach's alpha values for descriptive norms and injunctive norms were 0.903 and 0.885 respectively, exceeding the frequently recommended minimum value of 0.7 (Robinson et al., 1991). Composite reliability values were above the commonly applied minimum threshold of 0.6 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988) (see Table 7). The average variance extracted values exceeded the minimum threshold of 0.5 for both constructs, establishing convergent validity (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). ...
... Composite reliability values were above the commonly applied minimum threshold of 0.6 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988) (see Table 7). The average variance extracted values exceeded the minimum threshold of 0.5 for both constructs, establishing convergent validity (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). Discriminant validity is supported since the inter-construct correlation lies below the recommended maximum value of 0.85 (Brown, 2006). ...
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Understanding negotiators' decision‐making processes in buyer–supplier relationships has been of key interest to behavioral operations and supply chain management researchers. We hypothesize that through the exposure to various counterparts in the supply chain network, negotiators' behaviors are influenced by others' behaviors and prone to behavioral contagion—where the target adopts the behavior he/she is subjected to and exhibits it toward a nonpartisan counterpart. This paper examines such contagion where targets turn into actors of honesty and deception across buyer–supplier negotiations. We analyzed text responses from two studies employing scenario‐based negotiation experiments with 350 and 424 individuals with B2B sales experience and tested for the effects of previously received behavior (honesty/deception) and different frequency levels of the received behavior. Our results show contagion effects for honesty and deception in both studies. These effects are largely independent from the frequency with which the behaviors have been received, suggesting that a low stimulus frequency suffices to induce contagion of honest and deceptive behaviors across buyer–supplier negotiations. Interestingly, in contrast to our hypothesized key mechanism based on the extant literature, neither injunctive nor descriptive social norms mediated the relationship between received and acted behaviors. We offer alternative explanations and discuss implications for theory and practice. Both honesty and deception are contagious across buyer‐supplier negotiations; negotiators are more likely to show the behaviors they were subjected to in previous negotiations in a new negotiation with a different counterparty. It is largely irrelevant how often the negotiator experiences honest or deceptive behavior in order to induce this contagion; in our experiment, once was sufficient. We advise companies to establish or maintain negotiation practices to potentially avoid the oblivious spreading of behaviors, for instance by actively recapitulating previous negotiations and conducting negotiations in teams of two or more.
... The confirmatory composite analysis is a process that is used for confirming measurement models in PLS-SEM (Hair et al., 2020). The specific criterion for the AVE values is that they should be 0.50 or higher for establishing convergent validity evidence (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). Convergent validity refers to the average variance shared between the construct and indicators (items). ...
... In order to interpret structural model results, the measurement model must be confirmed first using the evidence for convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability. To assess convergent validity, Average Variance Extracted values should be 0.5 or higher (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The findings are presented in Appendix Table B. ...
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic The COVID‐19 period created an abrupt shift in learning conditions and measurement processes. Educational administrators and teachers have also shown deep concern about academic integrity related to measurement and evaluation issues that have arisen in distance education during the pandemic period. Previous studies investigating the factors affecting students' academic dishonesty in traditional cheating behaviours have primarily focused on individual and situational factors. What this paper adds The online education process caused an increase in cheating behaviour scores. There is a substantial range between students and instructors’ responses about online cheating during the pandemic. Cheating behaviour in face‐to‐face education significantly explains cheating behaviour in online education. Cheaters in face‐to‐face education are also cheaters in online education. The sensitivity shown by university and course instructors toward cheating yielded a mixed result in online and face‐to‐face education. In online and face‐to‐face education settings, cheating behaviour scores of female students are lower than male students. Students with lower GPA scores generally have higher cheating behaviours. Implications for practice and/or policy Individual and contextual factors are major determinants of cheating behaviours. In order to minimize the threats on validity of scores associated with cheating, faculty should be supported through faculty development programs and resources so that they can develop authentic assessment strategies for measuring higher‐order thinking skills. This study fills an important gap in the available literature on cheating before and during COVID‐19. The study has a potential to guide higher education institutions for planning and initiating strategies to address cheating in short and long term.
... To assess the convergent validity, the reliability of each item was examined. According to Bagozzi and Yi [121], convergent validity requires the indicator loading to be 0.6 or higher. Therefore, a few items were removed from the model because they did not meet the minimum acceptable level. ...
... Common-Method Bias (CMB) "is a phenomenon that is caused by the measurement method used in an SEM study, and not by the network of causes and effects in the model being studied" [125]. A high CMB may lead to incorrect conclusions and be a source of measurement error [121]. Different methods can be used to assess the CMB. ...
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Social media platforms (SMPs) have become a key source of success for many organizations in today's complex business environment due to advancements in information and communication technologies that have created dynamic innovations. This study aims to explore the complex relationships between SMPs' usage and organizational performance with respect to small and medium-sized restaurants in Jordan. In addition, it investigates the impact of competition intensity as a moderating variable. The model of the study was assessed and examined by gathering data from 331 Jordanian restaurants using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The findings revealed that SMPs' usage is positively associated with restaurant performance (financial, marketing, and operational). In addition, the results indicate a significant moderating impact of competition intensity only on the relationship between SMPs' usage and restaurants' marketing performance. Based on the results, several theoretical and practical implications for restaurants have been suggested, as well as further research avenues.
... Discriminant validity was evaluated according to Fornell and Larcker's (1981a, b) suggestion, as the extracted variance achieved higher values in comparison with the constructs' squared correlations. In addition, as shown in Table 2, composite reliability values range from 0.81 to 0.92, solidifying the previously mentioned evidence for a satisfactory degree of internal consistency (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Fornell and Larcker, 1981a). ...
... CFA supports the notion that the study model is valid. The data offered goodness-of-fit statistics for the measurement model that were well above the suggested threshold values (CMIN 5 513.563, df 5 212, X 2 /df 5 2.361 < 3, RMSEA 5 0.078 < 0.08, CFI 5 0.914 > 0.90; SRMR 5 0.065 < 0.08; PClose 5 0.110 > 0.05) (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Hu and Bentler, 1999). The CFA measurement model could not be significantly improved, and was considered acceptable. ...
Article
Purpose Although prior researchers have consistently established a significant relationship between different strategic stances and organizational performances across different research contexts, the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by testing the mediating effect of the use of strategic performance measurement systems (SPMS) on the relationship between strategic stances (prospector, defender, and reactor) and organizational performance in the public sector. Design/methodology/approach This research is based on data collected by surveying 224 managers at public organizations in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) and conducts an analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings The study findings show that prospector strategy is positively associated with organizational performance through the use of SPMS. The reactor strategy was negatively related to organizational performance through the use of SPMS. The defender strategy shows mixed results in terms of its effect on the use of SPMS and organizational performance. Research limitations/implications The results obtained here provide strong evidence of the vitality of the use of SPMS for efficiency and effectiveness as a mediator between prospector strategy and organizational performance. To extend this position, future researchers could incorporate other contingent variables, such as structural autonomy, or use experimental design methods during economic austerity in the aftermath of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Originality/value This study represents an attempt to address public administration literature' general calls for grounded research that spells out to practitioners how different strategic stances are likely to affect the use of SPMS to achieve organizational performance levels in the public sector. The present study extends the public administration literature by examining the unexplored linkage of the use of SPMS through which strategic stances influence organizational performance in major public sector organizations.
... By first-order CFA, 14 items belonging to four of the factors of epistemic views of physics were retained in the final version of the EVP questionnaire. All the factor loadings were significant (p < 0.001) and higher than 0.5 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The AVE values were all higher than the threshold value of 0.5 (Farrell & Rudd, 2009) and ranged from 0.51 to 0.6 (except for the theory-laden dimension, at 0.43). ...
... A total of 29 items of the 46 items belonging to the seven factors of conceptions of learning physics were retained in the final version of the COLP questionnaire after the CFA. The factor loading values were significant (p < 0.001), ranged from 0.61 to 0.93, and were greater than 0.5, suggesting suitable factor loadings (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The AVE and CR values ranged from 0.56 to 0.67 and 0.84 to 0.91, respectively. ...
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Physical education in colleges plays an increasingly important role in cultivating high-quality innovative talent. The main factors that affect college students’ approaches to learning physics remain unknown. This study examined the relationships among college engineering students’ epistemic views of physics, conceptions of learning physics, and approaches to learning physics. Three previously validated questionnaires were administered to 278 undergraduate engineering students in China to examine these relationships. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that students’ epistemic views of physics led to constructivist conceptions of learning physics, i.e., learning physics as increasing knowledge, applying, understanding, and seeing in a new way. The students’ constructivist conceptions of learning physics were also found to be positively associated with deep motive and deep strategy in their approaches to learning physics, while their reproductive conceptions of learning physics, i.e., learning physics by memorizing, testing, calculating, and practicing, were negatively associated with deep motive and deep strategy and positively associated with surface motive and surface strategy. These findings suggest the importance of fostering students’ understanding of physics knowledge and constructivist conceptions of learning physics and de-emphasizing their reproductive conceptions of learning physics, such as memorization, testing, calculation, and practice, to ultimately promote their deep learning approaches. As physics educators understand the relationships among the above three aspects, they emphasize fertilizing students’ constructive conceptions of learning physics and thus benefit the cultivation of innovative talent and promote the rapid development of science and technology in the long run.
... Table 2 presents the Cronbach's alpha estimates, Composite Reliability (CR), and AVE values. The values satisfied the acceptable criteria of 0.70 for Cronbach's alpha and CR (Nunnally, 1978), while the AVE is more than the minimum threshold of 0.50 (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Fornell and Larcker, 1981). ...
... Referring to Table 3, the pair-wise correlations between the constructs are well below 0.85 (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988). Moreover, the square root of AVE for each of the construct is greater than their intercorrelations (Fornell and Larcker, 1981), which confirmed the discriminant validity of all the ten constructs in this study. ...
The growth in luxury consumption has fuelled interest in understanding consumer perceptions of luxury brands, particularly with the escalation of social media usage. This study examines consumers’ perceptions of social capital in consumer-initiated luxury social media brand communities. Empirical findings based on 353 luxury brand community members verified the effects of social capital dimensions on brand passion and brand community engagement. Shared vision and reciprocity displayed positive relationships with brand passion, while shared language, shared vision, and reciprocity affected brand community engagement. Although social trust influenced brand passion in the Eastern luxury watch brand community, the effect was nonsignificant in the Western luxury watch brand community. The study adds to the literature on Social Capital Theory by clarifying the role of social capital in consumer-luxury brand relationship building. To capitalise on the amalgamation of consumer power in luxury brand communities, marketers need to comprehend the mechanisms of social capital in establishing consumer-brand community engagement and online brand advocacy behaviours.
... These results the factor loads suggest that the variables belong to the assigned factor (Bagozzi and Yi 1988). The factor load at age 0 was low, indicating that age at the start of the test did not have a significant effect on animal performance in FP, which affected the results of Cronbach's alpha and extracted variance (IVE). ...
Article
En la raza Blanco-orejinegro (BON) se realizan pruebas de desempeño (PD), las cuales contemplan cuatro fases consecutivas: pastoreo (FP), suplementación masiva (FSM), suplementación grupal (FSG) y suplementación individual (FSI), por lo que debería también estimarse el efecto de cada una de las fases sobre las demás. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el crecimiento de machos BON sometidos a PD. Se utilizó información de seis PD de 154 machos BON y la relación de las fases se analizó mediante la variable ganancia de peso utilizando cuatro modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM), los cuales fueron comparados con los criterios de bondad de ajuste y de validez convergente y discriminante. El mejor modelo fue el que consideró las relaciones entre FP, la fusión de FSM y FSG y la FSI, con cargas factoriales mayores de 0.90. Las diferentes fases de las pruebas tienen efecto en el crecimiento de los de los animales lo cual puede alterar los resultados en la selección de los animales elite.
... Based on Table 2, all items were above 0.70. The composite reliability (CR) of each construction meets the minimum standard value of 0.70 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The average variance extracted (AVE) of all constructs exceeds the 0.50 threshold (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). of endogenous variables, effect sizes, and the predictive relevance of the model (Hair Jr. et al., 2017). ...
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The direct impact of the economic downturn due to Covid-19 is mainly perceived by Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). This study aims to examine how MSMEs can understand customer needs regarding the provision of social media quality that can improve brand image and brand awareness. The survey was conducted on 145 respondents who had online shopping experience using social media by utilizing the structural equation modeling approach. Results show that social media quality can increase brand awareness, brand image, and social media marketing activities. Therefore, marketers who use social media can focus on its constituent indicators including content quality, design quality, information quality, interaction quality, contact availability, and contact relevance. Customers will have a high level of brand awareness and a good brand image if marketers can provide social media quality to meet customer demands. While previous studies found that there is a positive relationship between social media marketing activities on brand image and brand awareness, this study shows the opposite result because customers are not affected by the activities carried out by social media. This is considered a usual activity that other marketers also carry out. The implication of this study is that good social media quality is needed to increase brand awareness, brand image, and social media marketing activities.
... Convergent validity was examined using factor loadings and average variance extracted (AVE). As Table 1 indicates, the values of factor loadings and AVEs exceeded 0.50; hence, convergent validity exists (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988). Divergent validity was assessed by comparing the square root of AVE with the relevant correlational construct such that the values of the square root of AVE exceeded the values of correlations (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). ...
Article
Purpose This study examines the relationship between knowledge management (KM) capability and innovation ambidexterity, and their subsequent influence on firm performance. It also investigates whether organizational structure – in terms of connectedness and centralization – helps to develop a suitable context that either hinders or catalyzes the effectiveness of KM capability in predicting innovation ambidexterity. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 336 manufacturing organizations in Pakistan using a random sampling technique. Partial least square-based structural equation modelling (PLS–SEM) was employed to analyze the data. Findings Results reveal that KM capability is positively linked with innovation ambidexterity and firm performance. Innovation ambidexterity positively mediates the link between KM capability and firm performance. Connectedness positively moderates the association between KM capability and innovation ambidexterity. However, centralization negatively moderates the link between KM capability and innovation ambidexterity. Research limitations/implications This research offers theoretical insights into when and how KM capability is effective in prompting performance through innovation ambidexterity by creating a suitable context. Practical implications The study indicates that innovation may develop in an ambidextrous manner in an organization as long as the organization is proficient in creating a suitable context, i.e. structure to support it. Organizations should strive to develop sustained KM capabilities because these are seminal for enabling the challenging task of exploiting existing resources for innovation while also tapping on new opportunities for explorative breakthroughs. Originality/value This research contributes to a novel understanding regarding the importance of KM capability in fostering manufacturing organizations to engage in ambidexterity by creating a suitable context where optimal amount of each form of innovation activities is calibrated using KM capability. Highlights Knowledge management capability is crucial for simultaneous exploitation and exploration of innovation Innovation ambidexterity (i.e. simultaneous exploitation and exploration of innovation) fosters firm performance Innovation ambidexterity mediates the positive effect of knowledge management capability on firm performance Connectedness strengthens the relationship between knowledge management capability and innovation ambidexterity Centralization weakens the effect of knowledge management capability on innovation ambidexterity Innovation can be developed in an ambidextrous way in organizations as long as organizations have knowledge-based competencies and proficient in creating suitable context
... The last phase (reflection) follows implementation, in which the learner reflects on the results of their behavior and effort. In self-regulation, the learner works on CR (composite reliability) ≥ 0.6 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988), AVE (average variance extracted) ≥ 0.5, (Fornell & Larcker, 1981) these three processes as an independent learner, such as setting a learning goal, implementing learning activities, and looking back on the results. The three courses investigated in this study generally delivered weekly classes online during the semester. ...
Article
Over the past decade, the Japanese government and Japanese universities have increased student mobility, both inbound and outbound, to accelerate the internationalization of higher education. However, student mobility was halted in early 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and international students who had planned to engage in a traditional study abroad program could not enter Japan. The current study examined whether the unexpected implementation of online distance classes because of the pandemic affected the learning strategies of graduate students, including international students. In addition, we investigated whether the online courses functioned as an alternative to face-to-face classes. An analysis using structural equation modeling revealed that the period of enrollment, self-regulation, and country of residence were factors that influenced help-seeking behavior. Graduate students who had enrolled before the pandemic and already experienced face-to-face classes were more likely to actively seek help from instructors and classmates in online classes. Furthermore, graduate students who were unable to enter the country but were taking classes online also tended to actively engage in help-seeking from their instructors and classmates. Students’ experiences of the sudden change to distance learning suggest that, to ensure a sustainable teaching and learning environment in various contexts, instructors should use class designs that consider distance learning, particularly designs that enhance students’ help-seeking, even under normal circumstances. In addition, ensuring sufficient online/virtual spaces for communication among teachers and students is important.
... Internal reliability for the data collected was validated when its values were observed to be more than the prescribed threshold-i.e., 0.7 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Hair et al., 2011). Internal reliability for every construct ranged between 0.832-0.888, ...
... Table 2 highlights the AVE values, which are used to check the validity. The minimum (AVE) requirement for convergent validity is 0.5 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). generally, this study states reasonably excellent reliability of the measurement tool applied. ...
Article
Firms' activities to govern their supply chains are defined as supply chain management practices. This research explores a model that describes the association between organizational performance and supply chain management practices. Based on existing research, a theoretical framework for the investigation was established. A standardized questionnaire was developed to gather data for the research, which was completed by 396 supply chain professionals from Saudi Arabian food companies. Partial least square (PLS)–structured equation modeling was used to examine the model and hypotheses. Four independent variables were chosen to scrutinize the impact of supply chain management strategies on organizational performance: customer relationship, strategic supplier partnership, level of information sharing, and postponement. According to the research, customer relationships, strategic supplier partnerships, and information sharing all have a major impact on organizational performance. On the other hand, the postponement has no significant impact on organizational performance.
... In addition, factor loadings and each construct's t-value were examined and results indicated that all factor loadings are above .70 and are significant at .05 (Table 1), providing evidence of convergent validity (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988). Furthermore, results showed the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE) value (between .88 and .97) ...
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Purpose Applying the value creation of corporate social responsibility (CSR), this study aims to investigate the direct effect of preventive measures in the postpandemic world on Airbnb consumers’ attitudes toward the host, which may further impact their behavioral intentions. It also examined the mediating role of perceived risk and perceived motives, as well as the moderating role of message strategies and risk tolerance in this process. Design/methodology/approach A 2 (preventive measures: basic versus enhanced) × 2 (message strategies: promotional social cause message [PSC] versus partake-in-our-cause message [PIOC]) between-subjects factorial design was conducted with a sample of 476 US Airbnb consumers through an online survey. PROCESS macro was used for hypothesis testing. Findings Results demonstrated that enhanced preventive measures had more positive impact on Airbnb consumers’ attitudes toward the host, which was positively related to positive word of mouth and booking intention. Perceived risk and perceived motives mediated the relationship between preventive measures and attitude toward Airbnb hosts. Positive relationships between attitude toward the host and behavioral intentions were strengthened when PIOC was used than PSC. The negative relationship between preventive measures and perceived risk was enhanced when PIOC was used than PSC. Risk tolerance did not interact with messages strategy to impact the relationship between preventive measures and perceived risk. Originality/value The study uncovered the mechanisms by which consumers form their responses toward different safety information of Airbnb accommodations postpandemic and the role of message strategies in the process. It provided implications for the Airbnb platform and hosts in the postpandemic period.
... The discriminant validity test can be done in two ways: using the cross-loading value or looking at the average variant extracted (AVE) value. An indicator is declared to meet discriminant validity if the value of the cross loading indicator on the variable is the largest compared to other variables, or has an AVE value greater than 0.5 or another way is to compare the Square Root of Average (AVE) for each construct with a correlation between construct with other constructs in the model (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). Meanwhile, the reliability test is carried out by looking at the composite reliability value of the indicator block that measures the construct. ...
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To reduce the level of less development region in Indonesia, special efforts are needed, one of which is through quality spending. The quality of spending can be measured through several variables, namely regional expenditure priorities, timeliness, allocation of expenditure, accountability and transparency, and effectiveness. This study aims to identify indicators that reflect these variables, and their effects on development performance. The data used are secondary data, namely Regional Government Implementation Evaluation (EPPD) data, APBD and their realization, BPK Opinion, Poverty, Unemployment, Gini Index, Economic Growth Rate, GRDP/Capita, and Human Development Index (HDI) during 2010-2018. The research objects are all underdevelopment areas in Java. The analytical method used is quantitative descriptive analysis techniques using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results of the study show that out of 28 less development region expenditure quality indicators in Java, there are 19 indicators capable of reflecting expenditure quality indicators. The quality of less development region spending on Java reflected by its indicators is also able to influence development performance, which can reduce poverty and increase the Human Development Index (HDI).
... Factor loads confirmed that the structure was of sufficient reliability. The literature recommends that composite reliability be preferred to the traditional Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Hair et al., 2012). The use of AVE values is required for convergent validity. ...
... AVE ! 0.50) (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Cronbach, 1951). Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the values of maximum shared variance (MSV) and average variance extracted (AVE) by following Fornell and Larcker's (1981) criteria according to which the values of AVE must be greater than the values of MSV. ...
Article
Purpose Adapting a positive business ethics framework, the purpose of this paper is to offer a new perspective to manage bullying at work. Specifically, this paper reports an empirical study which examines how the good work of servant leadership may lower employees’ exposure to workplace bullying, with compassion as a mediator and social cynicism beliefs (SCBs) as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach Survey data were gathered from 337 essential health professionals working in various public and private health-care organisations in Pakistan. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research model. Findings This study found that perceived servant leadership helps in lessening employee exposure to workplace bullying by strengthening their compassion. However, SCBs moderate the mediating role of compassion in employees’ perceptions of the servant leadership–bullying relationship. Research limitations/implications This study has implications in developing models of leadership to build employees’ empathetic resources to combat workplace bullying. The authors found that servant leadership and workplace compassion, embodying positive, ethical and sustainable attributes, play a crucial role in managing bullying at work by promoting relational dignity. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the relationships between employee perceptions of servant leadership, workplace bullying and employee compassion while considering SCBs as a boundary condition.
... The composite reliability coefficients of the study's constructs ranged from 0.792 to 0.951. Thus, the measures employed appear to have sufficient internal consistency reliability [149][150][151]. The AVE of all constructs scored above the conventional value of 0.5 (Table 3). ...
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This study examines nurses' Continuance Intention (CI) to use electronic health records (EHRs) through a combination of three conceptual frameworks: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the theory of expectation-confirmation (ECT), and the Five-Factor Model (FFM). A model is developed to examine and predict the determinants of nurses' CI to use EHRs, including top management support (TMS) and the FFM's five personality domains. Data were collected from a survey of 497 nurses, which were analyzed using partial least squares. No significant relationship was found between TMS and CI. The study revealed that performance expectancy significantly mediated the influences of two different hypotheses of two predictors: agreeableness and openness to testing CI. A significant moderating impact of conscientiousness was found on the relationship between performance expectancy and CI and the relationship between social influence and CI. The findings of this study indicated that rigorous attention to the personality of individual nurses and substantial TMS could improve nurses' CI to use EHRs. A literature gap was filled concerning the mediating effects of performance expectancy on the FFM-CI relationship, and the moderation effects of Conscientiousness on UTAUT constructs and CI are another addition to the literature. The results are expected to assist government agencies, health policymakers, and health institutions all over the globe in their attempts to understand the post-adoption use of EHRs.
... If conditions of both constructs are fulfilled than they establish construct validity. Convergent validity is analyzed by the AVE analysis presented in Table IIAVE should be greater than 0.5 to suggest adequate convergent validity (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988;Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The discriminate analysis is determined by the cross-loadings, Fornell and Larcker (1981) criterion and hetero trait mono trait ratio of correlations (HTMT). ...
... As distributed in Table 5, the analysis of the value of each construct is greater than the other construction. AVE results indicate that each construct is well issued by items used by all constructs that exceed the door value of 0.5 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The square root of AVE for each diagonal construct (indicator) exceeds the construction component (indicator) and other constructs (indicators) in the model (Chin, 1998). ...
Article
This conceptual framework of natural and social science in elementary school to study measures the relationship between innovative and loving organizational climate. Data was collected among Indonesian academics from state and private elementary school and analyzed using Smart PLSThe students' perceptions of effective interactive teaching using this technology were evaluated statistically using questionnaires. Based on data collected through participation in learning of natural and social science in elementary school. The findings reveal a significant positive relationship between the innovative organizational climate and organizational commitment of natural and social science in elementary school.
... (Hair et al., 2010;Hooper et al., 2008). Standardised factor loadings for all the items ranged between 0.6 and 0.78, all critical ratios were large (˃2) and significant at p < 0.001, Cronbach's alpha values ranged between 0.79 and 0.88 while average variances extracted (AVEs) for each of the constructs were bigger than 0.5 (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Nunally, 1978;Segars, 1997). ...
Conference Paper
This paper aims to identify the central concepts of retirement tax literacy that could be included in a curriculum for taxpayer education. By applying an interpretive qualitative approach, it was possible to explore taxpayers’ retirement tax reality in more depth and yet also employ the factual and numerical nature of their queries. The study interpreted the literature, documents, and data. The document review offers a synthesis of the actions implemented by the South African government to simplify the income tax provisions applying to retirement funds and provides information regarding these changes. Following the document review, the empirical part focused on real-life queries that were the unit of thematic analysis. Retirement queries were purposively drawn as part of a convenience sample. The data was then analysed in two main ways that supported the development of the themes. This paper adds clarity on the concept of retirement tax literacy. Furthermore, the authors have drawn the two central concepts of governmental interventions and taxpayer retirement tax literacy into a more integrated scope to extend scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of what it means to work more holistically and more consciously towards a generation that is better prepared and resourced for retirement.
... The reliability and convergent validity were assessed by calculating the composite reliability (CR) and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The studies recommended that CR > AVE, CR should exceed 0.70, and AVE for each construct should exceed 0.50 (Baggozi & Yi, 1988;Fornell & Larcker, 1981). However, the low AVE values for decision-making are acceptable due to the condition that if the AVE value is <0.5, but composite reliability is higher than 0.6, the convergent validity of the construct is acceptable (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). ...
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The main goal of the study was to scrutinize mediating and moderating mechanisms identified in line with the predictions of Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) and Dual Process Theory of the effect of acute stress on decision making. The sample group of the research comprised of 61 (31 females, 30 males) healthy university students aged between 18 and 23 (x̄ = 21, SD = 1.28). Data measurement tools were Skin Conductance Response Measurement, Iowa Gambling Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spatial Span Subtest, Stroop Test TBAG Form, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Matrix Reasoning Subtest, Stress Rating Scale, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Big Five Personality Traits Scale, Ways of Coping Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory. The findings indicated that acute stress gives rise to decision-making failures by suppressing the SCR emphasized in SMH and mental processes defined in System 2. Furthermore, neuroticism had a moderating role in the relationship between stress and decision-making. Accordingly, the abovementioned theories cannot separately be sufficient to explain decision-making under stress; but, the predictions of these theories can complement each other to thoroughly make out the physiological and cognitive mechanisms of decision-making.
... (Urbach and Ahlemann 2010). That is, a construct should account at least 50% variances of its indicators for adequate convergent validity (Fornell & Larcker 1981;Bagozzi & Yi 1988;Hair et al. 2016). As shown in Table 3, all five constructs meet the convergent validity requirement with AVE values greater than 0.50. ...
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In this paper, we examine the relationship and links between the governance quality and tax compliance behaviour across taxpayers in East Malaysia otherwise known as Borneo. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling of partial least squares. Four proxies of governance quality were examined in the study, namely, Voice and Accountability (VA), Political Stability (PS), Government Effectiveness (GE), and Rule of Law (RL). Results indicate that only political stability and rule of law are found to significantly influence tax compliance behaviour positively, while the other two proxies of voice and accountability and government effectiveness showed otherwise with insignificant findings. The current finding suggests that the government should maintain stability in the political system and promote a stringent with the effective rule of law to encourage substantial participation in tax compliance behaviour.
... Measurement scale consistency was computed using Cronbach's alpha (á) and composite reliability (CR). Cronbach's alpha obtained for all constructs of the study ranged from 0.847 to 0.940, greater than 0.70 recommended value (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). Composite reliability obtained for all constructs of the study, ranged from 0.841 to 0.943, greater than 0.70 of recommended value (Hair et al., 2014). ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to understand the determining factors of UPI payments in the informal sector. An integrated research model is designed for this study which includes relative advantage, ease of use, credibility, social influence, and compatibility. Structural equation modeling is employed for the assessment of research hypotheses. All the proposed hypotheses found significant impact on UPI payment usage among the people in the informal sector. The results emphasized that relative advantage has emerged a key factor of UPI payment use, followed by ease of use, compatibility, social influence, and credibility. Further, the results indicate that ease of use has a significant impact on relative advantage and social influence has a significant impact on compatibility. This study has implications for the managerial personnel to develop suitable financial products for the informal sector people.
... According to Psailla and Roland (2007), an AVE value above 0.40 and a CR value above 0.70 indicate convergent validity. According to another view, AVE values greater than 0.50 show that the relevant model is valid (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988). The Cronbach's alpha values of the scales used in the study ranged from 0.678 to 0.925. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy (SE) on the relationship between workplace envy and intention to quit. We expect that feelings of envy will be among the factors affecting the intention to quit that are frequently discussed in Organizational Behavior (OB) literature. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of SE on the relationship between envy and intention to leave have not been examined in the literature. In this study, we aim to fill the gap in the literature by revealing the possible effects of SE from a behavioral perspective.We conducted a survey of the academics of ten universities, randomly selected from five different geographical regions of Turkey. A total of 237 academics working at both state and foundation universities participated in the study. The SmartPLSpackage program, which is a multi-level structural equation modeling (SEM) application, was used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the analyses, we find that self-efficacy partially mediates the relationship between workplace envy and intention to quit. We expect that the results of the study will help researchers and managers who are interested in the subject to understand and manage the effects of workplace envy.
... Açıklanan ortalama varyansların en az 0.50 olması beklenmektedir ve Tablo 4'te tüm açıklanan ortalama varyans değerleri 0.50 üzerindedir. Birleşik güvenilirlik değerlerinin de 0.70 üzeri olması beklenmektedir ve bu değerlerin hepsinin 0.70 üzeri olduğu ve dolayısıyla yakınsak geçerlilik şartlarının sağlandığı söylenebilir (Bagozzi ve Yi, 1988). Cronbach's alfa katsayıların 0.70'ten büyük olması ise yapıların yüksek düzeyde güvenilir olduklarını göstermektedir (Nunnally, 1978). ...
Article
Koronavirüs salgını pek çok sektörün hizmet şeklinde değişiklikler yaratmasına neden olmuştur. Bankacılık sektörü de bu sektörlerden biridir. Mobil bankacılık uygulaması bankaların uzun süredir kullandıkları bir hizmet olsa da koronavirüs salgısı sonrasında bu uygulamanın hem bankalar hem de müşteriler tarafından tercih edilme sıklığı artmıştır. Bu çalışmada mobil bankacılık uygulamasını koronavirüs salgını sonrası ilk defa kullanmaya başlayan bireysel müşterilerin davranışları teknoloji kabul modeli çerçevesinde incelenmiştir. Veriler, Hatay, Gaziantep ve Mersin şehirlerinde ikamet eden toplam 230 bireysel banka müşterisinden toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde yapısal eşitlik modeli ve tanımlayıcı istatistikler kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda araştırma modelindeki tüm hipotezlerin anlamlı olduğu ve kabul edildiği bulunmuştur.
... Both Cronbach's alpha (α) and composite reliability (CR) values for the latent variables ranged from 0.76 to 0.91. The above values exceed the threshold of 0.7 proposed by (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). The factor determinacy (FD) values for all the latent variables were above 0.88, exceeding the proposed threshold of 0.80 (Muthen and Muthen, 2012). ...
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This investigation provide an empirical evaluation of the influence of celebrity characteristics on brand resonance outcomes in the luxury automobile market of Ghana. A survey of users or owners of luxury automobiles was done. One hundred and sixteen questionnaire were used for further analysis. A structural equation modelling was used. The completed questionnaires were cleaned and used for further analysis. The study found that out of the three constructs that define celebrity characteristics in the luxury automobile industry only celebrity attractiveness had a positively significant effect on brand resonance outcomes.
... OAB is a second-order construct derived from DP, CV, and TR. All the constructs have their Cronbach alpha value more than 0.7, which is acceptable Nunnally [89] [92]), CR value of more than 0.7 (Bagozzi and Yi [90]), and Average Variance Extracted AVE value of more than 0.50 Fornell and Larcker [93]. Except for ED, all the other constructs fulfil all three conditions for construct validity. ...
Article
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Financial inclusion has done its best across the world to bring unbanked people to the mainstream of financial and banking services. However, the metamorphosis is slow and needs some shots in the arm. This paper attempts to explore ways to expedite the process of economic development of the poor through financial inclusion. A newer technology, Open API for banking (OAB), can support financial inclusion for economic development and the growth of the poor. There are two main reasons for the success of OAB. Many mobile-based applications use OAB. Therefore, OAB can easily piggyback on the success of mobile penetration. The meager cost and simple technology of OAB is another reason for its success, primarily when OAB is aimed at unbanked people of the world. Structured Equation Modelling is applied to successfully and empirically test the mediation role of OAB between financial inclusion and economic development of the poor. OAB is found to have complete mediation. This work is the only study that links OAB with financial inclusion and the economic development of the poor. OAB stands out among all the other digitalisation tools of financial services due to its exclusive features. OAB has considerable implications to expedite the execution of financial inclusion for the economic development of the poor. But, to extend its full impact on the economic development of the poor, OAB should be clubbed with financial inclusion as a policy. Otherwise, a good opportunity will remain confined mostly as an effective solution for digitalising payment services. The digital divide is supposed to be bridged by OAB. However, this paper has not addressed this issue empirically. Besides this, the synergetic effect of FI and OAB, which is strongly recommended in the study, needs empirical testing. Both the limitation of the study is the future scope of the topic. No other study was observed on the topic, where OAB is suggested to bridge the gap between financial inclusion and economic development of the poor. The study has immense potential to change the course of action of the policy on Financial Inclusion. Using the findings of the study, the policymakers can embark upon using the new innovative technology in a more concerted way for the social upheaval of the poor in India.
... In line with Anderson and Gerbing (1988) [40], this study adopted two-stage analytical procedures to validate the measurement model and structural model. It's suggested that the validity and reliability could be assessed by measurement model and hypothesized relationships within proposed model were estimated by structural model using the maximum-likelihood method [41]. ...
Article
China is facing aging population and digital divide problems. How to response the issue has become an important and emergent theme to the government and elderly institutes. The purpose of this study is ⅰ) to verify the current situations and the correlations of perceived digital skills, digital attitudes toward smart senior care services and willingness to use them among elderly people in an aging society; ⅱ) to analyze the mediating role of digital attitudes; ⅲ) to analyze the influence of gender differences on the relationship between variables; and ⅳ) to put forward suggestions. Data was collected by questionnaire survey and 403 valid respondents were received. Findings show that digital skills are the antecedents affecting digital attitudes and usage intentions. Digital attitudes act a partial mediating role between digital skills and usage intention, and the mediating effect is significant. Gender has significant differences in the relationship between digital skills and digital attitudes. Suggestion such as the government can consider the direction of publicity through traditional media and lectures, and strengthen the new media publicity policy was made.
... Similarly, the role of industry type was examined concerning green innovation and CSD, which presented significant results for both paths. This indicates that green innovation activities quantum for GKM varies from industry to industry, and manufacturing firms are (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988) 2 (Byrne, 1989;Bentler and Bonett, 1980;McDonald & Marsh, 1990) 3 (Browne & Cudeck, 1992) 4 (Hu & Bentler, 1998) more actively engaged in green innovation activities than services. A similar result is found for CSD concerning industry type with respect to GKM. ...
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The authors have focused on organizational capabilities to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG) in the current study. In this regard, green knowledge management (GKM) and green innovation (specifically green technological and management innovation) are investigated. Moreover, it is also studied whether organizational green culture (OGC) strengthens organizational capabilities to innovate green and achieve sustainability goals via GKM. The researcher collected data from managers of different levels from manufacturing and service enterprises of all sizes and analyzed it through structural equation modeling. GKM strengthens organizational capabilities to achieve green innovation and SDG as per the findings. Moreover, green innovation has also been found to be a significant positive predictor of corporate sustainable development (CSD). It is also found that OGC strengthens the relationship between GKM and green innovation for achieving SDG. Furthermore, for all sizes of manufacturing and service organizations, GKM is found to be equally important.
... shows that all structures' (CR-values) are within permissible range of [0.70]. (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). This indicates that the data is highly consistent internally. ...
Article
Why do rumors make it difficult for subordinates to follow their bosses' orders? How do managers keep rumors from having a negative impact? Are workplace ostracism and psychological contract violations breaches motivated by organizational cynicism and/ or negative rumors? Is there a connection between optimistic rumors and the fulfillment of psychological contracts? a sample of (327) academics from Egypt's private universities were surveyed. 'a four-part questionnaire that evaluates the study' axes (workplace ostracism, positive and/ or negative rumors prevalence, organizational cynicism and psychological contract violation).
... Reliability and validity analyses were performed to verify all the research instruments. The results shown in Table 1 about the Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability values for each of the constructs were above 0.80, meeting the criterion suggested by Bagozzi and Yi (1988). In addition, all the values reported for the average variance extracted (AVE) for each construct were ranged from 0.53 to 0.76 (i.e., > 0.50) which fulfilled the value suggested by Fornell and Larcker (1981), thus demonstrating evidence for construct validity. ...
Article
This paper proposed a path model to test the causal links from environmental values to environment-related attitudes, and how these variables lead to the intention to dine at sustainable restaurants among the patrons in Malaysia. SPSS and AMOS-SEM were used to test the data collected from 500 respondents. The results showed that the environmental values did not affect intention to dine at sustainable restaurants directly, but indirectly affected the intention via both attitude variables, and presented a three-path mediated effect on the path model. Besides, the specific attitudes towards sustainable practices of restaurants acted as the only predictor of intention, and not the general environmental attitudes. It concluded that using a specific environment-related attitude variable can better explain a specific behavioural intention to close the attitude-behaviour gap debated in the past studies. Both general and specific attitude variables should be included to mediate the relationship between environmental values and intention in the context of sustainable restaurants.
... The convergent validity was confirmed because the factor loadings were found to be above 0.4 in every indicator, and were significant because the t-values of all items were between 5 and 15, i.e., higher than the threshold of 1.96. The reliability of the scale is ensured since the composite reliability indices of each of the constructs received are greater than 0.5 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988) (see Table 5). Discriminant validity between constructs was assessed following Fornell and Larcker's (1981) recommendation that the square root of AVE for each construct should exceed the bivariate correlations between that construct and all other constructs. ...
Article
Though prior studies have raised the issue that excellent service that exceeds customer expectations can negatively impact customer perceptions, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon in the foodservice industry. This study aims to conceptualize restaurant over-service behaviors and develop a multi-dimensional instrument for this construct. This study uses focus groups to identify restaurant over-service behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) yield a five-dimension, 23-item instrument. The categorization and descriptions of restaurant over-service behaviors may serve as a reference for managers to determine whether their high-quality services overwhelm customers and to identify negative perceptions of excessive services. If the needs of customers can be understood alongside how certain service actions disturb customers, elements that lead to over-service can be eliminated or corrected, allowing for time, effort and money to be invested more effectively.
... These are greater than the measurement model's threshold of 0.7, indicating the acceptable consistency and reliability of the model. The AVE values were 0.818, 0.511, 0.523 and 0.648, respectively, pointing to a high degree of convergent validity, seeing as they all exceed 0.5 [50]. ...
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Work autonomy (WA) is an important factor in improving work performance, yet such freedom and its role in construction workforce management have rarely been discussed. To address this gap, this study quantitatively measured the WA of onsite construction workers in Vietnam, developed a new model by which to discover the function of WA in increasing construction labour productivity (CLP) and determined the ways through which WA can be cultivated and maintained. The WA of 215 workers was measured using the relative autonomy index (RAI) and an aggregated motivation index (AMI) that was developed in this research. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted to examine the effects of WA on CLP. The SEM results indicated that WA positively and significantly contributed to CLP. Promoting WA required paying attention to the competence and relatedness satisfaction of the workers. Furthermore, latent and potentially extensive labour management-related problems were identified, namely, unsuccessful career development and the underutilisation of experienced workers. Three meaningful policy recommendations were put forward to solve the aforementioned problems and improve CLP: the effective organisation of crew members, the improvement of training and the improvement of site amenities. This study expands theoretical knowledge by (1) developing and justifying the AMI as an auxiliary to conventional indices, (2) proposing five conditions necessary for optimal scoring in WA measurement and (3) developing a motivation matrix that identifies and distinguishes the attributes of different groups. In practical terms, the findings support the introduction of reasonable policies that advance the career development of workers, promote WA and improve CLP. These achievements, in turn, significantly advance effective and sustainable construction workforce management.
... Furthermore, we checked for discriminant validity, which represents the extent to which each construct differs from the others. All constructs achieve discriminant validity, as all square roots of AVE (in bold on the diagonal in Table 2) exceeded the off-diagonal elements in their corresponding rows and columns (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988). Moreover, no observed variable cross-loaded on another construct. ...
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Prior research has acknowledged the merits of firms' post-entry speed of internationalization (PSI) for export performance. However, remarkably little attention has been devoted to the transformational mechanisms that enable firms to convert their PSI into performance outcomes. Drawing on the capability-building perspective, we examine the mediating role of two key firm-specific capabilities, i.e., knowledge capability upgrading (KCU) and adaptive capabilities (ADC), on the relationship between PSI and financial and non-financial export performance. Employing a sample of 208 New Zealand exporting SMEs, we found a positive relationship between PSI and both KCU and ADC and found support that PSI's effect on export performance is conveyed through ADC. We found that although KCU does not directly mediate the PSI-export performance relationship, it acts as a driving factor for ADC, which in turn contributes to export performance. This study contributes to the evolving literature on post-entry dynamics of internationalization and capability-building perspective.
... (Hulland, 1999). All average variance Extracted (AVE) > 0.5 as indicates Convergent Reliability (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988;Fornell and Larcker, 1981). All Composite reliability (CR) > 0.7 indicates Internal Consistency (Gefen et al., 2000). ...
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Çalışma hayatında girişimci olarak yer alan kadınlar, ulusal ve uluslararası pazarlarda yer almalarının yanında yerel pazarlarda da varlık göstermekte ve birçok sektörde olduğu gibi gıda sektöründe de aktif bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu çalışmada Bingöl ilinde kadınların çalışma hayatında ve arıcılık sektöründe girişimci olarak bulunmasına ilişkin yerel halkın algısının ölçülmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu algıların demografik özelliklere göre (cinsiyet, medeni durum, yaş, eğitim durumu, gelir) farklılık gösterip göstermediği de tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Yerel halkın bakış açısını incelemek için nicel araştırma yöntemleri arasında önemli bir yeri olan, anket yoluyla veri toplama tekniği kullanılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda 13.06.2020 ve 17.07.2020 tarihleri arasında, internet (Google form) ortamında 630 katılımcıya anket uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere SPSS ve Amos istatistik programlarında tesadüfilik, güvenilirlik, geçerlilik, normallik analizleri yapılmıştır. Verilerin bulguya dönüştürülmesi aşamasında ise t testi, anova testi, korelasyon ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesinden faydalanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda yerel halk algısına yönelik “kadın ve aile”, “kadın ve toplum” ve “kadın ve girişimcilik” olmak üzere üç boyutlu bir yapı elde edilmiş ve bu boyutların cinsiyet, medeni durum, yaş ve eğitim durumuna göre farklılıklar gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir.
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Mobile devices are ubiquitous in the lives of modern consumers, who use them for information‐seeking and purchasing activities, fostering the emergence of m‐commerce. This trend has been exacerbated by the Covid‐19 pandemic, which has boosted m‐commerce growth in both developed and developing countries. Hence, there is a need for cross‐cultural research concerning the factors affecting behavioral intentions. Drawing upon the hedonic information systems model, we measure the impact of utilitarian factors on satisfaction, repurchase intention, and eWOM through the mediation of enjoyment across two countries characterized by different stages of m‐commerce readiness and culture: China and Italy. Findings suggest that the impact of utilitarian factors on satisfaction is stronger among Italian users than Chinese users. On the contrary, for Chinese users, who use their mobile phones as a primary device to shop online, the mediation effect of enjoyment on satisfaction and eWOM is stronger. With this study, we contribute to cross‐cultural research in m‐commerce and provide guidelines to mobile retailers operating in diverse international markets.
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Transformational leadership (TFL) impacts on project and organizational success are well established. However, many underlying factors that make TFL effective are still missing. Therefore, we formulated hypotheses and tested the mediating role of trust (TS) and job satisfaction (JS) in linking TFL to project success (PS). A time-lagged methodology was used to collect quantitative data using a structured questionnaire from 326 project manager-team member dyads working in Pakistan’s public sector. Our results showed that TS, JS, and TFL significantly impacted project success. Moreover, we found that TS and JS mediate the relationship between TFL and PS. These findings highlight the importance of trust and job satisfaction as mechanisms that translate TFL into the success of projects for organizations.
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This paper aims to examine the knowledge sharing behaviour of medical faculties in India, how it is influenced by knowledge self-efficacy and how it influences organisational climate. The methodology used was a survey of 300 medical faculties working in medical colleges and hospitals to examine the role of knowledge self-efficacy on, interdepartmental knowledge donation and knowledge collection behaviour, and organizational climate. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationships. The authors found that the knowledge self-efficacy of medical faculties has positive significant influence on interdepartmental knowledge donation whereas interdepartmental knowledge collection is not influenced by knowledge self-efficacy. The organizational climate is positively influenced by knowledge self-efficacy. Further it is found that knowledge donation behaviour of medical faculties has strong influence over knowledge collection behaviour. Organizations trying to inculcate knowledge sharing behaviour can first make employees feel or conduct training programs aiming at improving their self-efficacy pertaining to their knowledge i.e. knowledge self-efficacy.
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Günümüzde var olan tüketim kültüründeki değişimlerle ve işletmeler açısından oluşan hassasiyetlerle birlikte, kullanılmış veya bozuk ürünlerin işletmelere yeniden geri döndürülmesi ve yenileme çabalarıyla birlikte ekonomiye geri kazandırılması sağlanmaktadır. Bu geri dönüşüm çabaları sayesinde, işletmelere yeni ürün üretimi için oluşabilecek çeşitli maliyetlerden kurtulma, tüketicilere de yenilenmiş ürüne daha uygun fiyatlarla sahip olabilme imkanı sağlamaktadır. Kullanılmış veya bozuk ürünlerin ürün yenileme yoluyla ekonomiye kazandırılmasıyla, yeni ürün üretiminde oluşması muhtemel atıklar ve çevreye verilen zarar da bir ölçüde önlenmiş olmaktadır. Bu sebeple, yenilenmiş ürünün, uygun fiyatıyla tüketiciye, daha az maliyetle yeni bir ürün üretilmesini sağlanarak üretici işletmeye ve âtıl ürünlerin geri kazandırılmasıyla çevreye faydalı etkiler sağladığı görülebilmektedir. Bu arada, yenilenmiş ürün daha önce bozulmuş veya kullanılmış olduğu için tüketicilerin kalite ve risk algısının yüksek olabileceğini de dikkate almak gereklidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yenilenmiş ürüne yönelik oluşmuş ürün bilgisi, çevreye duyarlılık, subjektif normlar, kalite algısı, risk algısı ve fayda algısının satın alma niyetine etkisini araştırmaktır. Bu araştırma kapsamında geliştirilen anket Bandırma Onyedi Eylül Üniversitesi öğrencisi olan 360 kişi üzerinde uygulanmış, 292 geçerli anket analizde kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında önerilen teorik modelin ve hipotezlerin test edilmesinde kısmi en küçük kareler yapısal eşitlik modellemesi (PLS-SEM) tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucuna göre ürün bilgisinin fayda ve risk algısı üzerine etkisi anlamlı bulunmamışken, kalite algısı üzerindeki etkisi anlamlı bulunmuştur. Ayrıca ürün bilgisinin satın alma niyetine etkisi de anlamlı bulunmamıştır. Modelimizde satın alma niyetine en fazla etki eden faktörler sırasıyla sübjektif normlar, çevreye duyarlılık, kalite algısı, fayda algısı ve risk algısı olmuştur.
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This study aims to describe the effect of information services as a preventive measure against the dangers of drugs in elementary schools in Enrekang Regency, so students understand and can avoid negative things so that students are not easily affected by deviant behavior. In this case elementary school classroom teachers in Enrekang District plays an important role in the responsibility for drug prevention at the school, however all teachers in primary schools in Enrekang Regency have the same responsibility so that students are saved from the language of drugs. One example of the information service that is provided to elementary school students in Enrekang Regency is providing a guidebook on the dangers of drug abuse. Intensive socialization of the dangers of drugs by inviting speakers from business groups, officials or educational institutions who understand the dangers of drug use so that students are more aware of the dangers of drug use. The help book can help students in getting more information about the dangers of drug abuse.
Article
Objectives: We aimed to develop a standardized scoring tool to measure point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) image quality and to determine validity evidence for its use to assess lung ultrasound image quality. Methods: The POCUS Image Quality (POCUS IQ) scale was developed by POCUS-trained physicians to assess sonographers' image acquisition skills by evaluating image quality for any POCUS application. The scale was piloted using lung images of healthy standardized patients acquired by three expert sonographers compared to three novices before and after training. All images (experts, novices pre-training, novices post-training) were scored on the POCUS IQ scale by three blinded POCUS-trained physicians. Reliability was assessed with fully-crossed generalizability and decision studies. Validity was assessed using Messick's framework. Results: Content validity was supported by the tool's development process of literature review, expert consensus, and pilot testing. Response process was supported by reviewer training and the blinded scoring process. Relation to other variables was supported by scores relating to sonographer experience: median expert score = 10.5/14 (IQR: 4), median novice pre-training score = 6/14 (IQR: 2.25), and novices' improvement after training (median post-training score = 12/14, IQR: 3.25). Internal structure was supported by internal consistency data (coefficient alpha = 0.84, omega coefficient = 0.91) and the generalizability study showing the main contributor to score variability was the sonographer (51%). The G-coefficient was 0.89, suggesting very good internal structure, however, Gwet's AC2 was 0.5, indicating moderate interrater reliability. The D study projected a minimum of 1 reviewer and 2 patients are needed for good psychometric reliability. Conclusions: The POCUS (PoIQ (Point-of-care ultrasound image quality) scale has good preliminary validity evidence as an assessment tool for lung POCUS image acquisition skills. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its utility for other POCUS applications and as a feedback tool for POCUS learners.
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