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Generalizability of integrative motivation to Saudi students

Generalizability of Integrative
Motivation to Saudi Students
Ali H. Al-Hoorie
Nottingham University, UK
This view, however, was criticized over the years.
Originally, Au (1988) questioned the consistency of
the results supporting this theory. Others questioned
whether it applied to foreign language contexts,
where learners do not normally have any contact with
the L2 community (e.g., Crookes and Schmidt, 1991,
Dörnyei, 2005, Oxford and Shearin, 1994). In reply,
Masgoret and Gardner (2003) conducted a meta-
analysis and showed that the results were not
moderated by L2 availability, suggesting that the
theory also applied even when there was no contact
with L2 native speakers. Today, this controversy still
continues (see Dörnyei et al., 2014, Dörnyei and
Ushioda, 2009).
This study aims to contribute to this controversy
by examining the relevance of attitudes toward the
L2 community to the achievement of Saudi L2
The participants (N= 270) were all male students
between the age of 1820 studying at Jubail
Industrial College, Saudi Arabia. The participants
were in the foundation year when the study was
conducted, receiving 22 hours of L2 instruction
per week.
1) Motivational Intensity (MI, 10 items; a = .81)
2) Attitudes toward L2 Learning
(ATLL, 6 items; a = .77)
3) Desire to Learn English
(DTLE, 6 items; a = .62)
4) Integrative Orientation (IO, 5 items; a = .79)
5) Interest in Foreign Languages
(IFL, 6 items; a = .77)
6) Attitudes toward Native Speakers
(ATNS, 6 items; a = .83)
7) English Teacher Evaluation
(ETE, 6 items; a = .86)
8) English Course Evaluation
(ECE, 5 items; a = .80)
Grades also were obtained from five L2 tests:
listening, reading, vocabulary, writing, and
Data Analysis
Structural equation modelling was conducted using
Amos 22 (Arbuckle, 2013). The model fit the data
well (see Figure 1 below; all paths shown are
Figure 1
ACH = Achievement; ATLE = Attitudes toward L2 Learning; ATLS = Attitudes toward the Learning
Situation; ATNS = Attitudes toward Native Speakers; DTLE = Desire to Learn English; ECE = English
Course Evaluation; ETE = English Teacher Evaluation; GR = Grammar; IO = Integrative Orientation; IFL
= Interest in Foreign Languages; INTEG = Integrativeness; LS = Listening; MI = Motivational Intensity;
MOT = Motivation; RD = Reading; VOC = Vocabulary; WR = Writing.
The results suggest that attitudes
toward the L2 community does have a
significant effect on learner
motivation, as predicted by Gardner’s
theory. However, the results also show
that attitudes toward the learning
situation are a much stronger predictor
of motivation than one’s general
disposition toward L2 native speakers.
These findings have important
implications. First, the L2 curriculum
should include components that instill
positive attitudes toward the L2
community. Second, and more
importantly, the learning environment
should receive special attention since
the learner’s attitudes toward the
course in general and toward the
teacher in particular are crucial in
learner motivation.
ARBUCKLE, J. L. 2013. IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 22 User’s
Guide, Meadville, PA, Amos Development
AU, S. Y. 1988. A critical appraisal of Gardner's social-
psychological theory of second-language (L2) learning.
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DÖRNYEI, Z. 1994. Understanding L2 motivation: On
with the challenge! The Modern Language Journal, 78,
DÖRNYEI, Z. 2005. The Psychology of the Language
Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language
Acquisition, London, UK, Lawrence Erlbaum.
2014. Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning,
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DÖRNYEI, Z. & USHIODA, E. (eds.) 2009. Motivation,
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GARDNER, R. C. 1985. Social Psychology and Second
Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and
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and Motivation in Second-Language Learning,
Rowley, MA, Newbury House.
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analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and
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Although learning a second language (L2) might
appear just like another school subject, some
researchers argued that L2 learning is unique in that it
cannot be disconnected from the native speaking
community of the L2. This idea was first proposed by
Canadian social psychologists (Gardner, 1985,
Gardner and Lambert, 1972) studying the intergroup
relations between Anglophone and Francophone
Canadians. They argued that success in L2 learning is
a function of integrative motivation, or positive
attitudes and favorable disposition toward the L2
native-speaking community and culture.
This discovery was hailed as “the most
important milestone in the history of L2 motivation
research” (Dörnyei, 1994: 519) as it added to L2
learning a distinctive social dimension.
Model Fit
χ² = 156.50, p < .001
CMIN/df = 2.534
CFI = .961
NFI = .938
RMSEA= .075
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Research results over the past decades have consistently demonstrated that a key reason why many second language learners fail--while some learners do better with less effort--lies in various learner attributes such as personality traits, motivation, or language aptitude. In psychology, these attributes have traditionally been called "individual differences." The scope of individual learner differences is broad--ranging from creativity to learner styles and anxiety--yet there is no current, comprehensive, and unified volume that provides an overview of the considerable amount of research conducted on various language learner differences, until now.
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
The social-psychological theory of second-language (L2) learning proposed by R. C. Gardner (Gardner & Lambert, 1959; Gardner, 1979; Gardner, 1982; Gardner, 1983) has been one of the most long-standing theories of L2 learning. For the past 25 years, it has generated a substantial number of studies in various parts of the world. Interestingly enough, a comprehensive and detailed evaluation of the theory has not been forthcoming1. This paper attempts to do just that. It begins with an overview of Gardner's theory. The theory is then analyzed into five major propositions, each of which will be evaluated in the light of relevant studies. Recent developments will then be discussed.
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Discussion of the topic of motivation in second-language (SL) learning contexts has been limited by the understanding the field of applied linguistics has attached to it. In that view, primary emphasis is placed on attitudes and other social psychological aspects of SL learning. This does not do full justice to the way SL teachers have used the term motivation. Their use is more congruent with definitions common outside social psychology, specifically in education. In this paper, we review the standard applied linguistics approach to this topic, and go on to provide an overview of research into motivation in mainstream education. This is used both to demonstrate the utility of other concepts of motivation to the SL field and as the basis for a research agenda for SL investigations of motivation thus conceived.
This meta–analysis investigates the relationship of second language achievement to five attitude/motivation variables from Gardner's socioeducational model: integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, motivation, integrative orientation, and instrumental orientation. These relationships were examined in studies conducted by Gardner and associates using the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery and various measures of second language achievement including self–ratings, objective tests, and grades. In total, the meta–analysis examined 75 independent samples involving 10,489 individuals. Two additional variables, availability of the language in the community and age level of the students, were examined to assess their moderating effects on the relationships. The results clearly demonstrate that the correlations between achievement and motivation are uniformly higher than those between achievement and integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, integrative orientation, or instrumental orientation, and that the best estimates of the population correlations are greater than 0. Neither availability nor age had clear moderating effects.
Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self
  • Z Ushioda
DÖRNYEI, Z. & USHIODA, E. (eds.) 2009. Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self, Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 22 User's Guide
  • J L Arbuckle
ARBUCKLE, J. L. 2013. IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 22 User's Guide, Meadville, PA, Amos Development Corporation.